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SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD

FP MANUAL
I N D E X

0. PREFACE

1. SUBMISSION OF PLANS

2. APPLICATION FOR DISCOUNTS

3. INSPECTION STAFF

4. INTERNAL APPLIANCES

5. FIRE ENGINES AND TRAILER PUMPS

6. HIGH RISE BUILDINGS

7. FIRE HYDRANT SERVICE

8. HYDRANT PROTECTION OF COTTON GIN & PRESS FACTORIES

9. MUTUAL AID SCHEME

10. APPENDIX I

11. APPENDIX II

12. APPENDIX III

13. APPENDIX IV

14. APPENDIX V


15. APPENDIX VI

16. INTERNAL GUIDELINES




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SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 2 -
FIRE PROTECTION MANUAL

PREFACE

The First Edition of this Manual was issued by the Calcutta Fire Insurance Association in 1906 and was
brought up-to-date and re-issued in 1930. The third, fourth and fifth Editions were published jointly by the
Insurance Associations of India and Pakistan in 1948, 1950 and 1953 respectively to provide for the needs of
the whole of the areas controlled by these Associations. The subsequent sixth, seventh and eighth Editions
were published by the Fire Sectional Committees of Calcutta, Bombay, Delhi and Madras Regional Councils
of the Insurance Associations of India. In the ninth Edition published in 1982, amendments and additions
were effected to bring the provisions in line with current thinking on fire protection techniques and to
encourage installation of fixed fire extinguishing appliances/alarm systems in relatively low hazard risks on the
one hand and tighten requirements for design of systems suitable for high hazard risks such as Petroleum
Refineries, Petrochemical and Fertiliser Plants on the other hand, which, world-wide experience has
indicated, need copious quantities of water and other extinguishing media. In this tenth Edition an effort has
been made to further update and streamline the regulations.

The Manual should prove of value to factory owners and their technical personnel when dealing with matters
relating to fire extinguishing appliances and also constitute a handy book of reference to Insurance officials.

The maintenance of fire extinguishing appliances in an efficient state and familiarisation with all details of
operations is essential if the maximum benefit is to be derived in the emergency of an outbreak of a fire.

The Manual incorporates long experience of fire protection engineering both in India and elsewhere in the
world. Compliance of the rules will not only obtain appropriate discount in the fire insurance premium but will
also instil feeling of security that the presence of an efficient fire-fighting equipment should engender. Direct
loss from fire and the resultant wastage is always serious but the indirect loss and the resultant dislocation of
business is often much more serious.

The Regional Offices of Tariff Adv. Committee maintain an inspection staff of qualified engineers, specialists
in fire protection and prevention engineering and practice in all its aspects. The services of this staff are
available to make recommendations and carry out inspections in keeping with the nature of work. (All
references to Committee or staff thereof in this preface and in the body of the Manual apply to the Committee
controlling the territory within which the risk is situated).

The Manual initially deals with portable appliances and small bore hose reels, which are considered as first-
aid appliances. The regulations regarding trailer pumps are covered next. The last part is devoted to fixed
external protection in the form of a hydrant system which is considered the backbone of the entire fire-fighting
operations as it fights fires of serious proportions in all classes of risks and continues to do so even in the
event of a collapse of the buildings/structures protected. High-rise buildings which have become a common
feature of modern society present inherent fire hazard as fire brigades are often helpless in the face of fires in
such structures and are unable to save human lives and fight fires effectively with traditional methods. A
separate section has, therefore, been devoted for prescribing the specialised type of protection required by
these structures.

In case it is desired to install any appliances, which are not covered by this manual, assistance and advice
may be obtained from the inspection staff maintained by the Regional Offices.

Wherever reference to any Indian Standard appears in this Manual, it should be taken as a reference to its
latest version.



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FP MANUAL - 3 -
FIRE PROTECTION MANUAL

REQUIREMENTS REGARDING SUBMISSION OF PLANS:

Plans for submission to the Committee shall be drawn up in accordance with the following requirements: -

1.1. Plans shall be clear, contain all required details including scale and point of Compass and shall
be dated.

1.2. Plans of new installations shall show the entire Compound; all buildings therein, with their door
and window openings, and the boundary walls. Buildings under construction and future extension
envisaged shall be indicated by dotted lines. Plans of extensions to approved existing installations
need not show the rest of the compound but sufficient details shall be given of the existing
installations in correlation to the extension, to enable the Committees Inspection Staff to check
the plans and offer comments. In case of storeyed buildings, drawings submitted shall include
plans of each storey together with sectional elevations. The locations and details of fire access
staircases together with the arrangements of hydrants on their landings shall also be shown.
Further, a Table showing List of Blocks protected as per Committees rules should be given.

1.3. Material: Plans shall be on White paper or Ammonia paper or Ferro Prussiate paper.

1.4. Plans shall generally be prepared in accordance with IS: 696, shall not exceed 850 x 1200 mm in
size and shall be drawn to a scale not exceeding 1:500 or 1:1000. In the case of very large
compounds with more than one risk, it is advisable to submit separate plans for each risk with a
key showing the relative situation of the various risk etc. in the compounds.

1.5. Signs -

1.5.1 Pucca walls to be shown by double lines, doors and windows being clearly marked.
W D




1.5.2 Iron or other non-masonry walls to be shown by a thin line and nature of Construction
indicated.



1.5.3 Perfect Party Walls (PPW) to be indicated by the sign T at each end of the wall, or have the
letters PPW alongside or across them at regular intervals and marked in distinctive colour.


1.5.4 Fireproof doors and/or Shutters to be marked as follows -

Single Fireproof Door and/or Shutter SFD

Double Fireproof Doors and/or Shutters DFD

1.5.5 Elevated fire service tanks to be shown hatched and their capacity and height of base above
the highest roof to be stated.

N.B. In case of multipurpose elevated tanks, the capacity reserved for sprinkler installation to
be indicated instead of the total capacity.
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1.5.6 Sky lights to be marked Sky Lights or " SL".

1.5.7 Boiler to be shown by a rectangular figure marked Boiler.


1.5.8 Hydrant Mains to be shown by a red line; the diameter, length and number of pipes being
marked alongside and specials and reducers to be clearly indicated.


. . . . . mm LENGTH OF ___ M EACH

1.5.9 Hydrant Heads to be shown by red circles not less than 3 mm in diameter and marked SH.
Double Hydrant to be indicated by double circles and marked DH.



1.5.10 Water Monitors to be shown by a circle with an oblique arrow through it and marked, WM


WM

1.5.11 Cut-off valves to be marked/drawn across the mains.



1.5.12 Sprinkler and Hydrant pumps to be clearly marked and the capacity and head to be indicated
in each case.

1.5.13 Pump(s) suction piping to be shown dotted and diameter indicated.



1.5.14 Surface fire service Water tanks and reservoirs to be shown to scale and average depth
indicated.

1.5.15 Sprinkler trunk mains to be shown by a blue line, the sizes being marked alongside.

. . . . . . mm SPK MAIN

1.5.16 Fire alarm bells to be shown by blue circles and marked FAB.
F.A.B

1.5.17 Sprinklered blocks to be marked S S

1.5.18 Oil, solvent, acid and other chemical tanks to be drawn to scale and suitably marked.

1.5.19 Open storage areas to be clearly shown by hatched outlines and marked Open Storage Site
for.


BOILER
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1.5.20 Electric cable(s) for the fire pump(s) to be shown in green line(s)_________________
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2. PROCEDURE TO BE FOLLOWED IN THE CASE OF APPLICATION FOR DISCOUNTS:

2.0 The sanction of discounts off insurance premiums shall necessarily follow consideration by
the Regional Office (TAC) all details of the risk including manufacturing processes involved and the
protective appliances to be installed in order to ensure that the Standards laid down have been fully
observed. To prevent confusion or disappointment, definite rules for procedure have been laid down
as follows: -

2.1 Proposals for the installation of appliances shall be submitted to the Regional Office (TAC) by the
Leading Office on the risk and shall comprise-

2.1.1 Material specifications of equipment and components of the installation, indicating the name
of manufacturers, Standards/Specifications and name of approving authority, if any.

2.1.2 In the case of internal appliances, details of the areas of the various compartments, their
occupation and the quantities and types of appliances proposed.

2.1.3 In the case of sprinkler and hydrant installation, fully dimensioned plans in duplicate as called
for in Item 1.

2.1.4 In addition to the above, the following details would be necessary in the case of hydrant
installation -

a) (I) Drawings showing layout of the entire hydrant system, incorporating type of joints,
details of pump and its prime mover. Another table giving the details of single headed
and double headed hydrants, internal hydrants, fire escape hydrants, no. of hose pipes
(15 m and 7.5 m length) and branch pipe with nozzles including 10 % spares, mode of
distribution of those pipes and total equivalent no. of hydrants should be included. There
should be a table showing the percentage of various pipe diameters used in the systems.

a) II) Typical sectional elevation drawing showing the height, dimensions etc. of the stand
post for single headed hydrant, double headed hydrants, monitors specifying diameter of
nozzle, riser mains and landing valve of riser mains of FEH, Cut-Off valve chambers in
plan and elevation should be incorporated.

a) III) In case of blocks having upper floors, separate upper floors plans showing the
locations, fire escape hydrants (FEH) and staircases, sectional elevational drawings of
the escape staircase; Riser main and location of landing valve of FEH should be
submitted, preferably along with, civil construction (architects) drawings of individual
blocks

N.B. In the case of storied blocks, floor area of each floor, with particulars of fire proof
shutters of fireproof door and nearest machinery, wired glass windows etc. to be marked.

b) Layout of pump house showing clearly the suction, delivery and priming (if any)
arrangements along with full scale drawing of pump, motor, diesel engine, DG Control
panel, MCC for electric driven pumps, Valves etc.

c) Details of water storage tanks giving particular of compartmentation and jack-well, details
of inflow and particulars of tapings for other purposes, if any with water reservoir capacity
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RCC or steel lined or un-lined, combined process water or exclusive fire water reservoir
should be given.

d) Sub-station location in relation to other blocks if the pump is electrically driven. If the
substation is attached to any other building, the details of segregation from adjoining
buildings, indicating transformer room, LT, HT, location of change-over-switch, DG Room
etc.

e) Plans of Sub-Station showing thickness of internal walls and equipment layout along with
single line schematic diagram of the pump from the main substation to the Fire Pump
room along with tapping, circuit breaker and switch fuse units.

f) Route of cable from Sub-Station to fire pump house.

g) Schematic circuit line diagram showing power supply inside the fire pump room.

h) Legend explaining the various symbols used shown should be given.

2.2 Discounts will be considered only if all hand appliances and their accessories as well as all
components of hydrant, sprinkler and other fire protection systems are of a type and make,
approved by the Tariff Advisory Committee.

2.3 No discounts will be considered for a sprinkler or hydrant system unless the same has been
hydraulically tested with trenches open atleast once during the course of installation by the
Committee's Inspectorate, and found in order. Further, site engineer of the Installing Contractor
should maintain progress record with protocol duly signed by representative of the client and
him.

2.4 The prior submission of proposals to the Committee before the work is commenced, is essential,
to ensure that the installation will conform to the Committees requirements but does not dispense
with the procedure laid down hereafter for application for the sanction of discounts.

2.5 Application for discounts shall be submitted on special forms provided for the purpose by the
Committee and shall comprise:

2.5.1 Application by the Leading Office (Appendix I)

2.5.2 Guarantee by the Insured (Appendix II)

2.5.3 Schedule of Appliances (Signed by Insured) (Appendix III)

2.6 In every case, a plan of the premises prepared in accordance with the requirements indicated in
1.1 to 1.5 shall accompany any application for a discount for fire extinguishing appliances and,
in the case of sprinkler and/or hydrant installations, Installing Engineers detailed 'As Erected
working drawings are essential.

N.B. A Certificate of Completion from the installing Engineers stating the pressure to which the
installation(s) has been subjected and giving the date(s) from which it was in complete working
order should also be submitted. Further, progress record with protocol duly signed by client,
installing contractor and/or project consultants should be submitted.

2.7 Even in the case of extensions to an existing service, a complete set of forms and plants detailed
in 2.5 and 2.6 above shall be submitted.

2.8 Applications, which relate to discounts for appliances other than hydrants, shall also be
accompanied by a plan of the premises showing the layout and distribution of appliances.

2.9 No application for discount can be entertained until the relative appliances are complete, in
position, ready for use and fully operative. An appropriate discount or allowance will be
sanctioned by the Committee from the date of the completed application, (in accordance with
2.5 and 2.6 above) subject to the appliances being found in order on inspection by the
Committees Inspectorate. In the event of the installation being found incomplete or defective,
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the discount will be with held (or withdrawn if already notified) until the detects have been
rectified to the satisfaction of the Committee.

2.10 No allowance shall be made for Fire Extinguishing Appliances until notified by the Committee
either by letter or circular, and then, with effect only from the date specified in such notification.

2.11 Discounts sanctioned solely on account of installation of internal appliances will be valid for a
period of four years only; hence fresh applications, accompanied by the report of the Engineers
of the Insurance Company (as per Appendix IV) shall be submitted every four years.
2.12 Proposals for the installation of appliances not specifically covered by these rules shall first be
submitted to the Committee for approval.

2.13 Offices and the insured are requested not to change block numbers as this naturally affects the
Committees records and causes confusion. If block numbers have to be changed, the
Committee shall be notified at once.
2.14 Discounts sanctioned for installation of appliances shall normally stand withdrawn in the event
of a strike or lockout in the premises for duration of seven days or more. For this reason, it is
imperative that the Committee be apprised as soon as a strike or lockout is declared.
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3. COMMITTEE'S INSPECTION STAFF:

3.1 The Committee undertakes, as far as possible, the periodical inspection of all premises in which fire
extinguishing appliances, entitling the risk to special discounts or ratings for such appliances, are
installed.

For this purpose, the Committees Inspection Engineers shall have the right of access to the premises
of the Insured at any time with or without giving any prior notice.

3.2 The Primary duty of the Inspectors is to report to the Committee on the condition and efficiency of the
appliances installed as well as to ensure the regulations are being observed. They will, however, give
help and advice in the maintenance of the appliances and on matters pertaining to fire protection and
prevention.

3.3 The attention of the Inspecting Engineers shall be drawn, during their visits, to any changes effected
since the previous inspection or to any contemplated extensions and alterations to the existing
services. This procedure does not, however, dispense with the necessity of advising the Insurance
Company or Companies interested on the risk of any changes, which affect the plan of the risk or the
details of the appliances, recorded with Committee.




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4. INTERNAL APPLIANCES -

4. Internal appliances generally consist of hand appliances (first aid appliances) and hose reels.

4.1 HAND APPLIANCES -

4.1.1 GENERAL

4.1.1.1 Hand appliances comprise buckets and extinguishers.

4.1.1.2 ALL APPLIANCES INCLUDING EXTINGUISHER REFILLS AND FOAM COMPOUND SHALL BE
IN CAPACITIES INDICATED IN THE RELEVANT INDIAN STANDARDS SPECIFICATION AND
SHALL BEAR ISI CERTIFICATION MARK. (Accessories including extinguisher refills shall also
be ISI marked) BUCKETS SHALL BE OF ROUND BOTTOM TYPE.

4.1.1.3 The usefulness of these appliances is limited, as it is entirely dependent upon the presence of
persons having knowledge to operate them. Everything depends, however, on the speed with
which they are brought into use as they are essentially First-Aid equipment, only meant for
attacking small fires in their incipient stages and are not intended to deal with large outbreaks of
fires.

4.1.1.4 Since a variety of shapes and/or methods of operation of fire extinguishers can at times lead to
confusion and as failure to operate the extinguishers properly in the first instance results in failure
to quench the fire, it is recommended that extinguishers installed in any one building or single
occupancy be similar in shape and appearance and have the same method of operation as far as
possible.

4.1.1.5 It is recommended that an indicator board showing the number of buckets and extinguishers
installed in each department be provided over or near the main entrance to the department. This
will enable the person in charge of the appliances to ascertain at a glance if any appliances are
missing.

4.1.1.6 It is advisable to provide conspicuous location indicators of a suitable type for all extinguishers,
particularly those located in large compartments.

4.1.2 SELECTION OF HAND APPLIANCES:

4.1.2.1 Various types of hand appliances are available but all are not equally effective on all kinds of
fires. For this reason, the nature of contents of a building, the processes carried out therein and
the types of fires, which may occur, shall be taken into consideration while selecting fire
appliances.

4.1.2.2 The different types of fires and appliances suitable for use on them are as under


Class

Combustibles

Hand Appliances


A

Fires in Ordinary combustibles
(Wood, Vegetable fibres, rubber,
plastics, Paper and the likes).

Gas expelled Water and Antifreeze
type extinguishers and Water
Buckets.

B

Fires in flammable liquids, paints,
grease, solvents and the likes.

Chemical Extin-guishers of Carbon
dioxide type and Dry Powder type
and Sand Buckets.

C

Fires in Gaseous substances under
pressure and liquefied gases.

Chemical Extin-guishers of Carbon
di oxide and Dry Powder type.

D

Fires in reactive chemicals, Active
metals and the likes.

Special type of Dry Powder, Extin-
guishers and sand buckets

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N.B - WHERE THE ENERGISED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS ARE INVOLVED IN A FIRE, THE
NON-CONDUCTIVITY OF THE EXTINGUISING MEDIA IS OF UTMOST IMPORTANCE AND
ONLY EXTINGUISHERS EXPELLING DRY POWDER OR CARBON-DI-OXIDE (WITHOUT
METAL HORN) SHOULD BE USED. ONCE THE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IS DE-
ENERGISED EXTINGUISHERS SUITABLE FOR CLASS A, B AND C, MAY BE USED SAFELY.

4.1.3 REQUIREMENTS OF HAND APPLIANCES -

4.1.3.1 Procedure -

The minimum number of fire extinguishers needed to protect a property shall be determined as outlined
below -

a) For any property, basic protection shall be appliances suitable for Class A fires, Since Class A fires
are of universal character. The number of extinguishers shall be determined according to rule 4.1.3.2.

b) For occupancies where Class B fires are anticipated, a suitable number of appliances determined by
rule 4.1.3.2 shall be replaced by appliances as per table under rule 4.1.3.4.

c) For occupancies where fires of C & D types are anticipated, the Committee may recommend
appropriate extinguishers.

4.1.3.2 One 9-litre water/sand bucket shall be provided for every 100 sq. m of the floor area or part
thereof and one 9-litre water type extinguisher shall be provided to six buckets or part thereof with
a minimum of one extinguisher and two buckets per compartment of the building.

N.B. In the case of Cotton Gin and Press factories, the supply of hand appliances shall be
doubled that indicated above.

4.1.3.3 Buckets may be dispensed with for occupancies other than Cotton Gin and Press factories,
provided the supply of extinguishers is one- and-a-half times that indicated above in case of Light
Hazard Occupancies and double that indicated above in case of other occupancies.

Note: For categorisation of occupancies refer rule 7.2

4.1.3.4 Acceptable replacements for water buckets and water type extinguishers in occupancies where
Class B fires are anticipated.


