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PRN NO-12021021025

Certainly, with an advent of globalization, the market has become competitive, because it has opened
the opportunity for new competitors. This does not necessarily mean risk for the survival of local
businesses, but a challenge that they must consider. This challenge relates to the need to create greater
consumer loyalty to products and services, greater suitability of the product to the consumers needs
and greater concern about the social impact of the company. Moreover, this global scenario represents
some opportunities for the companies to act in the new markets. It is clear that this action will depend
mainly on the quality of their own products and services offered.
However, first, the concept of product quality is not so immediate and obvious. Although not universally
accepted, the definition for quality with greater consensus is that "suitability for the consumer usage."
This definition is comprehensive because it includes two aspects characteristics that lead to satisfaction
with the product and the absence of failures. In fact, the main component consists of the quality
characteristics of the product features that meet the consumers' needs and thus it provides satisfaction
for the same. These needs are related not only to the intrinsic characteristics of the product, such as the
sensory characteristics of a food product, but also to its availability in the market with a compatible
price and in a suitable packaging. The other part is the absence of faults, which is related to the
characteristics of the product according to their specifications, making the consumer inspired by the
reliability of the product, i.e., the consumer is sure that he will acquire a safe product, without health
risks, and with the properties claimed on the label .For these objectives to be achieved it is required an
efficient management of quality, which implies continuous improvement activities at each operational
level and in every functional area of the organization. The quality management combines commitment,
discipline and a growing effort by everyone involved in the production process and fundamental
techniques of management and administration, with the goal of continuously improving all processes.
For that, the industries need to be structured organizationally, establish policies and quality programs,
measure customers satisfaction and even use more quality tools and methodologies. Specifically for the
food industry, also involves the knowledge and application of techniques and programs for product
With all that, the purpose of this chapter is to describe the potential use of quality tools in food
companies. The study initially intends to contextualize the quality management in the food industry and
the activities related to the quality function. In addition, support tools related to quality control in
process will be suggested with practical examples of application. A food system is a system involving
many different aspects; a central issue is to transport food from the place of production to where
people can buy and eat the food and from there to disposal (Neff et al., 2009). This includes production,
processing, distribution, preparation, marketing, access, consumption, and disposal. These processes
need resources such as people, businesses, farms, communities, interventions, policies, and politics. All
steps need to be coordinated for a company to make progress (Miljstyrningsrdet, 2007). A food safety
standard helps to coordinate this through guidance and examples and see to that the distribution
channels are run according to present legislations and regulations.
According to Swedish Board of Agriculture, Sweden has increased the export of commodities from
agriculture and food industry in recent years (Jordbruksverket, 2011). The increased food export
demands a higher knowledge of risk analysis in food production. A document of risk analysis needs to be
continuously updated and there are many methods, principles and standards to work towards. A risk is
defined as the probability of an event to occur and the consequences of it (ibid.). Risk management is all
about systematically evaluating and handling risks related to the operation.
Legislation regarding food safety have existed for a long time, already in the Pentateuch decrees
(Mosebckerna) arrangements regarding hygienic aspects were recorded (gren, 1991). During the
antiquity Lex Julia de Anona was created to protect consumers from food of poor quality but also from
inflated food prices. The first Swedish legislation concerning food safety was described in 1622 when a
constitution was laid down to regulate all Slaughter houses (Brdenmark, 1998). Slaughter of animals for
food was supposed to be performed in public slaughterhouses and controlled by superintendents.
Following this, a public health act was published both in 1874 and in 1919. It controlled general handling
of food, food premises and rules for certain goods, such as meat, milk, fish and eggs. All previous food
charters were replaced by a legislation from 1951 followed by the present Swedish food legislation that
came in 1972. The Swedish National Food Administration was also founded in 1972. According to gren
(1991) the food legislation has two main purposes, which are to protect consumers from hygienic and
economic hazards. There have been modifications to the food legislation following the development in
the food industry and a need to reflect the modern food consumption (ibid.). Today, more meals are
eaten outside the home and food is often bought pre-packed. The transportation of food has also
increased in recent years.
A standard regulating handling of food fulfills the requirements of current food legislation, but it also
adds value to the production (Miljstyrningsrdet, 2007). A standard provides a method of preventing
problems and crisis and it can also help to handle requirements from authorities, the market and others.
The main purpose of a food safety standard is to provide consumers with safe food (Lusk et al, 2011).
Some food producers conduct extensive quality management without being certified. To gain the
benefits of the effort, a certificate is recommended by The Swedish Environmental Management
Council, if nothing else, to compete on the same conditions for public procurement as certified
companies (Miljstyrningsrdet, 2007). An established standard increases the credibility for them who
use it. The concept of quality of foods have for a long time been associated with the sensory, nutritional
and economic aspects of food (McDonald et al, 2005). But the quality of food is so much more,
according to Bergstrm and Hellqvist (2004); it is also dependent on the 8 production method, service,
place of origin, and choice of package method. Because of this a number of effective control systems
have been created.
The quality of food is dependent on the product safety, i.e. the guarantee the producer gives to the
consumer that the food is safe and will not cause any sickness or other harm. To ensure this, producers
have to work according to the HACCP-system (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point). HACCP is an
internationally recognized control system developed by NASA and is used in food production to
eliminate risk during food manufacturing (Mrdn, 1995).
The expectations on the food industry from consumers and authorities have increased over the past
years (Bergstrm and Hellqvist, 2004). This development has led to the use of international standards
