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ABBREVIATIONS LIST 2/003 22-HSD 101 02/4 Uen A

Glossary of Terms
WCDMA RAN
Copyrig!
Ericsson AB 2005 - All Rights Reserved
Di"#$%i&er
No part of this document may be reproduced in any form ithout the ritten
permission of the copyright oner!
"he contents of this document are sub#ect to revision ithout notice due to continued
progress in methodology$ design and manufacturing! Ericsson shall have no liability
for any error or damage of any %ind resulting from the use of this document!
Contents
1 In!ro'(#!ion
&!& "arget 'roups
2 A#rony&" %n' Ter&"
3 Re)eren#e Li"!
1 Introduction
"his glossary defines the terms$ acronyms$ and abbreviations used in (ustomer
)roduct *nformation +()*, documentation for the -ideband (ode .ivision /ultiple
Access +-(./A, Radio Access Netor% +RAN,! "he list is in alphabetical order!
1.1 Target Groups
"his document is ritten for anyone or%ing ith -(./A RAN systems!
)ersonnel or%ing on Ericsson products or systems must have the training and
competence re0uired to perform their or% correctly!
2 Acronyms and Terms
1*1
Re'(n'%n#y

(oncept of redundancy here each resource that can be
redundant is doubled
2+ 2nd 'eneration
3+ 1rd 'eneration
3+,, "hird 'eneration )artnership )ro#ect
3,, "hird )arty )roduct
1- .A/ &2 3uadrature Amplitude /odulation
A Ampere
AAL A"/ Adaptation 4ayer
AAL0 A"/ Adaptation 4ayer type 0
AAL1 A"/ Adaptation 4ayer type &
AAL2 A"/ Adaptation 4ayer type 2
AAL2L3 A"/ Adaptation 4ayer type 2 4ayer 1
AAL2L3SI+ A"/ Adaptation 4ayer type 2 4ayer 1 5ignaling )rotocol
AAL2U AA42 6ser 7ormat
AAL0 A"/ Adaptation 4ayer type 5
AAL0C, A"/ Adaptation 4ayer type 5 (ommon )art
ABR Available Bit Rate
AC Access (ondition
Alternating (urrent
Authentication (enter
A##e"" Lin1
Con!ro$
App$i#%!ion ,%r!

+A4(A), 'eneric name for the transport signaling protocol used
to set up and tear don transport bearers
ACCH Associated (ontrol (hannel
ACCU Alternating (urrent (onnection 6nit
AC/DC Alternating (urrent8.irect (urrent
ACIR Ad#acent (hannel *nterference Ratio
AC2 Ac%noledgement
A#3(i"i!ion
In'i#%!ion
C%nne$

+A*(9, -(./A donlin% physical channel
"he A*(9 ac%noledges that the RB5 has received a 6E random
access attempt!
AC, Ad#acent (hannel )rotection
ACSN A"/ (ell 5itching Netor%
ACT A"/ (ell "ransport
A#!ion /ethod or service that is e:posed by an /;
A#!i4e Se!

5et of radio lin%s simultaneously involved in a specific
communication service beteen a 6E and a -(./A RAN access
point
A#!i4i!y 5%#!or

7actor indicating the percentage of time a channel is available
7or e:ample$ a channel ith an activity factor of 0!& is available
&0< of the time!
A#!or

/odel for ob#ects outside the domain of the system$ hich
interacts directly ith the system
Actors represent system users$ so they help to delimit the system
and give a clearer picture of its functions!
A/D Analog to .igital
A'%p!i4e
Ter&in%$

"erminal e0uipment ith the capability of adapting to more than
one type of netor%
AD/DA Analog to .igital8.igital to Analog convertor
A'6%#en! Ce$$

(ell ith a radio coverage area that overlaps ith the radio
coverage area of the source cell
AD/ Au:iliary .istribution /odule
A'&ini"!r%!i4e
Ho"!

5ingle computer that hosts all or part of the RAN;5 softare
A'&ini"!r%!i4e
No'e
'roup of RAN;5 hosts located at the same site$ that have
common system administration and federated applications
A node is the smallest autonomous unit in the -(./A system!
A'&i""ion
Con!ro$
5et of rules that determines hether a 6E is granted access on
ma%ing a connection re0uest
Admission control is also used hen adding a RAB or R4!
AD, Adaptor for data connections
AESA A"/ End 5ystem Address
AET A"/ E:change "erminal
A5I Authority and 7ormat *dentifier
A5, Automatic 7re0uency )lanning
A+C Automatic 'ain (ontrol
A+CH Access 'rant (hannel
Aggreg%!ion (oncentration of streams
A-+,S Assisted ')5
AH Authentication 9eader
AI Ac0uisition *ndicator
AICH 5ee Ac0uisition *ndication (hannel !
AID Application *dentifier
AIR, Antenna *nterface Reference )oint
AIU Antenna *nterface 6nit
AIUR Air *nterface 6ser Rate
A$%r&

Notification triggered by an event$ signaling an abnormal
condition
ALCA, 5ee Access 4in% (ontrol Application )art!
ALE7 Active 4ibrary E:plorer
A$gori!& 8888

R7 prediction algorithm for macro cells based on the ;%umara-
9ata model
ALTB AA42 4in% "ermination Board
A/ Activity /anager
A/A7 Access /onitored A"/ and (ircuit 5itch
A/B A"/ /ultipurpose Board
A/R Adaptive /ulti Rate
ANS A"/ Netor% 5ignaling
ANSI American National 5tandards *nstitute
ANT/A/, Antenna8Amplifier
An!enn% Br%n#

/odels the R7 path through the e0uipment selected from the
antenna system
An!enn% Br%n#
Type

"here are three types of antenna branch$ as follos=
o R>
o ">
o .uple: +both R> and ">,
AOS Area of ;bservation for 5tatistics
A, Application
A,I Application )rogramming *nterface
A,N Access )oint Name
App$e!

)iece of softare stored in the server in a thin client8server
connection
-hen a communication session beteen the thin client and the
server is being established$ the applet loads on to the thin client$
and e:ecutes!
AR5CN Absolute Radio 7re0uency (hannel Number
ARI A"/ Resource *nterface
ARIN American Registry for *nternet Numbers
AR, Address Resolution )rotocol
AR. Automatic Repeat Re0uest
AR9 Add Radio Base 5tation -i?ard +in RAN;5,
ASC Access 5ervice (lass
Antenna 5ystem (ontroller
ASCI A"/ 5itch (ore *nterface
ASC/ A"/ 5itch (ore /odule
ASD Administrative 5tatistical .atabase
ASE Air interface 5peech E0uivalent
A-S+9 Access 5ignaling 'ateay
ASIC Application 5pecific *ntegrated (ircuit
ASU Active 5et 6pdate
AT/ Asynchronous "ransfer /ode
ATND Access "ransport Netor% .esign
ATT Attach
AU Au:iliary 6nit
A(C Authentication (enter
AUH Au:iliary 6nit 9ub
AUI Administrative 6ser *nterface
A4er%ge
Tr%n"&i!!er
,o:er per TCH

/ean of the total poer transmitted over an entire transmission
period
A9E Arrival -indo Endpoints
A9+N Added -hite 'aussian Noise
A9S Arrival -indo 5tart )oints
B%"e S!%!ion
Sy"!e&

+B55, B5(s plus their respective B"5s
BB Baseband
BBI5 Baseband *nterface
BBI5 Baseband *nterface
BCC Base station (olor (ode
BCCH Broadcast (ontrol (hannel
BCH 5ee Broadcast (hannel!
BE Best Effort
BE/ Base 5tation Element /anagement
BE/I Base 5tation Element /anagement *nterface
BeO Beryllium ;:ide
BER Bit Error Rate
B5N 5ee Node B 7rame Number!
B5U Battery 7use 6nit
BH Busy 9our
BHCA Busy 9our (all Attempts
Bin

5mallest unit +also called pi:el, for hich planning can be done
"he basic unit of analysis area$ or plot area$ in the display!
B-ISDN Broadband *5.N
B-ISU, Broadband *5.N 6ser )art
BLER Bloc% Error Rate
BO 5ee Business;b#ects!
BOOT, Bootstrap protocol
Bo%r' ,ro#e""or

Role that a processor can have in the system
"he Board )rocessor controls the hardare on the board +if the
board has application hardare,$ and can e:ecute the part of the
node@s intelligence that does not re0uire node coordination!
B, 5ee Board )rocessor!
B,/ Board )rocessor /odule
B,S2 Binary )hase 5hift Aeying
Bri'ge .ata lin% layer relay device
Bro%'#%"!
C%nne$

+B(9, .onlin% point-to-multipoint transport channel$ hich
conveys system information at a fi:ed rate in the hole coverage
area of the cell
"his information is constantly transmitted!
BS Base 5tation
BSA, Base 5tation Application )rotocol
BSC Base 5tation (ontroller
BSD Basic 5tatistical .atabase
BSIC Base 5tation *dentity (ode
Base 5tation *dentification (ode
BS,, Base 5tation )oint-to-)oint )rotocol
BSS 5ee Base 5tation 5ystem!
BTS Base "ransceiver 5tation
B(r"!

)hysical portion of digital information that is transferred ithin
the time interval of one time slot
B(";%r /ain poer distribution conductors$ fi:ed ithin the cabinet
B("ine""O;6e#!" +B;, Report generator in N-5-A +third-party product,
B9T Bloc% -aiting "ime
C- (ontrol-
CA (ell Area
(apacity Allocation
(ertification Authority
C/A (arrier to Ad#acent (hannel *nterference ratio
CAA (apacity Allocation Ac%noledgement
CAC (all Admission (ontrol
C%&pe' Ce$$

(ell in hich the 6E receives system information and cell
broadcast messages hen in *dle mode
C%rrier

-hen performing fre0uency planning$ a carrier is interpreted as a
pair of fre0uencies$ here one fre0uency is used for
communication from the RB5 to the 6E +donlin%,$ and the other
fre0uency uses the opposite direction +uplin%,!
*n '5/ netor%s$ a carrier is identified by means of its AR7(N!
C%rrier L%yer (arriers available for a cellular netor% are divided into carrier
layers
A carrier layer can be used for a special channel type such as the
B((9! 5everal carrier layers$ each ith different fre0uency reuse$
create a /ultiple Re-use )attern!
CB (ell Broadcast
CBCH (ell Broadcast (hannel
CBR (onstant Bit Rate
CBU (ontrol Basic 6nit
CC (all (ontrol
"imer ((
(ommon (hannel
CCCH 5ee (ommon (ontrol (hannel!
##DCH (oded (omposite .edicated (hannel
CCH 5ee (ontrol (hannel!
CCI (onnection (ontrol *nterface
CC,CH (ommon (ontrol )hysical (hannel
CCS (ommon (hannel 5upport
CCTrCH 5ee (oded (omposite "ransport (hannel!
CCU (limate (ontrol 6nit
CD (apacity .eallocation
CDA (apacity .eallocation Ac%noledgement
CD/A 5ee (ode .ivision /ultiple Access !
CD/A2000

Radio transmission technology for the evolution of narroband
cdma;ne8*5-B5 to 1rd generation ideband (./A adding up
multiple carriers in e:isting spectrum +C00 /9? and &B00 /9?,
(./A2000 is a 1' standard specified by "*A "R D5!5!
#'&%One

"rade name for the second generation technology of narroband
(./A
CDV (ell .elay Eariation
CDVT (ell .elay Eariation "olerance
CE 5ee (hannel Element!
Ce$$ Radio netor% ob#ect that can be uni0uely identified by a 6E from
a cell identification$ hich is broadcast from a -(./A RAN
access point in a geographical area
Each cell has its on RB and antenna system hich gives radio
coverage over the re0uired area! "he antennas can cover all
directions +omnicell, or be directed in a certain a?imuth +sector
cell,!
Ce$$ C%rrier

(arrier that is broadcast in a coverage area
*n the same coverage area$ there can be one or multiple cell
carriers!
CE, 5ee (onnection Endpoint!
C5 (onnection 7ield
C5N (onnection 7rame Number
C+I (ell 'lobal *dentity
C%nne$

Eirtual connection$ consisting of physical and logical channels
beteen -(./A RAN and the 6E
C%nne$
E$e&en!