WATER BUCKETS



Acceptable
replacement
For one bucket


For two
buckets

Water type
Extinguishers
For each 9 litre
Extinguisher


Dry Sand

1 bucket

3 bucket

---

Carbon-di-
Oxide
Extinguishers
(IS: 2878)

03 Kg.

09 Kg

09 Kg

Dry Powder
Extinguisher
(IS: 2171)


02 Kg

05 Kg 05 Kg

(In one or more extinguishers)

Note- Any combination of the various appliances referred to above may be employed.

4.1.3.5 For electrical equipments, it would be necessary to provide extinguishers as under

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4.1.3.5.1 For rooms containing electrical transformers, switchgears, motors and/or electrical
apparatus only, not less than two 2 Kg dry powder or carbon dioxide type of extinguishers
shall be provided within 15 m of the apparatus.

4.1.3.5.2 Where motors and/or other electrical equipments are installed in rooms other than those
containing such equipments only, one 5 Kg dry powder or carbon di oxide extinguisher shall
be installed within 15 m of such equipments in addition to the requirement of rules 4.1.3.2
and 4.1.3.4 for this purpose, the same extinguisher may be deemed to afford protection to
all apparatus within 15 m thereof.

4.1.3.5.3 Where electrical motors are installed on platforms, one 2 Kg dry powder or carbon di oxide
extinguisher shall be provided on or below each platform.

In the case of long platform with a number of motors, one extinguisher shall be accepted as
adequate for every three motors on the common platform.

NB- the above requirement will be in addition to the requirements of rules 4.1.3.2 and
4.1.3.4

4.1.3.6 If in the premises, fires of class C and D are also likely to occur, the appropriate extinguishers and
the number of such extinguisher will be decided by the Committee, in view of the special nature of
occupancies.

4.1.3.7 Under special conditions, wheeled type of extinguishers may be installed with the prior approval
of the Committee.

4.1.3.8 The appliances shall be so distributed over the entire floor area, that a person has to travel not
more than 15 m to reach the nearest appliance.

Example - The following example will illustrate the method of determining the number of fire
extinguishers required to give adequate protection for a given property.

Risk: Light Engineering Workshop (Light Hazard).

Area: 315 m x 112 m. i.e. 35,300 sq. m.

Types of Fires:

i) Class `A' fire due to normal combustibles.

ii) Class `B' fire due to existence of Spray Painting process and storage of flammable
liquids.

Number of appliances:

i) Basic Protection -

353 Buckets and
59 Water type Extinguishers OR

90 Water types Extinguishers, if buckets are dispensed with.

ii) For Class B fires 2 Water type Extinguishers are replaced by 2 Dry Powder
Extinguishers.

iii) For electrical equipments 6 Dry Powder Extinguisher are provided. Thus the final number
of Extinguishers is:

Water type 88
Dry Powder type 08
Total 96

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4.1.4 Selection of Sites for the Installation of Hand Appliances:

4.1.4.1 When selecting sites for hand appliances due consideration shall be given to the nature of the risk
to be covered. Appliances shall be placed in conspicuous position and shall be readily accessible
for immediate use in all parts of the occupancy. It should always be borne in mind while selecting
sites that hand appliances are intended only for use on incipient fires and their value may be
negligible if the fire is not extinguished or brought under control in the early stages.

4.1.4.2 Generally, hand appliances shall be placed as near as possible to exits or staircase landings.
Wherever possible, advantage shall be taken of normal routes of escape by placing appliances in
positions where they can readily be seen by persons following the natural impulse to get out of
danger. It is not advisable to place appliances at the end of rooms remote from exits unless they
are necessary to cover a particular hazard there.

4.1.4.3 Buckets shall be placed at convenient and easily accessible locations either on hangers or on
stands. In the case of textile mills, it is strongly advised that a bucket be slung at the end of each
spinning and roving frame.

4.1.5 Maintenance of Hand Appliances:

4.1.5.1 General

4.1.5.1.1 It is important that hand appliances are always kept in their proper positions and if
temporarily removed for repairs, are immediately replaced. In order to ensure this, all
concerns shall arrange to provide at least one man, preferably a pump man, whose duty is
to see that the fire buckets are filled with water and the extinguishers are in efficient working
order and that all appliances are in their correct positions.

4.1.5.1.2 It is recommended that in case the paint of any hand appliance gets chipped off or gets
faded; it shall be repainted to prevent it from rust and corrosion.

4.1.5.2 Buckets:

4.1.5.2.1 Fire buckets shall not be used for any purpose other than that for which they are intended,
and shall always be kept full of water/sand.

4.1.5.2.2 To prevent breeding of mosquitoes and to comply with rules of local bodies, the water in fire
buckets shall be refilled every week and treated with sapon creosote or phenyl in suitable
quantities to just discolour the water.

4.1.5.2.3 All buckets shall be refilled with clean water or sand, as the case may be, immediately after
use.

4.1.5.2.4 Spare buckets to the extent of 10 % of the total number installed on the premises, subject to
a maximum of 50, shall always be kept in store.

4.1.5.3 Extinguishers:

4.1.5.3.1 Spare charges to the extent of 10 % of the total number of extinguishers installed, with a
minimum of two shall always be kept in stock for each type of extinguisher and be readily
available.

4.1.5.3.2 Once a week, the extinguisher shall be checked to ensure that all movable parts are
working properly, that the plunger is in fully extended position, that the nozzle is not
obstructed in any way and that there is no leakage of the extinguishing medium from the
glands and nozzles. The extinguishers shall be cleaned superficially and the brass parts
polished. The nozzle outlet and vent holes in the threaded portion of the cap shall be
checked for clogging.

4.1.5.3.3 Once a month, extinguishers of the Carbon Dioxide type shall be weighed. If the weight
recorded for any extinguisher is less than 90 % of the weight of the fully charged
extinguisher as marked on the body, the extinguisher shall be sent for recharging.
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4.1.5.3.4 Half the total number of water type of extinguishers and one-fifth of the total number of Dry
Powder Extinguishers installed in the premises shall be subjected to an operation test
annually. Advantage shall be taken of this test to impart training in the use of
extinguishers, to the staff employed on the premises where the extinguishers are located.

N.B. Extinguishers, which have been used in a fire during a period of six months preceding
the tests, need not be taken for testing.

4.1.5.3.5 Extinguishers installed in the premises shall be subjected to a hydraulic test as specified in
IS: 2190 and at such intervals as laid down therein. Extinguishers found leaking or distorted
shall be rejected. Under no circumstances shall such extinguishers be welded and reused.

N.B. The hydraulic test shall be certified by the manufacturer(s) of the appliance(s) or the
factory Chief Engineer or the Factory Fire OR SAFETY OFFICER or the service contractors.

4.1.5.3.6 A record of the operation and hydraulic tests shall be maintained, which shall be open to
examination by the Committees inspection staff.

4.1.5.3.7 The operating instructions of the extinguishers shall not be defaced or obliterated. In case
the operating instructions are obliterated or have become illegible due to passage of time,
fresh transfers of the same shall be obtained from the manufacturers of the appliances and
affixed to the extinguishers.

4.2 Small Bore Hose Reels:

(This sort of protection is not deemed suitable for buildings/compartments containing electrical
apparatus only or in respect of buildings/ compartments in which flammable liquids are stored and/or
used)

4.2.1 HOSE REELS SHALL NORMALLY BE CONNECTED TO THE GENERAL WATER SUPPLY
PIPELINES OF THE PLANT/PREMISES.

4.2.2 The number and distribution of hose reels shall be such that the whole of each floor is protected
and that no part of the floor is more than 6 m. distant from a hose nozzle when the hose is fully
extended.

4.2.3 The hose reel shall be such as will enable not less than 22.5 litres of water to be discharged per
minute through a nozzle of not more than 6.35 mm. internal diameter.

4.2.4 Hose shall be of reinforced rubber not less than 19 mm. and not more than 32 mm. internal
diameter.

4.2.5 Hose lengths shall not exceed 36.50 m.


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5. MECHANICALLY DRIVEN FIRE ENGINES AND TRAILER PUMPS

5.1 Application:

5.1.1 This method of protection will be accepted on its own merits for the protection of blocks/facilities
(other than open storage) in light and ordinary hazard occupancies. Even in these occupancies
buildings, which have the highest point of the roof not exceeding 20 meters, shall only be deemed to
be protected.

5.1.2 For effective application, mobile engines and/or trailer pumps shall be sited at convenient locations
from where they can be speedily moved to any portion of the compound in the event of a fire and for
this purpose adequate vehicular arrangements shall be available for towing trailer pumps.

5.2 Personnel:

In order to qualify for recognition, a fire fighting squad in accordance with rules 7.9.1 to 7.9.10 shall be
maintained on the premises round the clock.

5.3 Equipment:

5.3.1 Trailer pumps and motor fire engines shall comply with the relevant Indian Standards Specification
or equivalent foreign specification and carry the requisite number and type of fittings and
accessories specified in such standards. Besides, each trailer pump shall be provided with 12
lengths of 15 m long hosepipes of 63 mm diameter and six branch pipes with nozzles of 18 mm
diameter. For each motor fire engine, eighteen hosepipes each 15 m long and 63 mm diameter and
nozzles of 18 mm shall be provided along with nine branch piupes.

5.3.2 The capacities of individual trailer pumps and motor fire engine shall not be less than


Trailer Pump

30 litres per second at 5.6 kg./sq. cm.


Motor Fire Engines

30 litres per second at 7.0 kg./sq. cm.


5.3.3 The number of appliances required shall not be less than that laid down hereunder -


a) Light Hazard
Occupancies

1trailer pump for every 7,000 m
2
of total built up area of
protected process and storage blocks subject to a maximum
of 3


b) Ordinary
Hazard
Occupancies

1trailer pump for every 5,000 Sq. m. of total built up area of
protected process and storage blocks subject to a max. 4


N.B. - One motor fire engine could be provided as substitute for two trailer pumps. Portable fire pump
sets (1,100-1,600 l/min.) Can also be accepted treating such units as equivalent to one trailer pump of
1,800 l/min provided these sets conform to IS: 12717-1989.

5.3.4 For storeyed structures, in addition to the trailer pumps and/or motor fire engines, dry risers of size
conforming to N.B. 4 under rule 7.5.10 shall be installed with hydrant outlets at each floor level and
double male instantaneous inlets at ground level to serve as connections for the trailer pumps in the
event of a fire. The hydrants for the upper floors shall be installed on landings of access staircases
complying with rule 7.6.15 and a hose box containing two lengths of hose of 7.5 m (or 25 ft.) each
and one nozzle shall be provided alongside each of the upper floor hydrants. The number of
risers per building and correspondingly the number of access staircases shall depend on the floor
area of upper storeys and for this purpose the requirement of rule 7.6.15 shall apply.

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N.B. Where it is not possible to fully comply with the provisions of rule 7.6.15, reference shall be
made to the Committee.

5.4 Water Supply:

5.4.1 The water supply to be drawn upon by trailer pumps or motor fire engines shall be available in static
tanks of at least 45,000 litres capacity so located that no part of a protected building lies beyond 100
m. of the tank(s).

N.B. 1. In the case of storeyed buildings, the tank shall not be more than 50 m. from any part of the
building.

N.B. 2. Provision shall be made for indicating the capacity of the tanks for various depths.

5.4.2 One static tank shall be provided for buildings with light hazard occupancy and two for buildings with
ordinary hazard occupancy. (Tank shall be so located as to give easy access to the fire brigade).

N.B. The same tank(s) shall be considered as the source of water supply for all detached buildings
where no part of the building(s) lies beyond 100 m. of the tank. The above distance shall be reduced
to 50 m. in the case of storeyed buildings.

5.4.3 Double-headed hydrants or water plugs of 100 mm diameter fitted to the pressurised general water
service main of the premises may be considered as an alternative to static tank provided that:

a) The water-pressure constantly maintained in the main is not less than 0.7 kg./cm
2
.

b) The size of the main is at least 100 mm.

c) For light hazard occupancy, one double- headed hydrant or one 100 mm water plug is so
located that no part of the building is beyond 100 m thereof. For ordinary hazard occupancy,
two double- headed hydrants or two 100 mm water plugs are located as above.

N.B. In the case of storeyed buildings, the above distance shall be reduced to 50 m.

d) The pumping capacity of the general water supply is not less than the aggregate pumping
capacity of the trailer pumps and/or motor fire engines.

e) The storage of general water supply is in excess of 1,00,000 litres.

6. HYDRANT PROTECTION OF HIGH RISE BUILDINGS (NON-INDUSTRIAL)

6.1 Introduction -

6.1.1 A building, the highest floor of which is more than 22 M above the surrounding pavement level, shall
be considered as a high-rise building.

6.1.2 The rules are applicable to all types of buildings with non-industrial occupancies such as Residential
Hotels, Mercantile/ Business/Office buildings, apartments etc.

6.1.3 In case of Buildings situated in slopping terrain, reference shall be made to the Committee in
advance with full particulars.

6.2 Hydrant Protection (at ground or yard levels) -

6.2.1 The ground level protection with hydrants on terminal mains will be acceptable, provided the plinth
area of the building to be protected is less than 750 m
2
. The location of the hydrants at ground level
as well as the layout of the hydrants system shall, otherwise, comply with various provisions under
Section 7 of this manual.

6.2.2 In case of buildings having a plinth area in excess of 750 m
2
, the location of the hydrants at ground
level as well as the layout of the hydrant system shall be governed by the appropriate provisions
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under Section 7.6 of this manual. The Committee reserves its right of insisting on water monitors in
place of few hydrants if deemed necessary.

6.2.3 Orifice plates of suitable design shall be provided in the landing valves, where necessary, to limit the
operating pressures within 7 kg/cm
2
.

6.2.4 Except where impracticable, all hydrant outlets shall be situated 1.0 m above ground level.

6.3 Hydrant Protection - at various upper/lower (basement) levels

6.3.1 Access staircase
6.3.1.1 Design for a new building shall include provisions for adequate access staircases and lifts to
provide efficient means of escape and facilities for fire fighting.

6.3.1.2 One lobby approach staircase along with fire lift shall be provided for every 1,000 m
2
of floor area
of each storey/level (including basements). Normally a minimum of two such staircases shall be
required but in case the area of each storey is less than 500 m
2
, one staircase is acceptable.

6.3.1.3 The lobby approach staircase shall be of non-combustible construction. At least 50 % of total
numbers of staircases required (with a minimum of one) shall be so located that one of their
enclosing walls be an external wall of the building.

6.3.1.4 Doors at the entrances of both the lobby approach access staircases and fire lifts shall be
provided with self-closing, smoke-tight doors having one-hour fire resistance. This arrangement
will enable escape and fire fighting to be effected more efficiently.

NOTE: If the staircases and the fire lifts are located in the core of the building, a positive pressure
of 50 Pa or 20 Pa in excess of pressure in the lobby whichever is higher, shall be maintained
within the former as an alternative to the above provision.

6.3.1.5 The fire lifts shall be controlled by the fire brigade recall from the concourse level and shall not
respond to other calls after the fire brigade key has been activated. The cable supplying power to
the lift motor shall pass through routes of negligible fire risk.

6.3.2 Wet Risers -

6.3.2.1 Wet riser(s) is/are a pipe or a number of pipes, permanently charged with water under pressure,
rising through the full height of the building.

6.3.2.2 The wet risers shall be located within the lobby approach staircases.

6.3.2.3 The diameter of the riser pipes shall not be less than 150 mm anywhere. One or two landing
valves shall be connected to the riser pipe at each storey/level. In case of excessive pressures in
hydrant outlets at lower levels, orifice plates of suitable design shall be provided in the landing
valves, where necessary, to limit the operating pressure to 7 kg/cm
2
.

6.4 Hose Pipes and Nozzles

6.4.1 Sufficient length of hose, subject to a minimum of two lengths of 15 M each with couplings attached,
shall be provided for use in case of each hydrant point on risers. In addition, one nozzle of 20 mm
size fitted to a branch pipe shall also be provided. To avoid water damage, it is advisable to have
reinforced rubber-lined hoses for use with internal hydrants. (IS-636)

6.4.2 The number of hose pipes provided near external yard hydrants shall be such that no part of the
floor is more than 15 M from a hose nozzle when the hose is fully extended and connected to
hydrant landing valve.

6.4.3 Hoses, nozzles and branch pipes shall be kept adjacent to the hydrant outlet, in wall boxes or
recesses in the walls specially designed to blend architecturally with the buildings, if so desired. All
other requirements relating to the appurtenances shall be as per the provisions under Section 7.7 of
this Manual.

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6.5 Pumping Arrangements

6.5.1 Each wet hydrant installation shall be supplied with water by an auto-start pumping set. A stand-by
pump set of identical pumping capacity having a different prime mover shall also be provided.

6.5.2 Pumps shall have capacities of 38 Litres. per seconds (137 m
3
per hour) or 47 Litres. per second
(171 m
3
per hour) and the head generated at the rated discharge shall be such that a minimum
pressure of 3.5 Kg/cm
2
will be available at the highest landing valve in the premises.

6.5.3 The suction, delivery and priming arrangements for the pump shall comply with provision under
Section 7.4.1 of this Manual.

6.5.4 Jockey pump(s) shall be installed in addition to the main pump set(s). The pressure setting for the
pump(s) shall be such that it cuts in approximately at 0.35 Kg/cm
2
below the normal system
pressure and cut out at normal system pressure. The main fire pump(s) shall be arranged to cut
in approximately at 1 Kg/cm
2
below the normal system pressure and shall be capable only of
manual shut down at churn pressure.

6.5.5 The power supply to the fire pump(s) shall be independent of all other supplies within the premises.
In other words even when the power supply to the entire premises is switched off, the supply to the
fire pump(s) and other essential equipment shall remain uninterrupted.

6.5.6 Pump room shall be normally located detached in the compound of the building and shall preferably
be 6 m away from the building. Where it is not feasible the pump room can be located inside the
building provided it is segregated from the remainder of the building in accordance with Committees
regulations and access to the pump room from the out side of the building shall be either direct or
through a passage which has no openings other than to the pump room.

6.5.7 The pumping installation for the high rise installations shall conform to anyone of the following
methods to avoid undesirably high pressures in the riser mains -

a) Two pumps, one having a low head connected to the riser feeding the lower storeys and the
other having a higher head connected to the risers feeding the upper storeys, shall be installed.

b) A multistage multi-outlet pump shall be installed, separate outlets being connected to the riser
feeding the lower storeys and those feeding the upper floors. (See figure 1 and 2)

N.B. - For buildings over 60 M in height, hydrant system may either be designed as above or may
be divided into pressure zones. For each zone the water supply for the fire protection would be
designed to have pressure within the normal operating ranges and zones of eight to ten storeys
would be adequate with a check valve in each zone to prevent the transmission of pressure to the
zone below (each zone shall have a height of 20 m to 25 m)

In each zone of fire protection piping, there shall be a gravity or pressure tank supply. This shall be
supplemented by a fire pump to provide required flow in the zone. The fire pump shall not be used
to fill gravity or pressure tank.

