Sie sind auf Seite 1von 286

Chemical finishing of

textiles
W. D. Schindler and P. J. Hauser
CRC Press
Boca Raton Boston New York Washington, DC
WOODH !D P "B # $ S H$ N%
# $ &$ ' D
Ca()ridge ngland
INCLUDEPI
CTURE
"../Downloa
ds/media/i
mage1.!e
g" "#
$ER%E&'R
$(T
'he 'e*tile $nstitute
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image).!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
Pu)lished )+ Woodhead Pu)lishing #i(ited in association with 'he 'e*tile $nstitute
Woodhead Pu)lishing #td
!)ington Hall, !)ington
Ca()ridge CB, -!H, ngland
www.woodhead./u)lishing.co(
Pu)lished in North !(erica )+ CRC Press ##C 0111 Cor/orate Bl2d, NW Boca Raton 3#
4454,, "S!
3irst /u)lished 0115, Woodhead Pu)lishing #td and CRC Press ##C
6 0115, Woodhead Pu)lishing #td
'he authors ha2e asserted their (oral rights.
'his )ook contains in7or(ation o)tained 7ro( authentic and highl+ regarded sources.
Re/rinted (aterial is 8uoted with /er(ission, and sources are indicated. Reasona)le
e77orts ha2e )een (ade to /u)lish relia)le data and in7or(ation, )ut the authors and the
/u)lishers cannot assu(e res/onsi)ilit+ 7or the 2alidit+ o7 all (aterials. Neither the
authors nor the /u)lishers, nor an+one else associated with this /u)lication, shall )e lia)le
7or an+ loss, da(age or lia)ilit+ directl+ or indirectl+ caused or alleged to )e caused )+
this )ook.
Neither this )ook nor an+ /art (a+ )e re/roduced or trans(itted in an+ 7or( or )+
an+ (eans, electronic or (echanical, including /hotoco/+ing, (icro7il(ing and
recording, or )+ an+ in7or(ation storage or retrie2al s+ste(, without /er(ission in
writing 7ro( the /u)lishers.
'he consent o7 Woodhead Pu)lishing and CRC Press does not e*tend to co/+ing 7or
general distri)ution, 7or /ro(otion, 7or creating new works, or 7or resale. S/eci7ic /er(ission
(ust )e o)tained in writing 7ro( Woodhead Pu)lishing or CRC Press 7or such co/+ing.
'rade(ark notice9 Product or cor/orate na(es (a+ )e trade(arks or registered trade(arks,
and are used onl+ 7or identi7ication and e*/lanation, without intent to in7ringe.
British #i)rar+ Cataloguing in Pu)lication Data ! catalogue record 7or this )ook is a2aila)le
7ro( the British #i)rar+.
#i)rar+ o7 Congress Cataloging in Pu)lication Data ! catalog record 7or this )ook is
a2aila)le 7ro( the #i)rar+ o7 Congress.
Woodhead Pu)lishing $SBN , :;;<4 =1; 5 CRC Press $SBN 1.:5=4.0:0;.> CRC Press
order nu()er9 WP0:0;
'he /u)lisher?s /olic+ is to use /er(anent /a/er 7ro( (ills that o/erate a sustaina)le 7orestr+
/olic+, and which ha2e )een (anu7actured 7ro( /ul/ which is /rocessed using acid.7ree and
ele(entar+ chlorine.7ree /ractices. 3urther(ore, the /u)lisher ensures that the te*t /a/er and
co2er )oard used ha2e (et acce/ta)le en2iron(ental accreditation standards.
'+/eset )+ !nn Buchan @'+/esettersA, She//erton, &iddlese* Printed )+ 'J $nternational,
Padstow, Cornwall, ngland
Contents
Chemical finishing of textiles.......................................1
, *
0 ,=
* +,
5 -;
;.4 *a(/les o7 te*tiles with eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes.............................................:,
;.5 Che(istr+ o7 eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes;-............................................................:-
;.; !//lication (ethods............................................................................................................,14
;.-Co(/ati)ilit+ with other 7inishes.........................................................................................,1;
;.<2aluation (ethods..............................................................................................................,1;
;.: 'rou)leshooting and /ractical /ro)le(s..............................................................................,1:
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................,,5
-..............................................................................11.
Re!ellent finishes........................................................................................11.
-., $ntroduction.........................................................................................................................,,;
-.0 &echanis(s o7 re/ellenc+...................................................................................................,,-
-.4 Re/ellent che(istr+.............................................................................................................,,:
-.52aluation o7 te*tiles treated with re/ellent 7inishes............................................................,41
-.;'rou)leshooting 7or re/ellent 7inishes and /articularities....................................................,41
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................,40
/..............................................................................1**
0oil12elease finishes.....................................................................................1**
<.,$ntroduction..........................................................................................................................,44
<.0&echanis(s o7 soil release...................................................................................................,44
<.4 Soil.release che(istr+..........................................................................................................,4:
<.5 2aluation o7 soil release.....................................................................................................,55
<.; 'rou)leshooting 7or soil.release 7inishes.............................................................................,5;
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................,5-
iii
,..............................................................................1+,
&lame12eta2dant finishes..............................................................................1+,
:.,$ntroduction..........................................................................................................................,5:
:.0&echanis(s o7 7la(e retardanc+..........................................................................................,5:
:.4 3la(e.retardant che(istr+...................................................................................................,;4
:.5 3la(e retardants 7or cellulose..............................................................................................,;5
:.; 3la(e retardants 7or wool....................................................................................................,-0
:.- 3la(e retardants 7or /ol+ester.............................................................................................,-4
:.< 3la(e retardants 7or n+lon...................................................................................................,-5
:.:3la(e retardants 7or other 7i)res...........................................................................................,-;
:.=3la(e.retarding 7i)re )lends.................................................................................................,-;
:.,1No2el a//roach to 7la(e retardanc+9 intu(escents............................................................,--
:.,,2aluation o7 7la(e retardants............................................................................................,--
:.,0 'rou)leshooting 7or 7la(e.retardant 7inishes and /articularities.......................................,-=
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................,<1
3..............................................................................1/1
Non1sli! finishes...........................................................................................1/1
=., $ntroduction.........................................................................................................................,<,
=.0 &echanis(s o7 non.sli/ 7inishes.........................................................................................,<0
=.4 Che(istr+ o7 non.sli/ 7inishes.............................................................................................,<0
=.5 !//lication (ethods and co()ina)ilit+..............................................................................,<4
=.; 2aluation o7 non.sli/ 7inishes............................................................................................,<5
=.- 'rou)leshooting 7or non.sli/ 7inishes..................................................................................,<;
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................,<;
14............................................................................1/.
(ntistatic finishes.........................................................................................1/.
,1., $ntroduction.......................................................................................................................,<;
,1.0&echanis(s o7 antistatic 7inishes.......................................................................................,<<
,1.4Che(istr+ o7 antistatic 7inishes..........................................................................................,<:
,1.5 Conducti2e 7i)res...............................................................................................................,:0
,1.; 2aluation o7 antistatic 7inishes.........................................................................................,:4
,1.- 'rou)leshooting 7or antistatic 7inishes and /articularities.................................................,:5
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................,:;
11............................................................................1,-
(nti1!illing finishes.......................................................................................1,-
,,.,$ntroduction........................................................................................................................,:-
,,.0Pilling (echanis(..............................................................................................................,:<
,,.4 &echanis(s and che(istr+ o7 anti./illing 7inishes...........................................................,=,
,,.5 2aluation o7 anti./illing 7inishes.....................................................................................,=0
i2 Contents
,,.; 'rou)leshooting 7or anti./illing 7inishes and co(/ati)ilit+..............................................,=5
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................,=<
1)............................................................................13,
Elastome2ic finishes.....................................................................................13,
,0., $ntroduction.......................................................................................................................,=:
,0.0 lasto(eric (echanis(.....................................................................................................,==
,0.4 Che(istr+ o7 elasto(eric 7inishes......................................................................................,==
,0.5 2aluation o7 elasto(eric 7inishes.....................................................................................010
,0.; 'rou)leshooting 7or elasto(eric 7inishes and /articularities.............................................014
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................014
1*............................................................................)4+
&inishes to im!2o5e colo62 fastness.............................................................)4+
,4.,$ntroduction........................................................................................................................015
,4.0$(/ro2ed wet 7astness........................................................................................................015
,4.4 $(/ro2ed light 7astness......................................................................................................0,1
,4.5 $(/ro2ed crocking and ru))ing 7astness...........................................................................0,5
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................0,-
1+............................................................................)1/
Ult2a5iolet !2otection finishes......................................................................)1/
,5., $ntroduction.......................................................................................................................0,<
,5.4 Che(istr+ o7 "B /rotection 7inishes.................................................................................005
,5.5 2aluation o7 "B /rotection 7inishes................................................................................00<
,5.; 'rou)leshooting 7or "B /rotection 7inishes and co()ina)ilit+........................................00=
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................00=
1.............................................................................)*4
(ntimic2o7ial finishes...................................................................................)*4
,;., $ntroduction.......................................................................................................................041
,;.0Pro/erties o7 an e77ecti2e anti(icro)ial 7inish5..................................................................04,
,;.4&echanis(s o7 anti(icro)ial 7inishes................................................................................04,
,;.5 Che(istr+ o7 anti(icro)ial 7inishes;=...............................................................................040
,;.; 2aluation o7 anti(icro)ial 7inishes..................................................................................04=
,;.- 'rou)leshooting 7or anti(icro)ial 7inishes........................................................................05,
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................05;
1-............................................................................)+-
Insect 2esist and mite !2otection finishes.....................................................)+-
,-.,$ntroduction........................................................................................................................05-
,-.0&echanis(s o7 insect resist 7inishes...................................................................................05-
,-.4 Che(istr+ o7 insect resist 7inishes.....................................................................................05=
2 Contents
,-.5!//lication o7 insect resist 7inishes....................................................................................0;1
,-.;2aluation o7 insect resist 7inishes......................................................................................0;1
,-.-'rou)leshooting 7or insect resist 7inishes...........................................................................0;1
,-.< 3inishes 7or /rotection 7ro( dust (ites.............................................................................0;,
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................0;,
1/............................................................................).)
&inishing with en89mes: 7io1finishes fo2 cell6lose........................................).)
,<., $ntroduction.......................................................................................................................0;0
,<.0 !ction o7 cellulase enC+(es on cellulose..........................................................................0;;
,<.4 Che(istr+ o7 enC+(e 7inishing..........................................................................................0;:
,<.5 2aluation o7 )io.7inishing................................................................................................0-1
,<.; 'rou)leshooting 7or )io.7inishing......................................................................................0-1
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................0-,
1,............................................................................)-)
No5el finishes..............................................................................................)-)
,:.,$ntroduction........................................................................................................................0-0
,:.0!nti.odour and 7ragrance 7inishes......................................................................................0-0
,:.4 3i)re sur7ace (odi7+ing 7inishes using /las(a and radiation technologies.......................0-:
,:.5 3i)re sur7ace (odi7ication )+ sol.gel 7inishes with inorganic o*ide 7il(s........................0-=
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................0<0
13............................................................................)/*
(ct6al and f6t62e t2ends in chemical finishing.............................................)/*
,=.,$ntroduction........................................................................................................................0<4
,=.0Cost reduction and greater e77icienc+.................................................................................0<4
,=.4New kinds o7 e77ects...........................................................................................................0<4
,=.53ewer undesira)le side e77ects............................................................................................0<;
,=.;asier a//lication...............................................................................................................0<;
,=.-&icroenca/sulation, a new trend 7or storage and release o7 acti2e 7inishing /roducts.......0<;
,=.< %reater /er(anence in washing and che(ical cleaning....................................................0<-
,=.:asier care o7 the 7inished te*tiles......................................................................................0<<
,=.=Better ecolog+.....................................................................................................................0<<
,=.,1 "sing 7ewer che(icals.....................................................................................................0<:
,=.,, S(art te*tiles )+ che(ical 7inishing................................................................................0<=
,=.,0 Su((ar+ and outlook......................................................................................................0:1
Re7erences.................................................................................................................................0:,
Index ),1
$nde*
2i Contents
$n grate7ul a//reciation o7 their unwa2ering su//ort and (an+ sacri7ices, we
dedicate this )ook to our wi2es, Helga and Helen.
