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GSM frame structure is used to transmit the


The GSM frame structure establishes

schedules for the predetermined use of time

By the use of a frame structure, both the

mobile and the base station are able to

By using GSM frame structure

The voice data and signaling information is


What types of information are being


The GSM frame structure provides the basis

for the various physical channels used within

t is at the heart of the overall system.

Basic GSM frame structure

The basic element in the GSM frame

structure is the frame itself.

!ight slots, each used for different users

within the T"M# system.

The slots for transmission and reception for a

given mobile are offset in time so that the
mobile does not transmit and receive at the
same time.


The BS transmits two types of channel.

Traffic and Control.

Traffic$%one for the traffic on the main

traffic carrier fre&uency.

Control$%The 'nd for the control on the

beacon fre&uency.

Time Slot Structure

Time slots are the smallest division of a

communication channel.

t is assigned to particular users in a

communication system.

Time slots can be combined for a single user to

increase the total data transfer rate available to that

n some systems, time slots are assigned

dynamically (G)*S+.


Slot structure is the division of a time slot

into different fields (information+parts.

Slot structure fields typically include $%

# preamble for synchroni,ation.

Control header (e.g. address information+.

-ser data, and error detection.


The no of data bits in a ts depending on the

type of the user data.

The structure of the time slot can vary.

f the ts is on the -. or ". radio channel ,!ach

normal time slot contains /01 bits of

Some time slot data bits are used for user data
and other bits are dedicated for control.


2or voice communication, users have a

fi3ed assignment of particular time slots.

2or pac4et data transmission (such as

G)*S+, time slots are dynamically


Time slots include ramp up and ramp down periods to

minimi,e rapid changes in radio transmitter power.

The ramp up and ramp down time is used to reduce

unwanted radio emissions that occur from rapidly
changing signals.

# single time slot transmission is called a radio burst.

5 types of radio bursts are defined in the GSM

system,Such as 2CB,SB,#B,"B,6B

GSM multi frame

The GSM frames are grouped together to

form multi frames.

There are two type GSM multi frame

structures$Such as

Traffic multi frame 7Control multi frame

Traffic multi frame

The Traffic Channel frames are organi,ed

into multi frames consisting of '8 bursts.

t ta4ing /'9 ms.

n a traffic multi frame,'0 bursts are used

for traffic.


These are numbered 9 to // 7 /: to '0.

;ne of the remaining bursts is then used

to accommodate the S#CC<.

the remaining frame ('5+ is idle.

The actual position used alternates

between position /' and '5.

Control multi frame

the Control Channel multi frame that comprises 5/


t ta4ing ':5.0 ms.

t always occurs on the beacon fre&uency in time

slot ,ero.

t may also occur within slots ', 0 and 8 of the

beacon fre&uency as well.

This multi frame is subdivided into logical channels.


The logical channels are following$%

2re&uency correction burst.

Synchroni,ation burst.

Broadcast channel (BC<+.

)aging and #ccess Grant Channel ()#CC<+

Stand #lone "edicated Control Channel


Super frame

# super frame is a multi frame se&uence

that combines the period of a
5/multiframe with '8 multi frames.

t ta4ing 8./' seconds.

The use of the super frame time period

allows all mobile devices to scan all the
different time frame types at least once

<yper frame

# hyper frame is a multi frame se&uence that is

composed of '901 super%frames.

t is the largest time interval in the GSM system.

t ta4ing : hours, '1 minutes, 5: seconds.

The hyper frame allows to synchroni,e

fre&uency hopping se&uence 7 encryption
processes for voice privacy of subscribers=

The 5/%frame Control Channel
Multi frame (BCC<>CCC<+

The BCC<>CCC< 5/%frame structure will

apply at TS 9 for each T"M# frame on
the ?BCC< carrier.

The *2 carrier fre&uency to which BCC<

is assigned on a per cell basis.

one T"M# frame with the first repetition

(numbered 9+ at the bottom.


-. (MS@BSS+ all time slot 9s are allocated to *#C<.

Because *#C< is the only control channel in the

BCC<>CCC< group which wor4s in the -. direction.

". (BSS@MS+, the arrangement is more interesting.

Starting at frame 9 of the 5/%frame structure, the first

time slot 9 is occupied by a fre&uency burst (2B+.

The second by a synchroni,ing burst (?S=+ and then

the following four repetitions of time slot 9 by BCC<
data (B+ .

Beacon 2re&uency Channel

t is at Slot A 9 channel (T"M# Channel 9+.

t is formatted as 5/%multi frame.

/st (Slot A 9 of the multi frame+ is 2CC<.

The ne3t one is SC<.

This pair (2CC< 7 SC<+ repeats 53 in a multi frame.

BCC< channel 0 slots long appears once per

5/multi frame and it ta4es Slot A ' to 0 (:rd,0th,5th7
8th slots+.


The remaining slots care common control

channels or CCC< ()C< and #GC<+

BCC<, CCC<, S"CC<, S#CC< and 2#CC<,

form a message of 0 slots long.

The beacon is a down lin4 channel.

GSM always has a pair of fre&uencies (up and

down lin4s+ per #*2C6.

up lin4 contains *#C< channel.