This should be filled from domestic water lines. In this arrangement, the pump in the lowest zone
takes suction from suction tank located at ground floor whereas pumps in other zones take suction
from the gravity/pressure tanks in the respective zone (See. Fig. 3)

N.B.1: - In addition to the above system, a gravity tank of 25,000 litres capacity shall be provided on
the top of the building and it shall be connected to the pump delivery through a non-return valve.

N.B.2 - The pump controls can be located with the pump in each zone. It can also be provided at
the ground floor depending upon the suitability and practicability of the particular building in
question.

6.6 Water Source -

6.6.1 Effective capacity of fire fighting tank (See rule No. 7.3) shall not be less than 2 hrs. aggregate
pumping capacity for buildings less than 60 m in height. The tank capacity shall, however, be
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FP MANUAL - 17 -
increased to 3 hrs. pumping capacity for buildings having height 60 m and above. The tanks shall
be constructed in two independent but interconnected compartments as per rule 7.3 of this Manual.

The fire tank must be in two compartments with a baffle wall in between not going right down to the
base of the tank. This arrangement will ensure proper circulation of the firewater and prevent
stagnation. (See figure below).



6.6.2 The storage tank shall be provided with a 150 mm fire brigade pumping connection to discharge at
least 2,275 Litres per minute into the tank. This connection shall not be taken directly into the side
of the storage tank, but arranged to discharge not less than 150 mm above the overflow level of the
tank. The connection shall be fitted with stop valve in a position approved by the committee in
advance. An overflow connection discharging to a visible drain point shall be provided from the
storage tank.



6.6.3 The fire brigade connection shall be fitted with four numbers of 63 mm instantaneous inlets in a
glass fronted wall box at a suitable position at street level, so located as to make the inlets
accessible from outside of the building. The size of the wall box shall be adequate to allow hose to
be connected to the inlets, even if the door cannot be opened and the glass has to be broken. Each
box shall have fall of 25 mm towards the front at its base and shall be glazed with wired glass with
"FIRE BRIGADE INLET" painted on the inner face of the glass in 50 mm size block letters.

6.6.4 In addition to the emergency fire brigade connection to the storage tank, a 150 mm connection shall
be taken from the four 63 mm instantaneous inlets direct to each hydrant riser so that the fire
brigade may pump to the hydrants in the event of hydrant pumps being out of the commission. The
connection direct to each riser shall be fitted with a sluice and reflux valve each.

6.7 Fire Fighting Staff

6.7.1 A fire fighting squad consisting of security and maintenance personnel under the command of a
trained fire chief, conversant with the fire control system of the premises, shall be available.
Further, the public fire brigade shall also be acquainted with what is being installed in the premises
and how the protection systems operate. For this purpose, details of the arrangements for fire
fighting systems and the layout plan incorporating the position of the existing fire protection system
shall be forwarded to the local fire brigade for their information and necessary action.

6.7.2 As the efficiency of the wet riser system depends on the manner and speed at which they are
brought into use, a squad consisting of trained personnel and fire pimp man shall be maintained on
the premises round the clock. The number of personnel for the squad shall necessarily depend
upon the size of the building but in no case shall be less than four trained persons (excluding officer
in charge on duty and pump man) be available at anytime during the day or night.

6.7.3 A public address system shall be provided on each floor including the control room in order to
enable security and fire fighting staff to give evacuation instructions to the occupants in case of fire.
Evacuation drills shall be arranged periodically.
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6.7.4 A metal strip of 25 mm x 3 mm section shall be provided in the staircase enclosure running
throughout the height of the building to facilitate transmission and reception of fire messages
through walkie-talkie sets used by brigade personnel. The strip shall be electrically insulated from
the ground.

6.7.5 A plan of the risk giving floor-wise details of all fire extinguishing appliances and water supplied shall
be displayed in the pump house as well as in the room of the security/fire officer who is in charge of
the appliances.



* * * * * * * * * * * * *
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7. HYDRANT SERVICE -

Installation of Hand Appliances as per the Committees Regulations is a prerequisite for any occupancy,
other than storage occupancy, to be entitled to allowance for this system.

7.1 GENERAL -

7.1.0 The following Regulations are not applicable to High-Rise Buildings, the highest floor of which is
more than 22 m above the surrounding ground level or to Cotton Gin and Press Factories, for which
reference may be made to Sections 6 and 8 respectively.

7.1.1 A well designed and well laid hydrant service is the backbone of the entire fire fighting equipment as
it fights fires of serious proportions in all classes of risks and continues to be in full operation even if
part(s) of affected buildings and/or structures have collapsed, and also keeps cool all adjoining
properties, thereby minimising the exposure hazards.

7.1.2 The advantages of providing for possible future extensions in any scheme of hydrant protection is
often overlooked. A comparatively small extension with its attendant friction losses may overload a
main so seriously as to necessitate replacement by one of larger size and the small additional initial
cost of mains of somewhat larger capacity than immediate requirements may call for, often leads to
ultimate economy.

7.1.3 All components of the hydrant system shall be of a type and make approved by the Tariff Advisory
Committee.

7.1.4 The standards laid down in this Manual represent the accumulated experience of many years but
even when a hydrant service is designed and laid in accordance with these standards, its efficiency
in fire fighting will ultimately depend upon the rapidity with which it is brought into action and the
ability with which its effort is directed.

7.1.5 The maintenance of an installation is equally vital and the importance of organised wet drills at
regular intervals, which ensure that each man carries out his allotted duties in the shortest possible
time cannot be too strongly emphasised. (Please see rule 7.10 in this connection).

7.2 CLASSIFICATIONS OF OCCUPANCIES -

7.2.0 As the water supply, pumping capacity and other features of the hydrant system depend not only on
the size of the risk but also on its fire growth and spread potentialities, the risks are to be
categorised under the following classes for the purpose of hydrant system design:

N.B. For categorisation of occupancies not listed hereunder reference shall be made to the
Regional Offices.

7.2.1 LIGHT HAZARD OCCUPANCIES:

1. Abrasive Manufacturing Premises
2. Aerated Water Factories
3. Agarbatti Manufacturing
4. Aluminium/Zinc and Copper Factories
5. Analytical and/or Quality Control Laboratories
6. Asbestos Steam Packing & Lagging Manufacturers.
7. Battery Charging/Service Station
8. Battery Manufacturing
9. Breweries
10. Brick Works
11. Canning Factories
12. Cardamom Factories
13. Cement Factories and/or Asbestos Products Manufacturing.
14. Ceramic Factories and Crockery and Stoneware Pipe Manufacturing.
15. Cinema Theatres (including Preview Theatres)
16. Clay Works
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17. Clock and Watch Manufacturing
18. Clubs
19. Coffee Curing & Roasting Premise
20. Computer installations (Main Frame)
21. Condensed Milk Factories, Milk Pasteurising Plant and Dairies.
22. Confectionery Manufacturing
23. Dwellings
24. Educational and Research Institutes
25. Electric Generating Houses (Hydel)
26. Electric Lamps (Incandescent & Fluorescent) and TV Picture Tube Manufacturing.
27. Electric Sub-Station/Distribution Station.
28. Electro Plating Works.
29. Electronic and/or Computer Equipments Assemble and Manufactures
30. Empty Containers Storage Yard
31. Engineering Workshops.
32. Fruits and Vegetables Dehydrating/Drying Factories.
33. Fruit Products and Condiment Factories.
34. Glass & Glass Fibre Manufacturing.
35. Godowns and Warehouses Storing non-combustible Goods.
36. Green houses
37. Gold Thread Factories/Gilding Factories.
38. Gum and/or Glue and Gelatine Manufacturing.
39. Hospitals including X-ray and other Diagnostic Clinics.
40. Ice Candy and Ice-cream Manufacturing.
41. Ice Factories.
42. Ink (excluding Printing Ink) Factories
43. Laundries.
44. Libraries.
45. Mica Products Manufacturing.
46. Office Premises.
47. Places of worship
48. Pottery Works.
49. Poultry Farms.
50. Residential Hotels, Cafes & Restaurants.
51. Salt Crushing Factories and Refineries.
52. Stables.
53. Steel Plants (other than Gas based)
54. Sugar Candy Manufacturing.
55. Sugar Factories and Refineries.
56. Tea Blending and Tea Packing Factories
57. Umbrella Assembling Factories
58. Vermicelli Factories.
59. Water Treatment/Water Filtration Plants and Water Pump House.

7.2.2 ORDINARY HAZARD OCCUPANCIES:

1. Airport and other Transportation Terminal Building.
2. Areca nut slicing and/or Betel nut Factories.
3. Atta and Cereal Grinding.
4. Bakeries.
5. Beedi Factories.
6. Biscuit Factories.
7. Bobbin Factories.
8. Bookbinders, Envelopes & Paper bag Manufacturers.
9. Bulk Storage
10. Cable manufacturing
11. Camphor Boiling
12. Candle Works.
13. Carbon Paper/Typewriter Ribbon Manufacturers.
14. Cardboard Box Manufacturing.
15. Carpenters, Wood wool & Furniture Manufacturers.
16. Carpet and Drugget Factories.
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17. Cashew nut Factories.
18. Chemical Manufacturing.
19. Cigar and Cigarette Factories.
20. Coffee grinding premises
21. Coir, Factories,
22. Coir Carpets, Rugs and Tobacco, Hides and Skin Presses
23. Cold storage premises.
24. Cork products manufacturing
25. Dry Cleaning, Dyeing, Laundries.
26. Electric Generating stations (other than Hydel)
27. Enamelware Factories.
28. Filter & Wax paper Manufacturing.
29. Flour Mills.
30. Garages.
31. Garment Makers
32. Ghee Factories (other than vegetable)
33. Godowns & Warehouses (others).
34. Grain and/or Seeds Disintegrating and/or Crushing Factories.
35. Grease Manufacturing.
36. Hat and Topee Factories.
37. Hosiery, Lace, Embroidery & Thread Factories.
38. Incandescent Gas Mantle Manufacturers,
39. Industrial Gas Mfg. Including halogenated hydrocarbon gases
40. Linoleum Factories.
41. Man-made Yarn/Fibre Manufacturing (Except Acrylic)
42. Manure and Fertiliser Works. (Blending, Mixing and granulating only)
43. Mercantile Occupancies (Dept. Stores, Shopping Complexes / Malls)
44. Mineral Oil Blending and Processing.
45. Museums.
46. Oil & Leather Cloth Factories.
47. Oil Terminals/Depots other than those categorised under High hazard A
48. Oxygen Plants.
49. Plywood Manufacturing/Wood Veneering Factories.
50. Paper & Cardboard Mills.
51. Piers, wharves, dockyards.
52. Plastic Goods Manufacturing.
53. Printing Press Premises.
54. Pulverising and Crushing Mills.
55. Rice Mills.
56. Rope Works.
57. Rubber Goods Manufacturing.
58. Rubber Tyres & Tubes Manufacturing
59. Shellac Factories.
60. Shopping Complexes (underground)
61. Silk Filatures and cocoon stores.
62. Spray painting
63. Soaps and Glycerine Factories.
64. Starch Factories
65. Steel Plants (Gas Based)
66. Tanneries/Leather Goods Manufacturers.
67. Tank farms other than those categorised under high hazard 'A'.
68. Textile Mills.
69. Tea Factories.
70. Telephone Exchanges.
71. Theatres and Auditoriums
72. Tobacco (Chewing) and Pan-masalla Making.
73. Tobacco Grinding and Crushing.
74. Tobacco Redrying Factories.
75. Woollen Mills.



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7.2.3 HIGH HAZARD OCCUPANCIES:

SUB-CATEGORY (A)

1. Aircraft Hangers
2. Aluminium/Magnesium Powder Plants
3. Bituminised Paper and/or Hessian Cloth Manufacturing including Tar Felt Manufacturing.
4. Cotton Waste Factories
5. Coal and/or Coke and/or Charcoal Ball Briquettes Manufacturing.
6. Celluloid Goods Manufacturing.
7. Cigarette Filter Manufacturing.
8. Cinema Films & T.V. Production Studios
9. Collieries.
10. Cotton Seed Cleaning or De-linting Factories.
11. Distilleries.
12. Duplicating and Stencil Paper Manufacturing.
13. Fire-works Manufacturing.
14. Foamed Plastics Manufacturing and/or Converting Plants.
15. Grass, Hay, Fodder & Bhoosa (chaff)
16. Pressing Factories.
17. Jute mills & jute presses
18. LPG Bottling Plants (Mini)*



* Bottling plants having total inventory not exceeding 100 MT of LPG and also bottling a total
quantity of not exceeding 20 MT of LPG per shift of 8 hrs.

19. Match Factories.
20. Man Made Fibres (Acrylic fibres/yarn making)
21. Mattress and Pillow Making.
22. Metal or Tin Printers (where more than 50 % of floor area is occupied as Engineering
Workshop; this may be taken as Ordinary Hazard Risk)
23. Oil Mills
24. Oil Extraction Plants (other than those forming part of ghee factories & oil refining factories.)
25. Oil Terminals/Depots handling flammable liquids having flash point of 32
o
C and below.
26. Paints & Varnish Factories.
27. Printing Ink Manufacturing.
28. Saw Mills.
29. Sponge Iron Plants.
30. Surgical Cotton Manufacturers
31. Tank Farms storing flammable liquids having flash point of 32
o
C and below.
32. Tarpaulin & Canvas Proofing Factories.
33. Turpentine & Rosin Distilleries.
34. Tyre Retreading and Resoling Factories.

SUB-CATEGORY (B)

1. Ammonia and Urea Synthesis Plants.
2. CNG Compressing and Bottling Plants
3. Explosive Factories.
4. LPG Bottling Plants (Other than Mini)
5. Petrochemical Plants.
6. Petroleum Refineries.

7.3 WATER SUPPLY -

7.3.1 Water for the hydrant services shall be stored in an easily accessible surface/underground lined
reservoir or above ground tanks of steel concrete or masonry. The effective capacity of the
reservoir above the low water level (defined hereunder), or above the top of the pump casing (in
case of flooded suction) if the same is higher than the low water level, for the various classes of
occupancies and size of hydrant installations shall be as indicated in the table 1.
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NOTES

1. The low water level is a point atleast three times the diameter of the suction pipe above the
draw-off point. (See figs.4, 5 and 6)

2. Large natural reservoirs with water capacity exceeding 10 times the aggregate water
requirements of all Fire Pumps therefrorm may be left un-lined.

7.3.2 Reservoirs of and over 2,25,000 litres capacity shall be in two interconnected equal compartments
to facilitates cleaning and repairs.

7.3.3 The size of the firewater sump shall be such that the smaller side is at least equivalent to six times
the diameter of the largest suction pipe. The suction pipe (s) shall be located along the central
longitudinal axis of the sump and the positioning of the pipes shall be such that no pipe is within a
distance of twice its own diameter from another suction pipe or from the wall of the sump.

7.3.4 Where the Fire pump(s) draw water from the reservoir under suction lift conditions the two
compartments shall be connected to a common sump through sluice or gate valves. The suction
arrangement of the Fire pump (s) shall be as indicated in rule 7.4.1.8, 7.4.1.9, 7.4.1.10 and 7.4.1.12
hereunder.

7.3.5 In case of dual purpose reservoirs catering to fire water and general water requirements the general
water pumps shall draw their supply from a separate sump which shall be connected only to the fire
water sump, the interconnection being so located that the effective quantity (as defined above) of
water available in the reservoir for fire water requirements below the level of the interconnection is
atleast equivalent to the quantities indicated in Table 1. Incoming mains shall be connected to Fire
water Compartments and only overflow of fire water compartments should go to process.







7.3.6 Where the reservoir provides positive suction for the fire pump(s) in terms of the note under rules
7.4.1.11, tapping shall be taken from both the compartments and shall be connected through sluice
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FP MANUAL - 24 -
valves to a common suction header. The pumps, in turn, shall draw their suction from the common
header through sluice valves. In case of dual purpose reservoirs catering to fire water and general
water requirements, the tapping for the general water pumps shall be taken at a higher level such
that the capacity of the reservoir between the low water level as defined heretofore (or the top of the
fire pump casing in case it is higher than the low water level) and the general water tapping is at
least equivalent to the requirements indicated in Table 1.

TABLE - 1


NATURE OF RISK

CAPACITY OF STATIC STORAGE EXCLUSIVELY RESERVED FOR
HYDRANT SERVICE.


1. Light Hazard

Not less than 01 hours aggregate pumping capacity with a minimum of
1,35,000 litres.

2. Ordinary Hazard

Not less than 2 hours aggregate pumping capacity.

3. High Hazard (A)

Not less than 3 hours aggregate pumping capacity

4. High Hazard (B)

Not less than 4 hour's aggregate pumping capacity


NOTES

1. The capacity of the reservoir for ordinary and high hazard class occupancies may be reduced by the
quantum of inflow [of one hour in case of ordinary hazard, 90 minutes in case of high hazard (A) and
two hours in case of high hazard (B) occupancies), from a reliable sources (other than town's main)
having prior approval of the committee, but in no case shall the reservoir capacity be less than 70 %
of that mentioned above.

2. In case of light hazard class occupancies the minimum capacity of the reservoir shall be increased to
2,25,000 litres if the highest floor of the building is more than 15 m above the surrounding ground
level.

3. A higher capacity of reservoir than that required as per Table 1 may be stipulated by the Committee
where considered necessary.

7.4 PUMPS:

7.4.1 GENERAL

7.4.1.1 Pumps shall be exclusively used for fire fighting purposes, be of a type approved by the
Committee, and shall be -

a) Quadruple acting reciprocating steam pumps Or
b) Electric Motor or Steam Turbine driven centrifugal pumps Or
c) Compression Ignition Engine driven centrifugal pumps Or
d) Vertical Turbine Submersible pumps.

7.4.1.2 Pumps shall be direct-coupled, except in the case of engine-driven Vertical Turbine Pumps
wherein gear drives conforming to approval standard of Factory Mutual system or right angled
gear drive class no. 1338 hall be used.

Belt-driven pumps shall not be accepted.

7.4.1.3 Parts of pumps like impeller, shaft sleeve, wearing ring etc. shall be of non-corrosive metal
preferably of brass or bronze or stainless steel.

Where seawater is used or where the quality of water necessitates the use of special
metals/alloys, the use of such metals or alloys shall be insisted.
SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 25 -

7.4.1.4 The capacity of the pump(s) would depend on whether or not tapping(s) for water spray and/or
foam protection for tanks/spheres/bullets/plants/other facilities is (are) taken from the hydrant
service. In case there is no tapping from the hydrant service, the capacity of the pump shall be as
per rule 7.4.1.4.1 hereunder. However, where the water demand for water spray and/or foam
protection as per rules 7.4.1.4.2, 7.4.1.4.3, 7.4.1.4.4, 7.4.1.4.5 and 7.4.1.4.6 is in excess of that
required for the hydrant system, the pumping capacity shall be based on the higher water demand.

