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-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 16 -úÕÂÆç-•®Ω’ 2007 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

v°æ¨¡o: After 15 overs Australia ï¢√•’: ü˨»© Ê°®ΩxûÓ, Ç ü˨»©


were 121-2 ÅØË ¢√é¬uEo ïôx†’ í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«xúËô°æ¤púø’ plur-
cricket v°æûªuéπ~ v°æ≤ƒ-®Ωç™ al ¢√úøû√ç. India were 121/2 at
were
îª÷¨»†’. -Ñ ¢√éπuç™ lunch ņo-°æ¤púø’ Å®Ωnç– Lunch Ææ´’-
Ö†o îÓô was Öçú≈L ߪ÷-EéÀ ¶µ«®Ωûª ïô’d (team) ™E
éπü∆? àC, áçü¿’èπ◊ éπÈ®éÓd players 121 °æ®Ω’-í∫’©’ î˨»-®ΩE.
N´-Jç-îªçúÕ. É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x singular í¬F
– áÆˇ.-üµ¿-®Ωt-°æ¤J, ¢Áçéπ-ö«-°æ‹®˝, plural í¬F ¢√úÌa. India was
ÇC-™«-¶«ü˛ ->-™«x 121/2 ÅE èπÿú≈ ÅØÌa.

v°æ¨¡o: i) Who/ what/ which ©’ subject í¬ ï¢√•’: iii)O’ question éÌçûª ÅÆæp≠ædçí¬ ÖçC. Ø√èπ◊ Å®Ωn-¢Á’i- 1) Beauty (Noun)
Sentence Patterns

¢√úÕ† v°æ¨¡o™x do/ does/ did áçü¿’èπ◊ i) Who, which ques-


ûÓ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ †ç-ûª-´-®Ωèπ◊ Ñ example ÉÆæ’h-Ø√o†’, îª÷úøçúÕ. Noun (Subject) Verb Object
¢√úø-èπÿ-úøü¿’? Éçü¿’™ subject í¬ ¢√úÕ† tions do, does, did
™ 2)
¢√úøç. 1. Beauty (n) = Åçü¿ç The beauty of Kashmir + attracts + a large ...
eg: Who broke the jug? What What do 2) Beautiful (Adj)
The beauty of Kashmir attracts a large num-
°æü∆©’ àN? ûÓ ¢√úøû√ç éπü∆?
ii) Who/ what/ which ©’ object í¬ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷- you know? What does he want? Subject Verb subject complement
ber of tourists. (Adjective)
TçîË Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x do/ does/ did ¢√úøû√ç. What did he say? 3) Who, which
2. Beautiful (adj) = The scenery of Kashmir + is + beautiful
negative questions
Åçü¿-¢Á’i†, Åçü¿çí¬ Ö†o.
eg: Who do you want to play with your ûÓ èπÿú≈ ™ 3) Beautifully (adv)
do, does, did Who The scenery of Kashmir is beautiful.
team? ¢√úøû√ç éπü∆. Sub Verb Object Adverb
does not know it? Which (of 3. Beautiful (Adv) = Åçü¿çí¬ He + decorated + the house + beautifully
Éçü¿’™ object í¬ ¢√úÕ† °æü∆©’ àN?
you) did not do the home work, He decorated the house beautifully. 4) Beautify (verb)
subject àC? N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.
etc. Oô-Eoç-öÀ™ èπÿú≈subject, 4. Beautify (verb) = Subject Verb Object
iii) Part of speech ™ verb, adjectives Åçü¿çí¬ îËߪ’ôç/ Å©ç-éπ-
who, what, which. He beautified the place by growing He + beautified + the place
í¬†’, adverb í¬†’ noun í¬†’ ´÷®Ω’p ii) Who do you want to play with?
Jç-îªôç.
iv) 6 forms of the verb
a garden in it = Åéπ\úø ã ûÓô†’ °ç* Ç
îÁçü¿’-û√®·. ¢√öÀ Å®√n©’, ¢√öÀE à Nüµ¿çí¬ who, present day English
Ééπ\úø 1. Be forms
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T-≤ƒh®Ω’? Å®√nEo ᙫ BÆæ’-éÓ-¢√™ v°æüË-¨»Eo Åçü¿çí¬ î˨»úø’. 2. Be form + ing form
whom
äÍé ´÷ô†’ BÆæ’-èπ◊E, sentence pattern ™ èπ◊ •ü¿’©’
sub-
3. Be form + past participle (PP) (Passive Voice)
4. Have/ has/ had/ will have/ shall have etc + PP
°æü¿l¥-A™ -N-´®Ωçí¬ -ûÁ-L-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’í∫-©®Ω’. ¢√úË ´÷ô. Ééπ\úø
ject you. áçü¿’-éπçõ‰ 5. Doing words I RDW II RDW PDW
iv) Verb forms 6 ®Ω鬩’ ÅØ√o®Ω’. ÅN
come, comes, came
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 396
†’´¤y á´-JûÓ Çú≈-©-†’-
àN’öÀ? N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o´¤? ņo-°æ¤púø’, 6. Shall/ should/ will/ would/ can/ could
– >.Èé.-®√´¤, £j«ü¿-®√-¶«ü˛ subject is you. may/ might/ must etc. + 1st RDW.