+(E, 6nit for measuring radio netor% transmission capacity as a
basis for licensing on a right-to-use basis
C%nne$
N(&;er

Number corresponding to the assigned 6AR7(N 64 and 6AR7(N
.4 pair
C%nne$
S:i!#ing

Algorithm that sitches the 6E beteen substates and RBs in the
connected mode$ depending on the traffic volume
CI (ell *dentity
C/I (arrier to *nterference ratio
CI5 (ommon *ntegrated 7rameor%
CI/ (ommon *nformation /odel
Cipering
Se3(en#e
N(&;er
Co(n!er

+(5N(, "otal number of counters in a node for ciphering purposes
Cir#(i! S:i!#e'
D%!%

+(5., (omplementary 5tatistical .atabase
CLA (lass
CL2 (loc%
CLR (ell 4oss Ratio
CLS (ore 4o-level 5upport
CLU (limatie 6nit
C/ (onfiguration /anagement
(onnection /anagement
C/H (onfiguration /anagement 9andling
C/I, (ommon /anagement *nformation )rotocol
C/ISE (ommon /anagement *nformation 5ervice
C/S (onfiguration /anagement 5upport
CN 5ee (ore Netor%!
CNA (ellular Netor% Administration
CNAI (NA *nterface
CODEC Encoder8.ecoder
CODECS Eoice Encoder
Co'e'
Co&po"i!e
Tr%n"por!
C%nne$

.ata stream resulting from the encoding and multiple:ing of one
or several transport channels
"he data stream of the (("r(9 is fed to a data splitter unit$
hich splits the (("r(9 data stream onto one or several physical
channel data streams!
Co'e Di4i"ion
/($!ip$e A##e""

+(./A, .igital cellular technology that uses spread-spectrum
techni0ues
Every channel uses the full available spectrum! *ndividual
conversations are encoded ith a pseudo-random digital
se0uence!
CO/IN5 (ommon operation and maintenance infrastructure
Co&&on
Con!ro$ C%nne$
Bidirectional 4ogical (hannel used for transmitting control
information beteen -(./A RAN and the 6E$ hen no .(9
e:ists
Co&&on O;6e#!
Re3(e"! Bro1er
Ar#i!e#!(re

+(;RBA, 5oftare architecture that enables ob#ects on the
netor% to communicate regardless of their location$ operating
system$ hardare$ and language
Con)ig(r%!ion
Ver"ion

A (onfiguration Eersion +(E, is a snapshot of a NE configuration
at a given time! "he (E consists of a database bac%up and some
configuration files to enable rollbac% capabilities! "he database
bac%up includes the complete node hardare and softare
configuration! "he softare itself is not included$ #ust a reference
to the 6pgrade )ac%age!
Con)ig(ring

*nput of the correct parameter values +softare settings, for the
B5 to function as planned once the hardare is in place$ that is$
after provisioning
Conge"!ion
Con!ro$
5et of rules that brings the average 'o5 in a cell bac% to the
re0uired value$ hen it has been belo a predetermined value for
a predetermined time
Conne#!e'
/o'e

5tate of a 6E hen the RR( connection is established
Conne#!ion (ommunication channel beteen to or more connection
endpoints
A connection allos users to transfer 5.6s bidirectionally!
Conne#!ion
En'poin!

+(E), )oint here a connection is terminated! *t identifies a
specific connection in a 5A)
Conne#!ion
5r%&e Co(n!er

6sed in Node B$ the RN($ and the 6E for .(9 and common
transport channel$ frame transport references
Conne#!ion
,oin!
)oint inside a connection here to ad#acent lin%s come together!
)erforms address translation and forards information
transparently beteen the to interconnected lin%s!
Con!en!ion
Re"o$(!ion

7unctionality that solves the collision of identities on the initial
random access messages from to or more 6Es
Con!in(o("
Co(n!er
(ounter that is normally active
Active means that the counter is both accumulating data and
reporting data!
Con!in(o("
Co4er%ge

'eographical ?one in hich the -(./A RAN service is uniformly
provided and the service probability is above a certain threshold
Con!ro$ C%nne$ 4ogical channel carrying system control information
Con!ro$$ing
R%'io Ne!:or1
Con!ro$$er

+(RN(, Role ta%en by an RN( ith respect to a specific set of
RB5s
"here is one controlling RN( for every RB5! "he controlling RN(
has the overall control of the logical resources of its RB5s!
Coor'in%!e'
DCH"

.(9s that transport information for different RAB subflos
belonging to one RAB
(oordinated .(9s are alays established and released in
combination!
CORBA 5ee (ommon ;b#ect Re0uest Bro%er Architecture!
CORBA O;6e#!

;b#ect hose visible part consists of an interface$ hich is
described in *.,
"he (;RBA interface can specify any operation! (;RBA ob#ects
are addressed through a (;RBA name server!
Core Ne!:or1

+(N, Architectural term referring to the part of 1')) system that
is independent of the connection technology of the terminal +for
e:ample radio or ired,
Co4er%ge Are%

'eographical area over hich a -(./A RAN service is provided
ith service probability above a certain threshold
C, 5ee (onnection )oint!
C,CH (ommon )ac%et (hannel
C,I (ustomer )roduct *nformation
C,ICH (ommon )ilot (hannel
C,/ (ompressed /ode
C,, 5ee Ericsson (onnectivity )ac%et )latform!
C,T (all )ath "racing
C,U (entral )rocessing 6nit
C.I (hannel 3uality *ndicator
CRC (yclic Redundancy (hec%
CRNC 5ee (ontrolling Radio Netor% (ontroller!
C-RNTI (ell Radio Netor% "emporary *dentity
(ontrolling Radio Netor% "emporary *dentity
CS (ircuit 5itched
(onfiguration 5ervice
(onfiguration 5upport
CSD 5ee (ircuit 5itched .ata!
CS/ (onfiguration 5upport /anager
CSN (iphering 5e0uence Number
CS-n (oding 5cheme n$ including (5-& to (5-D for ')R5
CSNC 5ee (iphering 5e0uence Number (ounter!
CTCH (ommon "raffic (hannel
CTD (ell "ransfer .elay
CTD/A (ode "ime .ivision /ultiple Access
CT, (onnection "ermination )oint
CTR (ell "raffic Recording
CU (apacitor 6nit
(ontrol 6nit
"imer (6 +(ombined 6se,
CU7 (apacitor 6nit and >alm
CV (E(onfiguration Eersion
C9 (ontinuous -ave
D/A .igital to Analog
DA/,H .aily A/ )ea% 9our
D%!%
,er"i"!en#y

.ata that can survive different events such as upgrade$ restart$
sessions$ re0uest$ or none
DB .atabase
.evice Board
'B .ecibel
'Bi .ecibel referred to an isotropic radiator
'B&

/easure of poer e:pressed in terms of its ratio +in .ecibels, to
& milliatt
'B&/H<

/easure of poer spectral density
"he measure dBm89? provides a ratio of the poer in & 9? of
bandidth$ here poer is e:pressed in units of dBm
DB/ .evice Board /odule
DB, .evice Board )ac%age
DC .edicated (ontrol +5A),
.irect (urrent
DCA .ynamic (hannel Allocation
DCC .igital (olor (ode +used in "./A netor%s,
DCCH 5ee .edicated (ontrol (hannel !
DCCU .( (onnection 6nit
DC/DC .irect (urrent to .irect (urrent
DC5 .( 7ilter
DCH 5ee .edicated (hannel!
DCN .ata (ommunications Netor%
DCS .edicated (hannel 5upport
.ynamic (hannel 5itching
DD5 .igital .istribution 7rame
DDT/A .ual .uple: "oer /ounted Amplifier
De'i#%!e'
C%nne$
+.(9, )oint-to-point bidirectional transport channel used to
convey data and higher-layer control information beteen
-(./A RAN and connected 6Es
De'i#%!e'
Con!ro$ C%nne$
+.((9, Bidirectional logical channel used hen setting up calls
and e:changing control information$ that is$ RR( messages$
beteen -(./A RAN and the 6E
De'i#%!e' +."(9, 4ogical channel used for traffic information beteen
Tr%))i# C%nne$ -(./A RAN and the 6E
DET .etach
Dep$oy&en!
S#en%rio

.escription of assumed user density and traffic used in
simulations
*n the radio transmission technology selection process$ the
deployment scenario serves as a representation of the ultimate
-(./A RAN deployment!
D5 .istribution 7rame
DHC, 5ee .ynamic 9ost (onfiguration )rotocol!
DHC,-S 5ee .9() 5erver!
DHC, Ser4er

+.9()-5, 4ogical node responsible for dynamic *) host
"he .9() 5erver holds information about addresses and assigns
addresses to hosts!
DHO .iversity 9andover
DH, .ual 9igh )oer
DHT .iversity 9andover "run%
DI .ifferential *ncremental
DI+/BB .igital Broadband
Digi!%$ Cro""-
Conne#!

(ross-connect system used in 5.9 netor%s
Di&en"ioning

)rocess of devising a first estimate for the number$ and
configuration of$ B5s to cover a certain area and traffic demand
.imensioning is normally a first step in netor% planning!
Dire#!ory
Ser4er

4ogical node that is responsible for -(./A RAN, configuration
information
"he .irectory 5erver holds the 5ystem /*/ and security
information!
Di4er"i!y HO
Uni!

.evice that performs combination and splitting of all 9; legs on
the 6u interface
Di4er"i!y Leg 5ee 9; 4eg!
DL .onlin%
DL=,H .aily )ea% 9our
DN .istinguished Name
DNS 5ee .omain Name 5erver!
D,/,H .aily )/ )ea% 9our
Do&%in 5cope of the area in hich read or rite operations are
performed
A .omain can be the )4/N$ the RN($ the RB5$ a -(./A RAN
cell$ the 4A*$ the RA*$ or the 5A*!
Do&%in N%&e 4ogical node that %eeps trac% of the *) host
Do&%in N%&e
Ser4er

+.N5, 4ogical node that %eeps trac% of host names ithin a
naming domain or subdomain
A .N5 offers the mapping of names to addresses and the
mapping of addresses to names!
Do:n$in1

6nidirectional radio lin% for the transmission of signals from a
-(./A RAN A) to the 6E
D,CCH .edicated )hysical (ontrol (hannel
D,CH .edicated )hysical (hannel
D,DCH .edicated )hysical .ata (hannel
Dri)! R%'io
Ne!:or1
Con!ro$$er

+.RN(, RN( in drift RN5
Dri)! R%'io
Ne!:or1
Sy"!e&

+.RN5, RN5 that supports the serving RN5 ith radio resources$
hen the connection beteen the -(./A RAN and the 6E needs
to use a cell$ or cells$ controlled by this RN5
.RN5 is a role that an RN5 can ta%e ith respect to a specific
connection! A .RN5 is connected to a serving RN5 through the
*ur interface!
DRNC 5ee .rift Radio Netor% (ontroller !
DRNS 5ee .rift Radio Netor% 5ystem !
DR7 .iscontinuous Reception
DS-CD/A .irect-5e0uence (ode .ivision /ultiple Access
DSCH .onlin% 5hared (hannel
DSC, .ifferentiated 5ervices (ode )oint
DS, .igital 5ignal )rocessor
DTA, .irect "ransfer Application )art
DTCH 5ee .edicated "raffic (hannel !
DT/A .uple: "oer /ounted Amplifier
DT7 .iscontinuous "ransmission
DVD .igital Eersatile .is%
D7C .igital (ross (onnect
D77 .igital (ross (onnect
Dyn%&i# Ho"!
Con)ig(r%!ion
,ro!o#o$

+.9(), )rotocol for plug-and-play configuration of *) hosts
*) hosts 0uery a .9() server using the .9()!
E1 2 /bps "ransmission 4in%
EACU E:ternal Alarm (onnection 6nit
E%r$y ,%#1e!
Di"#%r'

-hen discarding A"/ cells belonging to an AA45 flo$ all cells
belonging to an AA45-).6 are discarded! "his means that
netor% bandidth is not asted transporting AA45 pac%ages
that cannot be successfully assembled into an upper-layer ).6
hen reaching their final destination!
EC Echo (anceller
EC ;(" Enclosure (ontrol Bus
E#/No Ratio of energy per modulating bit to the noise spectral density
ECI E:change "erminal (ontrol *nterface
ED+E Enhanced .ata rates for '5/ Evolution
EE/ Embedded Element /anager
E5/ Ericsson 7ault /anager
E+,RS Enhanced ')R5 +using E.'E,
EI/ E:ternal *nterface /odule
EIR E0uipment *dentity (enter
EIR, Effective *sotropic Radiated )oer
E$e&en!
/%n%ger

"he functionality that can be used for Element /anagement
E$e&en!
/%n%ge&en!