7.4.1.4.1 The capacity for hydrant service shall be determined by the class of occupancy and size of
installation as per Table 2 hereunder:

TABLE - 2


NATURE
OF RISK

NUMBER OF HYDRANTS
PUMP CAPACITY
LPS/(M
3
/HR)
DELIVERY
PRESSURE AT PUMP
DISCHARGE AT
RATED CAP- ACITY
(KG/CM
2
)

1. Light
Hazard

i) Not exceeding 20

27 (96)

5.6*

ii) Exceeding 20 but
not exceeding 55

38 (137)

7

iii) Exceeding 55 but
not exceeding 100

47 (171)

7

iv) Exceeding 100 **

47 (171) plus 47 (171) for
every additional 125
hydrants or part thereof.


7/8.8

NOTES

*1. The pump delivery pressure will need to be 7 kg/cm
2
if the highest floor of the risk is at a height
exceeding 15 m above the surrounding ground level.

**2. Where the systems are hydraulically designed as per NB 2 & NB 3 below rule 7.5.10. The total
pumping capacity need not be greater than 190 (683) irrespective of the number of hydrant points.

NATURE
OF RISK
NUMBER OF
HYDRANTS
PUMP CAPACITY
LPS/(M
3
/HR)

DELIVERY PRESSURE
AT PUMP DISCHARGE
AT RATED CAP- ACITY
(KG/CM
2
)

2. Ordinary
Hazard

i) Not exceeding 20

38 (137)

7

ii) Exceeding 20 but
not exceeding 55

47 (171)

7

iii) Exceeding 55 but
not exceeding 100

76 (273)

7

iv) Exceeding 100 **
76 (273) plus 76 (273)
for every add-itional
125 hydrants or part
thereof.


7/8.8
SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 26 -

**N.B: Where the systems are hydraulically designed as per NB 2 & NB 3 of rule 7.5.10, the total pumping
capacity need not be greater than 302 (1092) irrespective of the number of hydrant points.

NATURE OF
RISK

NUMBER OF
HYDRANTS

PUMP CAPACITY
LPS/(M
3
/HR)

DELIVERY PRESSURE AT
PUMP DISCHARGE AT
RATED CAP- ACITY
(KG/CM
2
)

3. High
Hazard
(A)

i) Not exceeding
20

47 (171)

7

ii) Exceeding 20
but not exceeding 55

76 (273)

7/8.8

iii) Exceeding 55
but not exceeding 100

114 (410)

7/8.8

iv) Exceeding 100

114 (410) plus 114
(410) for every
add-itional 125
hydrants or part
thereof.

7/8.8/10.5

4. High
Hazard
(B)

i) Not exceeding
20

Two of 47 (171)

7



ii) Exceeding 20
but not exceeding 55

TWO of 76 (273)

7/8.8



iii) Exceeding 55
but not exceeding 100

TWO of 114 (410)

7/8.8

iv) **Exceeding 100

TWO of 114 (410)
plus ONE of 114
(410) for every
add-itional 200
hydrants or part
thereof.



** This provision will apply only in cases where the hydrant service has been hydraulically designed as per
NB3 (b) under rule 7.5.10.

NOTES -

1. In case of High Hazard (B) risks where the aggregate pumping capacity required in terms of the above
Table or of rules 7.4.1.4.2, 7.4.1.4.4, 7.4.1.4.5 and 7.4.1.4.6 hereunder exceeds 1,640 m
3
/hr., larger
capacity pumps are acceptable provided the capacity of the largest pump does not exceed 25 % of the
aggregate installed pumping capacity is disrupted when any pump is in-operative.

2. In case of High Hazard occupancies, the pump delivery pressure shall be 7 Kg/cm
2
if the highest floor of
the risk is at a height exceeding 15 m above the surrounding ground level.

3. In case of Oil Refineries, Petrochemical complexes or other risks where double headed hydrants are
used throughout the risk so that the total number of hydrants (counting a double headed hydrant as two
SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 27 -
hydrants) is about double the number of hydrants required as per the general requirements of this
Manual, a double headed hydrant may be regarded as a single hydrant only.

7.4.1.4.2 Where storage tanks containing flammable liquids are protected by a medium velocity water
spray system tapped from the hydrant service, the water requirements of the spray system shall be
calculated for tanks located in a common dyke which have the largest aggregate shell surface area
at a rate of 10 litres /minute/m
2
of tank shell surface area except where the system has been
designed to comply with the provisions contained in N.B 4 under rule 7.6.19 (mandatory protection)
in which case the rate of flow can be reduced to 3 lpm/m
2
).

Even in the case of tanks located in separate dykes, the shell surface area of all tanks located
within a distance of 15 m (or the diameter of the larger tank if the same is more than 15m) shall be
aggregated and the water demand of such cluster of tanks shall be calculated at the rate of flow
indicated in the foregoing paragraph.

The water requirement of the spray system worked out as above shall then be loaded for
supplementary hose stream protection as under


Where the largest tank in, in a dyke, has a diameter -


i) Upto 10 m

1,150 LPM

ii) More than 10 m and upto 20 m

2,250 LPM

iii) Over 20 m

3,400 LPM


If the total water requirement for spray protection and hose stream protection for storage tanks
worked out as above exceeds the requirements of the hydrant service as per Table 2, the pumping
capacity shall be equivalent to the former.

7.4.1.4.3 Where storage tanks are protected by a fixed foam system connected to the hydrant service, water
requirement for the foam system shall be equivalent to that required by the largest protected tank at
a rate of 5 litres/minute/m
2
of liquid surface area for fixed roof tanks and 12.2 lpm/m2 of rim seal in
case of floating roof tanks.

Other conditions regarding supplementary hose stream protection, pumping capacity etc., would
remain the same as for water spray protection.

7.4.1.4.4 Where spheres/bullets are protected by a medium velocity water spray system tapped from
pressurised hydrant service, water requirements of the spray system shall be determined as under
-

Taking into consideration the configuration of bullets/sphere, the one which has the largest number
of other bullets/spheres within R +15 M of the centre thereof shall be selected. The water demand
shall then be worked out at the rate of 10 L/min/M
2
of the aggregate shell surface area of the
bullet/spheres concerned and all bullets/spheres within R + 15 M of the centre thereof.
Water application may be reduced to 5 LPM/M
2
where the bullets/Spheres coated with approved
passive materials providing fire resistance of at least 2 hours.

The water requirement of the spray system worked out as above shall then be loaded for
supplementary hose stream protection as under









SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 28 -

Water capacity of Bullets/
Spheres (m
3
)

Supplementary hose stream protection
(LPM)


Upto and including 50 m
3


1,750

Above 50 m
3
and upto 150 m
3


2,250

Above 150 m
3


4,500


If the total water requirement for spray protection and hose steam protection for spheres/bullets
worked out as above exceeds the requirements of the hydrant service as per Table 2, the pumping
capacity shall be equivalent to the former.

Note: For design criteria of medium velocity water spray system reference shall be made to
committee's rules for water spray system.

7.4.1.4.5 Where the plants and other facilities are protected by medium velocity water spray systems,
tapped from hydrant service, water requirement of the spray system shall be determined as per
Committee's rules for water spray systems. Water requirements of the spray systems worked out
as above shall then be loaded by 4,500 LPM for supplementary hose stream protection.

If the total water requirement for spray protection and hose stream protection worked out as
above exceeds the requirements of the hydrant service as per Table 2, the pumping capacity
shall be equivalent to the former.

7.4.1.4.6 Where transformers are protected by high velocity water spray system tapped from hydrant
system, water requirements of the spray system shall be determined as per Committee's rules
for water spray system. Water requirement of the spray system worked out as above shall then
be loaded by 1,750 LPM for supplementary hose stream protection.

If the total water requirement for spray protection and hose stream protection worked out as
above exceeds the requirements of the hydrant service as per Table 2, the pumping capacity
shall be equivalent to the former.

7.4.1.4.7 Where plants and other facilities are protected by sprinkler system tapped from the pressurised
hydrant service, water requirement of the sprinkler system shall be determined as per the
Committees rules for sprinkler system.

If the total water requirement for sprinkler system exceeds the requirement of the hydrant service
as per Table 2, the pumping capacity shall be equivalent to the former.

7.4.1.5 Pumps shall be capable of furnishing not less than 150 % of rated capacity at a head of not less
than 65 % of the rated head. The shut-off head shall not exceed 120 % of rated head in the case
of horizontal pumps and 140 % in the case of vertical turbine type pumps.

7.4.1.6 Each pump shall be provided with a plate giving, in the case of centrifugal pumps, the delivery
head, capacity and the number of revolutions per minute and in the case of reciprocating pumps,
the diameter of the steam cylinders and water plungers and the length of stroke as also the
ratios of the effective aggregate areas of the suction and the delivery valves to the area of the
water plungers.

7.4.1.7 In case of electrically driven pumps it is recommended that compression ignition engine driven
stationary pump of similar capacity be installed as a standby and vice versa. However, where the
hydrant service consists of more than one pump, not more than half the total number (total
number + 1 in case of odd number) of pumps shall have prime movers of one type.

(The above provision is not applicable to systems commissioned before 1982).

SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 29 -
Notwithstanding the above, if power to motorised fire pumps is obtained from two sources, one
of which is a captive generating plant located in a block either 6 m away from all surrounding
buildings, where this is not feasible, segregated from adjoining building in a manner indicated in
rule 7.4.3.1 more than half the total number of pumps may be of the electrically driven type.

7.4.1.8 Each fire service pump shall be provided with an independent suction pipe without any sluice or
cut-off valves therein, unless the pump is situated below the level of the water supply in which
case sluice or cut-off valves would be essential.

Where the water supply has fibrous or equally objectionable matter in suspension or mud and/or
sand liable to cause accumulation in the installation, suction pipe(s) shall be installed in a jack
well fed through a culvert from the main water supply. At the supply end of the culvert, a sluice
or gate valve shall be provided.

NOTE - The suction pipe shall be connected to the pump inlet through an eccentric reducer to
avoid air pockets.

7.4.1.9 The diameter of the suction pipe shall be such that the rate of flow of water through it does not
exceed 90 m. per minute when the pump is delivering at its rated discharge. If, however, the
pump is situated below the level of its water supply, the diameter of the suction pipe/header shall
be based upon a rate of flow not exceeding 120 m. per minute.

7.4.1.10 Where the pump is to operate under suction lift conditions, the Net Positive Suction Head
(NPSH) available at site shall be 0.50 m in excess of the actual value required at 150 % of the
duty point as per the manufacturers curve of the pump.

NOTE For the purpose of the above, NPSH available at site shall be computed by deducting
the sum of the static lift (measured from the low water level, defined in rule 7.3, upto the centre
line of the pump) and friction loss in the suction pipe and fittings from atmospheric pressure.

7.4.1.11 Fire Pumps in High Hazard (B) category occupancies shall be provided with positive suction and
automatic starting devices capable of sequential starting of the pumps. The pumps shall be
connected to audible alarm such as hooter or a siren located in a prominent place outside the
pump house. Where there is a central fire station in the premises, additional alarm point shall
also be provided in the fire station.

The pumping arrangement shall also incorporate Jockey Pumps to take care of system losses.
The capacity of the Jockey Pumps shall neither be more than 5 % of the installed pumping
capacity nor less than 3 % thereof (with a minimum of 10.8 m
3
/hr.) unless the aggregate installed
pumping capacity is in excess of 820 m
3
/hr, in which case the capacity of the Jockey Pump (s)
shall be not less than 25 m
3
/hr plus 1 % of the installed pumping capacity in excess of 820 m
3
/hr.
Installation of Jockey Pumps also helps to prevent hydraulic surges.

7.4.1.12 In the case of Light, Ordinary and High Hazard (A) category occupancies, when the pump is
above the level of its water supply, there shall be a foot valve and a `priming' arrangement, the
latter consisting of a tank (having a capacity at least three times that of the suction pipe from the
pump to the foot valve subject to a minimum of 1000 litres) connected to the delivery side of the
pump by a metal pipe having a minimum internal diameter of 100 mm with a stop valve and a
non return valve therein of the same size.

A reliable independent filling arrangement and a level indicator shall be provided for the priming
tank and, wherever feasible, a continuous overflow arrangement shall be provided in order to
ensure that the tank is always full. It is recommended that for pumps taking suction from a stored
water supply, a vortex plate shall be installed at entrance to the suction pipe.

Wherever circumstances permit, the pumps shall preferably be fixed below the level of the water
supply (positive suction). If the pumps are automatic in action, they shall necessarily be so fixed.
However, if the priming arrangements are such as to ensure that the suction pipe shall be
automatically maintained full of water notwithstanding a serious leakage therefrom (the pump
being automatically brought into action to replenish the priming tank should the latter be drawn
upon at a greater rate than the rate at which it is fed from any other source), positive suction may
not be insisted. In such cases, the capacity of the priming tank need not exceed 450 litres and
SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 30 -
the diameter of the priming pipe need not exceed 50 mm. Jockey Pump(s) of capacity indicated
in rule 7.4.1.11 shall, nevertheless, be provided in systems where the main pumps are automatic
in action.

Where pump(s) are automatic in action they shall be connected to audible alarm such as hooter
or siren located in a prominent place outside the pump house. Where there is a central fire
station in the premises, additional alarm point shall also be provided in the fire station.

NOTE - For the purpose of rules 7.4.1.8, 7.4.1.9, 7.4.1.11 and 7.4.1.12 a pump shall be
considered as having positive suction only if the quantity of water in the reservoir above the low
water level (see N.B. under rule 7.3) or the top of the pump casing, whichever is higher is
equivalent to the requirements of Table 1.

7.4.1.13 Each pump shall be provided with a non-return valve and a sluice valve on the delivery side, the
sluice valve being installed on the upstream side of the non-return valve. A pressure gauge shall
also be provided between the pump and the non-return valve. The size of the non-return valve
and cut off (sluice) valve shall not be less than the size of the initial delivery pipe and, in no case,
less than the delivery outlet of the pump. Further, as Butterfly Valves can create turbulence
adversely affecting the pump performance no Butterfly valve shall be installed on the
suction side.

7.4.1.14 When the premises are also protected by sprinkler installation having elevated tank(s) as one of
the main sources of water supply, and where the arrangement for filling the tank(s) is taken from
the hydrant service, the connection shall be taken directly from the pump to the top of the tank
(through a stop valve) and not through the hydrant mains. (See fig. below)



7.4.1.15 Pumps shall not be installed in open. The pump rooms shall normally have brick/concrete walls
and non-combustible roof, with adequate lighting, ventilation and drainage arrangements.

The pump room shall be so located as to be both easily accessible and where any falling
masonry and the like from other buildings occasioned by fire or other cause, cannot damage the
pump room. Normally, pump rooms shall be located 6 m away from all surrounding buildings
and overhead structures. Where this is not feasible the sides of the pump room falling within 6 m
of the surrounding buildings shall be blank masonry walls of 355 mm thickness and the roof of
the pump room shall be of RCC. Likewise, when the pump room is attached to a building a
perfect party wall complying with the committee's regulations shall be constructed between the
pump room and the attached building, the roof of the pump room shall be of RCC construction at
least 100 mm thick and access to the pump room shall be from the outside. In no case shall the
pump from be sited within a building occupied for any other purpose.

N.B. for High Hazard (B) occupancies, in addition to the above provisions, the pump room shall
be located 30 m clear of all equipment where flammable fluids having flash point below 65
o
C are
handled and/or stored and 15 m clear of pipes/pipe racks (of other than water.). This provision
shall, however, not apply to systems commissioned before 1982.

7.4.2 STEAM DRIVEN PUMPS -
SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 31 -

7.4.2.1 The capacity of steam driven pumps shall be based on the economical speed recommended by
the makers, and the pumps shall be provided with a suitable air vessel, steam and water
pressure gauges. The working parts of the water ends shall be of non-corrosive metal.

7.4.2.2 Pumps shall not be used for boiler feeding or any other purpose, except for filling the elevated
sprinkler tank(s).

7.4.2.3 There shall be at least two boilers connected to the pump, out of whom one shall be under
pressure at all times.

7.4.2.4 Steam at a pressure of 4.2 kg/cm2 or more if specified by the makers shall be available at the
pump at all times.

7.4.2.5 The ratio of the area of the steam cylinders to water cylinders shall not be less than 2.5 to 1.

7.4.2.6 A relief valve of adequate size shall be fitted on the delivery side of the pump and set at a
pressure of not more than 1 kg/cm2 above the delivery pressure of the pump, and if of weight
and lever type, the weight, when set, shall be secured and locked in that position.

7.4.2.7 The diameter of the suction pipe shall in no case be less than that of the pump plungers.

7.4.2.8 The steam pipe to the pump shall not traverse ground not under the control of the owner of the
installation, nor a public roadway.


7.4.3 ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN PUMPS -

7.4.3.1 The sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s)-supplying power to the fire pump(s) shall be of
incombustible construction and shall be located at least 6 m away from all surrounding buildings.
Where this is not feasible, all door and window openings of the surrounding buildings within 6 m
of the sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) shall be protected by single fireproof doors and 6 mm
thick wired glasses in steel framework respectively. Like-wise, roof eaves, if any, of the
surrounding buildings falling within 6 m of the sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) shall be cut
and wall raised as a parapet. The above provisions shall also apply when the sub-station(s) and
D.G. house(s) are within 6 m of each other.

Where the sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) are attached to buildings, perfect party walls
complying with the Committee's regulations shall be constructed to segregate the sub-station(s)
and/or D.G. house(s) from the attached buildings and where the attached building is storeyed,
the roof of the sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s) shall be of R.C.C. construction of at least 100
mm thickness.

Transformer cubicles inside these sub-stations shall be separated from H.T. and L.T. cubicles
and from each other by blank walls of bricks/stone/concrete blocks of 355 mm thickness or of
R.C.C of 200 mm with door openings, if any therein, protected by single fireproof doors
complying with the Committee's regulations. The sub-station(s) and D.G. house(s) shall also be
separated from each other as above.





Transformers installed outdoors, which are supplying power to fire Pump(s), shall also be located
atleast 6 m away from all surrounding buildings (including sub-station(s) and/or D.G. house(s).
SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 32 -
Where this is not feasible all door and window openings of the building(s) [including sub-
station(s) and/or D.G. house(s).] within 6 m of the transformer shall be protected by single
fireproof doors and 6mm thick wired glasses in steel framework respectively. Likewise, roof
eaves of the building(s) falling within 6 m of the transformer shall be cut and wall raised as a
parapet. Baffle walls of bricks/stone/concrete blocks of 355 mm thickness or of R.C.C. of 200
mm thickness shall be constructed between two transformers and these walls shall be extended
horizontally 600 mm beyond the extremities of the transformers and vertically 600 mm above the
highest point of the transformers.

NOTES

1. Where oil capacity of the individual transformer is larger than 5,000 litres separating walls
must be provided in between the transformers and a clear distance as per the following table
shall be maintained between the transformers and the substation


OIL CAPACITY OF INDIVIDUAL
TRANSFORMER

CLEAR SEPARATING DISTANCE (m)


5,000 to 10,000 litres

8.0

Above 10,000 upto 20,000 litres

10.0

Above 20,000 upto 30,000 litres

12.5

Over 30,000 litres

15


2. For High Hazard (B) occupancies, substation(s) supplying power to the fire pump(s) shall, in
addition to complying with the above provisions, be located 30 m clear of all equipment
where flammable fluids having flash point below 65
o
C are handled and/or stored.