regarding quality supervision by manufactures. The standards BRC, ISO 22000 and IFS are widely used
and well recognized. These standards include HACCP, quality supervision as well as GMP (Good
Manufacturing Practices). The British Retail Consortium (BRC) created a standard designed for British
food retailers and for other manufacturers producing food for the British market (Miljstyrningsrdet,
2007). The name of the standard is BRC Global Standard for Food Safety, further referred to as the BRC
standard, and the purpose of it is to achieve safe food products and service for the consumer. The BRC
standard is a technical standard based on HACCP and it includes detailed regulation regarding
production, product management and traceability (BRC Global Standards, 2011). The standard was
developed in 1998 as a result of the industries need for a safety evaluation system concerning the safety
of retailers private label products. The purpose was to assist brand owners and retailers to produce
reliable, safe food products with high quality. Another purpose was to assist the brand owners and
retailers with due diligence defense in case of a prosecution by enforcement authorities, since retailers
and brand owners have a legal responsibility for their brands under the EU food law. Through a
searchable resource, called BRC Global Standards Directory, it is easy to access information regarding
which suppliers and sites have achieved a BRC certification. The sixth version is the current version of
BRC Global Standard for Food Safety.
When a manufacturer has been qualified for a certificate from a quality management system accepted
by international recognized standards such as BRC, the relation to other businesses is facilitated
(Bergstrm & Hellqvist, 2004). The primary benefit is the improved relation to other manufacturers and
companies, not so much the relation to consumers and customers. The certificate will help the business
to keep its customers when the certification is a requirement for making business. According to
Bergstrm and Hellqvist (2004) it also helps the manufacturer or company to create new opportunities,
to get into new markets and start producing for new consumers. The company will also earn an
increased trust among customers and will ensure the communication to authorities that may have not
been the case as an uncertified business.
MEANING- Quality management ensures that an organization, product or service is consistent. It has
four main components: quality planning, quality control, quality assurance and quality
improvement. Quality management is focused not only on product and service quality, but also the
means to achieve it. Quality management therefore uses quality assurance and control of processes as
well as products to achieve more consistent quality.
Quality management is a recent phenomenon. Advanced civilizations that supported the arts and crafts
allowed clients to choose goods meeting higher quality standards than normal goods. In societies where
arts and crafts are the responsibility of a master craftsman or artist, they would lead their studio and
train and supervise others. The importance of craftsmen diminished as mass production and repetitive
work practices were instituted. The aim was to produce large numbers of the same goods. The first
proponent in the US for this approach was Eli Whitney who proposed (interchangeable) parts
manufacture for muskets, hence producing the identical components and creating a musket assembly
line. The next step forward was promoted by several people including Frederick Winslow Taylor a
mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. He is sometimes called "the father of
scientific management." He was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and part of
his approach laid a further foundation for quality management, including aspects like standardization
and adopting improved practices. Henry Ford was also important in bringing process and quality
management practices into operation in his assembly lines. In Germany, Karl Friedrich Benz, often called
the inventor of the motor car, was pursuing similar assembly and production practices, although real
mass production was properly initiated in Volkswagen after World War II. From this period onwards,
North American companies focused predominantly upon production against lower cost with increased
Walter A. Shewhart made a major step in the evolution towards quality management by creating a
method for quality control for production, using statistical methods, first proposed in 1924. This became
the foundation for his ongoing work on statistical quality control. W. Edwards Deming later applied
statistical process control methods in the United States during World War II, thereby successfully
improving quality in the manufacture of munitions and other strategically important products.
Quality leadership from a national perspective has changed over the past five to six decades. After the
second world war, Japan decided to make quality improvement a national imperative as part of
rebuilding their economy, and sought the help of Shewhart, Deming and Juran, amongst others. W.
Edwards Deming championed Shewhart's ideas in Japan from 1950 onwards. He is probably best known
for his management philosophy establishing quality, productivity, and competitive position. He has
formulated 14 points of attention for managers, which are a high level abstraction of many of his deep
insights. They should be interpreted by learning and understanding the deeper insights. These 14
points include key concepts such as:
Break down barriers between departments
Management should learn their responsibilities, and take on leadership
Supervision should be to help people and machines and gadgets to do a better job
Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service
Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement
In the 1950s and 1960s, Japanese goods were synonymous with cheapness and low quality, but over
time their quality initiatives began to be successful, with Japan achieving very high levels of quality in
products from the 1970s onward. For example, Japanese cars regularly top the J.D. Power customer
satisfaction ratings. In the 1980s Deming was asked by Ford Motor Company to start a quality initiative
after they realized that they were falling behind Japanese manufacturers. A number of highly successful
quality initiatives have been invented by the Japanese (see for example on this page: Genichi
Taguchi, QFD, Toyota Production System. Many of the methods not only provide techniques but also
have associated quality culture (i.e. people factors). These methods are now adopted by the same
western countries that decades earlier derided Japanese methods.
Customers recognize that quality is an important attribute in products and services. Suppliers recognize
that quality can be an important differentiator between their own offerings and those of competitors
(quality differentiation is also called the quality gap). In the past two decades this quality gap has been
greatly reduced between competitive products and services. This is partly due to the contracting (also
called outsourcing) of manufacture to countries like India and China, as well internationalization of trade
and competition. These countries amongst many others have raised their own standards of quality in
order to meet International standards and customer demands. The ISO 9000 series of standards are
probably the best known International standards for quality management.