v°æ¨¡o: i) Would, Should, Could à Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x Ö°æ-


ßÁ÷-Tç-î√™ Ææp≠ædçí¬ ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’.
ii) sine qua non Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ?
iii) Simple past, past perfect á°æ¤púø’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-
sine qua non Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ?
v°æ¨¡o:
Tç-î√L?
iv) ûÁ©’-í∫’™ äéπ ´uéÀhE íı®Ω-´çí¬ Ææç¶-Cµç-îË-ô- à íÌ°æp 鬮Ωuç/ -¢√u-§ƒ®Ωç Nï-ߪ÷-E- Ø√èπ◊ car ã Ææç´-ûªq®Ωçí¬ ÖçC =
°æ¤púø’, ' O’®Ω’— , ' ûª´’®Ω’— , ' ¢√®Ω’— ÅE ´u´-£æ«- ÈéjØ√ ´’ç* °æü∑¿éπç Å´-Ææ-®Ωç/ Have °æéπ\† had Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç- I have had a car for the past one year Åçö«ç éπü∆?
J≤ƒhç. Åçõ‰ àéπ-´- íı®Ω-´-Ææ÷-îªéπç ņo- ´·êuç. îª-´î√a ÅØË v°æ¨¡oèπ◊ she has Å™«Íí Ç¢Á’èπ◊ Ç ÖüÓuí∫ç Ææç´-ûªq®Ωçí¬ ÖçC ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊,
iii) Simple past - for past actions, had this job for the last
´÷ô. Å™«Íí ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ äéπ ´uéÀhE íı®Ω-NÆæ÷h
time known; past perfect for
°j sentence ™ car èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ job ¢√úøçúÕ.
one year ÅE example
Ææç¶-Cµç-îª-úø-¢Á’™«?
past actions, time not stated. Éî√a®Ω’. DEo She has
Å°æ¤p-úÌîËa sentence:
ï¢√•’: i) Would, should, could Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬©’ She has had this job for the last one year.
– °œ.-á-Ø˛.-N. ®Ω-´’-ù-¶«-•’, -A®Ω’°æ-A a) I have seen the movie = ØË-†’ - been this job for the last
M.SURESAN She has been this job for the last one year =
Ç -Æœ-E´÷ îª÷¨»†’– á°æ¤púø’ one year ņúøç ûª§ƒp?
î√™« N´-®Ωçí¬ Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ Éî√aç. îª÷úøçúÕ. îª÷ÆœçD îÁ°æp-ôç-™‰ü¿’– tense, Ñ sentence ™ verb has been. ÉC be form (Åçõ‰
ii) sine qua non - ÂÆjØ˛-é¬y-Ø√Ø˛= àüÁjØ√ ≤ƒCµç-î √-
ï¢√•’:
– -P-K-≠æ, -ØÁ-©÷x®Ω’
past perfect. í∫ûªç™ äéπ Æ洒ߪ’ç †’ç* É°æp-öÀ-´®Ωèπÿ/ Éçé¬ Öçúøôç
©-†’-èπ◊-†o-°æ¤púø’ ´’†èπ◊ Å´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’i† N≠æߪ’ç/ b) I saw it last night= ؈’ ü∆EE E†o ®√vA (state of being) îÁ°æ¤ hçC).
i) Have + past participle/ has +
í∫’ùç. ÅC ™‰EüË ´’†ç ≤ƒCµç-‰ç. time - last night