7.4.3.2 Electric supply feeder (s) to sub-station(s) supplying power to fire pump shall as far as possible,
consist of armoured cables buried underground which shall not pass under any building or
permanent structures.

If the feeders are laid inside an underground cable duct/ gallery, they shall be placed in a corner
of the duct/gallery and shall be isolated from other cables in the duct/gallery by means of fire
bricks/sand packing/other suitable passive protection of at least an hour fire rating.

Under extenuating circumstances, where it is not feasible to lay the feeders underground, the
Committee may permit overhead feeders provided they do not fall within a horizontal distance of
-

A) 15 m of any process buildings/plant or tanks containing flammable liquids. Or

B)

) 6 m of any other building or tanks containing non-flammable liquids or of storage in
open.


NOTE: in case of high hazard (B) occupancies, all substations (except main receiving station in
the route of the electrical supply to the fire pump (s) which receive power by overhead feeders
shall be provided with two sets of feeders which, apart from conforming with the above distance
provisions, shall be run along two different routes in such a way that failure of more than one
route due to a single mishap would be only a remote possibility.
7.4.3.3 A direct feeder without any tappings shall be laid from the sub-station to the pump house. The
feeder shall consist of an armoured cable buried underground and shall not pass under any
building or permanent structure.

The cable run inside the substation from the breaker upto its point of burial or entry into cable
duct/gallery shall be provided with suitable passive protection of at least an hour fire rating.

SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 33 -
If the feeder is laid inside an underground cable duct/gallery, it shall be placed in a corner of the
duct/gallery and shall be isolated from other cables in the duct/gallery by means of fire
bricks/sand packing/other suitable passive protection of at least an hour fire rating.

Under extenuating circumstances, where it is not feasible to lay the feeders underground, the
committee may permit overhead feeders provided they do not fall within a horizontal distance of


A) 15 m of any process buildings/plant or tanks containing flammable liquids. Or

B)

6 m of any other building or tanks containing non-flammable liquids or of storage in
open.

NOTE - In case of High Hazard `B' occupancies if the feeder to the fire pump (s) is not buried
underground, two sets of feeder shall be provided which shall

A) conform to the above distance provisions

B)

be run along two different routes in such a way that failure of more than one route due
to a single mishap would be only a remote possibility.

7.4.3.4 Sufficient spare power shall always be available to drive pumping set(s) at all times throughout
the year.

7.4.3.5 The electric supply to the pumping set(s) shall be entirely independent of all other equipment in
the premises i.e. even when the power throughout the entire premises is switched off, the supply
to the pump shall continue to be available un-interrupted. This can be achieved by taking the
connection for the pump(s) from the incoming side of the main L.T breaker. However, in cases
where two or more transformers and/or sources of supply are connected to a common bus bar
the connection may be taken through the bus bars. (See figures below)



7.4.3.6 The fire pump circuit shall be protected at the origin by an automatic circuit breaker so set as to
permit the motor to be overloaded during an emergency to the maximum limit permissible by the
manufacturers. Further, the under voltage release/`no volt coil of the circuit breaker shall be
removed.

N.B - Where cable lengths are long enough to warrant back-up protection, the Committee may
insist on provision of such a protection.

7.4.3.7 It is recommended that telltale lamps, which would continuously glow when power is available to
the fire pump(s) circuit, be provided and fixed in a prominent position, both in the substation and
in the pump room.

7.4.3.8 Where there is more than one source of power for the operation of pumping set(s) every
electrical circuit shall preferably be so designed as to ensure that when necessary, the set(s) will
continue to operate without the manual operation of an emergency switch.

7.4.3.9 The pumping set(s) shall be securely mounted on a robust bedplate, if of the horizontal type, and
shall be free from vibration at all variations of load.
SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 34 -

7.4.3.10 The rating and design of motors and switchgears shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards
Specification. The motor shall be of continuous rating type and its rating shall be at least
equivalent to the horsepower required to drive the pump at 150 % of its rated discharge. (See
rule 7.4.1.5)

7.4.3.11 The motor shall be of totally enclosed type or drip proof type, the latter having their air inlets and
outlets protected with meshed wire panels to exclude rodents, reptiles and insects.

7.4.3.12 The motors shall be wound for Class B insulation preferably for Class E and the windings shall
be vacuum impregnated with heat and moisture resisting varnish and preferably glass fibre
insulated to withstand tropical conditions.

7.4.3.13 Motors wound for high tension supplies shall have a suitable fixed warming resistance to
maintain the motor windings in a dry condition at all times and particularly under monsoon
conditions. The resistance shall be connected to the lighting or other equivalent circuit.

7.4.3.14 Heating apparatus shall also be provided, when necessary, for medium tension motors where
they are located below ground level, in order to maintain the motor windings in a dry condition.
Adequate drainage arrangements shall also be provided in the pump house in such cases.

7.4.3.15 The incoming cable to the fire pump room shall terminate in an isolating switch fuse unit
incorporating HRC fuses and where necessary provided with a distribution system.

7.4.3.16 The starting switchgear for the fire pumps shall be suitable for direct on line starting but other
alternative arrangements are subject to prior approval. It shall also incorporate an ammeter with
a clear indication of the motor full load current.

N.B. Remote controlled starting arrangements are subject to prior approval of the Committee.

7.4.3.17 Cables for motors and switchgear shall be armoured or be enclosed in heavy gauge screwed
steel conduit according to conditions.

7.4.3.18 It is recommended that equipment throughout be painted fire red (Shade No. 536 as per IS: 5)
and suitably marked for identification.

7.4.3.19 Necessary spare parts including a set of fuses (in a glass-fronted box) shall be kept in readiness
at all times in the pump house.

7.4.3.20 The wiring in all installations shall be done in accordance with the rules for Electrical Installations
1998 issued by the Tariff Advisory Committee.





SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 35 -

7.4.4 PETROL OR MOTOR SPIRIT ENGINE DRIVEN PUMPS: (ACCEPTED ONLY WHERE
INSTALLED PRIOR TO 1976):

7.4.4.1 The pump room shall be artificially heated, if necessary, so as to prevent its temperature from
falling below 4.5 C at any time.

NOTES -

1. Low-pressure hot water, steam or hot air apparatus or electric radiators only shall be used. If
electric radiators are used, the Tariff Advisory Committee shall approve the same.

2. Vapour-proof incandescent electric lighting shall be used for the pump house. Naked lights
are not permitted.

3. Switches in connection with electric lighting or heating shall be located outside the pump
room, but if this is not practicable, they shall be of flame-proof type conforming to the
relevant Indian Standards Specification (IS : 5571)

7.4.4.2 The engine shall be fitted with dual ignition (magneto and accumulator with coil with separate
sparking plugs to each), which shall be so arranged that the engine may be worked on either
ignition independently.

7.4.4.3 The magneto shall be of the high-tension type.

7.4.4.4 A voltmeter shall be provided and so arranged that the voltage of the accumulator or battery can
be ascertained at will.

7.4.4.5 Except in cases where an independent electric supply is readily available the engine shall be
fitted with and shall work a small low voltage dynamo, from which the accumulator can be
recharged when necessary while the engine is running on the magneto.

7.4.4.6 The conductors from the magneto and accumulator to the sparking plugs shall be run in metal
tubes to protect them against injury.

7.4.4.7 The opening to the atmosphere from the induction pipe shall be fitted with a flame trap.

7.4.4.8 The engine shall be governor controlled.

7.4.4.9 The following spare parts shall be kept readily to hand -

a) One complete set of piston rings for each cylinder,
b) Two high tension sparking plugs for each cylinder.
c) Two valves suitable for inlet or exhaust complete with springs, cotters and washers,
d) One complete filter for petrol pump feed with cork gasket
e) Two springs for each spring used in the engine,
f) One complete set of cylinder head and other gaskets.

7.4.4.10 The engine shall be so arranged that, if necessary, it may be readily and immediately started by
one person.

7.4.4.11 The petrol or motor spirit tank from which the engine is fed shall be fitted with a gauge glass or
suitable indicator (which shall be protected against mechanical injury) showing the quantity of
petrol or motor spirit contained therein.

The tank shall have a holding capacity sufficient to run the engine at full load for about 24 hours.

All joints in the petrol piping shall be brazed.

7.4.4.12 There shall be kept on hand at all times sufficient petrol or motor spirit to run the engine at full
load for about 24 hours.

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FP MANUAL - 36 -
7.4.4.13 The reserve supply of petrol or motor spirit shall be stored in a safe position, away from the
pump house.

7.4.4.14 Petrol or motor spirit only shall be used. The use of other substance, such as paraffin, shall not
be allowed.

7.4.4.15 A written declaration shall be given by the insured that the following conditions will be strictly
complied with -

a) The engine shall be tested twice a week for atleast 10 minutes each time.
b) The temperature of the pump room shall be maintained not less than 4.5
o
C (or 40
o
F) at all
times.
c) The minimum quantity of petrol or motor spirit required as stated in 7.4.4.12 shall be
maintained in a safe position away from the pump house.
d) Motor spirit only shall be used for driving the engine.
e) Spare parts as required in 7.4.4.9 shall be kept readily to hand.

7.4.5 COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE DRIVEN PUMPS

7.4.5.1 PUMP ROOM:

The Pump Room shall be artificially heated, if necessary, to maintain the temperature of the
room above 10
o
C. Adequate ventilation shall be provided for the air required for aspiration and
to limit the temperature rise in the room to 10
o
C above the ambient temperature when the
engine is on full load.

7.4.5.2 ENGINE:

7.4.5.2.1 The Engine shall be -

a) of the compression ignition mechanical direct injection type, capable of being started
without the use of wicks, cartridges, heater plugs or ether, at an engine room temperature of
7
o
C and shall accept full load within 15 seconds from the receipt of the signal to start.

b) Naturally aspirated, supercharged or turbo-charged and either air or water-cooled. In the
case of charge air cooling by means of a belt-driven fan or of a belt driven auxiliary water
pump there shall be multiple belts such that should half the belts break, the remaining belts
would be capable of driving the fan or pump.

c) Capable of operating continuously on full load at the site elevation for a period of six hours.

d) provided with an adjustable governor to control the engine speed within 10% of its rated
speed under any condition of load upto the full load rating. The governor shall be set to
maintain rated pump speed at maximum pump load.

e) provided with an in-built tachometer to indicate R.P.M. of the engine.

7.4.5.2.2 Any manual device fitted to the Engine that could prevent the engine starting shall return
automatically to the normal position.

7.4.5.2.3 Engines, after correction for altitude and ambient temperature, shall have bare engine
horsepower rating equivalent to the higher of the following two values

a) 20 % in excess of the maximum brake horsepower required to drive the pump at its duty
point.

b) The brake horsepower required driving the pump at 150 % of its rated discharge.

NOTE: In the case of engines guaranteed by the manufacturers as capable of being overloaded
by 10% at the rated speed for one hour in any period of 12 hours consecutive running, the value
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FP MANUAL - 37 -
under (b) above may be considered as 10% lower than the horse power required to drive the
pump at 150 % of its rated discharge.

7.4.5.2.4 The coupling between the engine and the pump shall allow each unit to be removed without
disturbing the other.

7.4.5.3 COOLING SYSTEM:

The following systems are acceptable -

a) Cooling by water from the discharge of fire pump (taken off prior to the pump discharge
valve) direct into the engine cylinder jackets via a pressure reducing device to limit the
applied pressure to a safe value as pacified by the engine manufacturer. The outlet
connection from this system shall terminate atleast 150 mm above the engine water outlet
pipe and be directed into an open tundish so that the discharge water is visible.

b) a heat exchanger, the raw water being supplied from the fire pump discharge (taken off prior
to the pump discharge valve) via a pressure-reducing device, if necessary, to limit the
applied pressure to a safe value as specified by the engine manufacturer. The raw water
outlet connection shall be so designed that the discharged water can be readily observed.
The water in the closed circuit shall be circulated by means of an auxiliary pump driven from
the engine and the capacity of the closed circuit shall not be less than that recommended by
the engine manufacturer. If the auxiliary pump is belt driven there shall be a multiple belt so
that should half the belts break, the remaining belts shall be capable of driving the pump.

c) a frame or engine mounted air cooled radiator with a multiple fan belt driven from the
engine. When half the belts are broken the remaining belts shall be capable of driving the
fan. The water in the closed circuit shall be circulated by means of an auxiliary pump driven
by the engine and the capacity of the closed circuit shall be not less than that recommended
by the engine manufacturer.

d) direct air cooling of the engine by means of multiple belt driven fans. When half the belts are
broken the remaining belts shall be capable of driving the fan.

NOTE: In case of systems described in (b) (c) & (d) above a failure actuated audio-visual alarm
shall be incorporated.

7.4.5.4 AIR FILTRATION:

The air intake shall be fitted with a filter of adequate size to prevent foreign matter entering the
engine.

7.4.5.5 EXHAUST SYSTEM:

The exhaust shall be fitted with a suitable silencer and the total backpressure shall not exceed
the engine maker's recommendation. When the exhaust system rises above the engine, means
shall be provided to prevent any condensate flowing into the engine.

7.4.5.6 ENGINE SHUT-DOWN MECHANISM:

This shall be manually operated and return automatically to the starting position after use.

7.4.5.7 FUEL SYSTEM:

7.4.5.7.1 FUEL:

The engine fuel oil shall be of quality and grade specified by engine makers. There shall be kept
on hand at all times sufficient fuel to run the engine on full load for six hours, in addition to that in
the engine fuel tank.



SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 38 -

7.4.5.7.2 FUEL TANK:

The fuel tank shall be of welded steel constructed to relevant Indian or Foreign Standard for Mild
Steel Drums. The tank shall be mounted above the engine fuel pump to give gravity feed unless
otherwise recommended by the manufacturer. The tank shall be fitted with an indicator showing
the level of the fuel in the tank. The capacity of the tank shall be sufficient to allow the engine to
run on full load for


CLASS OF HAZARD

CAPACITY


Light Hazard

2 Hours
Ordinary Hazard 4 Hours
High Hazard (A) 6 Hours
High Hazard (B) 8 Hours


NOTE: where there is more than one compression ignition engine driven pump set there shall be
a separate fuel tank and fuel feed pipe for each engine.

7.4.5.7.3 FUEL FEED PIPES:

Any valve in the fuel feed pipe between the fuel tank and the engine shall be placed adjacent to
the tank and it shall be locked in the open position. Pipe joints shall not be soldered and plastic
tubing shall not be used.

7.4.5.7.4 AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT -

The following shall be provided -

a) A sludge and sediment trap
b) A fuel level gauge
c) An inspection and cleaning hole.
d) A filter between the fuel tank and fuel pump mounted in an accessible position for cleaning.
e) Means to enable the entire fuel system to be bled of air. Air relief cocks are not allowed;
screwed plugs are permitted.

7.4.5.8 STARTING MECHANISM:

Provision shall be made for two separate methods of engine starting viz.-

a) Automatic starting by means of a battery powered electric starter motor incorporating the
axial displacement type of pinion, having automatic repeat start facilities initiated by a fall in
pressure in the water supply pipe to the sprinkler and/or hydrant installation. The battery
capacity shall be adequate for ten consecutive starts without recharging with a cold engine
under full compression.

b) Manual starting by -

i) Crank handle, if engine size permits Or
ii) Electric starter motor.

NOTE: The starter motor used for automatic starting may also be used for manual starting
provided there are separate batteries for manual starting.

7.4.5.9 BATTERY CHARGING:

The means of charging the batteries shall be by a 2-rate trickle charger with manual selection of
boost charge and the batteries shall be charged in position. Where separate batteries are
provided for automatic and manual starting the charging equipment shall be capable of trickle
SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 39 -
charging both the batteries simultaneously. Equipment shall be provided to enable the state of
charge of the batteries to be determined.

7.4.5.10 TOOLS:

A standard kit of tools shall be provided with the engine and kept on hand at all times.

7.4.5.11 SPARE PARTS:

The following spare parts shall be supplied with the engine and kept on hand -

a) Two sets of fuel filters, elements and seals.
b) Two sets of lubricating oil filters, elements and seals.
c) Two sets of belts (where used)
d) One complete set of engine-joints, gaskets and hoses,
e) Two injector nozzles,
f) One complete set of piston rings for each cylinder,
g) One inlet valve and one exhaust valve

7.4.5.12 ENGINE EXERCISING:

The test shall be for a period of at least five minutes each day. Where closed circuit cooling
systems are used the water level in the primary system shall be checked at the time of carrying
out each test and, if necessary, water shall be added during the course of the test procedure.

7.4.5.13 A written declaration shall be given that the following conditions will be strictly complied with -

a) To test the engine at least once a week.
b) To maintain the temperature of the engine room at not less than 4.5 deg. C at all times.
c) To maintain the minimum quantity of fuel oil required as desired in these clauses.
d) To use a good grade of fuel oil equivalent in quality to that specified by the engine maker.
e) To keep on hand the spare parts required as specified in 7.4.5.11.

7.5 MAINS:

7.5.1 The hydrants mains shall normally be laid underground or in masonry culverts with removable
covers of incombustible construction and shall be of any one of the following types -

a) Cast Iron double flanged pipes conforming to the following standards -


TYPE OF PIPES

CLASS OF PIPES


IS CODE

Horizontally Cast Iron Pipes

B

IS: 7181


Vertically Cast Iron Pipes

A

IS: 1537


Centrifugally Cast (Spun) Iron Pipes


A

IS: 1536

N.B. In case of vertically cast pipes, where the nominal diameter of the pipes exceeds 300 mm
or where the pump delivery pressure exceeds 7-kg/sq. cm
2
, Class `B' pipes would be necessary.

b) Centrifugally Cast (Spun) Iron Class `A Pipes with Tyton Joints (Rubber gasketed)

c) Wrought or mild steel pipes (galvanised or un-galvanised) of Medium grade conforming to
IS: 1239 or IS: 3589 having welded joints and coated and wrapped as per IS: 10221. (MS
pipes may be allowed for extension of existing systems which are laid with CI pipes with prior
approval of the Committee.) Haliday Testing for Wrapping and Coating is essential.
SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 40 -

At least 10 % of all the welded joints shall be rediographically tested and half of the joints
radiographed shall be the field joints.

d) Un-plasticized PVC Class 4 pipes conforming to IS 4985 and HDPE pipes conforming to IS:
4984.

N.B. These pipes are permitted for use in Light Hazard Occupancies for underground mains
only.

7.5.2 Underground CI Mains shall be laid such that the top of the pipe is not less than one metre below
the ground level and masonry or equivalent supports shall be provided at regular intervals. As
far as possible MS Steel pipes shall also be laid 1m below ground level.