"he handling and managing of one NE and its e0uipment!
/anagement operations that can be performed through the
/anagement interface e:posed by the NE$ +/un on RAN;5$ /ur
on RN($ and /ub on RB5,
E/ 5ee Element /anager!
E/AS Element /anagement Application and 5upport
E/C Electromagnetic (ompatibility
E/5 Electromagnetic 7ield
E/I Electromagnetic *nterference
E/S 5ee E:ternal /anagement 5ystem !
E-OTD Enhanced ;bserved "ime .elay
E,/ E:ecution )latform$ /iddleare
E.H E0uipment 9andling
E3(i4%$en!
Te$epony
Er$%ng

(omparative measure of traffic that does not refer to a particular
service type$ such as voice or data
ERC European Resuscitation (ouncil
Eri#""on
Conne#!i4i!y
,%#1e! ,$%!)or&

+()), Ericsson hardare and softare platform for
telecommunication netor% nodes
Er$%ng

6nit of measurement for the average offered traffic
An Erlang is the product of the average holding time per user
+hour8user,! ;ne Erlang is the e0uivalent of 20 minutes of tal%
time in one hour!
ER, Effective Radiated )oer
ES E:tension 5ubrac%
ESD Electrostatic .ischarge
ESI End 5ystem *dentifier
ES, Encapsulated 5ecurity )ayload
ET E:change "erminal
ET-/C1 E:change "erminal for E&8F&8"& that supports */A
ETB E:change "erminal Board
ETB-/1 E:change "erminal for E&8"&8F&
ETB-/4 E:change "erminal for 5"/-&
E!erne! H(;

(entral distribution system for an Ethernet cabling system
"he hub adapts the Ethernet topology to a star-coupled cable
netor%!
ETSI European "elecommunications 5tandards *nstitute
E4%$(%!ion
Cri!eri%

5et of capabilities of a radio transmission technology that may be
supported or e:hibited by a candidate technology!
Evaluation (riteria form the comparative basis of the radio
transmission technology selection process!
E4en!

;ccurrence of significance to netor% operators$ the NEs under
surveillance$ and netor% management specifications
Events do not have states! Event information is stored in an
Event log!
E7T-INTB E:ternal *nterface Board
E>p$i#i!
Di4er"i!y +%in

Effective gain using diversity techni0ues
E>!en"i;$e
/%r1(p
L%ng(%ge

+>/4, /ar%up language that describes data formats as ell as
the information model
>/4 represents structured data in te:tual form$ and is similar in
concept to 9"/4!
E>!ern%$
/%n%ge&en!
Sy"!e&

+E/5, /anagement system e:ternal to the -(./A RAN
subnetor%
"he E/5 can be an N/5$ but it can also be a management
system ith applications that are not delivered ith -(./A RAN!
5AACH 7ast Associated Access (hannel
5ACH 5ee 7orard Access (hannel!
5%#!ory Ser4%n!

*nterface served by the factory$ hich is published in the name
service
5%"! ,o:er
Con!ro$

)oer control based on slot measurements from the opposite
node$ beteen the RB5 and 6E
*f the received 5*R is belo the predetermined 5*R target$ an
INCREASE command is sent to the opposite node! A DECREASE
command is sent if the received 5*R is above the predetermined
target! 7ast-fading effects on poer are trac%ed and
compensated for! Also called Ginner loop poer control!G
5AUSCH 7ast 6plin% 5ignaling (hannel
5CA,S

Areas involved in (onfiguration /anagement$ Account
/anagement$ and 5ecurity /anagement!
5CCH 7re0uency (orrection (hannel
5CS 7rame (hec% 5e0uence
5CU 7an (ontrol 6nit
5DD 7re0uency .ivision .uple:
5D/A 7re0uency .ivision /ultiple Access
5DN 5ee 7ull .istinguished Name!
5EC 7orard Error (orrection
5ee'er Co(p$er

.evice for impedance matching beteen a radio-fre0uency
transmitter and an antenna having un%non impedance
"he feeder coupler can be used to model various e0uipment$ such
as multicouplers$ combiners$ connectors$ or 1 dB couplers!
5ee'er

(oa:ial cable connecting a radio-fre0uency transmitter to an
antenna
5ee'er ?(&per
%n' Sp$i!!er
Lo""e"
@Re#ei4erA

(ombined losses of all transmission systems@ components
beteen the transmission output and the antenna input +all
losses are in positive dB values,
5ee'er ?(&per
%n' Sp$i!!er
Lo""e"
@Tr%n"&i!!erA

(ell in hich the 6E receives system information and cell
broadcast messages hen in *dle mode
5ER 7rame Error Rate
5ET 7i:ed Electrical "ilt
5H 7rame 9andling
5i$e Tr%n")er
,ro!o#o$

+7"), )rotocol used to transfer files on the *nternet
5ire:%$$

5oftare that protects a computer system against unauthori?ed
access
A fireall acts as a virtual barrier beteen interfaces or ports!
5/ 7ault /anagement
5/A 7ault /anagement Application
5/H 7ault /anagement 9andling
5N 7rame Number
5or:%r' A##e""
C%nne$
+7(9, A point-to-multipoint .4 transport channel that is one of
the ays used for transmitting idle-mode control data to one or
more 6Es
5or:%r' HO

"ype of handover initiated by the 6E
"he 6E sends a re0uest for the establishment of a ne radio lin%
in the ne cell! *t does not use the current radio lin% for
performing 9;$ but the radio lin% of the ne cell!
5, 7rame )rotocol
5re3(en#y B%n'

Band defined beteen the upper and loer channel center
fre0uencies$ defining the available fre0uencies for use in the
netor%
5re3(en#y
+ro(p

(arriers can be divided into several fre0uency groups
*nstead of performing fre0uency planning for the individual
carriers$ the planning is restricted to fre0uency groups! "his is
especially useful for systems ith many carriers due to narro
carrier bandidths$ such as "./A and ).(!
5re3(en#y
/e&ory

7re0uency control value updated hile the cloc% is in 4oc%ed
mode
"he fre0uency memory is used to avoid fre0uency #umps in the
system cloc% rate in cases here the cloc% reference is changed
and hen all cloc% references are lost!
5TA, 7ile "ransfer Access )rotocol
5T, 5ee 7ile "ransfer )rotocol!
5T, Ser4er

4ogical node that supports the transfer of files to and from the
file system in a netor% element according to the 7") standard
5U 7an 6nit
7ilter 6nit
5($$
Di"!ing(i"e'
N%&e

+7.N, Name of a managed ob#ect that is uni0ue to the -(./A
RAN
59 7irmare
592 7rameor%
+%!e:%y *nterconnection of to netor%s
+%(ge

Ealue that can both increase and decrease$ and that has a
ma:imum value
A gauge can also represent the relative increase of a counter
during a given time interval!
+C 'eneral (ontrol
+CR 'uaranteed (onstant Rate
+ener%$
,(rpo"e
,ro#e""or Bo%r'

+')B, )rocessor board e0uipped ith a processor poerful
enough to act as an /)
"he ')B can also be used as a device!
+eneri# Or'er
O;6e#!

+';;, (onfiguration rules to transform specified product
pac%ages into one or more standard modules
+ERAN '5/8E.'E RAN
+5C 'eneric 7lo (ontrol
++SN 'ateay ')R5 5upport Node
+IS 'eographic *nformation 5ystem
+/SC 'ateay /obile 5itching (enter
+/S2 'aussian /inimum 5hift Aeying
+OO 5ee 'eneric ;rder ;b#ect!
+oS 5ee 'rade of 5ervice!
+, 'eneral )rocessor
'uard )eriod
+,B 5ee 'eneral )urpose )rocessor Board!
+,EH 'eneral )erformance Event 9andling
+,RS 'eneral )ac%et Radio 5ervice
+,S 'lobal )ositioning 5ystem
+r%'e o)
Ser4i#e
+'o5, Alloable percentage of calls that are alloed to be
bloc%ed
(ircuit-sitched traffic uses this performance specification!
+r%pi#%$ U"er
In!er)%#e
+'6*, 'eneric term$ but for -(./A$ it describes all softare
e:ecuting on a thin client but loaded from a RAN;5 server
A '6* consists of & - n 9"/4 pages and 0 - n applets!
+S/ 'lobal 5ystem for /obile (ommunications
+SN ')R5 5upport Node
+T, ')R5 "unneling )rotocol
+T,-U ')R5 "unneling )rotocol for 6ser )lane
+UI 5ee 'raphical 6ser *nterface!
H%n'o4er

+9;, Act of transferring communication ith a 6E from one B5 to
another
An 9; comprises a family of procedures that adds or removes
radio lin%s beteen 6Es and the -(./A RAN$ hen an RR(
connection e:ists and the position of the 6E is %non at cell level
in the -(./A RAN! "he 9; function or%s on the entire radio
connection!
H%r' B$o#1ing

-(./A RAN bloc%s a call hen there are no hardare resources
available
H%r' HO

9; that entails a brief disconnection from the previous serving
cell before establishing connection ith the target cell
A 9ard 9; is used hen transferring from a -(./A system to
an analog system$ or from one fre0uency to a different fre0uency
in the same cell or in a different cell!
HAR. 9ybrid Automatic Repetition Re0uest
HCS 9ierarchical (ell 5tructure
HDLC 9igh 4evel .ata 4in% (ontrol
H5N 9yper 7rame Number
H5S 9opping 7re0uency 5et
HHO 5ee 9ard 9;!
HLR 9ome 4ocation Register
HN 9ome Netor%
HO 5ee 9andover!
HO Br%n#

6u connection beteen one 6E in (onnected mode and one
-(./A RAN access point
HO C%n'i'%!e
Se!
(ells that are not currently in the active set$ but have been
received by the 6E ith sufficient strength as to be added to the
active set
HO Leg

9; branches that belong to a cell$ that are combined ithin that
-(./A RAN access point
Each of the resulting RB5-RN( connections +*ub interface, is
named as an 9; or diversity leg!
HO /oni!oring
Se!

All cells$ either from the -(./A RAN or from other systems such
as '5/$ that -(./A RAN re0uests the 6E to monitor hen in
(onnected mode! "hese cells are not strong enough to be added
to the active set!
H, 9igh )oer
H,S 9andover )ath 5itching
HRR 9andover Resource Reservation
HSCSD 9igh 5peed (ircuit 5itched .ata
HSD,A 9igh 5peed .onlin% )ac%et Access
HS-D,CCH 9igh 5peed .edicated )hysical (ontrol (hannel
HS-DSCH 9igh 5peed .onlin% 5hared (hannel
HS-,DSCH 9igh 5peed )hysical .onlin% 5hared (hannel
HS-SCCH 9igh 5peed 5hared (ontrol (hannel
HSN 9opping 5e0uence Number
HT/L 9yperte:t /ar%up 4anguage
HTT, 9yperte:t "ransfer )rotocol
H(; (entral distribution system for a cabling system
H9 9ardare
IBV *ntegration and Eerification
IANA *nternet Assigned Number Authority
IC *ntegrated (ircuit
ICD/ *nter-(ell .ependency /atri:
IC5 *nterface (onnection 7ield
IC/, *nternet (ontrol /essage )rotocol
IC, *nternal (ontrol )ath
ID *dentifier
*dentity
IDL *nterface .efinition 4anguage
I'$e /o'e

5tate of a 6E hen it is sitched on$ but no RR( connection is
established
ID/ *nternal poer .istribution /odule
IE *nformation Element
IET5 *nternet Engineering "as% 7orce
I5HO *nter-7re0uency 9andover
IIO, *nternet *nter-;RB )rotocol
I2 *nternet Aey
I2E 5ee *nternet Aey E:change!
In!erne! 2ey
E>#%nge
+*AE, /ethod by hich cryptographic %eys for the encryption and
authentication of *) pac%ets are e:changed and updated$ ithout
disclosure to third parties
I/ *nformation /odule
*nter-modulation
I/A *nverse /ultiple:ing for A"/
I/EI *nternational /obile E0uipment *dentity
I/+I *nternational /obile 'roup *dentity
I/SI *nternational /obile 5ubscriber *dentity
I/SI n(&;er

6ni0ue number that is assigned to each 5*/ card$ to identify
users in the netor%
I/T *nternational /obile "elecommunications 2000
I/T-2000

'lobal standard for third generation mobile telephony developed
by the *"6
IN *ntelligent Netor%
In)or&%!ion
L%yer

A generic interface for accessing the information model e:posed
by local resources in the NE
In)or&%!ion
Ser4i#e

(entral mechanism for the handling of -(./A RAN configuration
information
An *5 instance is a part of the *5 located in a RAN;5 host or an
NE!
Inner Loop
,o:er Con!ro$

5ee 7ast )oer (ontrol!
In!er)eren#e
Sign%$ Co'e
+*5(), *nterference on the received signal after de-spreading
;nly the non-orthogonal part of the interference is included in
,o:er this measurement!
In!eri&
S!%n'%r' 80

+*5-B5, *nterim 5tandard B5 5tandard for implementing (./A
cellular technology on narroband systems
In!ern%$
Co&&(ni#%!ion
,%!