< Contents
P2eface
$n 7inal che(ical 7inishing, with its great range o7 desired and undesired e77ects, the task
o7 a te*tile 7inisher can )eco(e de(anding. He or she has to consider the co(/ati)ilit+
o7 the di77erent t+/es o7 7inishing /roducts and treat(ents, in /articular their (utual
in7luence on the desired e77ects. With a)out 01 di77erent t+/es o7 che(ical 7inishes and
se2eral thousand 7inishing agents, (ost o7 which are co()ined to gi2e one.)ath
(ulti/ur/ose 7inishes, che(ical 7inishing needs a solid )asis o7 te*tile che(ical
knowledge and technical understanding as well as so(e /ractical e*/erience. 'his )ook
ai(s to 7ul7il so(e o7 these re8uire(ents.
$t is antici/ated that this )ook on the che(ical 7inishing o7 te*tiles will a//eal
/articularl+ to 7inishing /lant (anage(ent, /rocess engineers, technologists, 8uali7ied
/ractitioners and 7ore(enD re/resentati2es and co.workers o7 the te*tile che(ical
industr+, te*tile research and testing institutes, 8ualit+ ins/ectors, te*tile (achiner+
(akersD che(ist colourists, clothing (anu7acturers, te*tile designers, dr+ cleaners,
)u+ers, sales /ersonnel, wholesalers and last )ut not least students, lecturers and
teaching sta77 o7 te*tile che(istr+ and 7inishing as well as o7 related su)Eects. 'he
/resentation o7 this co(/act descri/tion o7 all i(/ortant t+/es o7 che(ical 7inishing
(ight )e es/eciall+ use7ul 7or ad2anced undergraduates. 'his )ook stresses
7unda(entals rather than s/eci7ic reci/e and /rocedure /ro/osals, which are o7ten
/ro2ided )+ the 7inish /roducers. 'he inter/la+ )etween che(ical structures and the
e77ects o7 7inishing /roducts is a central concern o7 this )ook. Readers without a dee/er
che(ical interest (a+ es/eciall+ /ro7it 7ro( the discussions o7 t+/ical ad2antages and
disad2antages, a//lication conditions, co(/ati)ilit+ and co()ina)ilit+, testing (ethods
and /ractical ti/s a)out e2er+ i(/ortant t+/e o7 che(ical 7inish.
'he idea 7or this )ook started with a co(/rehensi2e lecture scri/t on che(ical
7inishing 7ro( the "ni2ersit+ o7 !//lied Sciences Ho7F&unch)erg, that was translated
into nglish during the sta+ o7 Pro7essor Schindler as a guest at the College o7 'e*tiles
o7 the North Carolina State "ni2ersit+. 'here the authors (et and /lanned to 7ill a ga/ in
the (arket with an actual, co(/act and clearl+ understanda)le sur2e+ on che(ical
7inishing o7 te*tiles in the 7or( o7 a s(all te*t)ook 7ocusing on the interaction o7 the
underl+ing che(istr+ and technolog+ with the te*tile 7a)ric.
'he authors want to thank their colleague Pro7essor %ar+ N. &ock 7or constant su//ort
and encourage(ent and Woodhead Pu)lishing #i(ited, es/eciall+ &s ((a Starr, 7or
2er+ 7riendl+ and ins/iring coo/eration. We also thank the International Textile
Bulletin, 7or lea2ing us the co/+right 7or two corres/onding /u)lications on so7tening
and hand )uilding 7inishes in issues 0 and 5 in 0114.
We welco(e suggestions and co((ents and ho/e that this )ook (ight )e use7ul 7or all
those who enEo+ the char( and the de(anding challenge o7 che(ical 7inishing 7or
te*tiles.
Pro7. Wol7gang D. Schindler Pro7. Peter J. Hauser
"ni2ersit+ o7 !//lied Sciences Ho7 North Carolina State "ni2ersit+
De/art(ent &unch)erg, %er(an+ Raleigh, North Carolina, "S!
1
Int2od6ction to chemical finishing
1.1 ;et and d29 o2 chemical and mechanical finishing
'e*tile wet /rocessing can )e thought o7 ha2ing three stages, /retreat(ent @or
/re/arationA, coloration @d+eing or /rintingA and 7inishing. 3inishing in the narrow
sense is the 7inal ste/ in the 7a)ric (anu7acturing /rocess, the last chance to /ro2ide
the /ro/erties that custo(ers will 2alue. 3inishing co(/letes the 7a)ric?s
/er7or(ance and gi2es it s/ecial 7unctional /ro/erties including the 7inal ?touch?.
But the ter( 7inishing is also used in its )road sense9 ?!n+ o/eration 7or
i(/ro2ing the a//earance or use7ulness o7 a 7a)ric a7ter it lea2es the loo( or
knitting (achine can )e considered a 7inishing ste/?.
,
'his )road de7inition includes
/retreat(ents such as washing, )leaching and coloration. $n this )ook the ter(
7inishing is used in the narrow de7inition to include all those /rocesses that usuall+
7ollow coloration and that add use7ul 8ualities to the 7a)ric, ranging 7ro( interesting
a//earance and 7ashion as/ects to high /er7or(ance /ro/erties 7or industrial needs.
'his de7inition (a+ )e a//lied to si(ilar 7inishing /rocesses 7or gre+ 7a)rics
@without colorationA. Bleaching and car)onisation are che(ical treat(ents that also
i(/ro2e the 8ualit+ o7 7a)rics. 'he+ are not treated in this )ook )ecause the+ )elong
t+/icall+ in /retreat(ent, although there are rare e*ce/tions.
&ost 7inishes are a//lied to 7a)rics such as wo2ens, knitwear or nonwo2ens. But
there are also other 7inishing /rocesses, such as +arn 7inishing, 7or e*a(/le sewing
+arn with silicones and gar(ent 7inishing @see Cha/ter 0.0.;A. 'e*tile 7inishing can
)e su)di2ided into two distinctl+ di77erent areas, che(ical 7inishing and (echanical
7inishing. Che(ical 7inishing or ?wet 7inishing? in2ol2es the addition o7 che(icals to
te*tiles to achie2e a desired result @see Cha/ter 0A. Ph+sical /ro/erties such as
di(ensional sta)ilit+ and che(ical /ro/erties such as 7la(e retardanc+ can )oth )e
i(/ro2ed with che(ical 7inishing. '+/icall+, the a//earance o7 the te*tile is
unchanged a7ter che(ical 7inishing. &echanical 7inishing or ?dr+ 7inishing? uses
(ainl+ /h+sical @es/eciall+ (echanicalA (eans to change 7a)ric /ro/erties and
usuall+ alters the 7a)ric a//earance as well. &echanical 7inishing also enco(/asses
ther(al /rocesses such as heat setting @ther(al 7inishingA. '+/ical (echanical
7inishes include calendering, e(erising, co(/ressi2e shrinkage, raising, )rushing
and shearing or cro//ing, and es/eciall+ 7or wool 7a)rics (illing, /ressing and
setting with cra))ing and decatering. ! su((ar+ o7 (echanical 7inishing has
recentl+ a//eared.
0
O7ten (echanical and che(ical 7inishing o2erla/. So(e (echanical 7inishes need
che(icals, 7or e*a(/le (illing agents 7or the 7ulling /rocess or reducti2e and
7i*ation agents 7or the decatering o7 wool 7a)rics. On the other hand che(ical
7inishing is i(/ossi)le without (echanical assistance, such as 7a)ric trans/ort and
/roduct a//lication. 'he assign(ent to (echanical or che(ical 7inishing de/ends on
the circu(stance, i7 the (aEor co(/onent o7 the 7a)ric?s i(/ro2e(ent ste/ is (ore
(echanical. or che(ical.)ased.
'his )ook will 7ocus on the che(ical 7inishing o7 te*tiles, the a//lication o7
relati2el+ (inor a(ounts o7 che(icals @o7ten G ; g (
.0
A to, in (ost cases, )oth sides
o7 the 7a)ric. Su)se8uent cha/ters will discuss the i(/ortance o7 each s/eci7ic
7inish, the che(ical (echanis( 7or the e77ect, the che(icals used to /ro2ide the
desired /ro/erties, the a//lication and 7i*ation /rocedures, the rele2ant e2aluation
(ethods and trou)le shooting ti/s. Processes that e(/lo+ high le2els o7 che(ical
a//lication @,;.;1 g (
.0
and (oreA, /ri(aril+ as one.sided treat(ents, such as
coating are addressed onl+ )rie7l+ in Cha/ter 0.
1.) The challenge and cha2m of chemical finishing
'he /ro/er 7or(ulation o7 che(ical 7inishes re8uires consideration o7 se2eral
i(/ortant 7actors9 the t+/e o7 te*tile )eing treated @7i)re and constructionAD the
/er7or(ance re8uire(ents o7 the 7inish @e*tent o7 e77ect and dura)ilit+AD the cost to
)ene7it ratioD restrictions i(/osed on the /rocess )+ a2aila)ilit+ o7 (achiner+,
/rocedure re8uire(ents, en2iron(ental considerationsD and co(/ati)ilit+ o7
di77erent 7or(ula co(/onents as well as the interaction o7 the 7inishing e77ects.
'o )ring all these /ara(eters to an acce/ta)le co(/ro(ise is not eas+, e2en 7or a
single /ur/ose 7inish. But usuall+ se2eral t+/es o7 7inishes are co()ined 7or
econo(ical reasons (ostl+ in one )ath @onl+ one a//lication and dr+ing /rocessA.
Contents 5il
'his is o7ten the hardest challenge o7 che(ical 7inishing. 3irst, all co(/onents o7 the
7inish )ath (ust )e co(/ati)le. Preci/itations o7 anionic with cationic /roducts ha2e
to )e a2oided. 'he e(ulsion sta)ilit+ o7 di77erent /roducts (a+ )e reduced )+
/roduct interactions. &ore di77icult is o7ten the second hurdle, the co(/ati)ilit+ o7
the /ri(ar+ and secondar+ e77ects o7 the di77erent t+/es o7 7inishes that are )eing
co()ined9
H So(e e77ects are si(ilar or assist each other, 7or e*a(/le silicone elasto(ers
cause water re/ellenc+, so7teners )ring a)out antistatic e77ects and antistatic
7inishes can )e so7tening.
H So(e e77ects are o)2iousl+ contradictor+, 7or e*a(/le h+dro/ho)ic 7inishes and
h+dro/hilic antistatic 7inishes, or sti77ening and elasto(eric 7inishes, or sti77ening
and so7tening 7inishes.
Int2od6ction to chemical finishing * Table
1.1 %ene2al 2e<6i2ements of chemical finishes
P2ima29 effects of finishes = >igh effect le5el at low cost fo2 !2od6cts and
a!!lication
H Possi7le effect design? ada!tation to c6stome2
wishes? a2ticle demands and fa5o62ed 6se
Desi2ed seconda29 effects = Usa7le fo2 all @ind of fi72es and all textile fo2ms? as
9a2n? wo5en o2 @nit fa72ic? ga2ment? nonwo5ens
H >igh !e2manence fo2 washing and d29 cleaning fo2
ga2ments and most ho6sehold textiles
H No loss of im!o2tant textile <6alities s6ch as tea2
st2ength and a72asion 2esistance? comfo2t? a!!ea2ance?
hand
H No 9ellowing of 6nd9ed fa72ics? no shade change of
colo62ed ones? no 2ed6ced colo62 fastness
H Eas9 and safe handling? non1flamma7le
H 0im!le a!!lication? !2efe2a7l9 with se5e2al standa2d
methods and e<6i!ment at low cost
H >igh sta7ilit9 6nde2 sto2age and a!!lication
conditions Atem!e2at62e? !>? mechanical st2essB
H E5en dist2i76tion? eithe2 on the fi72e o2 fa72ic s62face
o2 inside the fa72ic
H Com!ati7ilit9 with othe2 finishes
H 09ne2gistic effects? no 2ed6ction of effect of othe2
finishes
H Eas9 co22ection of finishing fa6lts s6ch as 2emo5al of
finish o2 stains
H No en5i2onmental !2o7lems? non1toxic?