NOTES

1) Where applicable, Radiography Test Certificate and films for welded joints of mild steel pipes
and Haliday Test Certificate for coating and wrapping of underground mild steel pipes shall
be submitted before the final inspection. Haliday Testing may preferably be carried by
flexible and detachable ring probe, which will enable the entire 360o of the surface of the
pipe to be scanned.

2) In case of poor soil conditions, it may be necessary to provide continuous masonry or
equivalent supports.

7.5.3 Mains above ground shall be medium grade wrought or mild steel (galvanised or un-galvanised)
conforming to IS: 1239 or IS: 3589 with welded, threaded or flanged joints, adequately supported
at regular intervals on masonry or RCC stools or pedestals and not on pipe racks.

The spacing of supports shall be 3.5 m for 80, 100 and 125 mm dia. pipes, 5m for 150, 200 and
250 mm dia pipes and 7 m for above 250 mm dia pipes.

Pipes shall be run at least 6 m away from the face of the buildings and open storage areas in
case of Light and Ordinary Hazard Occupancies and 15 m. in case of High Hazard Occupancies.

7.5.4 Mains shall not be laid under buildings. Where, however, circumstances necessitate laying of
mains under buildings, prior permission of the Committee shall be obtained and the portion of
mains falling under the buildings shall be laid in masonry trenches with removable covers and
cut-off valves shall be provided at points of entry and exit. As far as possible, mains shall not be
laid under large open storages, railroads and roads carrying heavy traffic.

7.5.5 The mains shall not traverse ground that is not under the control of the owner of the installation
nor under a public roadway. The Tariff Advisory Committee may, at their discretion, relax this
requirement in extenuating circumstances.

7.5.6 The system shall be capable of withstanding for two hours a pressure equivalent to 150 % of the
maximum working pressure. While hydro-testing inclusion of cut-off valves in the mains to be
tested should be avoided.

7.5.7 All boltholes in flanges shall be drilled. The drilling of each flange shall be in accordance with the
relevant Indian Standards.

7.5.8 Flanges shall be faced and have jointing of rubber insertion or asbestos compound.

7.5.9 Fittings installed underground shall be of cast iron `heavy' grade conforming to IS: 1538 or BS:
1641 whereas those installed above ground shall normally be of `Medium' grade wrought steel or
mild steel conforming to IS: 1239 Part II or malleable iron fittings conforming to IS: 1879, parts I
to X.

7.5.10 Mains shall be laid in rings (excepting as specified to N.B 4 below) and their sizes shall be as per
Tables 3 & 3A but the size of the initial pipe shall not, in any case, be less than the internal
diameter of the delivery outlet of the pump.
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FP MANUAL - 41 -

TABLE 3

(FOR LIGHT HAZARD OCCUPANCIES)

NO. OF
HYDRANTS IN THE
WHOLE SYSTEM
SIZE
OF MAINS
(MM)

% AGE OF ALL MAINS
INCLUDING TERMINAL
MAINS AND RISERS *

1 to 20

100

100 %

21 to 55

125
110

45 %
55 %

56 to 100

125
100

60 %
40 %




TABLE - 3 A

(FOR ORDINARY HAZARD OCCUPANCIES)

NO. OF
HYDRANTS IN THE
WHOLE SYSTEM
SIZE
OF MAINS
(MM)

% AGE OF ALL MAINS
INCLUDING TERMINAL
MAINS AND RISERS *

01 to 05

100

100 %

06 to 20

125
100

40 %
60 %

21 to 55

150
125
100

20 %
35 %
45 %

56 to 100

150
125
100

25 %
40 %
35 %

Exceeding 100


See NB 3 (a) and 3 (b) hereunder

* 80 mm diameter terminal and/or riser mains shall be taken as 100 mm diameter mains for this
purpose.

NOTES -

1) In calculating the number of hydrants in the system, a double headed hydrant shall be
counted as two, a fixed monitor of 63 mm size having nozzle bore of 32 mm shall be counted
as three, a fixed monitor of 75 mm size having nozzle bore of 38 mm shall be counted as
four and a fixed monitor of 100 mm size having nozzle bore of 45 mm as six hydrant points.

In case of Oil Refineries, Petrochemical complexes or other risks, where double headed
hydrants are used throughout the system so that the total number of hydrants (counting a
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FP MANUAL - 42 -
double headed hydrant as two hydrants) is about double the number of hydrants required as
per the general requirements of this Manual, a double headed hydrant may be regarded as a
single hydrant only.

2) For High Hazard occupancies, the hydrant system shall be hydraulically so designed that
when half the aggregate pumping capacity is being discharged at the farthest/hydraulically
most remote point and the other half in the most vulnerable area enroute, a minimum
running pressure of 5.25 kg/sq. cm is available at the former point and the rate of flow of
water does not exceed 5 m/second anywhere in the system.

In case the hydraulically most remote point is the area determining the fire pump capacity,
the entire aggregate pumping capacity shall be considered as being discharged at this point
at a minimum running pressure of 5.25 kg/cm
2
and the hydrant system shall be so designed
that the rate of flow of water does not exceed 5 m/second anywhere in the system.

In case the hydraulically most remote point happens to be, pressure requirement at this point
can be restricted to 3.5 kg/cm
2
. However pressure available at the high hazard area
immediately preceding the ordinary/light hazard area must be 5.25 kg/sq. cm.

3) For Light and Ordinary Hazard Occupancies having more than 55 points, either of the
following methods may be followed -

a) The hydrant service be constituted of single or more than one inter-connected hydrant
systems, each with its individual pump set according to Table 2 and water supplies
equivalent to the aggregate requirements of the number of pump sets installed.

b) A single hydrant system may be installed provided, it is hydraulically designed (where
the highest hydrant is located more than 20 m above ground level, pre calculated
systems shall not be accepted) as per the parameters indicated in N.B. 2 above, except
that minimum running pressure shall be 3.5 kg/sq. cm. Instead of 5.25 kg/sq. cm
(minimum diameter of the pipe used in the ring mains shall however not be less than 100
mm).

4) In the case of riser mains in storeyed buildings and in locations where it is not feasible to lay
a ring main, a terminal main may be provided, but in no case shall the number of hydrants on
such terminal mains exceed 5.

A terminal main of 80 mm diameter shall not feed more than one hydrant, that having a
diameter of 100 mm shall not feed more than two hydrants, that having a diameter of 125
mm shall not feed more than three hydrants and a main of 150 mm shall not feed more than
five hydrants.

The Committee may, at their discretion, permit more than five hydrants on riser mains of
storeyed structures.

5) In case of systems designed on the basis of pressure loss calculations, the piping routes
selected along with nodal point commemorating with the pressure loss calculation sheets
should be distinctly marked in the drawing.

7.5.11 Cut-off (Isolating) valves are necessary to obtain the best possible pressure at the seat of fire as
they enable a damaged portion of the installation to be isolated whilst full pressure is available
throughout the remainder. These valves are distributed according to the general layout of the
installation and not according to fixed rules. For this reason, the proposed position of these
valves shall have the prior approval of the Committee.

Cut-off valves shall conform to IS: 780, PN 1.0/IS: 2906, Class 2 or AP9600 in case of Cast Steel
Valves of class 150.

NOTES -
1. In case of system having working pressure in excess of 7 kg/cm
2
PN- 1.6 rating would be
necessary for valves conforming to IS: 780 and Class 3 for those conforming to IS: 2906.
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FP MANUAL - 43 -
Cast Steel valves of class 150 are, however, acceptable irrespective of the working pressure
of the system.

2. Other types of valves like rising spindle valves may be used, subject to prior approval of the
Committee.

3. Butterfly valves also can be accepted subject to the condition that the valves of diameter
exceeding 150 mm shall necessary be of gear operated.

7.5.12 All cut-off valves shall be of the right-hand type and enclosed in properly constructed surface
box, at least 1 m
2
so as to allow for broken joints being easily remade. The top of the surface
box shall be 80 mm above ground level, except where it is locate on a road. Valve wheels shall
have an arrowhead engraved or cast thereon showing direction for turning `open' and `close'.

7.5.13 It is recommended that the position of the surface box be indicated by an iron plate painted `fire
red' with distinct lettering. Such plates shall also show the `open' and `close' direction as cast or
indicated on the valves and the serial no. of the sluice valve also should be indicated.

7.5.14 In case of installations in earthquake prone zones, some form of flexible couplings approved by
the Committee shall be used for jointing purposes.

7.6 HYDRANTS/FIXED MONITORS:

7.6.1 Water shall be available immediately to all hydrants/fixed monitors at all times, with all cut-off
valves being kept open. Before final inspection the hydrant system shall be flushed thoroughly.

7.6.2 Connections for any purpose other than fire fighting are not permitted from the hydrant/fixed
monitor/stand post or from any portion of the hydrant service.

7.6.3 Except where impracticable, all hydrant outlets shall be situated 1 m. above ground level.

7.6.4 The stand posts shall be 80 mm in diameter for single headed hydrants. 100 mm for double-
headed hydrants and monitors of 63 mm or 75 mm size and 150 mm for monitor of 100 mm size.
It is recommended that stand posts be painted `fire red' (shade No.536 as per IS:5) and
numbered for easy identification.

7.6.5 Permission to install hydrants below ground level will be given in very special cases only. Where
such permission has been given, the hydrants shall be properly enclosed in a surface box of cast
iron or masonry 750 mm square and 80 mm above ground level, the top of he hydrant outlet
being not more than 80 mm below the top of the box.

7.6.6 Only oblique hydrants conforming to IS: 5290 of Type A with outlets angled towards ground shall
be used. The hydrant couplings shall be of gun metal/stainless steel of the instantaneous
spring-lock (female) type of 63 mm diameter and valves shall be of the screw down type.

Branch pipe/nozzle of monitor shall be of gun metal/ stainless steel.

N.B - Orifice plates of suitable design may be provided for hydrants where the pressure exceeds
7 kg. /cm
2
.

7.6.7 Double-headed hydrant shall consist of two separate landing valves. A single control valve will
not be permitted.

7.6.8 Hydrants shall be easily accessible, storage of any kind on or around the hydrant being
prohibited. Where hydrants are situated in remote locations, they shall be approachable by
means of paved pathways.

7.6.9 Hydrants located in situations where they are likely to be damaged by vehicular traffic shall be
suitably protected on all sides against possible damage.

7.6.10 Hydrants shall be located bearing in mind the attendant fire hazards at the different sections of
the premises to be protected and so as to give most effective service. They shall be so
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FP MANUAL - 44 -
distributed as to provide protection for the buildings on all sides and need not necessarily be
equidistant from each other.

Advantage shall be taken of convenient door and/or window openings to place hydrants so that
only a minimum length of hose is required to reach the openings through which fire may be
attacked. In case of continuous blank walls, suitable provision shall be made on the walls near
hydrant posts for easy access inside the premises.

7.6.11 At least one hydrant post shall be provided for every 60 m of external wall measurement in case
of Light Hazard Occupancy, for every 45 m in case of Ordinary Hazard Occupancy and every 30
m of external wall measurement or perimeter of unit battery limit in case of High Hazard
Occupancy.

Measurements shall be calculated on the total length of walls of all buildings/perimeter of all
battery limits to be protected except in the case of opposite buildings (other than those of High
Hazard category) within 22.5 m of each other, where the measurement of the shorter opposing
wall may be omitted.

Further, all hydrants and monitors should be serially numbered.

NOTE: Notwithstanding the above, hydrants protecting utilities and miscellaneous buildings in
High hazard risks may be spaced at 45 m.

7.6.12 No building shall be deemed to be protected by a hydrant unless such hydrant is within 15 m of
the building. Where any part of a building is normally used for storage purpose or where
hazardous processes are carried out, there shall be two single or one double headed hydrant
within 15 m of the building, the layout being such that two jets of water can be played
simultaneously on the highest point of the roof.

In case of Buildings/Plants occupied for High Hazard process or storages, the above-specified
distance may be increased to 22.5 m.

In case of buildings having roofs other than RCC, it is advisable to provide hydrants at the roof
level along with access staircases in order to fight the fire by breaking open the roofs, if
necessary.

7.6.13 Hydrant heads shall be positioned at distances not less than 2 m from the face of the building or
edge of the storage plot to be protected except in the case of high hazard occupancies wherein
the hydrant heads shall be located not less than 7.5 m from the face of the building, edge of the
storage plot or from the plant battery limits.

7.6.14 In case where, owing to the size or layout of the building, or building being divided by internal
walls, any point within the building is at a distance of more than 45 m from an external fire
hydrant, an internal hydrant system shall be provided so that no portion of the floor is more than
45 m from an external hydrant or 30 m from an internal hydrant.

In case of large switchyards, where it is not feasible to lay internal hydrants, alternate hydrants
may be replaced by monitors of suitable size.

N.B: Distance of 45 m indicated above shall be increased to 60 m for light hazard occupancies
and reduced to 30 m for high hazard occupancies.

7.6.15 In case of storeyed buildings, satisfactory access shall be provided to all parts of each floor by
means of incombustible internal or external staircases. Normally, a minimum of two such
staircases will be needed per compartment, but in case the area of the compartment exceeds
2,000 sq. m., an additional staircase shall be provided for every additional 1,500 sq. m. or part
thereof. On the other hand, if a compartment has a floor area of less than 500 sq. m., one
access staircase shall be acceptable. The access staircases shall be so located that, as far as
possible, no part of each floor is more than 30 m from the nearest staircase. Where it is not
possible to locate the staircase in the aforesaid manner, the Committee may suggest alternative
methods for protection of such large upper floors. External access staircases shall be open to
sky.
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FP MANUAL - 45 -

The staircases shall conform to the following -

7.6.15.1 Internal staircases shall be so located that atleast one of its enclosing walls is an external wall of
the building. A door opening shall be provided in this external wall at ground floor level. The
enclosing walls shall be of brick work atleast 230 mm thick or reinforced concrete atleast 100 mm
thick carried through and atleast 450 mm above the roof of the building, unless the roof is of jack
arch or reinforced concrete construction in which case the walls need be carried upto the roof
only. Every opening from the staircase to any portion of the building or to a roof used as a floor
shall be fitted with a single fireproof door.

N.B: The above rule will not apply to buildings, the upper floors of which are occupied by offices,
air washer plants, rest rooms, cloak rooms, canteen and the like.

7.6.15.2 External staircases without side covering need not have openings at each floor level protected
by single fireproof doors. However, if external staircases are enclosed, they shall be considered
equivalent to internal staircases.

NOTE: There shall be no equipment within 2 m of the staircases and/or its landings.

7.6.15.3 Staircases shall be not less than 750 mm clear width with treads not less than and risers not
more than 200 mm and under not circumstances shall the staircase have an inclination of more
than 60 degrees to the horizontal.

NOTE: Iron rung ladders or spiral staircases shall not be acceptable.

7.6.15.4 In the case of enclosed staircases, all windows therein falling within 3 m of any other openings in
the building shall normally be protected by wired glass in steel framework in accordance with the
Committee's regulations. Conversely, in the case of open-sided staircases, window and door
openings of the building falling within 3 m of the staircase shall normally be protected by wired
glass in steel framework and single fireproof door respectively in accordance with the
Committee's regulations.

NOTE: The latter part of this rule shall not apply to buildings, which are essentially open sided.

7.6.15.5 Exits to the access staircases shall always be kept open during working hours. During non-
working hours, the exits may be locked from the staircase side only. Locks of all exits shall have
one master key, which shall be available either at the main gate, or any other prominent and
easily accessible location known to the fire fighting personnel. Alternatively, the key shall be
kept in a glass-fronted box or in the hose box on the staircase landing.

7.6.15.6 A hydrant shall be provided on every floor landing which shall not be less than 1.5 m x 1 m. The
mains feeding the landing hydrants shall be provided with a cut-off valve at ground level (also
see N.B.4 under rule 7.5.10 and rule 7.7.3.3)

7.6.16 Specific requirements for provisions of monitors in plant areas -

7.6.16.1 Tall columns, structure, towers and equipment where it may not be possible to provide access
staircases with hydrants on landing thereof as per rule 7.6.15, will be considered as protected by
hydrants at ground level, provided they are less than 15 m in height. When the height exceeds
15 m, the concerned hydrants shall be replaced by monitors.

7.6.16.2 Alternate hydrants for protection of loading unloading bays, rail/truck gantries shall be replaced
by water/foam monitors.

7.6.17 PROTECTION OF BASEMENTS:

7.6.17.1 Staircases/ramps shall provide access to all parts of the basement directly from the outside of
the building at ground level. The number and location of the staircases/ramps shall be such that
no part of the basement is more than 45 metres from the nearest staircase/ramp.

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FP MANUAL - 46 -
7.6.17.2 It is recommended that the staircase/ramp be provided with emergency lighting facilities. Where
maintenance of illumination depends upon changing from one energy source to another, there
shall be no appreciable interruption of illumination during changeover. Where emergency lighting
is provided by means of electric generator, a delay of not more than 10 seconds shall be
permitted for changeover.

Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to maintain proper illumination for a period of one-
and-a-half hours in the event of lighting failures.

The Emergency lighting system shall be so arranged as to provide sufficient illumination
automatically in the event of any interruption of normal lighting.

7.6.17.3 One landing valve shall be provided for each staircase/ramp at each basement level in addition
to the provision of a hydrant at the ground level.

7.6.17.4 Proper drainage facility shall be provided to drain the fire-fighting water out of the basement.

7.6.18 Storage of material in the open shall be protected as under -


Metals, Metallic goods,
Machinery and other non-
hazardous storage

One single hydrant for every 60 m of storage
periphery located beyond 2 m but within 15 m of
storage area.

Coal or Coke

One single hydrant for every 45 m of storage
periphery located beyond 2 m but within 15 m of
storage area.

Other storages

One double hydrant for every 45 m of the storage
periphery located beyond 2 m, but within 22.5 m of
storage area.


NOTES -

1. In the case of open storage areas of following materials, at least 50 % of hydrant shall be
replaced by fixed monitors having nozzle bore of 38 mm diameter if the individual stack
height is more than 6 m and total storage exceeds 5,000 tonnes -

BAMBOO, BAGASSE, GRASS/HAY AND TIMBER

2. Where hydrants/monitors located along one longer side of a storage area are more than 90
m from those along the other longer side, reference shall be made to the committee.

7.6.19 Hydrants for the protection of combustible/flammable liquid storage tanks shall be located
beyond 15 m, but within 35 m of tank shell as specified below -


DIAMETER OF TANK

NO. OF HYDRANTS


Tanks upto 10 m dia.

One double headed or two single headed hydrants.

Tanks above 10 m but upto 20
m dia.

Two double headed or four single headed hydrants.

Tanks above 20 m dia.

Three double headed or six single headed hydrants.




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NOTES -

1. In case tanks are located more than 22.5 m from the dyke walls, one double hydrant or two
single hydrants shall be replaced by a 38 mm monitor. (Every alternate monitor should be a
foam monitor and a minimum of one such foam monitor should be provided)

2. For the tanks located more than 45 m from the dyke walls, in addition to the monitor(s), the
tanks shall be protected by Fixed Foam/Medium Velocity Water Spray System
(Manual/Automatic) complying with the Committee's rules.