(hannels beteen all the processors$ through hich they
communicate ith each other
In!er-RAT *nter-Radio Access "echnology
IOR *nteroperable ;b#ect Reference
I, *nternet )rotocol
I,C *nter-)rocess (ommunication
I,Se# 5ee *) 5ecurity )rotocol!
I,Se# +9 5ee *) 5ecurity )rotocol 'ateay!
I, Se#(ri!y
,ro!o#o$

+*)5ec, 5uite of protocols by hich the use of pre-pac%et
encryption and authentication can be negotiated
*)5ec does not imply any particular encryption or authentication
algorithm$ nor cryptographic %ey length! (ryptographic %eys can
be either pre-shared or determined by the *nternet Aey E:change
)rotocol!
I, Se#(ri!y
,ro!o#o$
+%!e:%y
+*)5ec '-, 4ogical node used for interoperability ith non-*)5ec
devices
"he *)5ec '- is used hen a host that runs *)5ec communicates
ith a server that does not have *)5ec support! *n this case$ the
tunneling mode of the *)5ec )rotocol is used!
IRATCC *nter-RA" (ell (hange
IRATHO *nter-RA" 9andover
IR, *ntegration Reference )oint
IS-80 5ee *nterim 5tandard B5!
IS 5ee *nformation 5ervice!
*nterface 5itch
ISC, 5ee *nterference 5ignal (ode )oer!
ISDN *ntegrated 5ervices .igital Netor%
ISHO *nter-system 9andover
ISO *nternational 5tandards ;rgani?ation
IS, *nternet 5ervice )rovider
ISU, *5.N 6ser )art
ITU *nternational "elecommunications 6nion
ITU-T

*nternational "elecommunications 6nion - "elecommunications
5tandardi?ation 5ector
I(

*nterface beteen an RN( and a (N
"he *u interface is also considered a reference point
I(; *nterface beteen an RN( and an RB5
I( Be%rer

Bearer used over the -(./A RAN (N interface +*u layer 2,
"hree types of bearer are defined=
o .ata$ dedicated *u bearer used by RABs
o 5ignaling$ connection-oriented *u bearer used by 5(()
o 5ignaling$ connection-less *u bearer used by 5(()
I( Conne#!ion
Se!

5et of all *u-c8*u-p user plane and *u control plane connections
established for a 6E
I( Con!ro$ ,$%ne
Conne#!ion

(onnection used for control signaling beteen -(./A RAN and a
(N
I(-# U"er ,$%ne
Conne#!ion

(onnection used for (5 services beteen -(./A RAN and a (5
(N
I(-p U"er ,$%ne
Conne#!ion

(onnection used for pac%et sitched services beteen 6"RAN
and a pac%et sitched (N
I(r *nterface beteen to RN(s
I95 *nteror%ing 7unction
I9U *nteror%ing 6nit
?1 Fapanese standard$ &!5 /bps transmission lin%
?%4% Vir!(%$
/%#ine

+FE/, ;perating system that provides a run time environment for
Fava programs
?i!!er

7ast variations in the significant instant in time of a signal
Fitter refers to high-fre0uency phase fluctuations! *t is normally
0uite easy to reduce #itter through 4) filtering!
?(&per

Removable electrical connection or cable$ beteen the same unit
or beteen units$ usually a cable
?V/ 5ee Fava Eirtual /achine!
1Bp" Ailobytes per second
1;p" Ailobits per second
1"p" Ailo-symbols per second
L1 4ayer & +)hysical layer,
L2 4ayer 2 +.ata 4in% layer,
L3 4ayer 1 +Netor% layer,
LA 5ee 4ocation Area!
LAC 4in% Access (ontrol
4ocation Area (ode
LAI 4ocation Area *dentity
LAN 4ocal Area Netor%
LA,B 4in% Access )rotocol Balanced
LATA 4ocal Access and "ransport Area
LAU 4ocation Area 6pdate
LC, 4in% (ontrol )rotocol
LDA, 4ighteight .irectory Access )rotocol
LDN 5ee 4ocal .istinguished Name!
LED 4ight Emitting .iode
Lin1

)rovides for the capability of transferring ).6s bidirectionally
beteen to connecting points
L2 4icense Aey
L25 4icense Aey 7ile
LLB 4ine 4oop Bac%
LLC 4ogical linc control
L/ 4oad /odule
4ocation /anagement
L/U 4ocation /easurement 6nit
LN 4ogical Name
LNA 4o Noise Amplifier
Lo%' /o'($e

All code and data re0uired to create a program
"he code is lin%ed$ but relocatable! "he data includes program
constants$ initiali?ed program variables$ and environmental
variables! "he 4/ is handled as a file!
LOC 4oss of (onnectivity
Lo#%$ +4.N, Name of an /; relative to the root in the node$ hich is
Di"!ing(i"e'
N%&e
relative to the NE /;
"he 4.N must be uni0ue!
Lo#%$ 5i$e
Sy"!e&
7ile system that mainly has the function of importing and
e:porting data to and from RAN;5
Application data is not %ept in the local file system!
Lo#%!ion Are%

+4A, Area covered by a number of cells
"he 4A configuration is used by the (ircuit (N for subscriber
location!
Log

4ocal$ permanent storage in a NE for se0uential information
*n the RAN system$ there are several different logs such as Alarm
4og$ "ransaction log$ Event 4og and 9- 7ault 4og!
Logi#%$ C%nne$

*nformation stream dedicated to the transfer of a specific type of
information over the radio interface
LoS 4ine of 5ight
LOS 4oss ;f 5ignal
LSB 4east 5ignificant Bit
& /eter
/A /ultiple Access
/AAS /anagement Access Alarm 5ervice
/AB+S /anagement Access Bul% (onfiguration 5ervice
/AC /edium Access (ontrol
/AC-" /edia Access (ontrol high speed
/AC-' /edium Access (ontrol - dedicated
/%#ro Ce$$ ;utdoor cell used to provide coverage for a ide area
/ACS /anagement Access (onfiguration 5ervice
/ADBS /anagement Access .atabase 5ervice
/ADT /ean Accumulated .ontime
/A+SS /anagement Access 'ateay 5ecurity 5ervice
/AHO /obile Assisted 9andover
/%in ,ro#e""or

+/), Role that a certain processor can have in the system
/)s form a cluster that contributes to the node@s robustness and
e:ecutes the central intelligence of the node@s application!
/%in ,ro#e""or
C$("!er

+/)(, E:ecution platform built of a number of /)s
/AIO /obile Allocation *nde: ;ffset
/AIS /anagement Access *nventory 5ervice
/ALS /anagement Access 4og 5ervice
/%n%ge'
Co&ponen!

+/(, 'rouping of softare that allos the system administrator
to perform the folloing operations=
o /onitor
o 5tart
o Restart
o 5top
o ;rder logging and tracing
o .efining of parameters
An /( is the smallest unit that can be deployed on separate
hosts$ and is e0uivalent to the folloing= one FE/ or one (;RBA
server!
/%n%ge' O;6e#!

+/;, Abstract vie of a resource that is sub#ect to management
An /; is defined in terms of the attributes it possesses$
operations it may perform$ notifications it may issue$ and
interactions it may have ith other /;s!
/%n%ge&en!
In)or&%!ion
B%"e

+/*B, *nstantiation of an /*/
"he /*B contains all the /;s and the relations beteen them!
According to conventions established by the configuration *R)$
there are one or more$ /*Bs for each *5 instance! "his means
that an *5 instance can contain one /*B each for radio$ transport$
and e0uipment information! "hese /*Bs can be interrelated and
related to /*Bs of other *5 instances!
/%n%ge&en!
In)or&%!ion
/o'e$

+/*/, .efines the different classes$ their attributes$ and the
relationships beteen the classes
;ther information such as cardinality$ initial values$ mandatory
information$ value ranges$ and relationships beteen /;s are
described! *n this architecture$ the /*/ is described in >/4!
According to conventions established by the configuration *R)$
there can be one or more /*/s for each *5 instance!
/ANS /anagement Access Notification 5ervice
/AO /anaged Adaptation ;b#ect
/A, /obile Application )art
/A,S /anagement Access )erformance 5ervice
/AS /anagement Access 5ervice
/ASCS /anagement Access 5cript 5ervice
/%"!er C$o#1 (loc% that provides a reference timing signal to slave cloc%s
/A9S /anagement Access -eb 5ervice
/B /anagement Broser
/BL /anual Bloc%ing
/;p" /egabits per second
/BS /a:imum Burst 5i?e
/C 5ee /anaged (omponent!
/CC /obile (ountry (ode
/C +ro(p

5et of /(s that the system administrator can start and stop as
one entity
(ommon instance parameters can be configured for an /( group!
/( groups are used to define a set of instances handling a
segment or a region!
/C Ser4%n! ;b#ect implementing the /( interfaces
/C,A /ulticarrier )oer Amplifier
/C,A-H(; /ulticarrier )oer Amplifier 9ub
/#p" /ega-chips per second
/CR /inimum (ell Rate
/CS-n

/odulation and (oding 5cheme n$ including /(5-& to /(5-B for
E.'E
/E /agnetic E0uator
/e'i% +%!e:%y

+/'-, *) router located at the boundary of the core netor%$
or%ing as a bridging element beteen different media
/EHO /obile Evaluated 9andover
/ER /essage Error Rate
/ET /anually Ad#ustable Electrical "ilt
/e!%'%!%

"erm generally used in the (;RBA specification$ hich denotes
the information contained in the *.4 specification! By en0uiring a
metadata repository$ an application can dynamically issue
re0uests to ob#ects ithout re0uiring *.4 interface-specific stubs
to be lin%ed in! 5imilar information is also ac0uired for managed
ob#ects$ and then stored in the /*/!
/+S /anaged 'roup 5upport
/+9 5ee /edia 'ateay!
/I /anagement *nterface
/IB 5ee /anagement *nformation Base !
/i#ro#e$$

5mall outdoor or indoor cell used to improve coverage in local
areas$ or to provide outdoor hot spot solutions
/I/ 5ee /anagement *nformation /odel !
/I, /obile *)
// /obility /anagement
//I /an-/achine *nterface
/N /agnetic North
/NC /obile Netor% (ode
/NL /anagement Netor% 4ayer
N/O Netor% /ode of ;peration
/O 5ee /anaged ;b#ect!
/OC /; (lass
/o'($e

5everal instances of applications that handle all the functions for
a certain part of the netor%
/OHO /obile ;riginated 9andover
/OI /; *nstance
/O/ /; /odel
/ORB /; Re0uest Bro%er
/, 5ee /ain )rocessor!
/,B /ain )rocessor Board
/,C 5ee /ain )rocessor (luster!
/RC /a:imum Ratio (ombining
/RS /ain Re0uirement 5pecification
/S /agnetic 5outh
/ain 5ubrac%
/obile 5tation
/SC /obile 5ervices 5itching (enter
/SID /obile 5tation *dentifier
/SIN /obile 5tation *dentification Number
/SISDN /obile 5ubscriber *dentification Number
/SS /ain 5uccess 5cenario
/T /obile "erminated
/TB5 /ean "ime Beteen 7ailures
/T, /essage "ransfer )art
/T,3-B /essage "ransfer )art 4evel 1
/TTR /ean "ime-to-Repair
/TU /a:imum "ransmission 6nit
/a:imum "ransfer 6nit
/U /ain 6nit
/(

/anagement *nterface
"he /u is a union of the /ur$ /ub$ and /un interfaces! "he /6
acts is the interface beteen -(./A RAN and e:ternal
management systems!
/(;

/anagement interface toards RB5 from RAN;5
"he /ub e:poses all services in the service layer of the RB5 and
the *5$ for the purpose of accessing RB5 information!
/(; ("er Any person or tool$ that access the /ub inerface
/(-+UI /; *nterface used by the '6*
/UI /obile 6ser *dentifier
/(i /anagement interface toards ;/*N7 +toards RAN;5 and E/,
/(n /anagement interface toards the (ore Netor% from RAN;5

"he /un is the management interface beteen the '6* and cell
management provided by RAN;5! *t e:poses all services in the
service layer of RAN;5 and the *5 to access -(./A RAN
subnetor% information!
/(r /anagement *nterface toards RN( from RAN;5

"he /ur is the management interface provided by the RN(! *t
e:poses all services in the service layer of an RN( and the *5$
ith the purpose of accessing RN5 information!
N*1
Re'(n'%n#y

(oncept of redundancy here several active resources +N, share
one +&, redundant unit to handle failures
NAC2 Negative Ac%noledgement
NAI Netor% Access *dentifier
N%&e Ser4er

Name server in ()) used for publishing tas%s and servers of the
/)(
"he name server provides the possibility for softare on any
processor to find a process of the /)($ regardless of hich
processor currently e:ecutes the process!
NAS Non-Access 5tratum
NBA, Node B Application )art
NCC Netor% (olor (ode
NCCI Node (onnection (ontrol *nterface
NCH Netor% (onnection 9andling
NCS Neighboring (ell 5upport
ND Number direction
NE 5ee Netor% Element!
NEAD NE Adaptor
Ne%r-5%r
,ro;$e&

Assume there are to 6Es$ one near the RB5 and one far from
the RB5! "he propagation path loss difference beteen these 6Es
may be tens of dB! *n general$ the strongest received 6E signal
captures the demodulator at the RB5! "his signal raises the noise
floor at the RB5 demodulators for the ea%er signal$ thereby
decreasing the probability that the ea%er 6E signal is received!
NEHO Netor% Evaluated 9andover
Neig;or Ce$$

Ad#acent cell that participates in a relationship$ for 9; purposes$
ith the serving cell
Neig;or Li"!

