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NAME : NAZHRAH BINTI MOHAMAD SAHBAN

MATRIC NO. : CF120263


SECTION : S07
LECTURER NAME : MDM. HASNIZA BT ABU BAKAR

Quiz 1
Find one (1) problem economic issues related on building / construction on issues
environment / structure / materials / road & drainage / others activities. Solve the
problem follow the :
i. Principle economy
ii. Decision making process


Principle Economy

NO PRINCIPLE OF ENG. ECONOMY EXAMPLE ISSUES
1 Develop the alternatives
Carefully define the problem, then the
choice (decision) is among alternatives
Road & Drainage System



Problem
1) Poorly designed drainage.
2) Road surface erosion.
3) Additional rainfall can cause flooding.

Propose all decision alternative
1) Redesign the drainage system.
2) Washing away the soil (erosion and scouring).
3) Maintenance, redesign and increase the
capacity of drainage system to collect all
rainwater.
2 Focus on the differences
Only the differences in expected future
outcomes among the alternative are
relevant to their comparison and should
be considered in the decision.
Choose expected decision alternative (2) & (3)
2) Washing away the soil (erosion and scouring).
3) Maintenance, redesign and increase the
capacity of drainage system to collect all
rainwater.

3 Use a consistent viewpoint
The prospective outcomes of the
alternatives, economic and other, should
be consistently developed from a defined
viewpoint (perspective).
2) Washing away the soil (erosion and
scouring).
Take time to reducing the amount of
water flowing through the drain.
Can be done by installing sufficient
numbers of mitre drains, cut-off drains
and culverts.
Must be follow the basic requirements
and measurements for constructing a
typical scour.

3) Maintenance, redesign and increase the
capacity of drainage system to collect all
rainwater.
Take time to design, preparing reports
and get approval from the local
authority.
Involves cost and time.
Use others drainage system (well-
designing system : side drain, culverts,
etc).
Reducing the road gradients.
Labor and appointed contractor are
required.

4 Use a common unit of measure
Using a common unit of measurement to
enumerate as many of the prospective
outcomes as possible will simplify the
analysis of the alternatives.
2) Washing away the soil (erosion and
scouring).
Take time to reducing the amount of
water flowing through the drain.
Must be follow the basic requirements
and measurements for constructing.
Labor and appointed contractor are
required.

3) Maintenance, redesign and increase the
capacity of drainage system (to collect all
rainwater).
Designing the road with an inward
slope.
The side drains need to have sufficient
capacity to collect all rainwater.

5 Consider all relevant criteria
Selection of a preferred alternative
(decision making) requires the use of a
criterion (or several criteria). The
decision process should consider both the
outcomes enumerated in the monetary
unit and those expressed in some other
unit of measurement or made explicit in a
descriptive manner

Review again all criteria
6 Make uncertainly explicit
Risk and uncertainty are inherent in
estimating the future outcomes of the
alternatives and should be recognized in
their analysis and comparison.
Advantages
Can controlled manner to minimise damage.
To allow water to flow off and away from the
road as quickly as possible.
By reducing road gradients, the water can be
drained away from the road more efficiently
and reduce the erosion caused by the water.
Reduce the drainage problems.
Can avoid flooding.

Disadvantages
If the flow of water is not properly managed,
the damaged of the road will more serious and
occur more rapidly.
Higher cost to construct and maintenance.
Take time to repair and reconstruct

7 Revisit your decisions
Improved decision making results from
an adaptive process; to the extent
practicable, the initial projected outcomes
Choose the best decision no (3)
Can controlled manner to minimise damage.
To allow water to flow off and away from the
road as quickly as possible.
of the selected alternative should be
subsequently compared with actual
results achieved.
By reducing road gradients, the water can be
drained away from the road more efficiently
and reduce the erosion caused by the water.
Reduce the drainage problems.
Can avoid flooding.




Decision Making Process

NO DECISION MAKING PROCESSES EXAMPLE ISSUES
1 Understand the problem
(define objectives)
Flooding and soil erosion caused by the water on
road surface
2 Decision making processes Flow of water is not properly managed
3 Define the set of feasible alternatives
(discuss any solution)
i. Redesign the drainage system.
ii. Washing away the soil (erosion and
scouring).
iii. Maintenance, redesign and increase the
capacity of drainage system to collect all
rainwater
4 Identify the criteria for decision making
(list out)
i. Redesign : Dredge again to increase the
capacity of drainage
ii. Washing away the soil (erosion &
scouring) : Follow the basic requirements
and measurements for constructing.
iii. Maintenance, redesign and increase the
capacity of drainage system : Reducing road
gradients to collect all rainwater.
5 Evaluate the alternatives and apply
sensitivity analysis.
i. Increase the capacity of drainage system :
To avoid flooding.
ii. Follow the basic requirements and
measurements for constructing : Can
controlled manner to minimise damage.
iii. Reducing road gradients : Can reduce the
erosion caused by the water.
6 Select the best alternative (choose) (3) Maintenance, redesign and increase the capacity
of drainage system (to collect all rainwater).
7 Implement the alternative and monitor
results (action)
Submit drawing for approvals before start the
constructing.