3. Hydrants/Monitors shall not be installed within dyked enclosures nor can the hydrant main
pass through it.

4. Floating roof storage tanks and floating-cum-fixed storage tanks exceeding 30m in diameter
and fixed roof storage tanks containing products having flash point below 32
o
C shall be
considered as hydrant protected only if, supplementary medium velocity water spray system
or fixed/semi fixed foam system (either automatic or manually operated) conforming to
regulations is also provided.

In case of foam system, there shall be additional protection by water spray system in the
form of a ring along the top edge of the vertical face of the tank. Other than dispensing with
additional rings, the supplementary water spray protection shall comply with Committees
regulations.

5. Insulated tanks shall also be provided with M.V. Water Spray Protection.

6. No water spray protection is required for ammonia spheres/tanks.

7. Cryogenic storage tanks and double walled tanks shall be treated on par with the insulated
tanks. However, metallic roof of the double walled tanks (RCC or otherwise) will need to be
protected with M.V. Water Spray System (mandatory) at a rate of 3 lpm/m
2
for the roof
portion only.

8. Adequate provision shall be made to promptly and effectively dispose off all liquids from the
fire areas during operation of fire protection systems in such areas.

7.6.20 For protection of spheres/bullets, hydrants/monitors shall be located beyond 15 m but within 35
m of the shell of the spheres/bullets. The number of hydrants/monitors shall be governed by the
water capacity of the bullets/spheres as specified hereunder -


WATER CAPACITY

NO. OF HYDRANTS


Upto 50 m
3


Three single hydrants (or one single + Two double
headed hydrants)

Above 50 m
3
but upto 150
m
3


One monitor + two single (or one double headed
hydrants)

Above 150 m
3


Two monitors + four single hydrants (or two double
headed hydrants)

NOTES

1. Supplementary protection of bullets/spheres by medium velocity water spray system (either
automatic or manually operated) conforming to regulations is mandatory.

2. Hydrant/monitor shall not be installed within dyked/-fenced enclosures nor can hydrant
mains pass through such enclosures.


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7.7 HOSE PIPES AND NOZZLES -

7.7.1 In the case of yard hydrants, hose pipes and nozzles shall be installed either in central hose
stations which shall be of the type illustrated in figure no. 12 (which enables the condition and
quantity of hose, nozzles, etc. to be checked over at a glance and ensures that other useful
equipment is ready at hand in the event of a fire) or near each hydrant in glass fronted hose
boxes of suitable design.

N.B. Locations and number of hose stations will depend upon several factors such as fire loads,
accessibility and positions of watch posts. Prior approval of the Committee shall, therefore, be
obtained regarding locations of the hose stations before they are constructed.

7.7.2 In case of hydrants on upper floors or internal hydrants, hosepipes and nozzles shall necessarily
be installed near each hydrant in glass fronted hose boxes of suitable design.

7.7.3 REQUIREMENTS OF HOSE PIPES:

7.7.3.1 If hose is kept in central hose stations, for each of the first ten hydrants in the compound of the
premises (a double headed hydrant counting as two except where they are provided as a
standard practice throughout the system), two lengths of hose 15 m each and an additional 15 m
length for each hydrant in excess of ten, shall be provided.

NOTE: In case of system having more than 55 hydrant outlets, the total number of hose lengths
required may be limited to 55 plus 20 percent of the number of hydrant outlets in excess of 55.
Where a fire engine is maintained on the premises manned by a whole time fire brigade, the
number of hose, pipes required (including those on the engine) would be 55 plus 10 percent of
the number of outlets in excess of 55.

7.7.3.2 If hose is kept in hose boxes alongside hydrants, each box shall contain two lengths of 15 m
each.

7.7.3.3 For use with each hydrant on staircase landing or with each internal hydrant, two lengths of hose
7.5 m shall be provided. In case of basement hydrants, two lengths of hose 15 m shall be
provided.

7.7.3.4 All hoses shall be of 63 mm diameter of either of the following types -

i) Unlined flax canvas complying with Indian Standard IS: 4927.

ii) Rubber lined woven-jacketed complying with Type A (Reinforced Rubber lined) of Indian
Standards IS: 636.

iii) Controlled Percolation type complying with Indian Standards IS: 8423.

7.7.3.5 Ordinary rubber lined woven-jacketed hose complying with the specification of Type B of Indian
Standards IS: 636 may be permitted to be used in lieu of the above upto a maximum of 50 % of
the total hose requirements of the hydrant system.

7.7.3.6 All couplings shall be of the instantaneous spring-lock type and the nozzles shall be of not less
than 16 mm in diameter, nor more than 25 mm in diameter except in case of high hazard
occupancies where the maximum nozzle diameter may be 32 mm subject to the approval of the
Committee. All couplings, branch pipes and nozzles shall be of gunmetal or stainless steel and
shall otherwise comply with IS: 903, 1984.

7.7.3.7 Hose shall be attached to the coupling (other than of ferrule type) in the following manner -

Each half of the coupling shall have two 5 mm diameter holes drilled in the tail. The hose shall be
first fixed to the tail of the coupling with copper rivets then served or bound with 1.5 mm
galvanised mild steel or copper wire for a length of 50 mm which will extend to the outer ends of
the grooving on the coupling tail over the galvanised mild steel or copper wire a leather or
equally protective band shall be bound with four strands of 1.12 mm galvanised mild steel or
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FP MANUAL - 49 -
copper wire at each end of the band. The protective band shall be carried beyond the tail of the
coupling to prevent leaking.

Copper wire, if used, shall be softened before being used.

Couplings attached to the hose otherwise than by copper rivets shall not be accepted, as they
are apt to become dislodged under pressure.


7.7.3.8 Spare hose to the extent of 10 percent of the above requirements, with a minimum quantity of 30
m shall be always kept readily available. Such spare hose shall also be in 15-m lengths, readily
attached to couplings.

NOTE: In calculating the number of lengths of hose required under the above scale, any fraction
of a number shall be counted as one.

7.7.3.9 It is recommended that a system of marking and numbering hose be arranged so that the
various lengths are easily recognisable.

7.7.3.10 In central hose stations and hose boxes a tin containing a set of spare rubber rings packed in
french chalk shall be kept.

7.7.3.11 Central hose stations and hose boxes shall be so arranged that hose is not exposed to the
sunrays.

7.7.3.12 All central hose stations or hose boxes, when provided with locks shall have one master key
which shall be available either at the main gate or any other prominent and easily accessible
location known to the fire fighting personnel.

7.7.4 REQUIREMENTS OF NOZZLES:

7.7.4.1 The number of nozzles to be provided shall be equivalent to half the number of hose pipes
installed on the premises.

7.7.4.2 In locations where a jet of water directed from a normal type nozzle is likely to cause more harm
than good or where a gentle spray of water is essential for the extinguishment of a fire, a fog
type or a spray type of nozzle complying with IS: 2871 shall be used.

7.7.4.3 Spare nozzles to the extent of 10 % of the above requirements, with a minimum of two, shall
always be kept readily available.

7.8 FOAM COMPOUND:
Foam systems shall conform to NFPA 11 and 11A, 16A and/or relevant BIS specifications-IS:
12835 or LPC rules for Foam Systems. The stock of foam compound to be maintained shall be
equivalent to at least two times the requirement of the tank needing maximum quantity of foam.
Foam Compound shall be chemically neutral (PH 6.5 to 7.5)

7.9 FIRE FIGHTING PERSONNEL:

7.9.1 As the efficiency of a hydrant service and/or of internal appliances depends upon the manner
and speed with which they are brought into use and the ability with which the effort is directed, a
squad consisting of watch and ward personnel, fire pump men and departmental supervisors
and/or operatives trained in the operation of the fire service shall be maintained on the premises
round the clock. The number of personnel constituting the squad shall necessarily depend upon
the size of the risk, but in no case shall be less than eight trained persons be available at any
time during the day or night. Minimum number of trained persons required may be further
reduced to six in case of automatic pressurised hydrant systems.

7.9.2 Squad leaders shall preferably be recognised government institution trained and their usefulness
would be considerably enhanced if they reside on the premises.

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7.9.3 Squad personnel shall be provided with clothing and equipment including helmets, belts and
boots, preferably gumboots.

7.9.4 A muster roll showing the duties allocated to each member of the brigade shall be prepared and
copies supplied to each squad leader as well as pasted in convenient places throughout the
premises, so as to be quickly available for reference in case of emergency.

7.9.5 Practice drills shall take place weekly and it is a condition of the approval by the Committee to
the discount for hydrant service that wet drills shall be carried out at intervals of not more than a
fort-night and that the entire squad on duty shall turn out during the visits of the committees
Inspectors.
7.9.6 During wet drills, hydrants (including those of upper floors), hose pipes and nozzles, shall be
taken into use in rotation so that the efficacy of these appliances would be automatically checked
and any defects observed, set right.

7.9.7 A register shall be kept as per Appendix V showing details of all practices and defects, if any,
reported in the installation. This register shall be open to examination by the Committees
Inspectorate.

7.9.8 The services of the pump man (see 7.10.1.1.1) could be profitably utilised for the maintenance of
all fire fighting appliances (including hand appliances - See 4.1.5.1.1). He shall also be
thoroughly conversant with the locations of all appliances, particularly of hydrant cut-off valves so
that in an eventuality he would be of assistance to the factorys fire brigade or the
Towns fire brigade.

7.9.9 Keys of all doors in the factory premises shall always be available at the main gate.

7.9.10 It is recommended that fire pump room(s) and the main gate(s) of all factory premises be
connected to all manufacturing sections through the internal telephone system. Telephones
interlinked to this system may also be put up in proper cubicles at convenient locations
near godown ranges and other strategic points. This would effect saving of valuable time in an
emergency to alert the fire fighting personnel and the pump man.

7.10 MAINTENANCE:

7.10.1 PUMPS:

7.10.1.1 GENERAL:

7.10.1.1.1 A trained pump man (see 7.9.8) shall be available on all shifts and at all hours of the day and
night to operate the pumps as and when required.

7.10.1.1.2 Pump sets shall be run for atleast five minutes every day.

7.10.1.1.3 The level of water in the priming tank shall be checked daily to ensure that the foot valve of the
pump is not leaking.

7.10.1.1.4 All pump glands shall be maintained in efficient working condition and the packing renewed as
required to maintain efficiency.

7.10.1.1.5 Suction and delivery valves shall be examined once every six months, particularly where sand
or other objectionable matter is liable to be drawn through the pump suction.

7.10.1.1.6 All working parts shall be kept clean and lightly oiled as cleanliness greatly adds to efficiency.
Any necessary repairs shall be put in hand and carried out immediately.

7.10.1.2 STEAM PUMPS:

7.10.1.2.1 The steam cylinders of pumps shall always be kept warm and efficient draining arrangements
provided.

7.10.1.2.2 A minimum of two sets of piston and bucket rings shall be provided.
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7.10.1.2.3 Small parts such as snifting valves, cushioning valves and petcocks shall have special attention
because faults in these valves cause the pump to knock badly and lose efficiency.

7.10.1.3 ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN PUMPS:

7.10.1.3.1 The bearing grease cup shall be checked once every week and refilled with fresh grease, if
necessary.

7.10.1.3.2 Starter contacts shall be cleaned once every week.

7.10.1.3.3 Insulation resistance of pump motor circuit shall be examined once every six months and record
of results shall be maintained.

7.10.2 MAINS:

7.10.2.1 Hydrant mains shall be tested once a fortnight with a pump delivering at its maximum pressure,
with all hydrant valves closed and, thereafter, a running test with two or more hose lines each
30 m long operating shall be carried out. This checks the efficiency of the pump as well as the
tightness of the hydrant mains (See Rule 7.9 also).

7.10.2.2 All cut-off valves shall be operated and oiled, if necessary, once a month.

7.10.2.3 Cut-off valves shall be thoroughly overhauled annually to remove sludge and other foreign
matter collected in the valve seating.

7.10.3 HYDRANTS:

7.10.3.1 All hydrants shall be examined systematically once a week to ensure that valves and spring
catches are maintained in good condition and all brass parts polished.

7.10.3.2 Spare washers shall be kept for hydrant valve seats.

7.10.3.3 It is recommended that the painting of standpoints be carried out annually.

7.10.4 HOSE PIPES AND NOZZLES:

7.10.4.1 All hose boxes/hose stations shall be inspected externally once every week to ensure that the
equipment installed therein is intact. Further, the hose boxes/hose stations shall be cleaned
internally and externally once a month.

7.10.4.2 When the hose gets worn out at the tail end of the coupling(s), it is permissible to cut the end(s)
of the hose. However should the lengths of the hose after cutting(s) fall below 90 percent of its
original, i.e. 15 m or 7.5 m the hose shall be discarded.

7.10.4.3 A Hose Register shall be kept showing the history of each length. Information such as date
purchased, date brought into use, date cut (if reduced in length), is useful and a column shall
be provided for remarks by the Committees Inspectors to whose inspection the Hose Register
shall be open.

7.10.4.4 Any hose becoming inefficient through use, neglect or from any other cause, shall be discarded.

7.10.4.5 Fire protection hose shall not be used for purposes other than fire protection and drill. All
concerns are advised to keep a supply of cheap hose for watering paths, washing out or filling
boilers, etc. Such hose shall not be mixed with fire protection hose but kept in an entirely
separate place.

7.10.4.6 It is recommended that hose couplings and branch pipes be polished once a fortnight.

7.11 Considerable diversity of practice has been noticed in the attention paid to the drying and storing
of hose and the following suggestions in this connection shall be carried out:

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After use, hose to be thoroughly washed in clean water and then thoroughly dried. A rack or
some similar contrivance atleast 10 m high to be provided so that, after cleaning, hose may be
suspended to drain and dry evenly.

This is to be done in the shade and not in the sunshine so that the hose is evenly dried inside
and out. Care to be exercised that it is not removed until it is thoroughly dry in all places. The
hose to be then thoroughly brushed with a hard bristle or wire brush, and re-rolled, care being
taken to choose a dry and clean place whereon to roll it; and replace in the boxes or hose
stations.

Care to be taken after washing that the hose does not touch the ground, where it might be
soiled.

Hose to be rolled up evenly and carefully, the female or spring coupling end being in the centre.
In this manner the spring clips, when grasped one in each hand, form a `reel and the hose can
be quickly run out in the event of fire. OR ALTERNATIVELY

The hose to be doubled in the centre of its length and rolled up evenly from the fold. Both the
Male and Female couplings will then be on the outside of the roll. This permits the nozzle being
attached to the hose while being stored in readiness for use, and the hose runs out without
twisting.

7.11 MEASURES TO BE TAKEN WHERE THE INSTALLATION IS FOR ANY REASON
TEMPORARILY INOPERATIVE:

7.11.1 Where the installation is expected to remain inoperative for a period exceeding 24 hours, prior
sanction shall be obtained from the Committee.

7.11.2 If any component of the hydrant system is to be replaced for any reason whatsoever, the entire
system shall not be rendered inoperative but the particular section only shall be isolated by
closing the necessary cut-off valves. If, however, it is not possible to complete the replacement
before nightfall, the cut-off valves shall not be left closed overnight. Instead, blank flanges shall
be provided at the point where the component has been removed so that the entire system,
other than the component, which has been removed, would remain operative through
the night.

7.11.3 Only one compartment of the reservoir shall be emptied out at a time of cleaning or repair work.

7.11.4 If the foot valve of the suction line is removed for cleaning/repairs, it shall, as far as practicable,
be replaced before nightfall.

7.11.5 If the pump is expected to be inoperative for more than 72 hours, every effort shall be made to
connect the service water supply to the hydrant system for the duration the pump is inoperative.

7.11.6 If the hydrant service is to be extended, the extended portion shall be first laid and, thereafter,
the connection between the existing system and the extension shall be carried out expeditiously,
so that the entire system is not left inoperative overnight.

7.12 SPECIAL DISPENSATIONS FOR ELECTRICAL GENERATING STATIONS, THERMAL/GAS
BASED POWER PANTS.

7.12.1 WATER SUPPLY:

i) The fore bay supplying water to the thermal power station fed by canals from perennial
water sources like rivers, rivulets, dams etc. may be accepted as firewater reservoir provided
the availability of 2 hours pumping capacity is ensured.

ii) The cooling water pond (s) may also be accepted as firewater reservoir provided the
availability of 2 hours pumping capacity is ensured.

NOTE: Cooling water basins shall not be acceptable as equivalent to cooling water ponds.

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7.12.2 PUMPS:

The pump duties shall be generally selected as per Table 2 under Rule No.7.4.1.4.1 of FP
Manual. However, where situation warrants, higher capacity pumps not exceeding 410 m
3
/hr
and 88 m head may be acceptable. In order to achieve the minimum pressure of 3.5 Kg./cm
2
at
higher elevation, booster pump(s) with a capacity of 137 m
3
/Hr., having requisite rated head may
be acceptable.

NOTES

1. The booster pump shall be regarded as a pressure-compensating device only.

2. A higher capacity booster pump may be stipulated by the Committee where considered
necessary.

3. Booster pump shall be located at ground level only. Electrically driven booster pump(s)
shall in addition to the normal supply be connected to the emergency power supply also.

7.12.3 ABOVE GROUND HYDRANT MAINS:

In case of practical difficulties in maintaining the stipulated distance from the face of the building
in case of above ground over head mains, warranted under demanding circumstances in specific
areas, for example between Boiler House and TG Building and between Transformer and T.G.
Building, the same may be permitted provided the mains installed in such areas form part of sub-
ring only.

7.12.4 STAIRCASES FOR STOREVED TG HALL/BOILER HOUSE/MILL BAY:

The staircase shall be distributed as far as possible along four sides of the building. The number
of staircases shall be such that no part of such floor is more than 45 m from the nearest
staircase.

At least 50 % of the number of staircases thus arrived at shall conform to Rules 7.6.15.1,
7.6.15.2 and 7.6.15.3. The remaining staircases shall be preferably located along the periphery
of the building, but need not necessarily be separated as per regulations.

7.12.5 RULE 7.7.3.3 REQUIREMENT OF HOSE PIPES IN T.G.HALL/BOILLER HOUSE/MILL BAY:

For use with each hydrant on staircase landing two lengths of hoses 15 m each and a nozzle
with attached branch pipe shall be provided in hose box alongside each landing valve.



+ + + + + + + + +


















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8. HYDRANT PROTECTION OF COTTON GIN & PRESS FACTORIES

8.1 RESERVOIR:

The construction and location of the reservoir shall be as indicated in rule 7.3. The effective
capacity (above the level of the foot valve seat) shall be equivalent to 2 hours installed pumping
capacity.

8.2 PUMPS:

8.2.1 Pumps shall be direct-coupled. However, existing belt-driven pumps may be accepted at the
discretion of the Committee.

8.2.2 The Pumps shall be capable of delivering not less than 19 LPS at a head of 70 m. Where,
however, the number of hydrants in the system exceeds 55; the pump capacity shall be not less
than 38 litres/second.