4ist of ad#acent -(./A cells used for 9; calculations
Ad#acent cells are not necessarily physically ad#acentH radio
prediction and topological factors determine hich cells are
neighbors!
NESU NE 5upervisor
Ne!:or1
E$e&en!

+NE, E0uipment operating as part of a communication netor%$
for e:ample the RN( or RB5$ used in the provisioning of a
telecommunications service
An NE can include the features$ functions$ and capabilities that
are provided by the e0uipment$ such as transmission and routing
data$ and subscriber numbers$ databases$ signaling systems$ and
information for billing and collection!
"raffic and administration nodes such as the RB5$ RN($ and R>*
C20 +sometimes used to denote smaller parts of a node$ for
e:ample a module or a bloc%,!
Ne!:or1
E4%$(%!e' HO

9; triggered by an evaluation made by the netor%!
Ne!:or1
/%n%ge&en!
9andling$ managing and coordinating operations on the complete
netor% functionality$ such as )erformance /anagement and
7ault /anagement
Ne!:or1 +N/5, 5ystem that manages more than one subnetor%
/%n%ge&en!
Sy"!e&
Ne!:or1
,$%nning

)lanning for the individual B5 sites and configurations
"he B5 coverage and capacity re0uirements are evaluated$ ta%ing
terrain$ user distribution$ and traffic demand for different services
into account!
Ne!:or1
Se#!ion

)art of a RAN system including a number of RN5s that are
connected to the same ;/*N7 and RAN;5 subsystems
Ne!:or1
Syn#roni<%!ion

A ay of distributing a common time and fre0uency to all
elements in a netor%
N& Neton /eter
N/S 5ee Netor% /anagement 5ystem !
NNI Netor% Node *nterface
No'e

)roduct type$ including site information$ for e:ample a
management node$ such as RAN;5 or "E/5 or a traffic node$
such as an RN( or RB5

A location in a netor%$ identified by a netor% address$ at hich
data is processed
No'e B

4ogical node responsible for radio transmission and reception in
one or several cells$ to and from the 6E
*n -.(/A$ Node B is the RB5 and terminates the *ub interface
toards the RN(!
No'e B 5r%&e
N(&;er

+B7N, Node B common number counter$ often hard-coupled ith
the good node oscillator
"he B7N can be fre0uency-loc%ed to a netor% synchroni?ation
reference! "he B7N is free running$ rather than phase-loc%ed$ to
any other counter!
No!i)i#%!ion

"ransport of events from event producer to consumer
Notifications can be used to carry general event messages$
alarms$ performance data$ or value changes from the system to
the actor! As soon as there are ne events$ the producer sends
them to the consumer!
NR/ Netor% Resource /odel
NRT Non-Real "ime
NS Notification 5ervice
NSS Netor% 5ynchroni?ation 5upport
N! Notification +5A),
NT, Netor% "ime )rotocol
N-Type Radio fre0uency loc%ing coa:ial connector$ suitable for use ith
Conne#!or heavier cables$ such as antenna feeders
N9 Netor%
N9S Netor% 5tatistics
N9S-A Netor% 5tatistics Analy?er
OB/ ;peration and /aintenance
OB/ In!r%ne!

*)-based netor% in the -(./A RAN that carries ;I/
information
OBI5 ;ptical Baseband *nter7ace Board
O;6e#! E>p$orer

+;E, 'eneric ob#ect broser used to brose management
information in the system
OE 5ee ;b#ect E:plorer!
O/C ;peration and /aintenance (enter
O/+ ;b#ect /anagement 'roup
O/IN5 ;peration and /aintenance *nfrastructure
O/S ;peration and /anagement 5upport
ORB ;b#ect Re0uest Bro%er
ORB !re%'ing

"hreading model that has a dedicated reader thread serving each
connection and a pool of or%er threads
;n re0uest$ one or%er thread is allocated from the pool and
scheduled to serve the re0uest! *f there is no free or%er thread$
the re0uest is 0ueued!
Or!ogon%$
V%ri%;$e
Spre%'ing
5%#!or

+;E57, (ode tree that contains the channeli?ation spreading
codes used in both 64 and .4
"he spreading factor can vary from D to 5&2 in the .4$ and D to
252 in the 64! "hese orthogonal codes are used to separate
different channels and users!
OS ;perating 5ystem
OSA ;perating 5ystem Additions
OSE ;perating 5ystem Embedded
OSI ;pen 5ystems *nterconnection +*5;,
OS,5 ;pen 5hortest )ath 7irst
OSS ;perations 5upport 5ystem
OSS-RC ;perations 5upport 5ystem for Radio and (ore
OT, ;pen "elecom )latform
O(!er $oop 5ee 5lo )oer (ontrol!
po:er #on!ro$
OV, ;vervoltage )rotection
OVS5 5ee ;rthogonal Eariable 5preading 7actor!
,A )oer Amplifier
)rimary Address
,%ging "o see% a 6E hen a call has been placed to that 6E
,%ging Are%

'eographical region in hich a 6E is paged as part of a
terminating call establishment
"he paging area can comprise one or more cells!
,%ging C%nne$

+)(9, .4 point-to-multipoint transport channel$ used to page a
group of 6Es in the coverage area of the cell
"he )(9 carries control information to the 6E hen the location
is un%non!
,A/S )reselected Alternative /aster-5lave
,AU )oer Amplifier 6nit
,BC )oer Battery (abinet
,BCCH )ac%et Broadcast (ontrol (hannel
,C )ersonal (omputer
)oer (ontrol
,CAT )roduct (atalog
,CCH )aging (ontrol (hannel
,CC,CH )rimary (ommon (ontrol )hysical (hannel
,CH 5ee )aging (hannel!
,C/ )ulse (ode /odulation
,C,ICH 5ee )rimary ()*(9!
,CR )ea% (ell Rate
,CS )ersonal (ommunication 5ystem
,CU )oer (ontrol 6nit
,D )oer .istributor
)rofile .ata
,DC )ersonal .igital (ellular
)acific .igital (ellular$ the Fapanese digital cellular standard
,DCH )ac%et .ata (hannel
,D5 )osition .etermining 7unction
)robability .ensity 7unction
,DH 5ee )lesiochronous .igital 9ierarchy !
,DHU )lesiochronous .igital 9ierarchy 6nit
,DR )ac%et .ata Router
,DSCH )hysical .onlin% 5hared (hannel
,DU )oer .istribution 6nit
)rotocol .ata 6nit
,ED )arameter Editor
,er)or&%n#e
D%!% Repor!ing

"o compile and distribute collected data
,er)or&%n#e
E4en!
;ccurrence in the system caused by an activity in the netor%$ a
timer time-out$ or a value that has crossed a threshold!
)erformance events can be traffic related or non-traffic related!
,er)or&%n#e
E4en! H%n'$er

*nforms the user about the availability of performance events
-hen the )erformance Event 9andler receives a performance
notification either from a server application or from a
)erformance Event 9andler in another node$ it distributes the
event to all users that have a subscription to that event!
,er)or&%n#e
E4en!
S(;"#rip!ion
Li"!

4ist of all )erformance Event subscribers
7or every ne performance event user in a node$ a ne
)erformance Event subscription is created in the )erformance
Event 9andler
,er)or&%n#e
/oni!oring

5cheduled scanning of measurement attributes in the netor%
,er)or&%n#e
No!i)i#%!ion

Notification sent by the server application to the )erformance
Event 9andler hen a performance event occurs
,er)or&%n#e
Re#or'ing
Allos the )erformance /anagement user to create subscriptions
to predefined event groupings$ such as /obile "raffic Recording
and (ell "raffic Recording
,er)or&%n#e
S!%!i"!i#"
Allos the )erformance /anagement user to create subscriptions
to predefined counters$ counter groups$ thresholds$ and related
alarms at node and netor% level
,er)or&%n#e
S!%!i"!i#"
S(;"#rip!ion
Li"!

4ist of all the )erformance 5tatistics subscriptions
7or every ne )erformance 5tatistics subscriber in a node$ a ne
)erformance 5tatistics subscription is created in the )erformance
5tatistics application!
,er"on%$
Co&&(ni#%!ion
Sy"!e&

5ervices for digital radio fre0uency e0uipment conveying both
voice and data over ireless netor%s
,+ 5ee )rocessing 'ain!
,H= )hysical layer
,yCH 5ee )hysical (hannel!
,yCH D%!%
S!re%&
*n uplin% - data stream that is transmitted on one )hy(9
*n donlin% - data stream that is transmitted on one )hy(9 in
each cell of the active set
,y"i#%$
C%nne$

+)hy(9, ;ne of the folloing=
o *n 7.. mode - channel that is defined by code$ fre0uency$
and in the uplin%$ relative phase +*83,
o *n ".. mode - )hy(9 is defined by code$ fre0uency$ and
time slot
,I )erformance *ndicator
,I )aging *ndicator
,ICH )age *ndication (hannel
,i#o Ce$$ /ainly indoor cells$ ith a typical radius of less than 50 meters
,ID )ac%et *dentifier
)roduct *dentity
,i$o! C%nne$

6nmodulated$ direct-se0uence spread spectrum signal
transmitted continuously by each RB5
"he pilot channel allos a 6E to ac0uire the timing of the forard
-(./A channel$ provides a phase reference for coherent
demodulation$ and compares signal strength beteen RB5s for
determining hen to action an 9;!
,IU )lug *n 6nit
,IU Type "ype of )lug-in 6nit
,i>e$

'eographical s0uare and the smallest unit +also called bin, for
hich planning can be done
"he basic unit of analysis area$ or plot area$ in the display! A
&00 m pi:el ould cover &00 J &00 K &0000 m !
,2 )ublic Aey 5upport
,2I )ublic Aey *nfrastructure
,$%nne'
Con)ig(r%!ion
Netor% configuration that allos for virtual netor% planning$
using the same tools as for real netor% planning$ ithout
disturbing real netor% operation
A planned configuration has a name$ and contains information
about hen it is created! *t can also contain other %inds of
configuration information!
,$e"io#rono("
Digi!%$
Hier%r#y

+).9, (ommon standard utili?ed throughout the orld to
multiple: digital information
.ue to limitations such as lac% of fle:ibility and performance it
has been superseded in some areas by 5.9!
,L/N )ublic 4and /obile Netor%
,/ )erformance /anagement
)erformance /onitoring
,/A )erformance /anagement Analysis
,/H )erformance /anagement 9andling
,/S )erformance /anagement 5upport
,/TU )ath /"6
,NNI )rivate Netor%-to-Netor% *nterface
,oin!er"

/ethod used by 5.9 and 5;NE" to transmit payloads that are
not necessarily synchronous to the 5.985;NE" cloc%
)ointers are used to indicate the beginning of a tributary in the
payload!
,OSS )oer 5upply 5ystem
,OI )oint of *nterconnection
,o:er Con!ro$