Tasks quality of the sector in the food industry
In general, the operating system of quality control in the food industry must meet some specific tasks.
One of the tasks is to ensure compliance with sanitary standards and compliance requirements of the
legislation, including with regard to food safety standards, the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
and the system Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP). For this, there is need for
procedures to control insects, rodents, birds and other pests, and procedures for cleaning and sanitizing
equipment, industrial plant and storage areas. Still, personal hygiene of staff working on process lines
and proper habits on food handling should be implemented and monitored to ensure that food safety
standards are met. In cooperation with the departments of production, research and development,
engineering or operations, the department of quality control analyzes manufacturing processes to
"Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points." The integrity and safety of food products should be
ensured through the identification and assessment of all unit operations of the process in order to
prevent potential contamination and adulteration that could expose consumers to health risks. In
cooperation with the department of research and development (R&D), production, purchasing and
sales, should be prepared written specifications for raw materials, ingredients, packaging materials,
other supplies and finished products. Furthermore, should be established in writing form and in
cooperation with the departments of production and R&D the procedures for each unit operation of all
manufacturing processes of the fashion industry that can be implemented in processing lines. The
participation of staff from other departments of the company occurs by the virtue of their expertise in
relation to consumer demands or knowledge of product technology and process, and the participation
of the operators of the process, because of its experience in the production.