8.2.3 The pump shall be so located as to be both easily accessible and where any falling masonry and
the like from other buildings, occasioned by fire or other cause, cannot damage the pump room.
The pump room shall be located 6 m away from all surrounding buildings, overhead structures
and storages in the open.

8.2.4 Rules 7.4.1.6, 7.4.18, 7.4.1.9 and 7.4.1.12 shall be complied with.

8.2.5 Electric supply to the fire pump shall comply with rule 7.4.3.

NOTE: In case of steam-driven pump, adequate steam supply to drive the pump at its duty shall
be constantly maintained during the whole of the working season.

8.3 MAINS:

8.3.1 Mains shall be of Cast Iron, galvanised iron or mild steel and be laid underground.

8.3.2 The mains shall be laid in loops around the Gin & Press houses.

8.3.3 All loops and feeder mains shall be of 100 mm bore but branch mains may be of 80 mm bore.

- The Committee may insist on larger sized mains where deemed necessary.

8.4 HYDRANTS:

8.4.1 Rules 7.6.3, 7.6.4, 7.6.6, 7.6.7, and 7.6.8 shall be complied with.

8.4.2 Location of the hydrants shall be as under -

8.4.2.1 There shall be a minimum of three hydrants within 3 m of Gin house and of Press house.

8.4.2.2 There shall be minimum of two hydrants within 15 m of Godown or sheds used for storing cotton
or Kappas.

8.4.2.3 For open storage, hydrants shall be distributed in such a way that any portion of the storage is
protected by atleast two hydrants at a distance not exceeding 35 m.

N.B. If the compounds are only partially used for storage of cotton and/or kappas, the owner
shall declare the area he proposes for storage for determining the fire protection thereof.

In this case, the portion reserved for storage shall be demarcated by a wired fencing and a plan
thereof shall be lodged with the Committee.

8.5 HOSE PIPES AND NOZZLES:

SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 55 -
One 63 mm diameter hosepipe of 15 m length and one nozzle of 20 mm diameter with its
attached branch pipe shall be provided in a suitable hose box alongside each hydrant.

8.6 FIRE-FIGHTING STAFF:

A minimum of six trained personnel shall be available at all times. Apart from the above, three
night watchmen shall also be available on the premises.

+ + + + + + + + + +





















































SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 56 -

9. MUTUAL AID SCHEME

SCOPE: (Meant for plants other than petrochemical plants, petroleum Refineries and LPG Bottling
Plants).

9.1 MEMBERSHIP

Membership should be of two or more industrial plants, warehouses and public utilities.

9.2 GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE:

The coverage shall be as follows -

a) Not exceeding 16 kM. for Light Hazard risks
b) Not exceeding 12 kM for Ordinary hazard risks
c) Not exceeding 10 kM for High hazard (A) risks

If the concerned risks are of different categories, least of the distances must be considered.

N.B. Add 4 km to actual distances for each of the Railway Crossing encountered.

9.3 SECRETARIAT AND COMMUNICATION.

9.3.1 There shall be a full time permanent Secretary having a back ground in fire fighting relevant to
the types of industries included in the scheme with a permanent office and necessary staff.

9.3.2 The member industries should mutually evolve an effective liaison and communication system.

9.3.3 Direct Telephone/Radio Communication/wired alarm/siren system be provided subject to prior
approval of the Committee. Call procedures be laid down and frequent trials with such
systems would be necessary.

9.4 INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS FIRE FIGHTING REQUIREMENTS

9.4.1 A hydrant system supplemented by First Aid Appliances installed in conformity with the FP
Manual.

9.4.2 Stock of foam compound as per the provisions of Rule 7.8 of F P Manual if the occupancy of
the risk warrants use of foam and will comply with the requirements of NFPA-11, 1998.

9.4.3 Not less than 8 trained persons must be available in any shift out of which 4 shall be full-time
fire fighting personnel.

9.4.4 Fire Explosion accidents must be fully investigated by the member units and their findings
which might be fruitful and effective in preventing a recurrence should be made available to
other members, which would benefit all plants without interfering with anyone plants
autonomy.

9.5 ADDITIONAL CAPACITY FOR MUTUAL USE:

In the event of outbreak of fire, the members of mutual laid scheme should be able to
supplement in the shortest possible time, the resources of the affected plant, to the extent
given below -

9.5.1 Mobile fire fighting capacity by a motor fire engine of 400 gpm capacity at 7 kg/cm
2
.

9.5.2 In case the occupancy of any one of the signatories to the scheme warrants the application of
foam compound shall be provided to the extent of 25 % of the requirements of such plant.

N.B. In case, the occupancy of more than one risk warrants, the use of foam, the stock to be
maintained shall be 25 % of the requirement of the risk needing larger stock of foam.
SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 57 -

9.6 OTHER REQUIREMENTS:

9.6.1 Fire explosion safety of the plant and extensions should preferably be checked every six
months, but at least annually using an audit system and utilising check lists where appropriate.

9.6.2 Practice drills should be arranged once in three months (each time in different units) to
familiarise those concerned with the actions expected of them, and at the same time testing
the equipment available in each unit.

9.6.3 Deployment of personnel to an affected plant from other members of the scheme should not
be subject to any constraints arising out of staff problems.

9.7 INTERCHANGEABILITY OF EQUIPMENT

9.7.1 To the extent possible, individual plants should follow such standard in the purchase of
equipment to have free Interchangeability. Where this is not practical, suitable adapter pieces
must be kept in readiness for hooking of un-interchangeable equipment.

9.7.2 Each risk should maintain a sensible policy and not strip itself of equipment, which it might
need in the case of trouble in its own property which may be simultaneous with a disaster
elsewhere.


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SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 58 -
APPENDIX I

The Secretary,
Tariff Adv. Committee
New Delhi

Dear Sir,

APPLICATION FOR FIRE EXTINGUISHING
APPLIANCES (S) DISCOUNT

(Risk)

Please sanction, as from date of receipt by you of this application, a Discount of.% for the following
Extinguishing Appliances :-

Applying to Buildings -

(The occupation floor wise and block Nos. of each building must be clearly stated).

I/We enclose plan of the risk with all details marked thereon.

I/We certify that to the best of my/our knowledge and belief the appliances referred to have been installed in
strict accordance with the rules of the Committee and I/We also certify that the Plan submitted is drawn up in
accordance with the Committee's Rules and is correct and up-to-date.

I/We also certify that a copy of the Plan exact in every detail, is available for the Committee's Inspector's use
at the Mill (or premises above referred to).

I/We enclose full particulars of the appliances available together with letter of Guarantee signed by the
Assured.

I am (We are),
Yours faithfully
_____________________________________________________________

For use of the Committee only.

Date received:
Date inspected:
Inspector's comments:
Discount sanctioned:
Date of Minutes
Reference Number: Inspector


















SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 59 -
APPENDIX II

The Secretary,
Regional office

Dear Sir,

GUARANTEE REGARDING FIRE EXTINGUISHING APPLIANCES

In consideration of your Committee granting a Discount for the Fire Extinguishing Appliances detailed on
attached/signed form which we have installed in the.............................. situated at . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .

I/We hereby engage ourselves --

1. To maintain and upkeep the said appliances in efficient working order and where such appliances and
Committees Rules require the upkeep of a trained Fire Brigade, to maintain such Brigade to its full
numbers in an efficient state.

2. To advise the Committee and first obtain permission should at any time it be necessary to close down
supply to pumps or in any way render the appliances out of operation for repairs, overhaul, etc.

3. Not to extend, alter or demolish protected Buildings or to erect new Buildings in the compound of the
premises without supplying the Committee with a revised plan or revising the plan filed with the
Committee.

4. To keep at the above-described premises a copy, exact in every detail, of the plan supplied to your
Committee, same to be available to the Committee's Inspector during his visits of inspection.

5. Not to re-number (or re-letter) Buildings, Compartments, etc., as recorded on the plan filed with the
Committee without advising the Committee of such revision.

I am (We are),

Yours faithfully,

Note: All communications to the Committee must be through the Leading Office on the risk.

The Space for the use of the Committee only,
Date from which sanctioned
Reference Number
Remarks
Minutes of




















SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 60 -
APPENDIX III

DETAILS OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS APPLIANCES

AVAILABLE AT _____________________________ (Name of Risk)


DETAILS OF BUCKETS, EXTINGUISEHRS AND HAND APPLIANCES


Extinguishers/Hand Pumps



Deptt
.


Area
(sq.m)


Number
of
Buckets


Number


Type


Cap.

Manufacturer's
Name














SMALL BORE HOSE REELS -

1. Name of manufacturer
2. Material Diameter and Length
3. Diameter of Nozzle
4. Source of Supply - State whether a non stop supply is available


Dept.

Size
(Length x Breadth)

Number
of Reels

Maximum distance of any point
of the room from nearest hose
reel.










WATER SUPPLY (IES) -

A. Underground Reservoir -


1. Capacity in litres.


2. Whether lined or not



3. Division if any and interconnections between them


4. Capacities (in litres) of connected tanks (elevated or
otherwise)


a)

SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 61 -

b)

c) .

d) Net effective capacity available for fire pumps

5. Sources of inflow to the underground reservoir whether
lakes, rivers, wells, town's mains etc.


6. Aggregate inflow in litres per minute (with nipple position of
inflow, overflow and normal water level.


7. In case of inflow from town's mains, indicate size of inflow
pipe and size of meter, and also state whether the supply is
continuous of intermittent.










B. Elevated Sprinkler Tank(s).


1. Number of tanks.


2. Capacities in litres and height in metre of base from ground
level


3. Height in metre of highest Sprinklered building.





C. Pressure Tank(s)


1. Location of tank.


2. Capacity in litres


3. Quantity of water contained in litres.


4. Air Pressure.




PUMP (S).


A. Hydrant Pump(s) (Full Nameplate details)

1. Type(s)


2. Make(s) and year(s) of manufacture.


3. General Specifications:


a) Capacity (Lit. /Min.)


b) Pressure gauge, reading at delivery stops value
(Kg/cm
2
).

SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 62 -

c) Sizes of suction and delivery pipes


4. Details of steam pump(s) if applicable -


a) Diameter of steam and water cylinders and length of
stroke.


b) No. of strokes per minute.


c) Diameter of steam pipe and pressure available at pump
end


d) No. of steam boilers in the battery and working
pressure


e) Size of water relief valve on pump delivery and
pressure at which it is set.


5. Details of electrically driven pump(s) if applicable -


a) Diameter of pump impeller.


b) Material of which the impeller is made.


c) Speed in RPM


d) H.P. and Voltage of driving motor, type of enclosure
and class of winding insulation, Motor full load current.


e) Details of electric supply -


i) Plan showing locations of pump house and
transformer sub-station and table for control logic of
pumps.


ii) Circuit diagram of electric supply to the fire
pump(s) with incoming cable, automatic circuit
breaker, starting switchgear, position of voltage
release coil etc.


6. Details of Petrol, Motor spirit or Compression-ignition
Engine Driven Pump(s) if applicable -


a) Diameter of pump impeller


b) Material of which the impeller is made


c) Speed and Horse Power of the engine driving pump(s)


d) Method of starting the engine.


e) Quantity in litres of fuel contained in the tank and that
stored in the premises.


f) Location and details of batteries, battery charger and
diesel engine control panel.


B. SPRINKLER PUMP (S)


1. Type(s)


SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 63 -
2. Make(s) and year(s) of manufacture

3. General Specifications:


a) Capacity (Lit./min.)


b) Pressure gauge reading at delivery stop valve
(Kg.cm
2
).


c) Sizes of suction and delivery pipes.


4. Details of steam pump(s), if applicable -


a) Diameter of steam and water cylinders and length of
stroke.


b) No. of strokes per minute.


c) Diameter of steam pipe and pressure available at pump
end.


d) No. of steam boilers in the battery and working
pressure.


e) Size of water relief valve on pump delivery and
pressure at which it is set


5. Details of electrically driven pump(s), if applicable -


a) Diameter of pump impeller


b) Material of which the impeller is made.


c) Speed in R.P.M.


d) H.P. and Voltage of driving motor, type of enclosure
and class of winding insulation.


e) Details of electric supply -


i) Plan showing locations of direct feeder, pump
house and transformer sub-station.


ii) Circuit diagram of electric supply to the fire
pump(s) with incoming cable, ACB and automatic
starting mode.


6. Details of Petrol, Motor Spirit or Compression Ignition
Engine Driven Pump(s), if applicable -


a) Diameter of pump impeller.


b) Material of which the impeller is made


c) Speed and House Power of the engine driving pump(s).


d) Method of starting the engine.


e) Quantity in litres of fuel contained in the tank and that
stored in the premises.


7. Make and type of automatic regulator.

SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 64 -

8. What is the pressure at the level of the highest sprinkler
when the 50mm. waste valve is fully open?


HYDRANT MAINS


1. Type of underground and/or overhead mains with method of
jointing.


2. Internal diameter of ring main.


3. Internal diameter of terminal mains.


4. To what pressure have the pipes been tested


HYDRANTS


1. Type and Make.


2. No. of single-headed hydrants


3. No. of double-headed hydrants.


4. No. of upper floor hydrants.


5. Type and diameter of stand pipes -


a) Single headed.


b) Double headed.


6. Are all the coupling inter-changeable?


HOSE


1. Material and Diameter.


2. Manufacturer's Name and Guarantee for bursting pressure.


3. No. of lengths of 15 m and 7.5 m respectively.


4. At what pressure the hose has been tested by the insured.


5. Where is hose kept?


6. No. of branch pipes and nozzles and their diameters.


SPRINKLER INSTALLATION


1. No. of installation valves and departments served by each
valve.


2. Total load on each installation valve.


3. Type, make and fusing temperature of the sprinkler heads
used.


FIRE FIGHTING PERSONNEL


1. Is the pump man always on duty?


2. Minimum number of trained personnel available at any time for

SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 65 -
fire fighting purposes.

3. Are any means employed to ensure night watchman going
around the risk at regular intervals?


4. Is there a muster-book for fire drills?


5. How is fire alarm given to fire fighting personnel?


TESTING OF APPLIANCES


1. How often are the following tested and/or examined -


a) Sprinkler tank and backpressure Valves.


b) Sprinkler and/or hydrant pumps and their accessories.


c) Sprinkler installation valves.


d) Hydrant installation and valves.


1. Is a record of all tests and defects found maintained?


LOCAL FIRE BRIGADE


1. How far is the nearest city fire brigade?


2. How can a communication be sent to city fire brigade?


3. Are the city fire brigade officers familiar with the risk?



Dated .....20. Signature..........

(Form to be signed by the Owner of the Premises).

SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 66 -

APPENDIX - IV

CERTIFICATE FROM INSURER'S ENGINEER

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________



I hereby confirm that I have verified the portable Fire Extinguishing Appliances installed at the above risk and
found them to be in accordance with the enclosed list. I also confirm that the distribution is generally in
accordance with the Committee's requirements, and that the appliances are well maintained and are being
periodically hydro tested as per IS: 2190.



Yours faithfully,

































SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 67 -
APPENDIX - V

FIRE DRILLS REGISTER

Sr. No. ______________ Date : ___________

Type of
Drill Dry
or Wet
Serial
Nos. of
Hydrants
Operated
Duration
of
Operation
of
Pumps
Remarks/
Defects
observed
if any
Signature
of Fire
Marshall
Signature of Works Manager


Name and designation of persons attending the drills

1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.


9.


10.


11.





NOTE Squad personnel shall be provided with clothing and equipment including helmets confirming to IS:
2745 or IS: 2925, belts and boots preferably gun boots.























SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 68 -
APPENDIX - VI

TABLE SHOWING PRESSURES OF WATER IN
Kg/cm
2
FOR EVERY METRE IN
HEIGHT UPTO 60 m


Height in
metres


Pressure in
Kg./cm
2


Height in
meters


Pressure in
Kg./cm
2


1

0.1

15

1.5

2

0.2

20

2.0

3

0.3

25

2.5

4

0.4

30

3.0

5

0.5

35

3.5

6

0.6

40

4.0

7

0.7

45

4.5

8

0.8

50

5.0

9

0.9

55

5.5

10

1.0

60

6.0


NOTE: - In applying this table the height of the Highest Sprinkler above the Pressure Gauge must be
ascertained and the pressure to be allowed for such height will be obtained by reference to the table. For
example, if the gauge records a pressure of 4.25 Kg./cm
2
, and the highest sprinkler is 28 m above the gauge,
there will be a pressure of, say, 1.45 Kg./cm
2
on the highest sprinkler.


























SMPS CONSULTANTS PVT LTD
FP MANUAL - 69 -
Internal Guidelines :

For the sake of uniform interpretation of rules and practices the following will b included in the Internal
Guidelines which will be prepared separately.

1) Rules 7.4.1.11 & 7.4.1.12 :

Pumps are not permitted normally to have partly positive (flooded) suction and partly negative suction. But
under special circumstances such arrangement may be permitted with prior approval of the Committee, in
case of combined process and fire water reservoirs and exclusive fire water reservoirs where at least 80% of
water level would enable positive suction and remaining 20% negative suction. In all such cases priming tank
also shall be provided.

2) Rule 7.2 - Classification of Occupancies :

Piers, Wharfs and Jetties - to be classified normally under ordinary hazard category unless Category III of list
of hazardous materials are handled.

3) Rule 7.4.1.4.1 Table 2 : Ordinary Hazard :

In case of new systems where the number of hydrants is expected to be between 100 and 150; and where
further extension of the system beyond 150 hydrants is not anticipated, a single pump of 410 m3/hr capacity
at 7/8.8 Kgs./cm2 may be permitted.


Likewise in case of old installations where the system is extended beyond 100
hydrants but not exceeding 150 hydrants; and where further extension beyond 150 hydrants is not anticipated,
an additional pump of 171 M3/hr. at 7 Kgs./Cm2 may be permitted.

4) Rule 7.4.1.4.2 :

Where spray system/sprinkler system is provided for the protection of equipment/plant the water demand of
such a system should be worked out and compared to the water demand of tanks of 10 M, 20 M and beyond
20 M dia. and he supplementary hose stream protection indicated for the equivalent tank diameter shall be
provided.

5) Taking underground pipes in Hume Pipes at road crossings

It is recommended to provide semi-circular hume pipes for cast iron pipes at road crossings. No such
protection is required for underground MS pipes at road crossings.

6) Item 5 : Hydrant Protection for Cryogenic
Storage Tanks and Double Walled Storage Tanks:

The M.V. Water Spray Protection (mandatory) for he roof of the cryogenic storage tanks and double walled
storage tanks at a rate of 3 LPM/M2 will entitle the risk only to hydrant discount. If additional discount for
spray system is also required, then density shall be 10 LPM/M2.


7) Mild steel stand post may be accepted even in cases where underground mains are of Cast iron.

8) In cases where requirements of low water level cannot be complied with orifice plate can be installed at
entrance of the suction pipe.

9) Note 2 below rule 7.3 applies to lined reservoirs also.

10) NB2 below rule 7.6.18

Where hydrant/monitors located along one longer side of a storage area are more than 90 m from
those along the other longer side, monitors having jets of longer reach may be accepted.