6sed in both 64 and .4 to maintain the 3o5 for a specific radio
connection
64 poer control is employed to alleviate the channel fading
effect$ and to reduce the near-far problem and co-channel
interference caused by simultaneous users! ;n the .4$ poer
control is used to compensate for channel fading!
,, )roduct )ac%age
,,A Ericsson )ac%et )latform Architecture
pp; part per billion +&0e-B,
,,E )ersonal )rotective E0uipment
pp& part per million +&0e-2,
,p-& )oer offset )reamble /easure +1')) spec,
,,, )oint-to-)oint )rotocol
,,S )ulse )er 5econd
,RACH )hysical Random Access (hannel
,RC )rimary Reference (loc%
,re"en!%!ion
L%yer
)rovides the interface to the e:ternal -(./A RAN system actors
"he presentation layer also provides data presentation and
operator interaction!
,ri&%ry C,ICH

+)()*(9, )hysical channel broadcasting cell site information
"he )()*(9 is a timing reference for all .4 channels!
,ri&%ry Tr%))i# /ain traffic stream beteen the /5 and the B5
,ro#e""

5mallest$ separately e:ecutable part in an ;5E .elta system
A process has a priority level$ a mail bo:$ and an e:ecution state!
,ro#e""ing +%in +)', Ratio of transmitted bandidth to information bandidth
,ro'(#!
,%#1%ge
5et of functions$ features$ services$ or characteristics carrying a
customer value
A product pac%age is an item that Ericsson licenses!
,rogr%&

E:ecuting code in a load module$ hen it is e:ecuting
A program is made up of one or several processes!
,ro4i"ioning

*nstallation of B5s$ including site preparation and antenna
installation
,RS )rimary Reference 5ource
,S )ac%et 5itched
,SA )erformance 5tatistical Alarms
,SCH )rimary 5ynchroni?ation (hannel
,SCN )ac%et 5itched (ore Netor%
,STN )ublic 5itched "elephone Netor%
,SU )oer 5upply 6nit
,U5 )oer 6p 7unction
,VC )ermanent Eirtual (hannel
,VCC )ermanent Eirtual (hannel (onnection
,V, )ermanent Eirtual )ath
,V,C )ermanent Eirtual )ath (onnection
.AAL2

5pecific transport signaling protocol +3!2210, to set up and
release AA42 transport bearers
.A/ 3uadrature Amplitude /odulation
.oS 5ee 3uality of 5ervice!
.,S2 3uadrature )hase 5hift Aeying
.(%$i!y o)
Ser4i#e

+3o5, .efines ho many calls are alloed to be bloc%ed
"he 3o5 performance specification is used for (5 traffic!
RA 5ee Routing Area!
RAB 5ee Radio Access Bearer!
RAB S(;)$o:

(orresponds to the NA5 service data streams that have 3o5
characteristics that differ in a predefined manner ithin a RAB$
such as classes of differing reliability
A RAB can be reali?ed by -(./A RAN through several subflos!
RAC Routing Area (ode
RACH 5ee Random Access (hannel!
R%'io A##e""
Be%rer
+RAB, 6ser plane connection that the access stratum provides to
the non-access stratum$ for the transfer of user data beteen the
6E and (N
R%'io A##e""
Ne!:or1
Aggreg%!or

+RANA', )hysical node that may be used in the transport
netor% as an A"/ E)8E( cross connect or an AA42 sitch
"he RANA' constitutes the anchor point of RB5 (lusters$ RAN
Lones$ or both!
*n -(./A$ the R>* C20 is a product instance of the RANA'!
R%'io A##e""
Ne!:or1
App$i#%!ion ,%r!

+RANA), Radio netor% signaling over the *u$ the application part
beteen an RN( and a (N
R%'io A##e""
Ne!:or1
Oper%!ion
S(ppor!

+RAN;5, 'roup of tools used to control$ monitor$ configure$ and
change e:ecutions ithin -(./A RAN
R%'io A##e""
Ne!:or1 Cone

'roup of RB5s ith the folloing in common=
o "raffic from all RB5s is multiple:ed at a common physical
lin% beteen the RAN Lone and the RN(!
o Aggregation is done using A"/ (ross (onnect!
R%'io B%"e
S!%!ion

+RB5, -(./A implementation of Node B
"he RB5 is responsible for transmission and reception in one or
more cells to and from the 6E! "he RB5 terminates the *ub
interface toards the RN(!
R%'io B%"e
S!%!ion C$("!er
'roup of RB5s here all user plane traffic from all RB5s is
multiple:ed at a common A"/ E) lin%
Aggregation is done using AA42 5itching or E( ((!
R%'io Be%rer +RB, Bearer used over the air interface
R%'io
Conne#!ion
+R(, 4ogical association beteen one or more 6Es$ and one or
more -(./A RAN access points$ to establish point-to-point or
point-to-multipoint broadcasting communications$ or macro
diversity
A radio connection comprises one or more radio lin%s!
R%'io 5r%&e Numbered time interval of &0 ms duration$ used for data
transmission on the Radio )hysical (hannel
A radio frame is divided into &5 time slots of M0!2N ms duration!
R%'io Lin1

+R4, 5et of )hysical (hannels in a transmission path beteen a
6E and a -(./A RAN access point
R%'io Ne!:or1
Con!ro$$er
+RN(, 4ogical node +and implementation of the logical node, in
the Radio Netor% 5ubsystem$ in charge of controlling the use
and integrity of the radio resources
R%'io Ne!:or1
S(;"y"!e&

+RN5, Either a full netor%$ or the access part of the -(./A
RAN$ offering the allocation and release of specific radio
resources to establish the means of connection beteen a 6E and
the -(./A RAN
An RN5 is responsible for the resources and for transmission and
reception in a set of cells!
R%'io Ne!:or1
Te&por%ry
I'en!i!y
+RN"*, *dentifier for a 6E hen an RR( connection e:ists
An RN"* is used$ for e:ample$ by the /A( protocol on the RA(9$
7A(9$ and )(9!
R%'io Re"o(r#e
Uni!

5ingle controllable resource employable for unidirectional
information transfer over the radio interface
RAH Radio Access Netor% 9andling
RAI Routing Area *dentifier
RA/ Random Access /emory
RAN Radio Access Netor%
RANA+ 5ee Radio Access Netor% Aggregator !
RANA, 5ee Radio Access Netor% Application )art!
R%n'o& A##e""
C%nne$
+RA(9, 64 transport channel that is one of the ays used by the
6E to initiate access to the -(./A RAN access point
An RA(9 can also be used to carry short data pac%ets!
RANH RAN 9andling
RAN/A, RAN /anagement Application )art
RANOS 5ee Radio Access Netor% ;peration 5upport!
RANOS CORBA
Ser4er
(ontainer in hich one or several applications is e:ecuting
A (;RBA server contains & /( servant$ & - n factories$ and 0 - n
sessions!
RAN Cone 5ee Radio Access Netor% Lone!
RAT Radio Access "echnology
Register Alias "able
RA7 Random Access and Receiver
RB 5ee Radio Bearer!
RBS 5ee Radio Base 5tation!
RBS C$("!er 5ee Radio Base 5tation (luster!
RC 5ee Radio (onnection!
RCS 5ee Radio (onnection 5upervision !
RC S(per4i"ion +R(5, Algorithm used to detect and handle lost radio connections
RDN Relative .istinguished Name
Re#ei4er
An!enn% +%in
@'BiA

/a:imum gain of the receiver antenna in the hori?ontal plane
+specified as dB relative to an isotropic radiator,
Re#ei4er
In!er)eren#e
Den"i!y
*nterference poer per 9? at the receiver front-end
Receiver interference density is the in-band interference poer
divided by the system bandidth! "he in-band interference poer
consists of both co-channel interference and ad#acent channel
interference!
Re#ei4er
Sen"i!i4i!y

5ignal level needed at the receiver input that #ust satisfies the
re0uired Eb8+NoO*o,
RED RAN;5 Event .atabase
Re)eren#e
Ti&ing Sign%$

"iming signal of specified performance$ hich can be used as a
timing source for a slave cloc%
Region

)art of a -(./A RAN that is managed by one site
A region consists of & - n segments!
Regi"!r%!ion

)rocess by hich 6E identifies its locations and parameters to a
B5
Re$%y

.evice capable of receiving and transmitting information for
another user
Re$%ying )rocess of receiving and transmitting information for another user
Repe%!er

.evice that receives a digital signal and amplifies$ resets the
timing$ and reconstructs it for retransmission at the physical layer
Reper!oire An abstraction of a functionality represented by a )*6 type and
one or more load modules
"he repertoire also provides rules for )*684oad /odule
combinations valid for a specific function$ here one function can
be provided by one or many )*684oad /odule combinations!
"hese rules are used to load the correct softare +4oad /odules,
to a specific )*6 type and revision! "his can be used as operator
configuration support or in situations here automatic re-
configuration is re0uired +hot repair,!
Rep$%#e%;$e
Uni!

.evice boards$ fans$ subrac%s$ cabinets$ and processor boards
Re"o(r#e"

;b#ects for management
7or ;I/ applications$ the system resources are represented as
/;s!
RET Remote Electrical "ilt
RETU Remote Electrical "ilt 6nit
R5 Radio 7re0uency
R5C Re0uest for (omments
R5I5 Radio 7re0uency *nterface
R5N RN( 7rame Number
RL 5ee Radio 4in%!
RL A''i!ion )rocedure in hich a ne R4 is added to the active set
RLC Radio 4in% (ontrol
RLC, Radio 4in% (ontrol )rotocol
RL-ID Radio 4in% *dentity
RL Re&o4%$ )rocedure in hich a R4 is removed from the active set
RLS Radio 4in% 5et
RL Se!

5et of R4s beteen a 6E and a -(./A RAN$ hich is terminated
in a certain Node B
7or e:ample$ in softer 9;$ the R4 set consists of the R4s in the
active set that are combined in the same Node B!
RL S(per Se!

5et of R4 sets beteen a 6E and a -(./A RAN$ terminated in
5RN(
7or e:ample$ in soft 9;$ the R4s in the active set that are
combined in the RN(!
RN Radio Netor%
RNC 5ee Radio Netor% (ontroller!
RNC 5r%&e
Co(n!er

RN( common number counter$ often hard-coupled ith the good
node oscillator
"he RN( 7rame (ounter can be fre0uency-loc%ed to a Netor%
5ynchroni?ation Reference! "he RN( frame counter is free-
running$ rather than phase-loc%ed to any other counter!
RNC-I' RN( *dentifier
RNC, Radio Netor% (ontrol )lane
RND Radio Netor% .esign
RNH Radio Netor% 9andling
RNL Radio Netor% 4ayer
RNO Radio Netor% ;ptimi?ation
RNS 5ee Radio Netor% 5ubsystem!
RNSA, RN5 Application )art
RNS+9 RN5 'ateay
RNTI 5ee Radio Netor% "emporary *dentity!
RNU, Radio Netor% 6ser )lane
RO Resource ;b#ect
Ro%&ing

)rocess in hich a 6E registers and receives services in a )4/N
other than its home )4/N!
RO, Result ;utput )eriod
Ro(!er

Netor% layer relaying or routing deviceH for e:ample$ an *)
router used for routing of *) pac%ages
Routers shift pac%ets from one interface or port to another and
ma%e only minimal modifications to the pac%ets themselves!
Ro(!ing Are%

+RA, Area covered by a number of cells
"he RA configuration is used by the )5 (N for subscriber location!
R,L Recovery )eriod 4ength
R,U Reliable program uniter
RRC Radio Resource (ontrol
RRC Conne#!ion

)oint-to-point bidirectional connection beteen RR( peer entities
on the 6E and -(./A RAN sides$ respectively
"he 6E has either ?ero or one RR( connections!
RRC +$o;%$
Conne#!ion
'lobal connection used for common signaling beteen -(./A
RAN and one or more 6Es
"he RR( 'lobal (onnection is used for random access messages!
RR/ Radio Resource /anagement
RRU Remote Radio 6nit
RSC, Received 5ignal (ode )oer
RSSI Received 5ignal 5trength *ndication
R-"!%!e Revision 5tate
RT Real "ime
RTOS Real-"ime ;perating 5ystem
RT9, Received "otal -ideband )oer
RU Radio 6nit
RUI5 Radio 6nit *nter7ace
R7 Receiver
R7 Di4er"i!y
+%in

'ain added to the received signal due to spatial antenna diversity
R7I D20

Ericsson ())-based node that implements A"/ aggregation as
ell as *) Routing functionality
"he R>* is a product instance of a RANA'!
R7 Noi"e 5ig(re Noise generated by the R>
SA 5ervice Area
SAAL 5ignaling A"/ Adaptation 4ayer
SACCH 5lo Associated (ontrol (hannel
SAI 5ervice Area *dentifier
5pace Access *nterface
SAIU 5ingle Antenna *nterface 6nit
SA, 5ee 5ervice Access )oint!
SAR 5ite Ac0uisition Report
SAR5 5earch Area Re0uest 7orm
SASE 5tand-Alone 5ynchroni?ation E0uipment
S#%nner 'roup of statistical counters
S#%nner Type "ype of scanner
SCB 5itch (ore Board
SCC 5ignaling (onnection (ontrol
SCCH 5ynchroni?ation (ontrol (hannel
SCC, 5ignaling (onnection (ontrol )art
SCC,CH 5econdary (ommon (ontrol )hysical (hannel
SCC,-SA, 5(() 5ervice Access )oint
SCH 5ee 5ynchroni?ation (hannel!
S#e&%

5et of /; classes$ ith properties and associations that are
applicable to a given conte:t
"he schema is represented by the /*/!
SCR 5ustainable (ell Rate
S#r%&;$ing
Co'e

4ong codes in the .4 to separate transmissions from different
sources
;ne scrambling code is assigned to each cell! )rimary scrambling
codes are limited to 5&2 to prevent the cell search becoming
e:cessive! ;perators can further restrict the number of available
codes!
SDCCH 5tandalone .edicated (ontrol (hannel
SDH 5ynchronous .igital 9ierarchy
SD/ 5tatistical .atamart
SDU 5ervice .ata 6nit
SE 5ystem Entity
Se%&$e"" HO

9; that occurs ithout perceptible interruption of the radio
connection
SEC 5.9 E0uipment (loc%
Se#!or

A set of cells ith a set of antenna branches$ here the cells can
transmit on different fre0uencies using the antenna branches
Seg&en!

)art of a region that is managed by one set of instances of
RAN;5 applications
"here is a ma:imum of one instance of each application +or
managed component, for each segment! A segment contains & -
n RN5s!

)art of the softare that is memory protected as one piece! *f
you suspect memory violation and you ant to restart that
softare$ a segment is the smallest piece of code that is used to
restart! A segment can hold one program!
SEL 5elector
Se$)
/%n%ge&en!

5et of services available to the RAN;5 system administrator
5elf /anagement services are provided by (*7 components! 5elf
/anagement impacts all softare in RAN;5 ith design rules and
mandatory interfaces to support!
Ser4%n! ;b#ect providing services via *.4 interfaces
Ser4%n!
Tre%'ing
*nternal sub-threading for a servant hen there is a need to
handle many sub-ob#ect tas%s in parallel
"hese threads are maintained in a pool!
Ser4i#e '5/ circuit-sitched services +(5 speech$ 95(5., and pac%et-
sitched services +')R5$ E.'E, hich have different radio
planning properties
Ser4i#e A##e""
,oin!

+5A), )oint at hich a user accesses a connection in the 5ervice
layer
"he 5A) provides the user ith the means to access one or
several concurrent connections!
Ser4i#e L%yer

)rovides a tas%-oriented support for the management of the
system resources
A service in the 5ervice layer is called a service ob#ect!
Ser4i#e O;6e#! 5ervice in the 5ervice layer$ hich is typically a (;RBA ob#ect
Ser4ing Ce$$ (ell that has the strongest signal strength at the time of an 9;
Ser4ing R%'io
Ne!:or1
Con!ro$$er

+5RN(, RN( in the 5RN5 here the serving cell is located
"he 5RN( also handles most of the 6E control!
Ser4ing RNC
R%'io Ne!:or1
Te&por%ry
I'en!i)ier

+5-RN"*, *dentitfier allocated for all 6Es ith an RR( connection
"he 5-RN"* is allocated by the serving RN($ and is uni0ue ithin
the serving RN(! 5-RN"* is reallocated hen the serving RN( for
the RR( connection is changed and deallocated$ hich occurs
hen the RR( connection is released!
Ser4ing R%'io
Ne!:or1
S(;"y"!e&
+5RN5, Role of an RN5 ith respect to a specific connection
beteen a 6E and 6"RAN
"here is one 5RN5 for each 6E that has a connection to 6"RAN!
"he 5RN5 is in charge of the radio connection beteen a 6E and
the 6"RAN! "he 5RN5 terminates the *u for the 6E!
Se""ion

/essage se0uence beteen to users that occurs as a se0uence
in some larger transaction
Se""ion Ser4%n!

;b#ect created by the factory hen a client connects
"he session servant handles all client re0uests during the session!
S5 5ee 5preading 7actor!
S5N 5ystem 7rame Number
S+SN 5ervice ')R5 5upport Node
SHO 5ee 5oft 9andover!
SID 5ilence .escriptor
Si'e Lo;e
S(ppre""ion

Relative attenuation from the first lobe +above hori?on, compared
to the main lobe
Sign%$ing
Conne#!ion
An ac%noledged-mode lin% beteen the user e0uipment and the
(N to transfer higher-layer information beteen peer entities in
the non-access stratum
Sign%$ing Lin1

)rovides an ac%noledged-mode lin% layer to transfer the 6E-
6"RAN signaling messages$ as ell as 6E-(N8(N-6E signaling
message$ using the signaling connection
Sign%$
Tr%n"por! Lin1

Any communications lin% beteen to physical sites$ such as
microave$ optical fiber$ or coa:ial cable
Sign%$-!o-
In!er)eren#e
R%!io

+5*R, R5() divided by the *5()
SI/ 5ubscriber *dentity /odule
Sing$e Logon

5ystem logon procedure
7rom an administrator@s perspective$ all access rights can be
managed from a central point$ and there is no need to log on
every ob#ect to change its security setting!
;nce a user is identified$ authenticated$ and granted the right to
log on to ;I/ applications$ there is no further need to log on to
the specific applications e:ecuting in the NEs!
Sing$e Logon
Ser4er

+545, 4ogical node supporting single logon functionality
SIR 5ee 5ignal-to-*nterference Ratio !
Si!e

'eographical location for any %ind of NE$ such as an RN( or RB5
5ite information includes latitude and longitude$ and the local
ground elevation! All NEs are assigned to a site!
S$%4e C$o#1

(loc% that is loc%ed to a reference timing signal
"he output fre0uency of the slave cloc% is the same as the
fre0uency of the controlling reference timing signal over the long
term$ and the phase difference beteen the input and output is
bounded!
S$o: ,o:er
Con!ro$

"ype of poer control that increases or decreases the 5*R target
value in order to drive the 7ER toards a predetermined target
7ER
Also called Gouter loop poer controlG!
SLS 5ee 5ingle 4ogon 5erver!
S/ 5ecurity /anagement
S/A Conne#!or

4ighteight R7 loc%ing coa:ial connector$ suitable for use ith R7
interconnection cables
S/+ 5ecure /ediation 'ateay
S/S 5hort /essage 5ervice
SNAD 5ub-Netor% Adaptor
SN/ 5ubnetor% /anagement
SN/, 5imple Netor% /anagement )rotocol
SoC 5tatement of (ompliance
So)! B$o#1ing

-hen a call is bloc%ed by the -(./A RAN due to the lac% of air
interface resources
"he interference may$ for e:ample$ be too high for setting up a
radio connection$ or there may be no codes available!
So)! H%n'o4er

9andover here the radio lin%s are added and abandoned in such
manner that the mobile alays %eeps at least one radio lin%
established
So)!er H%n'o4er

9andover beteen multiple cells in the same RB5
5ignals received by different cells can all be directed to the same
ra%e receiver in the RB5 and combined non-coherently$ so only
one voice frame is advanced to the RN(! "his type of handover
allos greater efficiency in the use of handover$ as it only
re0uires one channel element to support it!
So)!er-So)!
H%n'o4er

9andover involving multiple cells on the serving RB5 and cells on
other RB5s on the same fre0uency
So)!-So)!er
H%n'o4er

9andover involving one cell on the serving RB5 and multiple cells
on other RB5s on the same fre0uency
SONET 5ynchronous ;ptical Netor%
S, 5ee 5pecial )urpose )rocessor!
5tandard )oer
S,AS 5pace 5itching 5ystem
S,B 5pecial )urpose )rocessor Board
S,D, 5ecurity )olicy .ecision )oint
Spe#i%$ ,(rpo"e
,ro#e""or

+5), )rocessor that is dedicated to application processing and
generally also to user plane-oriented processing
Spe#i)ie'
,ro'(#!
,%#1%ge

+5)), 6ni0ue string of ordering parameters$ output from )(A"
once the )roduct )ac%age selection is made based on the
customer order
Spe#!r(&
E))i#ien#y

(omparative measurement$ hich shos the e:tent to hich a
radio interface is able to support a given number of users of a
given -(./A RAN service
5pectrum efficiency can be measured in E0uivalent "elephony
Erlang for each cell$ per /9?$ or E0uivalent "elephony Erlang per
s0uare %ilometer per /9?!
S,I/ 5pace 5itch *nterface /odule
S,/ 5pecial )urpose )rocessor /odule
Spo! Co4er%ge

(haracteristic of a geographical ?one in hich the -(./A RAN
service is provided only in a small isolated area$ such as an
individual cell
S,, 5ee 5pecified )roduct )ac%age !
Spre%'ing
5%#!or

+57, A factor of to that determines the spreading code for the
channel
"he range for each of the channels is D - 5&2! Ealid values include
D$ C$ &2$ 12$ 2D$ &2C$ 252$ and 5&2! "he loer the spreading
factor$ the larger the bandidth and so feer codes are available
for other users!
S.L 5tructured 3uery 4anguage
SRB 5ignaling Radio Bearer
SRNC 5ee 5erving Radio Netor% (ontroller !
SRNS 5ee 5erving Radio Netor% 5ubsystem !
S-RNTI 5ee 5erving RN( Radio Netor% "emporary *dentifier!
SSE 5ignaling 5ystem Number N
SS 5olution 5et
SSCH 5econdary 5ynchroni?ation (hannel
SSCO, 5ervice 5pecific (onnection ;riented )rotocol
SSDT 5ite 5election .iversity "ransmit )oer (ontrol
SSH 5ecure 5hell
SSL 5ecure 5oc%et 4ayer
SSLIO, 5ecure 5oc%et 4ayer *nter-;RB )rotocol
S!%n'%r'
/o'($e
6ni0ue set of one or more products that is configured$ tested$
and engineered for use in assembly and supply$ to fulfill a
customer order
STD 5elective "> .iversity
ST/ 5ynchronous "ransfer /ode
ST/-1 5ynchronous "ransfer /ode on level & +&55 /bps 5"/,
STR7 5ingle "ransceiver Board
STTD 5pace-"ime "ransmit .iversity
S(;-Ce$$

(ell can be divided into an underlaid and an overlaid sub-cell
"he overlaid sub-cell may have less coverage$ and is preferred by
6Es in its coverage area to get an optimal distribution of the
traffic load beteen the sub-cells!
S(;ne!:or1

Netor% ithin the -(./A RAN system$ such as 6"RAN$
managed by several administrative nodes or sites
S(;"#rip!ion 6ser-defined collection of scanners$ ith a specified collection
,ro)i$e interval and duration
S9 5oftare
S9A 5oftare Allocation
S:i!#

5ystem used for establishing paths and sitching data from one
inlet to one or several outlets
;ne e:ample is an A"/ sitch used for sitching of A"/ cells!
S9R 5tanding -ave Ratio
S7B 5itch E:tension Board
S=NCH 5ynchronous
Syn#roni<%!ion
C%nne$

+5(9, -(./A .4 channel
"he )5(9 helps the 6E identify the RB5 and provides the means
for slot synchroni?ation! "he second 5(9 provides the means for
frame synchroni?ation!
(ode channel 12 in the forard -(./A channel that transports
the synchroni?ation message to the 6E!
Syn#roni<%!ion
Re)eren#e

E:ternal reference to hich the system cloc% generation function
is loc%ed
"he synchroni?ation reference can be obtained through the
transport netor% ith synchroni?ation reference signals or from
a dedicated synchroni?ation!
Sy"!e& C$o#1

5table cloc% that is needed in each -(./A RAN node
"he system cloc% or%s as a slave cloc% synchroni?ed to the
synchroni?ation reference!
TA "iming Advance
TBS 5ee "ransport 7ormat Bloc% 5et !
TBS Si<e Number of bits in a "B5
T "imer
TC 5ee "hin (lient!
TCB "ransport (hannel Branch
TCH 5ee "raffic (hannel!
TCI "raffic (onnection *dentity
TC, "ransmission (ontrol )rotocol +*E"7 "()8*),
TC,H "ime (onsistent )ea% 9our
TDD "ime .ivision .uple:
TD/ "ime .ivision /ultiple:ing
TD/A 5ee "ime .ivision /ultiple Access !
TEI "erminal Endpoint *dentifier
Te$ne! Eirtual terminal over "()8*)!
TE/S 5ee "est /obile 5ystem!
Te"! /o;i$e
Sy"!e&
+"E/5, (ollective name for a suite of functions and tools to
support the planning$ testing$ and performance monitoring of the
-(./A RAN
T5C 5ee "ransport 7ormat (ombination !
T5CI 5ee "ransport 7ormat (ombination *ndicator!
T5C Se! 5et of transport format combinations for use by a 6E
T5I 5ee "ransport 7ormat *ndicator !
T5RC "ransport 7ormat and Resource (ombination
Ter&%$ Noi"e
Den"i!y No

Noise poer per 9? at the receiver input
Tin C$ien!

A "hin (lient consits of a )( or%station ith Fava Runtime and
*nternet E:plorer!
Tre%' E:ecution environment for methods
Tro(gp(!

/easure of the 0uality of a pac%et data service$ defined as the
pac%et length divided by the total delay +0ueueing and
transmitting, for the pac%et
Ti$!

"ypes of antenna tilt include=
o 7E" +standard 0P$ 2P$ and 2P,
o /E" +tilt range 0P - 7irst upper minimum degree,
o RE" +only valid for 6/"5,
Ti&e Di4i"ion
/($!ip$e A##e""

+"./A, "echnology for delivering digital ireless service using
"./
"./A or%s by dividing a radio fre0uency into time slots and
then allocating slots to multiple calls! *n this ay$ a single
fre0uency can support multiple$ simultaneous data channels!
"./A is used by the '5/ digital cellular system!
TLS "ransport 4ayer 5ecurity
T/A 5ee "oer /ounted Amplifier!
T/OS "elecommunication /anagement and ;perations 5upport
T/SB "est /obile 5tation Board
T/SI "emporary /obile 5ubscriber *dentity
TN "ermination Note
"ransport Netor%
TNC, "ransport Netor% (ontrol )lane
TNH "ransport Netor% 9andling
TNIN5 5ee "ransport Netor% *nfrastructure !
TNL "ransport Netor% 4ayer
TNN "ransport Netor% Node
TNU, "ransport Netor% 6ser )lane
TOA "ime of Arrival
!o%eC# "ime of Arrival Early )oint in (ontrol (hannel
!o%eD# "ime of Arrival Early )oint in .edicated (hannel
ToA9EFDCH "ime of Arrival -indo End point in .edicated (hannel
ToA9EF5ACH "ime of Arrival -indo End point in 7orard 4in% Access (hannel
ToA9EF,CH "ime of Arrival -indo End point in )aging (hannel
ToA9SFDCH "ime of Arrival -indo 5tart point in .edicated (hannel
ToA9SF5ACH

"ime of Arrival -indo 5tart point in 7orard 4in% Access
(hannel
ToA9SF,CH "ime of Arrival -indo 5tart point in )aging (hannel
To:er /o(n!e'
A&p$i)ier
+"/A, Amplifier connected to the antenna that compensates for
the loss in the receiving branch improving the noise figure
"he "/A adds to the loss in the transmitting branch!
T, "ermination )oint
T,C "ermination )oint (onnector
"ransmit )oer (ontrol
Tr "ransparent /ode
Tr%))i# C%p%#i!y

QErlangs8(ellR "otal traffic that can be supported by a single cell$
hich is part of an infinite set of cells in a uniform to-
dimensional pattern
"raffic capacity must be specified at a stated spectrum allocation$
and 'o5$ assuming an appropriate propagation model! "his
metric is valuable for comparing systems ith identical user
channel re0uirements!
Tr%))i# C%nne$ +"(9, 4ogical channel that carries user information$ such as
pac%et or circuit data
A "(9 is a channel offered by the physical layer to layer 2$ for
data transport beteen peer entities in layer &!
Tr%))i# In!en"i!y

/easure of the intensity ith hich a user utili?es a certain
service
7or speech users the unit Erlang is commonly used! 7or a single
speech user$ the intensity might be 10 mErl! 7or pac%et data$ a
different unit8method is re0uired!
Tr%n"&i""ion
Ti&e In!er4%$

+""*, *nter-arrival time of transport bloc% sets$ or the time it
should ta%e to transmit a transport bloc% set!
Tr%n"&i!!er
An!enn% +%in
G'BiH

/a:imum gain of the transmitter antenna in the hori?ontal plane
+specified as dB relative to an isotropic radiator,
Tr%n"por! B$o#1

Basic unit passed don to layer & from the /A($ for layer &
processing
An alternative term for transport bloc% is /A( ).6!
Tr%n"por!
5or&%!

7ormat offered by layer & to the /A( for the delivery of a
transport bloc% set during a transmission time interval on a
"ransport (hannel
"he transport format consists of to parts - one dynamic and one
semi-static!
Tr%n"por!
5or&%! B$o#1
Se!

+"B5, 5et of transport bloc%s passed to layer & from the /A($ at
the same time instance using the same transport channel
An alternative term is /A( ).6 set!
Tr%n"por!
5or&%!
Co&;in%!ion

+"7(, (ombination of currently valid transport formats on all
"ransport (hannels of a 6E
Tr%n"por!
5or&%!
Co&;in%!ion
In'i#%!or

+"7(*, Representation of the current transport format
combination
Tr%n"por!
5or&%!
In'i#%!or

+"7*, 4abel for a specific transport format ithin a transport
format set
Tr%n"por!
5or&%! Se!

5et of transport formats associated ith a "ransport (hannel
Tr%n"por!
Ne!:or1
In)r%"!r(#!(re

9andles the communication beteen the NEs and -(./A RAN
and beteen (N and -(./A RAN
TrCH "ransport (hannel
TR, "ransceiving Receiving )rocessing
TRU "ransceiver 6nit
TR7 "ransceiver
TS "ime 5lot
"opology 5ervice
TSC "raining 5e0uence (ode
TS, Ericsson "elecom 5erver )latform
TSS "elecom 5ecurity 5ervices
TSTD "ime 5itched "> .iversity
TTI 5ee "ransmission "ime *nterval !
TTL "ime to live
TU "iming 6nit
TUB "iming 6nit Board
TUB 2 "iming 6nit Board 2
T7 "ransmitter
U- 6ser-
UAD, 6.* service in A.)
UAR5CN 6"RA Absolute Radio 7re0uency Number
UBR 6nspecified Bit Rate
UCT (oordinated universal time
UDI 6nrestricted .igital *nformation
UDI 3D4 6nrestricted .igital *nformation$ 1CD %bps
UDI -4 6nrestricted .igital *nformation$ 2D %bps
UD, 6ser .atagram )rotocol
UE 5ee 6ser E0uipment!
6ser Entity
UE Con!e>!

Representation of the 6E from an 5RN( perspective ithin the
RN( node
UE-E4%$(%!e'
HO

9; triggered by an evaluation made in the 6E
-hen the evaluation meets the 9; criteria$ necessary
information is sent from the 6E to the netor%! "he netor% then
decides on the necessity of the 9; based on the reported
evaluation result and other conditions$ and it may then e:ecute
the 9;!
UE 5r%&e
Co(n!er
6E common number counter$ often hard-coupled ith the good
node oscillator
67N is fre0uency-loc%ed to -(./A RAN though the air interface
cell-system frame number counter!
UEH 6ser E0uipment 9andling
UETR 6E "raffic Recording
U5N 6E 7rame Number
UI 6ser *nterface
UIS 6ser *nterface 5pecification
UL 6plin%
U/L 6nified /odeling 4anguage
U/TS 6niversal /obile "elecommunications 5ystem
U/TS
Terre"!ri%$
R%'io A##e""
Ne!:or1

+6"RAN, 1')) standardi?ation term for the -(./A RAN
subnetor%
UNI 6ser Netor% *nterface
UNI-SAAL 6ser Netor% *nterface 5ignaling A"/ Adaptation 4ayer
U, 6pgrade )ac%age
Up'%!e

6pdating of detail information$ either from a server or cache$ if
cached information is available
Upgr%'e Con!ro$
5i$e

An 6pgrade (ontrol 7ile +6(7, is part of an 6pgrade )ac%age and
specifies all information needed for the upgrade e:ecution such
as the upgrade method$ identity and location of 4/s and
reconfiguration data!
Upgr%'e
,%#1%ge

An 6pgrade )ac%age +6), is a collection of softare for a Netor%
Element! An upgrade pac%age is complete and contains all the
files for the appropriate system release$ such as 4oad /odules$
configuration files$ 5- used only for the upgrade and an 6pgrade
(ontrol 7ile!
Up$in1

6nidirectional radio lin% for the transmission of the signals from
the 6E to the -(./A RAN access node
U,S 6ninterrupted )oer 5upply
URA 6"RAN Registration Area
URL 6niform Resource 4ocator
U"er E3(ip&en!

+6E, /obile terminal$ transmitting in the 64 and receiving in the
.4$ ith one or several -(./A RAN subscriber identity modules
USI/ 6/"5 5ubscriber *dentity /odule
USN 6/"5 5itching Node
UTC 6niversal "ime (oordinated
UT/ 6niversal "ransverse /ercator
UT/
e&i"pere
;ne of to halves into hich the 6"/ pro#ection system divides
the Earth at the e0uator +Northern 9emisphere or 5outhern
9emisphere,!
UT/ <one

;ne of 20 ?ones into hich the 6"/ pro#ection system divides
the Earth$ each 2P ide
"he first 6"/ ?one is centered at &NN degrees -est of 'reenich
ith ?one numbers proceeding East!
UTNE 6"RAN NE
UT, 6"RAN "unnelling )rotocol +also %non as '")-6,
UTRA 6/"5 "errestrial Radio Access
UTRAN 5ee 6/"5 "errestrial Radio Access Netor%!
U( *nterface beteen the -(./A RAN and the 6E
V Eolt
VA Eoice Activity
V AC Eoltage Alternating (urrent
V%$i' Are% Active current configuration$ hich is operational in all NEs
V%$i'
Con)ig(r%!ion

5tate of the complete real netor%
E:actly one valid configuration must alays e:ist!
VBR Eariable Bit Rate
VC Eirtual (hannel
VCC Eirtual (hannel (onnection
VCI Eirtual (hannel *dentifier
VCL Eirtual (hannel 4in%
VCO Eoltage (ontrolled ;scillator
V DC Eoltage .irect (urrent
VLAN Eirtual 4AN
VLR Eisitor 4ocation Register
VLS/ Eariable 4ength 5ubnet /as%
V, Eirtual )ath
V,C Eirtual )ath (onnection
V,I Eirtual )ath *dentifier
V,N Eirtual )rivate Netor%
VS9R Eoltage 5tanding -ave Ratio
9AN -ide Area Netor%
9%n'er

4o-fre0uency phase fluctuations of the signal or slo variations
in the significant instant in time of a digital signal
-ander is normally difficult to reduce and is therefore
accumulated in netor%s!
9CD/A 5ee -ideband (ode .ivision /ultiple Access!
9CD/A ,$%nner Ericsson tool for planning -(./A netor%s
9CD/A RAN

Ericsson@s RAN solution for the 6/"5 mobile communication
standard
-(./A RAN consists of RB5s$ RB5 5ite 5olutions$ RN(s$
functions +softare for RB5 and RN(,$ design tools$ and ;I/
tools!
9CD/A RAN
A##e"" ,oin!

(onceptual point ithin the -(./A RAN that performs radio
transmission and reception
A -(./A RAN access point is associated ith one specific cell!
"here is one -(./A RAN access point for each cell hich is the
-(./A RAN-side endpoint of an R4!
9CD/A RAN
Regi"!r%!ion
Are%

Area covered by a number of cells
"he area is %non only internally ithin the -(./A RAN!
9C, 5ee -(./A )lanner!
9CS -ideband (ellular 5ystem
9i'e;%n' Co'e
Di4i"ion
/($!ip$e A##e""

+-(./A, A high-speed 1' mobile ireless technology ith the
capacity to offer higher data speeds than (./A! -(./A can
reach speeds of up to 2 /bps for voice$ video$ data and image
transmission
-(./A as adopted as a standard by the *"6 under the name
G*/"-2000 direct spread!G
9LL/RLL -ireless 4ocal 4oop8Radio 4ocal 4oop
9RN -ideband Radio Netor%s
999 -orld -ide -eb
7AL/ E:ternal Alarm 6nit
7/L 5ee E:tensible /ar%up 4anguage !
7, Au:iliary )rocessor
CABO Lero Administration Business;b#ects
3 Reference List
"he folloing is a list of the documents mentioned in this description=
Q&R 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Services and
System Aspects; Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications (Release ! 1' "R 2&!B05
E!2!2!0 +2001-01,