Methodologies in support of the quality management in the food industry
The quality management applies systems and tools that are intended to assist the implementation of
quality-oriented way to improve the product and the process, increasing the levels of quality business
and ensuring customer's satisfaction. The purpose of this topic is to describe some tools, techniques and
systems that have been more widely used in quality management in the food industry. Besides the
methods mentioned, there are others that could be employed by companies. The choice of which
implement depends on the company's strategies and know-how of its employees.
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)
HACCP is a system based on prevention of hazards to the industry to produce safe food to consumers.
The HACCP involves a complete analysis of the dangers in the systems of production, handling,
processing and consumption of a food product. HACCP is widely acknowledged as the best method of
assuring product safety and is becoming internationally recognized as a tool for controlling food-borne
safety hazards. In short, this system has a systematic and scientific approach to process control,
designed to prevent the occurrence of failures, ensuring that the controls are applied in processing steps
where hazards might occur or critical situations. For this, the HACCP system combines technical
information updated with detailed procedures to evaluate and monitor the flow of food into an
industry. The new sanitary requirements and quality requirements dictated by the main international
markets, led since 1991, to the deployment experimental stage of the HACCP. There are new rules
governing the international market, established during the Uruguay Round of Trade Negotiations and
applicable to all member countries of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The Codex Alimentarius has
become the regulatory body for matters of hygiene and food safety in the WTO. The Codex Alimentarius
reflects an international consensus regarding the requirements for protection of human health in
relation to the risks of food borne illness. This measure is accelerating the process of harmonization of
food laws of the countries, process that is oriented concerning food security, with the recommendation
of the use of the system Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, to ensure food safety. Generally the
HACCP system initially involves the creation of a multifunctional team ,supported by senior
management of the company, and the characterization of all food products that will be included in the
system. Also a set of programs, such as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Sanitation Standard
Operating Procedures (SSOP) are universally accepted as prerequisites for the implementation of the
HACCP system and therefore should be consolidated. Only then each step of the production process of a
product will be analyzed for the possibility of a chemical, physical and microbiological contamination.
Thereafter preventive measures are described and identified the Critical Control Points (CCPs). For each
critical point is necessary to establish critical control limits, which allow the monitoring of hazards. As
there is always a possibility of failure, it is essential to provide corrective measures in order to ensure
the process return into a controlled situation. It should also establish procedures for verification of CCPs
and their respective records. After the HACCP plan drawn up, it is validation occur through discussions
among team members . Finally, the HACCP plan is disseminated to the production employees and for
those responsible for assessing the products quality on the factory floor. Internal and external audits are
recommended for periodic maintenance and continuous improvement of the system.
Standardization of processes
Standardization is a management tool involved in the preparation, training and control standards within
the company. Such standards are documents containing technical specifications or specific criteria that
will be used as a guide in order to ensure that products, processes and services are designed with quality
The main objective of a program of standardization for the food industry is to minimize the variations in
quality of production. For this, it is necessary to provide means to standardize both the operational and
analytical procedures, as raw materials, machinery and equipment used in the manufacturing process.
The patterns are instruments that indicate the goal and procedures for accomplishment of the work can
be classified as follows:
Standards of Quality (SQ): refer to the parameters related to quality of products, raw materials and
Operation Standards: describe the manufacturing process of a product, the technical parameters of
control by the operators and operating procedures. These are divided into Standard Process Technician
(SPT) and Operational Procedure (OP). The first document describes the process of manufacture of a
product, the quality characteristics and the control parameters. Operating procedures standards are
prepared by managers and operators to achieve the objectives proposed in the SPT and SQs.
Standards Inspection: describe methods and criteria for assessing the degree of success achieved in
carrying out an activity, compared to planned levels of quality for the product. The inspection may occur
in the process, the finished product and in the raw material.
Through standardization it is achieved greater standardization of products, improved productivity and
product quality, cost reduction, simplification and optimization of production processes, increase the
technical capacity of operators of process, greater job security, reduction of inventory levels of raw
materials and inputs, reducing the preparation time of the machines and self-management by the
workers. Also noteworthy is that the patterns facilitate the transfer of knowledge since all the people
and functional units involved in a particular pattern should collaborate, as far as possible, be trained in
their preparation and for their use.