a) Industry is the sine qua non for success
îª÷¨»†’– Ééπ\úø
鬕öÀd,saw - past simple
Åçô’Ø√oç
¢√úø’-ûª’Ø√oç. past participleí∫ûªç™ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº¢Á’i 鬕öÀd She has been this job for the last one year=
Ç¢Á’ í∫ûª Ææç´-ûªq-®Ωçí¬ Ñ ÖüÓu-í∫çí¬ ÖçC. Ç¢Á’
iv) You = †’´¤y/- O’®Ω’. íı®Ω´ Ææ÷îªéπçí¬ O’®Ω’
= Nï-ߪ÷-EéÀ éπ%≠œ Å´-Ææ-®Ωç/- ´·êuç (éπ%≠œ-
Éçûª-´-®Ωèπÿ ïJ-T† °æEE ûÁ©’-°æ¤-
ÖüÓuí∫çí¬ Öçúøü¿’ éπü∆? ÖüÓu-í∫ç™ Öçô’çC. Å™« ÅØËç-
™‰-EüË Nïߪ’ç §Òçü¿™‰ç). ÅØ√-©Ø√o, you ÅØË Åçö«ç. You please û√®·.
ü¿’èπ◊ She has been on this job for the last one year.
b) Careful planning is the sine qua non of Åçö«ç. Åçûª-éπçõ‰ ¢ËÍ® àO’ expressions Ø√èπ◊ car ÖçC = I have a car
(É°æ¤púø’). Åçõ‰, Å°æ¤púø’ Ç¢Á’ Ñ ÖüÓu-í∫ç™ ÖçC ÅE ´Ææ’hçC.
success in any venture = ™‰´¤.
v°æ¨¡o: English spelling games í∫’Jç* éÌEo v°æ¨¡o: i) Kindly clarify that, the ï¢√•’: v°æ¨¡o: i) I am writing this letter with ï¢√•’:
ÆæçüË-£æ…©’: ‘c, s’ – ÉN á°æ¤púø’ àN main clause should be i) O’®Ω’ îÁ°œp†™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x, should a good intention. inten-
Ééπ\úø i) Intention
(ÖüËl¨¡ç) ÅØËC count-
´≤ƒhßÁ÷ Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç--îªí∫-ûª®Ω’. ‘would’ or ‘should’ or accord- ¢√úøéπç -î√-™« §ƒçúÕ-ûªuçí¬ ÅE°œ-Ææ’hçC. tion ÅØËC countable noun or able.
î√-™« Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ uncountable.
- C.Madhu, Warangal ing to its subject (I, II or III Modern English usages ™, should éÀ uncountable noun like informa- Å®·-†-°æp-öÀéà information, furniture
ï¢√•’: á°æ¤púø’ c, á°æ¤púø’ s ´Ææ’hçC ÅE persons) in the sentences of would éÀ É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™ x ûËú≈ tion and furniture? ™«çöÀ uncountable ´÷vûªç é¬ü¿’.
îÁ°æp-úøç î√-™« éπ≠dçæ . English ™ c E imaginary condition. Åçûª-Jç-*-§Ú-®·çC. Direct, Indirect ii) What about his letter? ii) ÉC ¢√úø’éπ ´©x ´*a† ´÷ô©’.
s ™« á°æ¤púø’, k ™« á°æ¤púø’, ÅØËC Ç The text book of VIII (EM) pre- speech ™, conditionals ™ requests How about his programme? Mostly spoken form. Åçü¿’-éπE
°æü¿ç à ¶µ«≠æ-™ç* English ™éÀ scribed by the Govt. of A.P., ™ Éçûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ should ¢√úË îÓôx-Eoç- °j È®çúø’- ¢√-é¬u™x verb à¢Á’içC? Ç verbs ®√´¤. É™«ç-öÀN ´’J-éÌEo–