7iodeg2ada7le? no 5olatile o2ganic com!o6nds
H Other t+/es o7 7inishes t+/icall+ reduce the (ain e77ect o7 a 7inish t+/e, 7or
e*a(/le the 7la(e retardant e77ect is decreased )+ nearl+ all other t+/es o7
che(ical 7inishes as the+ add 7la((a)le co(/onents to the 7a)ric.
H 3ortunatel+ true antagonistic e77ects are rare, )ut true s+nergistic e77ects are also
rare, where the resulting e77ect o7 a co()ination is greater than the su( o7 the
single e77ects o7 the co()ined /roducts. *a(/les o7 )oth cases are di77erent t+/es
o7 7la(e retardants.
'hus the 7inisher is glad when the co()ined /roducts do not inter7ere, neither in
the 7inishing )ath nor on the 7a)ric, with all their di77erent e77ects, )ut this usuall+
is the e*ce/tion rather than the rule.
'his discussion o7 the interaction o7 the /ri(ar+ e77ects o7 the co()ined /roducts
can )e e*/anded to their secondar+ e77ects, the desired and the undesired ones.
O)2iousl+ this task 8uickl+ a//roaches con7usion. $t is not sur/rising that
success7ul che(ical 7inishing is so(eti(es thought o7 as )eing nearl+ (agical. !s
Rouette wrote in Fundamentals of Textile Finishing:
,4
Nowhere in te*tile 7inishing does the 7or(ulation o7 reci/es need such a
s/ecial knowledge, al(ost co(/ara)le to a secret science, than in che(ical
7inishing.
4
'a)le,., gi2es so(e o7 the general re8uire(ents e*/ected o7 a che(ical 7inish. !s
can )e seen, the+ can )e 8uite daunting. One 7uture challenge 7or che(ical 7inishing
is the e2er increasing concern o2er en2iron(ental and ecological issues. 'raditional
che(istries and (anu7acturing (ethods (ust )e changed and (odi7ied to (eet the
new realities o7 our (odern world.
'hus it is not sur/rising that an e*/ert s+ste( was de2elo/ed @'>PR'O 7ro(
ClariantA, where the e*/erience o7 (an+ 7inishing e*/erts is co()ined in a so7tware
/rogra( that ena)les less e*/erienced 7inishers to create success7ul 7inishing reci/es
interacti2el+ with a co(/uter. 'his co(/uter.aided generation o7 reci/es starts with
detailed 8uestions a)out the te*tile article to )e 7inished, 7ollowed )+ a /ro7ile o7
re8uire(ents 7or the che(ical 7inish. $ncluded are 8uestions concerning restrictions,
7or e*a(/le cost li(its, a2aila)le (achiner+, /rocess ste/s and en2iron(ental
li(itations. 'his e*/ert s+ste( incor/orates (ost o7 the di77erent re8uire(ents and
7actors that ha2e to )e considered when 7or(ulating a de(anding 7inishing reci/e.
'his reci/e 7or(ulation is not onl+ a challenge )ut also a char(ing task. 3or
those 7inishers who ha2e the knowledge and so(e e*/erience, che(ical 7inishing is
an ins/iring and 7ascinating Eo), where the interaction o7 che(ical understanding,
technical gras/, te*tile 7eeling and an instinct 7or (arket trends leads to considera)le
success and increased 2alue @)oth in the worth o7 the 7inished 7a)ric and in the
estee( o7 the 7inish designerA.
1.* Im!o2tance of chemical finishing
Che(ical 7inishing has alwa+s )een an i(/ortant co(/onent o7 te*tile /rocessing,
)ut in recent +ears the trend to ?high tech? /roducts has increased the interest and use
o7 che(ical 7inishes. !s the use o7 high /er7or(ance te*tiles has grown, the need
7or che(ical 7inishes to /ro2ide the 7a)ric /ro/erties re8uired in these s/ecial
a//lications has grown accordingl+.
'he a(ount o7 te*tile che(ical au*iliaries sold and used glo)all+ in one +ear is
esti(ated to )e a)out one.tenth o7 the world?s 7i)re /roduction. With 7i)re
/roduction currentl+ at -1 (illion tonnes, a)out - (illion tonnes o7 che(ical
au*iliaries are consu(ed. 'he /ercentage o7 (arket share o7 te*tile au*iliaries is
shown in 3ig. ,.,. !)out 51 I o7 te*tile au*iliaries are used in 7inishing, the largest
/ercentage usage o7 all te*tile che(icals, 7ollowed )+ d+eing and /rinting au*ilia.
ries and /retreat(ent che(icals. Within the te*tile 7inishing grou/, the /roduct
)reakdown, )ased on '%W!,
5
is gi2en as a sur2e+ in 3ig. ,.0 and gi2en in (ore
detail in 'a)le ,.0. So7teners are clearl+ the (ost i(/ortant indi2idual /roduct
grou/. $n ter(s o7 2alue, the re/ellent grou/ is the leader with the highest ratio o7
cost /er a(ount. 'his re7lects the relati2el+ high cost o7 the 7luoroche(ical
su)grou/ o7 re/ellents.
,5 P2eface
D9eing and !2inting )4C
1.1 Dist2i76tion of textile a6xilia2ies 79 ma2@et sha2e. Table 1.2
Im!o2tance of the finishing !2od6ct g2o6!s in o2de2 Dal6e
im!o2tance

0oft handle !2od6cts 7ased on:
silicones? incl6ding elastome2ics
cationics
non1ionics? witho6t silicones anionics
Re!ellents 7ased on: fl6o2oca27ons
!a2affins silicones &lame 2eta2dants
P2od6cts fo2 coating? laminating? fi72e and
th2ead 7onding P2od6cts fo2 eas91ca2e and
!e2manent !2ess finishes >and 76ilde2s
(ntimic2o7ial !2od6cts? incl6ding
!2otection f2om insects (ntistatic agents?
incl6ding ca2!et finishing Non1sli! agents
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/medi
a/image*.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
;ea5ing
a6xilia2ie
s 1+C
0!inning
a6xilia2ie
s 3C
P2et2eatmen
t 1/C
&inishing
!2od6cts
+4C
&inishing !2od6ct g2o6!
Dal6e ACB (mo6nt ACB E62o/@g
,; P2eface
P2od6cts fo2 soil12elease/anti1soiling
Awitho6t fl6o2oca27onsB Remainde2?
incl6ding 72ightene2s !2od6cts fo2 sewing
th2ead !2e!a2ation? anti1felting of wool?
ca2!et 7ac@1coating? h9d2o!hilation?
del6ste2ing and 72ightening? foaming of
finishes
13.3 )).1 ).14
,.3 ..+ *.,4
..* ,.4 1..4
..4 ,.1 1.+4
4./ 4./ ).14
1..) +.1 ,..4
1*., ).+ 1*.44
1.1 1.- 1.-4
4.+ 4.1 -.*4
1*.3 1*.3 ).*4
1*., 1,.+ 1./4
/.3 1*.. 1.*4
/.4 14.4 1.-4
1.3 4.* 1+.)4
1., ).* 1.,4
1.) 1.+ ).44
4.4+ 4.41 -./4
1/.+ 1+.4
1
)
.
,
3

1
4
,- P2eface
'he te*tile che(ical sector is ser2iced )+ a (ultitude o7 su//liers. ! 0114
)u+ers? guide,
;
lists o2er ,11 co(/anies o77ering te*tile che(icals. 'he Inter-
national Textile Auxiliaries Buyers' Guide
6
contains o2er <111 trade na(es, o7
which a)out 51 I are 7inishing /roducts.
Refe2ences
, 'o(asino C, Chemistry and Technology of Faric !re"aration and Finishing, Raleigh NC,
North Carolina State "ni2ersit+, College o7 'e*tiles, ,==0.
0 #ockett ! P, ?&echanical 7inishing . traditional and (odern?, in Textile Finishing,
He+wood D @ed.A, Brad7ord, Societ+ o7 D+ers and Colourists, 0114, ,,5.,45.
4 Rouette H.J, Grundlagen der Textil#eredlung, 3rank7urtF&ain, Deutscher 3ach2erlag,
,=:=.
5 T$G$%A statistics for&''(. '%W! K Ber)and der 'e*tilhil7s(ittel., #ederhil7s(ittel.,
%er)sto77. und Waschrohsto77.$ndustrie, 3rank7urtF&ain, %er(an+ @!ssociation o7
%er(an 'e*tile !u*iliar+ ProducersA.
; !non+(ous, ?Bu+ers guide?, AATCC)e#ie*, 0114, 3@<A, ,<.,54.
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image+.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
1.2 Dist2i76tion of finishing !2od6ct g2o6!s 79 amo6nt and 5al6e.
- $nternational 'e*tile !u*iliaries Bu+ers? %uide, 0111, &elliand and T$G$%A,
Fran+furt,-ain, .eutscher Fach#erlag, &'''/
)
Chemical finishing !2ocesses
).1 Int2od6ction
Che(ical 7inishing can )e de7ined as the use o7 che(icals to achie2e a desired 7a)ric
/ro/ert+. Che(ical 7inishing, also re7erred to as ?wet? 7inishing, includes /rocesses that
change the che(ical co(/osition o7 the 7a)rics that the+ are a//lied to. $n other
words, an ele(ental anal+sis o7 a 7a)ric treated with a che(ical 7inish will )e di77erent
7ro( the sa(e anal+sis done /rior to the 7inishing.
'+/icall+ che(ical 7inishing takes /lace a7ter coloration @d+eing or /rintingA )ut
)e7ore 7a)rics are (ade into gar(ents or other te*tile articles. Howe2er, (an+
che(ical 7inishes can also )e success7ull+ a//lied to +arns or gar(ents.
Che(ical 7inishes can )e dura)le, i.e. undergo re/eated launderings or dr+
cleanings without losing e77ecti2eness, or non.dura)le, i.e. intended when onl+
te(/orar+ /ro/erties are needed or when the 7inished te*tile t+/icall+ is not washed or
dr+ cleaned, 7or e*a(/le so(e technical te*tiles. $n nearl+ all cases, the che(ical
7inish is a solution or e(ulsion o7 the acti2e che(ical in water. "se o7 organic
sol2ents to a//l+ che(ical 7inishes is restricted to s/ecial a//lications owing to the
e*/ense and the real or /ossi)le to*icit+ and 7la((a)ilit+ o7 the sol2ents e(/lo+ed.
'he actual (ethod o7 7inish a//lication de/ends on the /articular che(icals and
7a)rics in2ol2ed and the (achiner+ a2aila)le. Che(icals that ha2e strong a77inities 7or
7i)re sur7aces can )e a//lied in )atch /rocesses )+ e*haustion in d+eing (achines,
usuall+ a7ter the d+eing /rocess has )een co(/leted. *a(/les o7 these e*haust
a//lied 7inishes include so7teners, ultra2iolet /rotection agents and so(e soil.release
7inishes. Che(icals that do not ha2e an a77init+ 7or 7i)res are a//lied )+ a 2ariet+ o7
continuous /rocesses that in2ol2e either i((ersing the te*tile in a solution o7 the
7inishing che(ical or a//l+ing the 7inishing solution to the 7a)ric )+ so(e (echanical
(eans.