Operations Management is an area of management concerned with overseeing, designing, and
controlling the process of production and redesigning business operations in the production
of goods or services. It involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient in
terms of using as few resources as needed, and effective in terms of meeting customer requirements. It
is concerned with managing the process that converts inputs (in the forms of raw materials, labor,
and energy) into outputs (in the form of goods and/or services). The relationship of operations
management to senior management in commercial contexts can be compared to the relationship of line
officers to highest-level senior officers in military science. The highest-level officers shape
the strategy and revise it over time, while the line officers make tactical decisions in support of carrying
out the strategy. In business as in military affairs, the boundaries between levels are not always distinct;
tactical information dynamically informs strategy, and individual people often move between roles over

Ford Motor car assembly line: the classical example of a manufacturing production system.

Airport queue. Operations Management studies both manufacturing and services.
According to the United States Department of Education, operations management is the field concerned
with managing and directing the physical and/or technical functions of a firm or organization,
particularly those relating to development, production, and manufacturing. Operations management
programs typically include instruction in principles of general management, manufacturing and
production systems, factory management, equipment maintenance management, production control,
industrial labor relations and skilled trades supervision, strategic manufacturing policy, systems
analysis, productivity analysis and cost control, and materials planning.
Management, including
operations management, is like engineering in that it blends art with applied science. People skills,
creativity, rational analysis, and knowledge of technology are all required for success.

Current situation regarding Total Quality Management applications in the food
Companies are implementing different activities and meeting the requirements of TQM in an
appropriate way .Particularly in matters where the companies have to realize mandatory
measures or implement measures which have any visible impact, the enterprises reach high
levels of achievement. This includes, for example, the reduction of environmental damage, in
which category the enterprises are particularly successful. Another example is that, in most cases
,one can notice that the implementation of an organizational structure is ensured throughout the
management levels. Food quality and safety management is becoming more important to consumers
who have seen the number of highly publicized product recalls increase over the last decade. According
to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), roughly 1 in 6 Americans (or 48 million people) get sick and
3,000 die of foodborne illnesses. As a result, food and beverage companies incur unexpected costs to
remove, destroy and replace product from the supply chain, which can impact sales, market share and
consumer confidence.
Growing Importance of Food Quality Management
Due to the increasing number of food recalls, regulators are implementing new food and beverage
quality standards and requirements to ensure that the food that enters the supply chain is safe for
consumers. The most recent regulation, the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), now provides the
FDA with the power to force a food recall and suspend facility operations, as opposed to letting a brand
owner make the decision to recall a product. Organizations are implementing Hazard Analysis and
Critical Control Point (HACCP) plans to identify and implement preventive controls to protect food
quality during the production and preparation processes.
Besides concerns on food regulations, companies have the added challenge of managing the food
quality of global suppliers, third party manufacturers and contract packagers to ensure that products are
on time and meet food and beverage quality and compliance requirements.
Automated Food Safety Management System Versus Paper-Based Solutions
Unfortunately, many companies in this industry are still relying on paper-based records or spreadsheet
to document and manage such food quality management processes as audits, deviations and corrective
and preventive actions (CAPA) or supplier management. This prevents information and updates to be
shared with other facilities and creates inefficiencies in production and change procedures that have
been implemented.
With Track Wise, companies in the Food & Beverage industry can automate food quality management
processes to meet compliance requirements and changing regulations while still benefiting from a
flexible, enterprise quality management solution that can streamline quality information and food safety
management processes across the enterprise.
Sparta Systems TrackWise EQMS Solution Enables Food and Beverage Companies
Support a complete food safety management system that monitors product from warehouse receiving,
through production and packaging, and finally through QA testing before a product is shipped through
the supply chain.
Automate food quality processes and compile global information in a single, centralized location.
Use a flexible configurable workflow platform to define, track, manage and report on changing business
processes to support food regulations, providing visibility currently lacking from existing systems.
Provide a comprehensive audit trail with electronic signatures and parent-child records that is easy to
query and audit, and eliminates errors and the inefficiencies of paper-based systems.
Manage internal and external audits to monitor risks and deviations to reduce adverse events in the
supply chain.
Integrate with other ERP and IT systems to create a seamless system of visibility across the companys
enterprise and through its suppliers and contract vendors.
Create on-demand reports using Track Wise Analytics and the Crystal Reports generator to review
dashboards to identify issues or track food safety management process efficiencies.
Supports Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) software and other regulatory
requirements to identify critical areas of concern and implement corrective and preventive action
(CAPA) to support food and beverage quality control efforts of the organization.
TrackWise EQMS Solutions Comply With Important FDA And Other Food
Manufacturing Regulations Including:
Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA)
ISO 22000
Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)
Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI)
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)
British Retail Consortium (BRC)
International Food Standard (IFS)
Safe Quality Food (SQF)
TrackWise automates food quality management processes and integrates this information to other
disparate IT systems, to provide the granular level visibility that is currently missing from existing
systems. Companies have seen measurable reductions in the number of recall events as well as the cycle
times associated with change control, CAPAs and supply quality management. TrackWise enables your
organization to comply with GMP standards and delivers efficient and effective integration across food
and beverage management processes including:

Supplier Quality Management
Manage the process of qualifying, selecting, and monitoring suppliers and supply chain partners using
supplier quality management software with features such as supplier scorecards, supplier qualification
workflows, and tracking systems for supplier nonconformances and resulting actions.
Audit Management
Identify and mitigate operational compliance risks for food regulations by efficiently managing the full
audit lifecycle, including the resolution of findings in a timely and effective manner with our audit
management solution.
Complaint Handling
Record, track, and trend customer inquiries and complaints while managing all remedial action through
to completion with our complaint management software.
Incident Management & CAPA
Automate deviations, investigations and CAPA workflow steps. Manage deviations in a way that
complies with CPG supply chain and overall food quality standards.

Mandates by the FDA and the USDA such as HACCP procedures and ISO 22000-based food safety
management systems are the basis for many quality and compliance programs in the food and beverage
industry. Companies know all too well that improperly trained employees, substandard products, or
poor service can cost millions of dollars a year in lost sales and leave the door open to more severe
Metric Stream provides web-based, end-to-end quality control and quality management solutions to
support compliance programs for food safety and quality. Our food quality management solutions
enable companies in the food and beverage industry to capture, route, correct, prevent, and analyze
system-wide issues between their organization and their trading partners. Unlike records in
spreadsheets, paper-based procedures, and email-based processes, MetricStream solutions gives
companies the ability to collaborate with their partners, provides a real-time view into quality data, and
enables issue-tracking for a closed-loop compliance process.
By unifying all quality and compliance data into one central repository, food and beverage companies
can leverage robust reporting, dashboard, and alert capabilities to easily identify trends, overdue
actions, and other performance metrics while maintaining detailed scorecards against key performance
indicators (KPIs). This increases overall efficiency in their food quality and safety management program.
Leading food and beverage companies have benefited by implementing MetricStream food quality
management solution in the following ways:
Protect brand image and market share
Ensure the highest quality and safety of products
Limit liability of food-borne illness events
Reduce materials and ingredients costs
Improve supplier product quality
Improve relationships with trading partners
Reduce product waste and downtime
Reduce costs of regulatory compliance
Ensure currency and integrity of quality documents.

Each industry has its own unique set of compliance challenges, risks, and quality mandates.
MetricStream solutions are designed to deliver specific functionalities based on best practices adopted
within an industry.
The MetricStream solution suite includes products tailored for automating the compliance and quality
practices in diverse markets including pharmaceutical, medical device, high tech manufacturing, energy,
financial services, healthcare, manufacturing, food and beverages, and automotive industries.
In addition to supporting industry-specific regulatory guidelines from FDA, FERC, FAA, HACCP, OMB A-
123, AML, Basel II, and Data Retention laws, MetricStream solutions provide cross-industry offerings to
support corporate governance and risk management programs as well as mandates and regulations such
as OSHA, EH&S, FCPA, and ISO standards that apply to a wide range of industries.
MetricStream uniquely combines software and content to deliver solutions that are embedded with best
practices templates, access to compliance training programs, and the ability to integrate business
processes with regulatory notifications and industry alerts.
Leading companies have chosen MetricStream to manage their governance, risk, compliance, and
quality related business processes.
Benefits of MetricStream Solutions:
Integrated Processes: Organizations can seamlessly exchange data within inter-related processes, and
track issues and activities across compliance and quality functions for a closed-loop approach.
System of Record: A single system of record is provided for entire compliance initiatives across business
units and functional boundaries.
Embedded Best Practices: Regulation-specific functionalities based on industry best practices are ready
to be used out of the box.
Content Driven Automation: The solution enables content driven business processes with access to
compliance training programs, standards and templates, and regulatory notifications and industry alerts.
Data-driven Risk Management: The solution provides real-time visibility and easy access to compliance
process metrics with tools for data analysis and reporting.
Electronic Record-keeping: A central repository helps capture and manage records of all business
processes with access controls, collaboration tools, and electronic sign-offs.
Automated Workflows: Cycle times are accelerated as cases and information are routed from one
stage to the next supported by rule-based notifications, alerts, escalations, and task assignments.
Enterprise Compliance Platform: Robust technology architecture supports all compliance, risk, and
quality processes in an integrated and consistent manner.
Solution Configurability: Tools are provided to model solutions based on existing business practices,
scale up as required, and adapt to changing processes.
Quality assurance
Quality Assurance is an important part of every companys production, whether goods or services are
produced. Workers who specialise in this area are a valuable part of the company, ensuring their
continued success through monitoring the quality of goods or services given. This is done through
several different methods, depending on the field of work.
The titles of workers in Quality Assurance positions usually include inspectors, testers, samplers, sorters
and weighing specialists. Inspectors are responsible for examining the merchandise visually and
sometimes with the use of special equipment to ensure it is functional. Testers use analytical techniques
and physical methods to test products to be sure they are not faulty. In the food-based industries, this
can include tasting the food to be sure the correct ingredients and measurements were used. Chemical
tests are also performed to be sure the food is safe to eat and carries no risk to health.
Overall, each of these employees work individually or as a team to uphold the quality standards of the
company they are employed by. It is their responsibility to be sure that other workers are producing
quality goods and services.
Food quality assurance has gained importance in the past few years with the food industry also
following the quality monitoring and management system as per strict guidelines. Quality guarantee has
become a necessary component of the food service business with the adoption of analysis and control
systems for food safety. Hence, anybody, who is getting into the food industry or is already in it, needs
to know about the various techniques that are meant to assure the quality of food as per the laid down
norms and procedures.
The need for food quality assurance
Some reasons for the implementation of food quality assurance programs are:
Customer expectations - Customers have become more demanding and knowledgeable. They are more
concerned about the ingredients of the food products and hence maintaining optimum quality
standards in food industry has become very necessary.
Environmental concerns - Nowadays, people are more concerned about the environment and
environmental protection laws have become more stringent. Hence, employing environmental friendly
methods in the food industry has become necessary. QA plays a big role in all this.
Organic Foods There is more demand for organic foods because people have become concerned
about the potential adverse effects of chemicals, used in farming, on the environment and health.
Hence quality monitoring and guarantee ensures that the chemicals are within the specified limits in any
food product.
Technology - With the development in technology, various methods for food processing and other food
related activities have emerged. These methods provide safer and higher quality food to the customers.
Today all organizations related to food have to ensure good quality systems to compete in the market.
Regulatory requirements - Food being a critical element of life, the regulatory agencies have also put in
place stringent requirements for its safety and quality. QA systems help the food industry to meet these
requirements consistently and deliver food that is fit for consumption.

In short, food quality assurance programs, must cover all the aspects related to food quality and safety
from ingredient sourcing through production, packaging and distribution to sale by the retailer or
caterer and therefore provide confidence to the consumers.
Total Quality Management in food processing industry

Total quality management (TQM) has been one of the finest strategies prescribed for bringing in
effective quality improvement in the organisation. It is a method which calls for the involvement of the
management and employees to bring in continuous improvement of the production of goods and
services. However, the concept is not much heard about in the food sector where the need is much
realized. Says Rajaram of Intertek, a company into testing, inspection & certification services, " The food
sector is a highly disorganized sector hence it may not be convenient to implement TQM in the industry.
Besides, there are fixed laws for the certification of food safety. However, there are many companies
which are implementing this programme."

Any food manufacturing unit demands 3 basic factors - hygiene, safety and quality.

TQM calls for a commitment to quality and excellence from every executive in the organisation. It is
dedication to continuous improvement on the part of every employee in the manufacturing or related
unit in a systematic way.

It calls for following a daily regime and steps which can be as simple as keeping the premises clean,
following more hygiene in daily work and finding out ways that can make work easier and interesting to
achieve. Here, every member has the right to identify problems and give suggestions for rectification.
The most promising factor in this concept is that every connected unit is treated as a consumer and
along with the development of the product the development of the organisation is achieved.

With the new FSSAI Act coming up it is believed that similar changes are bound to occur. Says Mohan
Patankar, joint commissioner, FDA Maharashtra, "The most important change by FSSAI coming in will be
that the burden would be shifted to the manufacturers from the enforcing agency. This would call the
manufacturers to take up the responsibility."

FSSAI emphasises more on quality and hygiene than on adulteration. According to Patankar, there is no
term like "Adulteration" in the FSSAI law book.

The existing food laws can very well be integrated with the TQM programme and implemented in a
simpler but assured manner. Under the previous Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA), an offense
meant a minimum of 6 months imprisonment and a sum of Rs1000 as fine but in FSSAI the scope for
compounding is given. The opportunity to improve is given to the manufacturers. Even the chain of
transition will be linked. In FSSAI the rule is simple, if a manufacturer does not comply with the certified
practices he is out of the business.

Laws like Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCAP), Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), ISO and
such others are very effective programmes for food safety.

HACCP was developed to foresee and rectify error before it occurred and thus establish zero deficiency.
The entire process of preparation of food is monitored by HACCAP. Before HACCAP there were other
conventional methods of quality assurance like sending the final product for testing and if the product
was found defaulting the process of recall or destruction of product began. But this method led to more

HACCAP ensured quality right from the preparation to the product delivery point. HACCP enables the
producers, processors, distributors, exporters, etc, of food products to utilise the technical resources
efficiently and in a cost effective manner in assuring food safety. Simlarly, under the FSSAI law,
substandard products can be sent for correction after issuing a notice for the monetary compounding
amount to the manufacturer.

GMP is another phenomenon which takes the holistic approach of regulating the manufacturing and
laboratory testing environment itself. Documentation of every aspect of the process, activities, and
operations involved with drug, food and medical device manufacture is important in GMP. Additionally,
GMP calls for testing of all manufacturing and testing equipment to be qualified as suitable for use, and
that all operational methodologies and procedures like manufacturing, cleaning, and analytical testing)
utilised in the food manufacturing process have been authenticated according to the certification

Such certification along with a holistic programme and a hired consultant to monitor the progress will
help India establish a quality food industry. TQM ultimately is not a law book but a routine regime that
can be implemented in making food safety a habit. Says Patankar, "If an entrepreneur wants to establish
a food business then only those would have a brighter chance to grow who have a stronghold in food
safety laws."

In October 2007, an amendment to Rule 50(16) was added that demanded recruitment of a supervisor
with specific qualifications to monitor food safety. This amendment can be considered one of the most
important steps towards acknowledgement of food safety.