´*aç-ü¿ØË N≠æߪ’ç O’ü¿ Çüµ∆-®Ω-°æúÕ says that the main clause nor- öÀ™  should èπ◊ -•-ü¿’-©’ British, È®çúÕ-çöÀF affirmative sentence Why trouble me now? (Why do
Öçô’çC. ÅC ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´-úøç -Éçé¬ mally uses ‘should’, not American English ©™ would ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ™, passive voice ™ ᙫ you trouble me now •ü¿’©’)/
éπ≠dçæ . Åçü¿’-éπE c ûÓ àü¿-®·Ø√ éÌûªh- ‘would’. Here normally ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. If I were you, I should ®√ߪ÷™ ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’. Why not? (áçü¿’èπ◊ é¬èπÿ-úøü¿’/
´÷ô ´ÊÆh, ü∆E pronunciation dic- means....? like to do it - ÉC old usage. If I were áçü¿’èπ◊ ™‰ü¿’?) etc.
iii) He is suffering from joint pain.
tionary ™ îª÷Æœ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√-LqçüË. ii) How ro pronunce the word you, I’d (would) like to do it - ÉC (I don’t like to go ÅØËç-ü¿’èπ◊
She is my dream girl- Ééπ\úø joint,
v°æ¨¡o: Question tag ™ I am a doctor, ‘dais’? modern usage. Present day English
™ should- äéπ®Ω’ îËߪ÷-Lq† (¶«üµ¿u-ûªí¬) dream à ®Ωéπ-¢Á’i† adjectives? response í¬ Å-ØË -´÷-ô?)
aren’t I? ÅE ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ I am not a iii) v°æA¶µ«§ƒöÀ™¸ áØÓo ®√≠æ-Z°æA? iii) Joint, dream Ñ È®çúø÷-èπÿú≈
doctor, am I? ÅE ´Ææ’hçü∆? are I?
EE -ûÁ-LÊ°ç-ü¿’èπ◊, Ææ©£æ… ÉîËaç-ü¿’èπ◊ iv) She came here to read the
A¢√J Ççvüµ¿-v°æ-üË-¨¸éÀ áØÓo í∫´-®Ωo®Ω’? °æ´÷vûª nouns used as adjectives,
books.
ÅE ´Ææ’hçü∆? Ñ È®çúø÷ É™« question college student ™ college -™«.
- What are the question forms
¢Ë’ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.
ii) Dias - úÁ®·Æˇ She came here for reading the
tag áçü¿’-éÌ-Ææ’h-Ø√o®·? ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. in English for such type of books - Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀéà ֆo ûËú≈†’ iv) È®çúø÷ äéπõ‰ – Å®Ωnç™ ûËú≈ ™‰ü¿’.
questions? iii) DEéÀ English ™ ÆæÈ®j-† ¢√éπuç-™‰ü¿’. ÉC
- M.Moses, Vijayawada
ï¢√•’: I am not a doctor, am I? ÅØË Åçö«ç.
N´-Jç-îªçúÕ.
- I.V.Ramaswamy, Karimnagar
-Éç-ûª-èπ◊-´·çü¿’ N´-Jç-î√ç.
- Dr.P.Anjaneyulu, Srikakulam

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm