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A2 Chemistry Unit 4- Dynamic Equilibria Tutorial 2

Kajana Sivarasa

1


Practice Questions


1. (a) The expression for an equilibrium constant, K
c
, for a homogeneous
equilibrium reaction is given below.

(i) Write an equation for the forward reaction.
.....................................................................................................
(ii) Deduce the units of K
c
.....................................................................................................
(iii) State what can be deduced from the fact that the value of K
c
is
larger when the equilibrium is established at a lower
temperature.
.....................................................................................................
(3)
(b) A 36.8 g sample of N
2
O
4
was heated in a closed flask of volume
16.0 dm
3
. An equilibrium was established at a constant temperature
according to the following equation.
N
2
O
4
(g) 2NO
2
(g)
The equilibrium mixture was found to contain 0.180 mol of N
2
O
4
(i) Calculate the number of moles of N
2
O
4
in the 36.8 g sample.
.....................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................
(ii) Calculate the number of moles of NO
2
in the equilibrium
mixture.
.....................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
3
2
D C
B A
K
c
=
A2 Chemistry Unit 4- Dynamic Equilibria Tutorial 2
Kajana Sivarasa

2


(iii) Write an expression for K
c
and calculate its value under these
conditions.
Expression for K
c
.............................................................................................
.....................................................................................................
Calculation
.............................................................................................
.....................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................
(iv) Another 36.8 g sample of N
2
O
4
was heated to the same
temperature as in the original experiment, but in a larger flask.
State the effect, if any, of this change on the position of
equilibrium and on the value of K
c
compared with the original
experiment.
Effect on the position of equilibrium
.................................................................
Effect on the value of K
c
....................................................................................
(9)
(Total 12 marks)









A2 Chemistry Unit 4- Dynamic Equilibria Tutorial 2
Kajana Sivarasa

3


2. Tetrafluoroethene, C
2
F
4
, is obtained from chlorodifluoromethane,
CHClF
2
, according to the equation:
2CHClF
2
(g) C
2
F
4
(g) + 2HCl(g)
(a) A 1.0 mol sample of CHClF
2
is placed in a container of volume
18.5 dm
3
and heated.
When equilibrium is reached, the mixture contains 0.20 mol of
CHClF
2

(i) Calculate the number of moles of C
2
F
4
and the number of
moles of HCl present at equilibrium.
Number of moles of
C
2
F
4
...................................................................
Number of moles of
HCl .....................................................................
(ii) Write an expression for K
c
for the equilibrium.


..................................................................................................
(iii) Calculate a value for K
c
and give its units.
Calculation
.....................................................................................................
.................................................................................................
.................................................................................................
..................................................................................................
Units
......................................................................................................
(6)
!H = +128 kJ mol
1
A2 Chemistry Unit 4- Dynamic Equilibria Tutorial 2
Kajana Sivarasa

4



(b) (i) State how the temperature should be changed at constant
pressure to increase the equilibrium yield of C
2
F
4

..................................................................................................

(ii) State how the total pressure should be changed at constant
temperature to increase the equilibrium yield of C
2
F
4

.................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)




























A2 Chemistry Unit 4- Dynamic Equilibria Tutorial 2
Kajana Sivarasa

5



Gas Equilibria


Calculating Mole Fraction and the Partial Pressure

! Partial Pressure The partial pressure of a gas A in a mixture of gases
is the pressure that the gas would exert if it alone filled the container
at the same temperature.
! The total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of all the partial
pressures of the individual gases.
! Partial Pressure of gas A:

P
A
= mole fraction of A x total pressure

! Mole fraction of A =
!"#$% !" !
!"!#$ !"#$% !" !"#


! Kp is the equilibrium constant in terms of the partial pressures of the
gases in the equilibrium reaction.

For the reaction nA
(g)
+ mB
(g)
xC
(g)
+ yD
(g)

Where n,m,x and y are the number of moles of each substance.

K
p
= [p
c
]
x
[p
d
]
y


[p
A
]
n
[p
B
]
m



! Gas pressure can be expressed in variety of units:
o Atmosphere(atm)
o kPa(1Pa =1 Nm
-2
)
o Nm
-2

o mmHg


! The expressions for Kp and Kc are similar. Kp is in terms of partial
pressures, Kc in terms of concentrations. To calculate Kp, all partial
pressures are measured at equilibrium. As with Kc, the units of Kp
depend on the equation.




A2 Chemistry Unit 4- Dynamic Equilibria Tutorial 2
Kajana Sivarasa

6



Practice Questions


1. Using the data in the table, calculate the value of Kp for the reaction
2SO
2(g)
+ O
2(g)
2SO
3 (g)
taking place at a pressure of 7.0atm.



































Substance Moles at equilibrium
SO
2
0.016
O
2
0.0083
SO
3
0.15
A2 Chemistry Unit 4- Dynamic Equilibria Tutorial 2
Kajana Sivarasa

7

2. Phosphorus pentachloride decomposes on heating:
PCl
5(g)
PCl
3(g)
+ Cl
2(g)
When some phosphorus pentachloride was heated to 250
o
C in a flask,69%
of it dissociated and the total pressure in the flask was 2.0atm.Calculate the
value of the equilibrium constant, Kp.






































A2 Chemistry Unit 4- Dynamic Equilibria Tutorial 2
Kajana Sivarasa

8

3. One of the important reactions by which the gaseous fuel methane,CH
4
, is
produced from coal is:
3H
2(g)
+ CO
(g)
CH
4(g)
+ H
2
O
(g)


Hydrogen and carbon monoxide were mixed in a 3:1 ratio and allowed to
reach equilibrium at a temperature of 1000K.65% of the hydrogen reacted
and the total pressure was 1.2 atm.Calculate the value of the equilibrium
constant, Kp.



































A2 Chemistry Unit 4- Dynamic Equilibria Tutorial 2
Kajana Sivarasa

9

4. The equilibrium constant,Kp,for the reaction
N
2
O
4(g)
2NO
2(g)

is 3.52atm.Calculate the total pressure required for an equilibrium mixture
to have a mole fraction of N
2
O
4
equal to 0.15.







































A2 Chemistry Unit 4- Dynamic Equilibria Tutorial 2
Kajana Sivarasa

10

5. The esterification of ethanol with ethanoic acid is represented by the
equation:
CH
3
COOH
(l)
+ C
2
H
5
OH
(l)
CH
3
COOC
2
H
5(l)
+ H
2
O
(l)
The equilibrium constant Kc at 25
o
C is 4.0.Calculate the percentage of
ethanol that is converted to ester when 1.0mol of ethanol mixed with 1.0mol
of ethanoic acid in a propane solvent of volume 1.0dm
3
and allowed to reach
equilibrium.




































A2 Chemistry Unit 4- Dynamic Equilibria Tutorial 2
Kajana Sivarasa

11

6. Ammonium hydrogensulphide, NH
4
HS, decomposes when heated,
according to the equation:
NH
4
HS
(s)
NH
3(g)
+ H
2
S
(g)
Kp = 0.142 atm
2
at 50
o
C

a. State the expression for Kp.
b. Calculate the partial pressure of both gases at 50
o
C and hence the total
pressure.













7. The value of Kc for dissolving calcium hydroxide is 5.5 x 10
-5
mol
3
dm
-9

at 25
o
C.Calculate the concentration of OH
-
ions in a saturated solution.