!7ter a//lication o7 the che(ical 7inish, the 7a)ric (ust )e dried and i7 necessar+,
the 7inish (ust )e 7i*ed to the 7i)re sur7ace, usuall+ )+ additional heating in a ?curing?
ste/. ! sche(atic diagra( o7 a /ad.dr+.cure /rocess is
1
D29

2.1 Pad1d291c62e !2ocess.
Re!2od6ced f2om Cotton
Dyeing and Finishing: a
technical guide, 133/?
!1.)? co62tes9 of Cotton
Inco2!o2ated? Ca29? NC.
shown in 3ig. 0.,. Barious (ethods o7
7inish a//lication, dr+ing and curing
will )e discussed in the 7ollowing sections.
).) (!!lication of chemical finishes
).).1 Concent2ation 2elationshi!s
$n )atch /rocesses, the a(ount o7 che(ical 7inish to )e a//lied is usuall+ e*/ressed
as a weight /ercentage )ased on the original 7a)ric weight. 'his relationshi/ is o7ten
a))re2iated as I ow7 @/ercent on weight o7 7a)ricA or I owg @/ercent on weight o7
goodsA as seen in 8uation 0.,9
wt che(ical * ,11
I ow7 K
wt 7a)ric
3or e*a(/le, i7 a so7tener is to )e a//lied at 4 I ow7 to ;11 kg o7 7a)ric, then ,; kg
o7 so7tener will )e used @4 I o7 ;11 kgA. $t (ust )e recognised that since nearl+ all
che(ical 7inishes are /ro2ided as an a8ueous solution or e(ulsion, a knowledge o7
the actual solids concentration o7 the su//lied che(ical is needed to deter(ine the
actual increase in 7a)ric weight a7ter dr+ing.
$7 the solids concentration is not known or /ro2ided, it can )e deter(ined )+
care7ul e2a/oration at (oderate te(/erature 7ollowed )+ weighing the residual. But
this weight ratio @residue related to the original /roduct sa(/leA is onl+ the u//er
li(it or the (a*i(u( concentration o7 the acti2e 7inish /roduct. 'he /resence o7
dis/ersing or e(ulsi7+ing agents, salts, unreacted co(/onents and )+/roducts (a+
reduce the actual /ercentage o7 the acti2e agent co(/ared to the (easured weight
ratio. ! low 2alue o7 the acti2e /roducts (a+ )e deter(ined i7 the+ are not solids )ut
li8uids and i7 the+ /artiall+ e2a/orate with the water during dr+ing.
INCLUDEPI
CTURE
"../Downlo
ads/media/
image..!e
g" "#
$ER%E&'R
$(T
L
C62e
INCLUDEPI
CTURE
"../Downloa
ds/media/i
mage-.!e
g" "#
$ER%E&'R
$(T
Pad
M0.,N
$n continuous /rocesses where a che(ical solution or e(ulsion is a//lied to a
7a)ric, the a(ount o7 che(ical actuall+ a//lied to the 7a)ric de/ends on the a(ount
o7 7inishing solution a//lied, the concentration o7 the su//lied che(ical in the
7inishing solution or e(ulsion and the solids or acti2e co(/ound concentration o7
the su//lied che(ical. 'he a(ount o7 7inishing solution or e(ulsion a//lied is
re7erred to as the ?wet /icku/? @w/uA o7 the 7a)ric and is usuall+ e*/ressed as a
/ercentage on the weight o7 the dr+ untreated 7a)ric @8uation 0.0A9
wt o7 solution a//lied * ,11
I w/u K .................................... M0.0N
wt o7 dr+ 7a)ric
'o deter(ine the a(ount o7 su//lied che(ical added to the 7a)ric, the ?I add.on? is
gi2en )+ 8uation 0.49
I conc in solution @wtFwtA * I w/u
I add.on K................................................M0.4N
,11
where I conc is the concentration o7 the 7inishing che(ical in the a//lied solution
or e(ulsion e*/ressed as /ercentage )+ weight. Since (ost 7inishing 7or(ulas are
gi2en in ter(s o7 gra(s /er litre @g l
.,
A, 8uation 0.5 can )e used to con2ert the g l
.,
concentration to weight /ercent9
conc in g l
.,
I conc in solution @wtFwtA K ............................ M0.5N
,1 * densit+ @g (l
.,
A
where the densit+ is the a//lied solution or e(ulsion densit+.
When the actual solids le2el added to the 7a)ric is desired, the /ercentage o7 solids
add.on can )e 7ound 7ro( 8uation 0.;.
I solids o7 che(ical * I conc in solution * I w/u
I solids add.on K .................................................................... M0.;N
,11 *,11
).).) Pad a!!lication of chemicals to d29 fa72ic
Che(ical 7inishes are o7ten /ad a//lied to d+ed or /rinted 7a)rics a7ter a dr+ing
ste/. $n this situation, dr+ 7a)ric is /assed through the che(ical 7inish solution and
the /rocess is called a ?wet on dr+? /rocess. 'he wet /icku/ o7 a che(ical solution in
a /ad (angle is in7luenced )+ (an+ 7actors such as 7a)ric characteristics, (achine
settings and solution or e(ulsion /ro/erties.
,
'a)le 0., su((arises so(e o7 these
7actors.
$n order to o)tain consistent che(ical a//lication, the ni/ /ressure should )e
uni7or( across the 7a)ric width, the solution le2el and te(/erature in the /ad should
)e constant and the 7a)ric s/eed should not 2ar+ throughout the a//lication /rocess.
0
Table 2.1 &acto2s affecting fa72ic wet !ic@6!

Effect on wet !ic@6!
&i72e t9!e Ea2n
const26ction
&a72ic const26ction
;etta7ilit9
P2ess62e of s<6ee8e 2olls
Nat62e and ha2dness of
s<6ee8e 2oll co5e2ings
Length of imme2sion time
Discosit9 of sol6tion o2
em6lsion
062face tension of sol6tion
o2 em6lsion Tem!e2at62e of
sol6tion o2 em6lsion
Concent2ation of sol6tion
>ighe2 wet !ic@6! with h9d2o!hilic fi72es >ighe2 wet
!ic@6! with low twist and/o2 o!en end 9a2ns
>ighe2 wet !ic@6! with loose const26ctions A@nit 5s.
wo5enB
>ighe2 wet !ic@6! with mo2e easil9 wetted fa72ics
>ighe2 !2ess62es lead to lowe2 wet !ic@6!s >a2de2
co5e2ings lead to lowe2 wet !ic@6!s
>ighe2 wet !ic@6! with longe2 imme2sion time
>ighe2 wet !ic@6! with highe2 5iscosit9
>ighe2 wet !ic@6!s with faste2 wetting sol6tions
Discosit9 and s62face tension change with
tem!e2at62e? changing wet !ic@6!s Discosit9 and
s62face tension change with com!onent
concent2ations? changing wet !ic@6!s

8uation 0.4 can )e rearranged as 8uation 0.-
I add.on * I w/u
I conc @wtFwtA K ........................... M0.-N
,11
to calculate the necessar+ che(ical concentration 7ro( a gi2en /ercentage add.on and
wet /icku/.
8uation 0.< can )e used to deter(ine the necessar+ solution 7eed rate to (aintain a
constant li8uid le2el in the /ad9
7a)ric (ass 7low @kg (in
.,
A * I w/u
solution 7low rate @l (in
.,
A K .................................................. M0.<N
solution densit+ * ,11
where 7a)ric (ass 7low is de7ined as9
7a)ric (ass 7low K 7a)ric s/eed @( (in
.,
A * 7a)ric linear densit+ @kg (
.,
A
$n /ractice, howe2er, it is (ore co((on to (aintain a constant le2el in a wet on dr+
/ad a//lication with a 7loat 2al2e controlling the li8uid le2el.
).).* Pad a!!lication of chemicals to wet fa72ic
&acto2
'o a2oid the costs o7 a dr+ing ste/ a7ter d+eing, che(ical 7inishes are o7ten /ad
a//lied to wet 7a)ric in a /rocess called ?wet.on.wet?. $n this case, the wet /icku/
o7 the 7a)ric e*iting the /ad (ust )e (aintained at a higher le2el than that o7 the
inco(ing 7a)ric, usuall+ at least ,;.01 I higher. !n additional co(/lication is the
7act that water entering the /ad on the inco(ing 7a)ric can interchange with the
7inishing solution, in e77ect diluting the concentration o7 the co(/onents and causing
tailing o7 the 7inish e77ect. 'here7ore, a che(ical 7eed (ore concentrated than the /ad
solution (ust )e e(/lo+ed. Se2eral authors ha2e addressed this /ro)le( and ha2e
deri2ed e8uations to allow the calculation o7 the re8uired /ara(eters.
0.5
'he 7ollowing
is a si(/li7ied su((ar+ o7 the necessar+ e8uations.
$n (ost cases a de7ined che(ical add.on is desired. $n order to deter(ine the /ad
solution or e(ulsion concentration o7 the 7inishing che(icals, an e77ecti2e /ercentage
wet /icku/, w/ue77, is calculated 7ro( 8uation 0.:9
w/ue77 K @w/u1 . w/uiA O w/ui * f M0.:N
where w/u1 is the /ercentage wet /icku/ o7 the 7a)ric e*iting the /ad, w/ui is the
/ercentage wet /icku/ o7 the 7a)ric entering the /ad and f is the interchange 7actor, a
(easure o7 interaction )etween inco(ing water and the /ad solution, that can 2ar+
7ro( 1 to , de/ending on 7a)ric and (achine /ara(eters. '+/icall+ f is )etween 1.<
and 1.:. !n initial interchange 7actor is assu(ed and then corrected, i7 necessar+ )ased
on anal+sis o7 the treated 7a)ric.
'he /ad solution concentration is 7ound 7ro( 8uation 0.= using the desired
/ercentage add.on9
I add.on * ,111 * solution densit+ /ad conc @g l
.,
A K
.....................................................................M0.=N
w
/
u
e77
'he concentration o7 the che(ical 7eed solution (ust )e higher than the /ad
concentration since the /ad )ath is )eing diluted )+ the water on the inco(ing wet
7a)ric. 'he 7eed concentration needed to (aintain the /ad concentration is calculated
7ro( 8uation 0.,19
/ad conc * w/u
7eed conc @g l
.,
A K .......................
7
M0.,1N
w/u1 . w/ui
'he 7eed 7low rate is 7ound 7ro( 8uation 0.,,9
7a)ric (ass 7low @kg (in
.,
A * @w/u . w/uA
7eed 7low rate @l (in
.,
A K ................................................
1
......... M0.,,N
7eed solution densit+ @g (l
.,
A * ,11
*a(/les o7 these calculations are gi2en in the !//endi*.
).).+ Low wet !ic@6! methods
'+/icall+, /ad a//lications o7 che(ical 7inishes +ield wet /icku/s in the <1.,11 I
range. 'hese high /icku/s necessaril+ re8uire the re(o2al o7 large a(ounts o7 water
during dr+ing. 'he e2a/oration o7 this water can lead to une2en 7inish distri)ution in
the dried te*tile owing to (igration o7 the 7inish to the 7a)ric sur7ace during dr+ing.
;
'he high rate o7 e2a/oration at the 7a)ric sur7ace leads to (o2e(ent o7 the 7inish
solution 7ro( the wet 7a)ric interior to the drier 7a)ric e*terior resulting in a higher
concentration o7 the 7inish at the 7a)ric sur7aces with a corres/onding lower
concentration in the 7a)ric interior regions. 'his (igration is reduced as the 7inish
solution )eco(es (ore and (ore concentrated and 2iscous as dr+ing /rogresses.
'here7ore, reducing the a(ount o7 water initiall+ a//lied will tend to reduce 7inish
(igration.
Howe2er, too low a wet /icku/ can )e e8uall+ /ro)le(atic and also lead to une2en
7inish distri)ution i7 the li8uid /hase is discontinuous.
-
'he conce/t o7 a ?critical
a//lication 2alue? @C!BA is use7ul when discussing o/ti(al wet /icku/s.
<
'he C!B is
de7ined as the (ini(u( a(ount o7 dura)le /ress 7inish li8uid that can )e a//lied to a
gi2en cotton 7a)ric without /roducing a non.uni7or( distri)ution o7 crosslinks a7ter
dr+ing and curing. D+e staining tests can )e used to deter(ine these distri)utions. 3or
non.cellulosic 7i)res, other (ethods o7 7inish distri)ution anal+sis can )e used.
'he C!B 7or a /articular /rocess is de/endent on 7i)re t+/e and 7a)ric construction
and a)sor)enc+. ! 7inish a//lication )elow the C!B (a+ result in a non.uni7or(
s/eckled treat(ent, while an a//lication a)o2e the C!B could lead to 7inish
(igration. Cellulosic 7i)res, )ecause o7 their inherent h+dro/hilicit+, ha2e C!Bs in the
range o7 4;.51 I wet /icku/. H+dro/ho)ic 7i)res like /ol+ester can ha2e C!Bs o7
less than ; I, allowing (uch lower wet /icku/s than h+dro/hilic 7i)res.
$n order to (ini(ise 7inish (igration during dr+ing and reduce the energ+ costs
associated with dr+ing large a(ounts o7 water, 2arious techni8ues ha2e )een
de2elo/ed to reduce the a(ount o7 water used in 7inish a//lications. !n additional
)ene7it is that so(e a//lications will allow /recise /lace(ent o7 che(icals, leading to
the /ossi)ilit+ o7 7a)rics with di77erent 7inishes on their 7ace and )ack. !nother
ad2antage is the reco2er+ and reuse o7 the 7inish li8uor re(o2ed )+ so(e o7 these
techni8ues. 'o reduce the danger o7 une2en 7inish distri)ution on the 7a)ric, caused )+
low wet /icku/, a thorough /re/aration is necessar+ )+ an+ (ethod that /ro2ides a
2er+ good and uni7or( a)sor)enc+.
'here are two (ain t+/es o7 low wet /icku/ a//licators. 'he 7irst is the saturation.
re(o2al t+/e where the 7a)ric is co(/letel+ saturated with the 7inish li8uid and then
the e*cess li8uid is re(o2ed (echanicall+ or with a 2acuu( )e7ore dr+ing. With the
second t+/e, a /recise a(ount o7 7inish li8uid is uni7or(l+ a//lied to the 7a)ric using
trans7er roll, s/ra+ or 7oa( techni8ues. 'a)le 0.0 gi2es a sur2e+ on low wet /icku/
7inishing a//lication (ethods, so(e o7 which will now )e discussed in (ore detail.
One o7 the si(/lest a//roaches to the saturation.re(o2al has )een to /lace a
2acuu( e*traction de2ice a7ter the a//lication /ad and /rior to dr+er entr+. B+
/ulling a 2acuu( through the wet 7a)ric and returning the e*tracted li8uid to the /ad,
an e77ecti2e lower /icku/ can )e achie2ed, usuall+ in the order o7 51 I. 3igure 0.0
shows a t+/ical 2acuu( e*traction installation.
!nother relati2el+ si(/le (ethod o7 reducing wet /icku/ is the use o7 the
&achnoCCle s+ste(, 3ig. 0.4,
:,=
a (achine si(ilar in /rinci/le to air.Eet eEectors. $n
this de2ice, high /ressure stea( is used to /ush e*cess li8uid out o7 the 7a)ric, leading
to 2er+ low wet /icku/s, es/eciall+ 7or s+nthetic 7a)rics.
$n the area o7 to/ical a//lication, se2eral (ethods ha2e )een used to a//l+
che(ical 7inishes using trans7er rolls.
,
'he kiss roll, 3ig. 0.5, /icks u/ the che(ical
7inish and trans7ers it )+ direct contact to the 7a)ric. 'he a(ount o7 7inish /icked u/ is
de/endent u/on how well the 7inish wets the roll, the a)sor)enc+ o7 the 7a)ric, and to
a lesser e*tent, the sur7ace s/eed o7 the roll relati2e to the 7a)ric s/eed.
Table 2.2 Low wet !ic@6! finish a!!lication methods Aada!ted f2om %2eenwood and
>olmeB
+
T9!e of method Exam!les
0at62ation12emo5al Dac66m ext2action
Po2o6s 7owl techni<6es
(i21et eecto2s
T2ansfe2 !adding As<6ee8e1s6c@ techni<6eB
To!ical a!!lication Fiss12oll
Loo! t2ansfe2 s9stem
Eng2a5ed 2oll
Ni! !adding s9stem
0!2a9 s9stem
&oam a!!lication
1 >igh s!eed steam inection
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image,.
!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
).* Machnozzle system. Reprinted rom Textiles
0ciences and Technolog9 11: Textile
!2ocessing and !2o!e2ties: !2e!a2ation?
d9eing? finishing and !e2fo2mance? T.!. "igo
#ed.$, 1%%&, Chap ', p 2&(, )ith permission rom
*lse+ier.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image
/.!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
Finishing: a technical guide, 133/? ! 1./?
co62tes9 of Cotton Inco2!o2ated? Ca29? NC.
!nother 2ersion o7 7inish a//lication with trans7er rolls is the loo/ trans7er s+ste(,
3ig. 0.;.
5,=
! loo/ o7 7a)ric is i((ersed in 7inish li8uid and then s8ueeCed with the
7a)ric to )e treated )etween s8ueeCe rollers. 'he 7inish is trans7erred to the 7a)ric at a
(uch lower wet /icku/ than /ossi)le )+ direct i((ersion. 'hese roll trans7er
techni8ues are es/eciall+ use7ul 7or the )ackside a//lication o7 7inishes, 7or e*a(/le
hand )uilders and 7la(e retardants, to /ile 7a)rics @without crushing the /ileA.
One interesting (odi7ication o7 the kiss roll a//licator is the 'riate* &! (achine
which uses on.line (onitoring to control wet /icku/. 3igure 0.- shows a sche(atic o7
the s+ste(. !s the 7a)ric /asses through the s+ste(, two P.gauges are used to
deter(ine the 7a)ric weight di77erence )e7ore and a7ter the 7a)ric has /assed o2er a
kiss roll. 'he P.gauges (easure (ass /er unit area )ased on the
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image3.
!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
2.' Fiss 2oll a!!licato2. Re!2od6ced f2om Cotton
Dyeing and Finishing: a technical guide,
133/? ! 1.*? co62tes9 of Cotton Inco2!o2ated?
Ca29? NC.
intensit+ o7 electrons that /ass through the 7a)ric. 'he kiss roll rotational s/eed is then
auto(aticall+ adEusted relati2e to the 7a)ric s/eed to (aintain the desired wet /icku/.
!n engra2ed roll @3ig. 0.<A
5,=
can trans7er /recise a(ounts o7 che(ical 7inish to
7a)rics since the engra2ings can )e (ade in 2arious de/ths and designs. ! doctor )lade
re(o2es an+ e*cess li8uid 7ro( the roll sur7ace )e7ore 7a)ric contact insuring that onl+
the li8uid in the engra2ed areas is trans7erred to the 7a)ric. ! disad2antage o7 engra2ed
rolls is that a roll will deli2er the sa(e a(ount o7 7inish, regardless o7 the 7a)ric )eing
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image1
4.!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
2.( Loo! t2ansfe2 a!!licato2s. Re!2od6ced f2om
Te,tile Finishing, D. >e9wood Aed.B.
G2adfo2d? 0DC? )44*? 79 !e2mission of The
0ociet9 of D9e2s and Colo62ists.
treated. 'here7ore (ulti/le rolls are needed i7 di77erent 7a)rics are to )e treated to the
sa(e wet /icku/.
Che(ical 7inishes can also )e a//lied )+ s/ra+ing @3ig. 0.:A. B+ controlling the
7low rate through the s/ra+ )ars, the a(ount o7 a//lied 7inish can )e set to the
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image1
1.!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
2.- T2iatex $( Aminim6m a!!licationB s9stem.
Re!2od6ced f2om Te,tile Finishing, D.
>e9wood Aed.B. G2adfo2d? 0DC? )44*? 79
!e2mission of The 0ociet9 of D9e2s and
Colo62ists.
desired add.on. Care (ust )e taken to a2oid o2erla//ing s/ra+ /atterns that could lead
to an unacce/ta)le une2en 7inish distri)ution. S/ecial care is needed with aerosols
7ro( 7luorocar)on s/ra+s @inhalation, 7ollowed )+ re/ellenc+ o7 the inside o7 the lungs
is a deadl+ dangerA.
One i(/ortant a//lication (ethod 7or che(ical 7inishes is the use o7 7oa( to a//l+
the 7inish to the 7a)ric. B+ re/lacing /art o7 the water in the che(ical
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image1
).!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
2.& Eng2a5ed 2oll a!!licato2. Re!2od6ced f2om
Te,tile Finishing, D. >e9wood Aed.B.
G2adfo2d? 0DC? )44*? 79 !e2mission of The
0ociet9 of D9e2s and Colo62ists.
7or(ulation with air, the a(ount o7 water added to the 7a)ric can )e signi7icantl+
reduced. $n addition, sur7actants are included in the 7or(ulation to )e 7oa(ed. 2en i7
the+ are care7ull+ selected, the+ (a+ cause e77ect reduction o7 re/ellent 7inishes. 'he
che(ical 7or(ulation is (i*ed with air in a 7oa( generator /roducing high 2olu(es o7
7oa( that can )e a//lied to 7a)rics in a nu()er o7 wa+s. 'he ratio o7 li8uid to air in a
7oa( is re7erred to as the ?)low ratio?, con2enientl+ deter(ined )+ 8uation 0.,09
,
)low ratio K ................... M0.,0N
7oa( densit+
3oa( densities in the order o7 1., g c(
.4
are routinel+ used. 'he sta)ilit+ o7 the 7oa(
is in7luenced )+ the co(/onents o7 the che(ical s+ste(, the 2iscosit+ o7 the 7oa( and
the (ethod o7 7oa( /re/aration. 'he hal7.li7e o7 a 7oa( is the ti(e in which ;1 I o7
the li8uid in a gi2en 7oa( 2olu(e has )een drained 7ro( the 7oa(. 3oa(s 7or te*tile
a//lications can ha2e hal7.li2es 7ro( a 7ew seconds to se2eral hours.
So(e o7 the 7oa( a//lication (ethods are shown in 3ig. 0.= and 3ig. 0.,1. 'he one
side a//licators a//l+ 7oa( to onl+ one side o7 the 7a)ric, lea2ing o/en the /ossi)ilit+
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image1
*.!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
&a72ic
2.. 0!2a9 a!!licato2. Re!2od6ced f2om Cotton
Dyeing and Finishing: a technical guide,
133/? ! 1.-? co62tes9 of Cotton Inco2!o2ated?
Ca29? NC.
o7 two di77erent 7inishes on di77erent sides o7 the sa(e 7a)ric. 'he two side a//licators,
on the other hand, a//l+ the sa(e 7oa( to )oth sides o7 the treated
A7B
Rolle2 coate2
2.% 'ne side foam a!!licato2s. AaB Re!2od6ced f2om Cotton Dyeing and
Finishing: a technical guide, 133/? ! 1..? co62tes9 of Cotton Inco2!o1
2ated? Ca29? NC.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image1+.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
Docto2 7lade coate2
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image1..!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
0<6ee8e 2oll
&oa
m
2.1/ Two side foam a!!licato2s. %.>.H. 5an de2 ;alt and N.H.H. 5an Rens762g
f2om Te,tile 0rogress, 13,-? 14A)B? 1-11/. Re!2od6ced 79 !e2mission of
The Textile Instit6te? UF.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image1-.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
7a)ric. !nother two side 7oa( a//lication (ethod is illustrated in 3ig. 0.,,. 'his
a//licator e(/lo+s two slots to a//l+ the 7oa( to the 7a)ric. 'wo distinctl+ di77erent
7inishes can )e a//lied to di77erent sides o7 the sa(e 7a)ric si(ultaneousl+. 3oa(
a//lication on 7a)rics with large o/en s/aces or non.uni7or( /orosit+ o7ten causes
une2en 7inish distri)ution. 3oa( a//lication s+ste(s also include horiContal /ad
(angles, kiss coating s+ste(s, kni7e.o2er.roller or kni7e.on.air s+ste(s, screen
/rinting, and slot a//licators. ! (ore detailed o2er2iew on 7inish a//lication (ethods
is gi2en )+ %reenwood and Hol(e.
5
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image
1/.!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
2.11 &oam slot a!!licato2. Re!2od6ced f2om
Cotton Dyeing and Finishing: a
technical guide, 133/? ! 1..? co62tes9 of
Cotton Inco2!o2ated? Ca29? NC.
$n all these a//lication (ethods, /ro/er 7a)ric /re/aration is re8uired in order to
achie2e uni7or( 7inish distri)utions. ! well.a)sor)ent 7a)ric is the )est guarantee o7 a
/ro/er 7inish a//lication.
$n order to (aintain the sa(e che(ical add.on with lower wet /icku/s, the
concentrations o7 the 7inish )ath co(/onents (ust )e increased according to 8uation
0.,49
densit
+0
w
/
u
,
conc0 K concE > ..................>.......... M0.,4N
densit+E w/u0
where conc0 is the co(/onent concentration at the lower wet /icku/, conc, is the
original concentration, densit+0 and densit+, are the densities o7 the (odi7ied and
original solutions, res/ecti2el+, and w/u0 and w/u, are the lower and the original wet
/icku/s, res/ecti2el+. Since the densit+ o7 the (ore concentrated solution cannot )e
deter(ined until a7ter the solution has )een (ade, an initial esti(ate o7 densit+0 is used
in 8uation 0.,4 to calculate an a//ro*i(ate conc0. 'hrough successi2e iterations,
(ore accurate 2alues o7 densit+0 and conc0 can )e o)tained i7 necessar+.
).).. (!!lication of finishes to ga2ments
!//l+ing che(ical 7inishes to gar(ents is usuall+ acco(/lished using e*hausti)le
7inishes @so7teners, anti(icro)ials, ultra 2iolet @"BA a)sor)ers, and so onA, which are
added to the )ath o7 the gar(ent /rocessing (achine a7ter all other gar(ent wet
/rocessing ste/s ha2e )een co(/leted. Howe2er, occasionall+, a non.e*hausti)le
7inish such as an eas+ care 7inish is desired. S/ecial /rocedures ha2e )een de2elo/ed
7or this situation. One a//roach is to e*tract as (uch water as /ossi)le 7ro( the
gar(ents and then i((erse the( into the 7inish solution, either in a se/arate trough or
in the gar(ent (achine itsel7, 7ollowed )+ 7urther e*traction, dr+ing and curing. !
second a//roach is to s/ra+ a /recise a(ount o7 7inish solution into the gar(ent
/rocessing (achine a7ter water e*traction. 2en distri)ution o7 7inish is acco(/lished
)+ rotating the gar(ents long enough to allow the 7inish to (igrate throughout the
gar(ent. Dr+ing and curing co(/lete the /rocess. Both (ethods ha2e )een
de(onstrated co((erciall+, )ut the s/ra+ /rocedure re8uires 7itting e*isting gar(ent
(achines with the /recision s/ra+ing attach(ent, while the i((ersion /rocedure
in2ol2es less ca/ital in2est(ent, )ut consu(es (ore che(ical 7inish.
).* D29ing wet textiles
Water in a wet te*tile resides in three di77erent areas. 'he (ost loosel+ )ound water is
on the 7a)ric sur7ace and interstices. &uch o7 this water can )e taken out )+
(echanical (eans such as s8ueeCing, centri7ugation or 2acuu( e*traction. 'he
re(aining water, the water held in the +arn ca/illaries and the water a)sor)ed
internall+ )+ the 7i)re, (ust )e re(o2ed through 2a/orisation )+ ther(al (eans.
'here are three heat trans7er (echanis(s used to dr+ te*tiles. Conduction (ethods
in2ol2e direct contact o7 the wet te*tile with heated sur7aces. 'hese are the (ost
e77icient heat trans7er (ethods, )ut do not allow 7or control o7 7a)ric width during
dr+ing. Stea( heated c+linders are e*a(/les o7 conduction dr+ing (ethods
@3ig. 0.,0A. High /ressure stea( inside the c+linders /ro2ides the energ+ necessar+ to
dr+ the 7a)ric.
Con2ection (ethods in2ol2e contact o7 the wet te*tile with hot air and are the (ost
co((on (ethod used in te*tiles since the+ co()ine high /rocess s/eeds with control
o7 7a)ric di(ensions during dr+ing. *a(/les include tenter 7ra(es @3ig. 0.,4A. !ir is
heated to the desired te(/erature )+ gas. or oil.7ired )urners or stea( heat e*changers
and /assed o2er the 7a)ric )+ high 2elocit+ )lowers. 3a)ric tensions are adEusted in
)oth the width and length directions, allowing 7or co(/lete control o7 7inal 7a)ric
di(ensions.
'he third heat trans7er (echanis( is radiation, e*a(/les o7 which are in7rared and
radio 7re8uenc+ dr+ers. Radiant heaters are o7ten used as /redr+ers, re(o2ing (uch o7
the (oisture 7ro( wet 7a)ric /rior to entering the actual dr+ing /rocess @3ig. 0.,5A. "se
o7 /redr+ers (ini(ises 7inish (igration and increases dr+er /roducti2it+ since less
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/i
mage1,.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
2.12 0team heated d29ing c9linde2s.
water (ust )e re(o2ed in the dr+er. ! (ore detailed descri/tion o7 dr+ing (ethods
and (achines is gi2en )+ &iles.
,1
).+ C62ing chemical finishes
'he sa(e heating e8ui/(ent used to dr+ wet te*tiles can also )e used to heat the 7a)ric
and 7inish to the te(/eratures desired 7or o/ti(al curing. 3or all e8ui/(ent, it (ust )e
re(e()ered that the te(/erature o7 the 7a)ric cannot e*ceed ,11 PC
ft
0
I
/a
Q
2.1' P2ed29e2. Re!2od6ced 79 !e2mission of (8tec $achine29
Com!an9? U0(.
until all o7 the water has )een re(o2ed. 3igure 0.,;
de(onstrates this e77ect. 'he 7a)ric te(/erature does not
rise to the set te(/erature until a7ter all the water has gone.
When dr+ing and curing are done se/aratel+ in two ste/s, the curing ti(e
can )e controlled easil+. !s s/eed is de7ined )+ distance di2ided )+ ti(e,
the curing ti(e can )e calculated )+ 8uation 0.,59
$
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image
13.!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
2.11 Tente2 f2ame. Re!2od6ced f2om Cotton
Dyeing and Finishing: a technical guide,
133/? ! 1--? co62tes9 of Cotton
Inco2!o2ated? Ca29? NC.
I I
He
&low
a(ount o7 7a)ric in (achine curing ti(e K
.....................................................................M0.,5N
s/eed o7 the 7a)ric through the (achine
3or e*a(/le, i7 the 7a)ric content o7 the (achine is 01 ( and the 7a)ric s/eed is 51 (
(in
,
, then the curing ti(e is 1.; (in.
O7ten dr+ing and curing are co()ined in one /rocess, 7or e*a(/le the so.called
shock.condensation or shock.curing /rocesses. !s the end o7 the dr+ing /hase is not
eas+ to deter(ine, there is a risk o7 o2er. or under.curing with (an+ disad2antages
@see 'a)le ;.: in Cha/ter ; on eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishesA. 'he )est a2aila)le
solution 7or this /ro)le( is curing controlled )+ the te(/erature o7 the 7a)ric. !s
shown in 3ig. 0.,; onl+ when all the water is e2a/orated, will the te(/erature o7 the
7a)ric rise 7ro( the wet.)ul) te(/erature to the te(/erature o7 the surroundings and
the curing /rocess can start. With radiation /+ro(eters the sur7ace te(/erature o7 the
7a)ric is e*actl+ (easured 7ree o7 contact. 'here)+ the end o7 the dr+ing ste/ and the
ti(e o7 the curing ste/ can )e deter(ined and (onitored. !s radiation /+ro(eters are
relati2el+ e*/ensi2e, o7ten not all the sections o7 long tenters are co(/letel+ (onitored
)+ /+ro(etersD the+ are concentrated in and (ost i(/ortant in the tenter section where
dr+ing ends and curing starts.
).. Coating and laminating
! short sur2e+ on coating (ight )e o7 interest, )ecause there is a s(ooth transition
)etween che(ical 7inishing with one.side a//lication o7 greater a(ounts o7 /roducts,
7or e*a(/le sti77eners or 7la(e retardants, and 7ine or thin coating. 3ine coating is
characterised )+ adds.on o7 a)out 5.;1 g (
.0
, (ostl+ ,;.01 g (
.0
. !lso so(e
a//lication techni8ues are si(ilar 7or one.side 7inishing and 7or coating, 7or e*a(/le
those using doctor kni7es, rolls, rotar+ screens, 7oa( or s/ra+ a//lications.
>eating I d29ing
8one
D29ing 8one >eating 8one Cooling 8one
$oist62e in
fa72ic
Tem!e2at62
e setting
&a72ic
tem!e2at62e
"
,t
/
Distance th2o6gh o5en J
2.1( Tem!e2at62e and moist62e !2ofiles in the tente2.
'he che(ical 7inishing /rocesses discussed in the 7ollowing cha/ters ha2e the goal,
7or the (ost /art, o7 /roducing a 7inish uni7or(l+ distri)uted throughout the te*tile
(aterial. *ce/t 7or s/eci7ic /er7or(ance /ro/erties, the treated 7a)ric is nearl+
indistinguisha)le 7ro( untreated 7a)ric since the /h+sical a//earance o7 the te*tile is
seldo( changed )+ con2entional che(ical 7inishing. Howe2er, other 7or(s o7
che(ical 7inishing are /racticed where the goal is to /roduce a te*tile with a la+er o7
che(ical 7inish on, in or in )etween su)strates leading to non. ho(ogeneous
structures. Coating and la(inating are two such /rocesses. With coating, the intent is
to add the che(ical 7inish to a su)strate, while with la(inating, the /ur/ose is to Eoin
two te*tiles into one structure with the che(ical acting as the adhesi2e.
! 2ariet+ o7 use7ul /roducts are /roduced )+ coating and la(inating. Coating and
la(ination technolog+ /ro2ides /roducts 7or auto(oti2e air )ags, 7ootwear,
interlinings, u/holster+, hats, la)els, u()rellas, adhesi2e ta/es, rainwear, /rotecti2e
clothing, arti7icial leather articles, window )linds, tents, slee/ing )ags, curtains, 7loor
co2erings, luggage, sails, (attress ticking, 7le*i)le 7uel tanks, a)rasi2e /roducts,
awnings, 7ilter 7a)rics, geote*tiles, hoses and (an+ others.
,,,0
'he entire (arket sector
o7 technical te*tiles )ene7its 7ro( coated and la(inated /roducts.
Both coating and la(inating re8uire a te*tile su)strate to )e treated. 'he su)strate
/la+s a (aEor role in esta)lishing the 7inal /ro/erties o7 the 7inished article.
,0
$n
addition to the che(ical and /h+sical /ro/erties o7 7i)res the(sel2es, +arn
construction and 7a)ric 7or(ation are signi7icant 7actors. Yarns (ade 7ro( sta/le
7i)res /ro2ide rough sur7aces that enhance adhesion to che(ical coatings. 3ila(ent
+arns generall+ (ust )e /retreated with che(icals to generate a (ore reacti2e sur7ace
/rior to coating or la(inating. 3a)ric structure deter(ines the e*tent o7 te*tile.7inish
inter)onding as well as in7luencing the 7inal (echanical /ro/erties o7 the treated
(aterial. Jnitted and non.wo2en structures are es/eciall+ use7ul 7or coating and
la(inating )ut when strength and di(ension sta)ilit+ are re8uired, wo2ens are
/re7erred.
'he che(icals used 7or coating and la(inating are /ol+(eric (aterials, either
naturall+ occurring or /roduced s+ntheticall+. 'hese include natural and s+nthetic
ru))ers, /ol+2in+l chloride, /ol+2in+l alcohol, acr+lic, /henolic resins, /ol+.
urethanes, silicones, 7luoroche(icals, e/o*+ resins and /ol+esters.
,,
Coating
7or(ulations t+/icall+ include au*iliaries such as /lasticiCers, adhesion /ro(oters,
2iscosit+ regulators, /ig(ents, 7illers, 7la(e retardants, catal+sts and the like.
,4
'he co()ination o7 the te*tile 7a)ric and the /ol+(er (atri* on it results in
interesting new /ro/erties. 'hus coated te*tiles can )e )oth 7le*i)le @si(ilar to 7a)ricsA
and water. and air.tight @si(ilar to 7il(sA. %enerall+, the te*tile co(/onent /ro2ides
strength andFor 7le*i)ilit+, the /ol+(er coating deli2ers ther(al
insulation and )arrier 7unctions against li8uids, gases and light. Both co(/onents
contri)ute to 2arious aesthetic re8uire(ents.
'he (ost co((on coating a//lication (ethod is the kni7e o2er roll s+ste( @3ig.
0.,-A. 'he sha/e and angle o7 the coating )lade, the ga/ )etween the )lade and the
7a)ric and the 2iscosit+ o7 the coating all a77ect the a(ount o7 coating a//lied and the
/enetration into the 7a)ric.
"suall+ a direct coating consists o7 two or three la+ers. 'he 7irst )ase or tie coat
deli2ers adhesion to the 7a)ric, the (ain la+er @to/ or co2er coatA consists o7 the
do(inating t+/e o7 /ol+(er with all the additi2es necessar+ 7or the re8uired /ro/erties,
and o7ten there is a 7inal or 7inish coat 7or /rotecti2e and aesthetic de(ands. Re2erse or
trans7er coating 7ollows a contrasting order o7 the la+ers. $t is used when the te*tile
co(/onent does not ha2e enough di(ensional sta)ilit+ or has a structure which is too
o/en 7or the direct coating /rocess. 'here7ore a su//ort 7oil, called release /a/er is
used, 7irst coated with the 7inish la+er, then with the (ain la+er, 7ollowed )+ the tie
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image
)4.!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
&a72ic
2.1- Fnife o5e2 2oll coate2. Re!2od6ced f2om
Te,tile Finishing, D. >e9wood Aed.B.
G2adfo2d? 0DC? )44*? 79 !e2mission of The
0ociet9 of D9e2s and Colo62ists.
coat and at last the te*tile, 7or e*a(/le, a knit.wear or a thin non.wo2en. 2er+ coat
ste/ needs a short /regelation. !7ter the 7inal heating and end.gelation the release
/a/er is se/arated. !7ter the coating is a//lied, the 7a)ric can )e heated to e2a/orate
water and other sol2ents and cured i7 re8uired )+ the /ol+(er s+ste(. So(e coated
7a)rics are e()ossed or /rinted, de/ending on the 7a)rics intended end use.
'he la(inating /rocess in2ol2es a//l+ing an adhesi2e coating to the sur7ace o7 the
/ri(ar+ su)strate, )ringing the second su)strate together with the adhesi2e la+er,
there)+ (aking a three co(/onent co(/osite, and 7inall+ with heat and /ressure
7or(ing the 7inal la(inate. 'he adhesi2e can )e a//lied )+ a 2ariet+ o7 techni8ues
including the kni7e o2er roll (ethod (entioned earlier. Other a//lication (ethods
include scatter coating o7 ther(o/lastic /ol+(ers and rotar+ screen /rinting o7
adhesi2e e(ulsions or solutions.
!ccording to the i((ense (arket i(/ortance o7 coatings and related 7i)re.
co(/osite /roducts, there are (an+ s/ecial /rocesses and /roducts, including 7ront.,
)ack. and dou)le.side coatings, water 2a/our /er(ea)le coating @incorrectl+ called
)reath.acti2eA, 7oa( and s/ra+ coating, 7la(e la(inating, )onding, 7locking, hot.(elt
and /aste.dot coating 7or 7usi)le interlinings, /re/regs and other te*tile co(/osite
(aterials 7or wide technical usage.
Refe2ences
, Perkins W S, Textile Coloration and Finishing, Durha(, North Carolina, Carolina, !cade(ic
Press, ,==-, 005.00;.
0 !non+(ous, A Bleacher's 1andoo+, Sol2a+ $ntero*.
4 Yang Y and Hensle+ S !, ?Bath concentration and add.on control in wet.on.wet /adding?,
Textile )esearch 2ournal, 011,, 71@=A, :00.:14.
5 %reenwood P and Hol(e $, in Textile Finishing, He+wood D @ed.A, Brad7ord, Societ+ o7
D+ers and Colourists, 0114, -,.,11.
; Preston J & and Bennett !, ?So(e as/ects o7 the dr+ing and heating o7 te*tiles B . (igration
in relation to (oisture content?, 2ournal 3ociety .yers Colourists, ,=;,, 67, ,1,.
- Shi//ee 3 B and %arliardi D D, ?Di77erential distri)ution o7 cross.linking agents in cotton
7a)rics?, Textile )esearch 2ournal, ,=--, 36, ,<<.
< Hea/ S !, ?Consideration o7 the critical add.on and the uni7or(it+ o7 crosslinking?, Textile
)esearch 2ournal, ,=<=, 49, ,;1.
: 2an der #inden H J # J and %root.Wassink J, ?Cross 7low dr+ing o7 te*tiles on /orous rollers.
$$. &odel descri/tion, 2eri7ication and /rocess design?, American .yestuff )e"orter, ,=:4,
72@;A, ,-.
= 2an der Walt % H J and 2an Rens)urg N J J, ?#ow.li8uor d+eing and 7inishing?, Textile
!rogress, ,=:-, 14@0A, ,.-1.
,1 &iles #, in Textile Finishing, He+wood D @ed.A, Brad7ord, Societ+ o7 D+ers and Colourists,
0114, 45.-1.
,, Woodru77 3 !, in Textile Finishing, He+wood D @ed.A, Brad7ord, Societ+ o7 D+ers and
Colourists, 0114, 55<.;0;.
,0 Fung %, Coated and #a(inated 'e*tiles, Camridge, 45/
,4 W+/+ch J, !olymer -odified Textile -aterials, New York, John Wile+ and Sons, ,=::, ;1.
;:.
(!!endix: sam!le calc6lations
! cotton 7a)ric is to )e treated with ;.1 I on weight o7 7a)ric @ow7A with a che(ical
7inish in a wet on dr+ /adding /rocess. $7 the wet /icku/ is =1 I, what concentration
o7 che(ical is neededR 3ro( 8uation 0.-9
I add.on * I w/u I
conc @wtFwtA K .............................
,11
;.1 * =1
I conc @wtFwtA K ............. K 5.; I @wtFwtA
,11
$7 the solution densit+ is ,.1; g (l
.,
, what is the re8uired concentration in g l
.,
R 3ro(
8uation 0.59
conc in g l
.,
K ,1 * densit+ @g (l
.,
A * I conc in solution @wtFwtA
conc in gl
.,
K ,1 * ,.1; * 5.; K 5<.0 gl
.,
$7 the 7a)ric has a linear densit+ o7 1.0;1 kg (
.,
and a s/eed o7 :1 ( (in
.,
, with linear
densit+ o7 1.0;1 kg (
.,
, what is the 7low rate o7 solution necessar+ to (aintain a
constant le2el in the /adR 3ro( 8uation 0.<9
7a)ric (ass 7low @kg (in
.,
A * I w/u
solution 7low rate @l (in
.,
A K ..................................................
solution densit+ * ,11
where
7a)ric (ass 7low K 7a)ric s/eed @( (in
.,
A * 7a)ric linear densit+ @kg (
.,
A
7a)ric (ass 7low K :1 * 1.0;1 K 01 kg (in
.,
there7ore
01 * =1
solution 7low rate @l (in
.,
A K ................ K ,<., l (in
.,
,.1; * ,11
'his sa(e 7a)ric is to )e treated with ; I ow7 o7 the sa(e che(ical 7inish in a wet on
wet /ad a//lication with entr+ wet /icku/ o7 <; I, e*it wet /icku/ o7 =1 I and
interchange 7actor o7 1.<. What are the e77ecti2e wet /icku/ and the necessar+ /ad
concentrationR 3ro( 8uation 0.:9
w/ue77 K @w/u1 . w/uiA O w/ui * f K @=1 . <;A O <; * 1.< K -<.; I
3ro( 8uation 0.=9
I add.on * ,111 * solution densit+
/ad conc @g l
.,
A K
.....................................................................
w
/
u
e77
;.1 * ,111 * ,.1; /ad conc @g l
.,
A K
.............................................. K <<.: g l
.,
-<.;
What are the necessar+ 7eed solution concentration and 7low rateR
3ro( 8uation 0.,19
/ad conc * w/ue77
7eed conc @g l
.,
A
w/u1 . w/ui
<<.: * -<.; 7eed conc @g l
.,
A K K
4;1 g l
.,
=1 . <;
3ro( 8uation 0.,,9
7a)ric (ass 7low @kg (in
.,
A * @w/u1 . w/uiA
7eed 7low rate @l (in
.,
A K ...............................................
1
..........
i
7eed solution densit+ @g(l
.,
A * ,11
01 * @=1 . <;A 7eed 7low rate @l (in
.,
A K
K 0.: l (in
.,
,.1; * ,11
*
0oftening finishes
*.1 Int2od6ction
So7tening 7inishes are a(ong the (ost i(/ortant o7 te*tile che(ical a7ter treat(ents.
With che(ical so7teners, te*tiles can achie2e an agreea)le, so7t hand @su//le, /liant,
sleek and 7lu77+A, so(e s(oothness, (ore 7le*i)ilit+ and )etter dra/e and /lia)ilit+.
'he hand o7 a 7a)ric is a su)Eecti2e sensation 7elt )+ the skin when a te*tile 7a)ric is
touched with the 7inger ti/s and gentl+ co(/ressed. 'he /ercei2ed so7tness o7 a
te*tile is the co()ination o7 se2eral (easura)le /h+sical /heno(ena such as
elasticit+, co(/ressi)ilit+ and s(oothness.
,.4
During /re/aration, te*tiles can
)eco(e e()rittled )ecause natural oils and wa*es or 7i)re /re/arations are re(o2ed.
3inishing with so7teners can o2erco(e this de7icienc+ and e2en i(/ro2e on the
original su//leness. Other /ro/erties i(/ro2ed )+ so7teners include the 7eeling o7
added 7ullness, antistatic /ro/erties and sewa)ilit+. Disad2antages so(eti(es seen
with che(ical so7teners include reduced crock7astness, +ellowing o7 white goods,
changes in hue o7 d+ed goods and 7a)ric structure sli//age.
*.) $echanisms of the softening effect
So7teners /ro2ide their (ain e77ects on the sur7ace o7 the 7i)res. S(all so7tener
(olecules, in addition, /enetrate the 7i)re and /ro2ide an internal /lasticisation o7
the 7i)re 7or(ing /ol+(er )+ reducing o7 the glass transition te(/erature '. 'he
/h+sical arrange(ent o7 the usual so7tener (olecules on the 7i)re sur7ace is
i(/ortant and shown in 3ig. 4.,. $t de/ends on the ionic nature o7 the so7tener
(olecule and the relati2e h+dro/ho)icit+ o7 the 7i)re sur7ace. Cationic so7teners
orient the(sel2es with their /ositi2el+ charged ends toward the /artiall+ negati2el+
charged 7i)re @Ceta /otentialA, creating a new sur7ace o7 h+dro/ho)ic car)on chains
that /ro2ide the characteristic e*cellent so7tening and lu)ricit+ seen with cationic
so7teners. !nionic so7teners, on the other hand, orient the(sel2es with their
negati2el+ charged ends re/elled awa+ 7ro( the negati2el+ charged 7i)re sur7ace.
'his leads to higher h+dro/hilicit+, )ut less so7tening than with cationic
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image)1.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
1.1 0chematic o2ientation of softene2s on fi72e s62faces. AaB Cationic softene2
and A7B anionic softene2 at fi72e s62face. Non1ionic softene2 at AcB h9d2o1!ho7ic
and AdB h9d2o!hilic fi72e s62face.
so7teners. 'he orientation o7 non.ionic so7teners de/ends on the nature o7 the 7i)re
sur7ace, with the h+dro/hilic /ortion o7 the so7tener )eing attracted to h+dro/hilic
sur7aces and the h+dro/ho)ic /ortion )eing attracted to h+dro/ho)ic sur7aces.
3.3 T9!ical softened textiles a2ticles
!l(ost all a//arel and ho(e 7urnishing te*tiles are treated with so7teners, )ecause
the hand o7 a te*tile is a 2er+ i(/ortant 8ualit+ 7or (ost )u+ers and users. Nearl+
e2er+one who e*a(ines a te*tile auto(aticall+ touches it with their 7ingers to get an
i(/ression o7 the hand. Onl+ a 7ew s/ecialit+ 7a)rics do not recei2e a so7tener 7inish,
conse8uentl+, it is easier to state which 7a)rics are not so7tened. 'hese include wall
co2erings, car/eting and (ost industrial te*tiles.
3.4 P2od6ct t9!es and thei2 chemist29
&ost so7teners consist o7 (olecules with )oth a h+dro/ho)ic and a h+dro/hilic /art.
'here7ore, the+ can )e classi7ied as sur7actants @sur7ace acti2e agentsA and are to )e
7ound concentrated at the 7i)re sur7aces. &ost so7teners ha2e a low water solu)ilit+.
'here7ore so7tening /roducts are usuall+ sold as oil in water e(ulsions containing
01.41 I solids. 'he so7tener (olecules t+/icall+ contain a long alk+l grou/,
so(eti(es )ranched, o7 (ore than ,- and u/ to 00 car)on ato(s, )ut (ost ha2e ,:
corres/onding to the stear+l residue. *ce/tions to this (olecular structure are the
s/ecial categories o7 silicones, /ara77ins and /ol+eth+lene so7teners. !)out one.third
o7 the so7teners used in the te*tile industr+ are silicone )ased.
*.+.1 Cationic softene2s
3igure 4.0 shows t+/ical cationic so7tener structures, 7or e*a(/le, ST.distear+l.
6,6.di(eth+l a((oniu( chloride @DSD&!CA. Cationic so7teners ha2e the )est
so7tness and are reasona)l+ dura)le to laundering. 'he+ can )e a//lied )+
e*haustion to all 7i)res 7ro( a high li8uor to goods ratio )ath and the+ /ro2ide a
h+dro/ho)ic sur7ace and /oor rewetting /ro/erties, )ecause their h+dro/ho)ic
grou/s are oriented awa+ 7ro( the 7i)re sur7ace.
5,;
'he+ are usuall+ not co(/ati)le
with anionic /roducts @/reci/itation o7 insolu)le adductsA.
Cationic so7teners attract soil, (a+ cause +ellowing u/on e*/osure to high
te(/eratures and (a+ ad2ersel+ a77ect the light7astness o7 direct and reacti2e d+es.
$nherent ecological disad2antages o7 (an+ con2entional @un(odi7iedA 8uaternar+
a((oniu( co(/ounds @8uaternariesA are 7ish to*icit+ and /oor )iodegrada)ilit+.
But the+ are easil+ re(o2ed 7ro( waste water )+ adsor/tion and )+ /reci/itation
with anionic co(/ounds. Uuaternaries with ester grou/s, 7or e*a(/le triethanol
a(ine esters, are )iodegrada)le, through the h+drol+sis o7 the ester grou/.
-
'he
e*a(/le o7 an ester 8uaternar+ in 3ig. 4.0 is s+nthesised 7ro( triethanola(ine,
K6ate2na29 ammoni6m salts

CH4
,
e
2
)
x
CH4
(mine
salts
R1iLJ MN
Imida8olines
VWX@VW0A.YZ[Cc
661 M O
>0'Do2C2
R1i O AC>)BPC>* with n O 11 to 1/
R) O C>* o2AC>)BPC>* with n7 11 to 1/
R1i O long al@9l chain
R* O > o2 C>)C>)N>)

Di1Astea29lca27ox9leth9lB1h9d2ox9eth9lmeth9lammoni6m meth9ls6lfate
( t2iethanolamine este2 <6ate2na29
\
CH4
i6 e
R1I L N LR) M
R1?R) 1 AC>)B)'CC1/>*. M

O C04)A4C>*B
CH0
C
H0
$
OH
1.2 Chemical st26ct62es of t9!ical cationic softene2s.
esteri7ied with a dou)le (olar a(ount o7 stearic acid and then 8uaternarised with
di(eth+lsul7ate. &ore e*a(/les, as well as other structure t+/es, are descri)ed )+
&oone+.
<
Co(/ared to the a(ine salt t+/e which can )e de/rotonated, 8uaternar+
(odi7ied cationic so7teners show a high sta)ilit+ under alkaline a//lication
conditions u/ to /H ,,.
:
*.+.) (nionic softene2s
!nionic so7teners are heat sta)le at nor(al te*tile /rocessing te(/eratures and
co(/ati)le with other co(/onents o7 d+e and )leach )aths. 'he+ can easil+ )e
washed o77 and /ro2ide strong antistatic e77ects and good rewetting /ro/erties
n1ch
)
$
n1ch
)
)ecause their anionic grou/s are oriented outward
5,=
and are surrounded )+ a thick
h+dration la+er. Sul7onates are, in contrast to sul7ates, resistent to h+drol+sis @3ig.
4.4A. 'he+ are o7ten used 7or s/ecial a//lications, such as (edical te*tiles, or in
co()ination with anionic 7luorescent )rightening agents.
&D'10'Q NaN (l@9ls6lfate salt R1? O long al@9l chain
1.1 Chemical st26ct62es of t9!ical anionic softene2s.
*.+.* (m!hote2ic softene2s
'+/ical /ro/erties are good so7tening e77ects, low /er(anence to washing and high
antistatic e77ects @)ecause o7 their strong ionic characterA. 'he+ ha2e 7ewer
ecological /ro)le(s than si(ilar cationic /roducts. *a(/les o7 the )etaine and the
a(ine o*ide t+/e are shown in 3ig. 4.5.
*.+.+ Non1ionic softene2s 7ased on !a2affin and
!ol9eth9lene
Pol+eth+lene @3ig. 4.;A can )e (odi7ied )+ air o*idation in the (elt at high /ressure
-
to add h+dro/hilic character @(ainl+ car)o*+lic acid grou/sA. (ulsi7i. cation in the
/resence o7 alkali will /ro2ide higher 8ualit+, (ore sta)le /roducts. 'he+ show high
lu)ricit+ @reduced sur7ace 7rictionA that is not dura)le to dr+ cleaning, the+ are sta)le
to e*tre(e /H conditions and heat at nor(al te*tile /rocessing conditions, and are
reasona)l+ /riced and co(/ati)le with (ost te*tile che(icals.
(l@Jldimeth9lamiJ oxide softene2
1.' Chemical st26ct62es of t9!ical am!hote2ic softene2s.
Pol9eth9lene
CH4@CH0AnCH4 n ] <1 . ,11
Ethox9lated fatt9 alcohol
Ethox9lated fatt9 amine Acationic at !> R /B Ri1
NSAC>)C>)4Bm/)>T)
Casto2 oil ethox9late? an im!o2tant t2igl9ce2ol este2 C>)1'R
RO LC LAC>)B/1C>OC>1C> LAC>)B.C>*
'LAC>)>C)4BP>
1.( Chemical st26ct62es of t9!ical non1ionic
softene2s.
*.+.. Ethox9lated non1ionic softene2s
'hese /ol+gl+col ethers are s+nthesised )+ the addition o7 eth+lene o*ide to 7att+
alcohols, car)o*+lic acids, esters, a(ides or a(ines @3ig. 4.;A. 'he+ are sur7actants
and o7ten used as antistatic agents and as co(/onents o7 7i)re s/in 7inishes. 'heir
(ain characteristics are relati2el+ high su)stanti2it+ and h+dro/hilicit+, non.
+ellowing and so(eti(es a low so7tening e77ect and lu)ricit+, and a /otential 7or
7oa(ing during /rocessing.
AJ1J mU + 1 1 4 R1
O long al@9l chain Ethox9lated
fatt9 acid
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/med
ia/image)).!eg" "
# $ER%E&'R$(T
Ethox9lated fatt9 amide
\
$$
R+1C1N>AC>)C>)4Bm>
C>1'R
i
C>)L'R
*.+.- 0ilicone softene2s
Non.ionic and cationic e*a(/les o7 silicone so7teners are shown in 3ig. 4.-. 'he+
/ro2ide 2er+ high so7tness, s/ecial uni8ue hand, high lu)ricit+, good sewa)ilit+,
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image)*.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
1.- Chemical st26ct62es of
t9!ical silicone softene2s.
elastic resilience, crease reco2er+, a)rasion resistance and tear strength. 'he+ show
good te(/erature sta)ilit+ and dura)ilit+, with a high degree o7 /er(anence 7or those
/roducts that 7or( crosslinked 7il(s and a range o7 /ro/erties 7ro( h+dro/ho)ic to
h+dro/hilic.
,1,,
&ore detailed general and te*tile.related silicone /ro/erties are
descri)ed )+ &oone+.
<
De/ending on their (ethod o7 s+nthesis, silicone so7teners can contain 2aria)le
a(ounts o7 2olatile silo*ane oligo(ers. 'ogether with 2olatile e(ulsi7iers these
oligo(ers can cause /ollution /ro)le(s in the waste air 7ro( tenter 7ra(es.
,0
$n
te*tile 7inishing, silicones are also used as water re/ellents, elasto(eric 7inishes,
coatings and as de7oa(ers.
!ccording to Bereck et al/
(8
the high (olecular 7le*i)ilit+ o7 the silicone chain is
the reason 7or the 2er+ low glass transition te(/erature @a)out .,11 PCA and 7or their
s/ecial so7tness. 'he+ /ostulate that to a great e*tent the (eth+l grou/s o7 the
OSi@CH4A0.structure shield the o*+gen ato(s 7ro( outside contact. 'here7ore the
sur7ace o7 7i)res 7inished with /ol+di(eth+lsilo*ane is (ostl+ non./olar and
h+dro/ho)ic. $n the case o7 cellulose, wool, silk and /ol+a(ide 7i)res, there are
strong h+drogen )onds )etween the h+dro*+l or a(ino grou/s o7 the 7i)res and the
a(ino grou/s o7 the (odi7ied silicones @3ig. 4.<, u//er 7igureA. 'hese )onds act as
an anchor 7or the silicone, which 7or(s an e2enl+ distri)uted 7il( on the 7i)re
sur7ace. %ood water re/ellenc+ and 2er+ so7t hand are the result. With an o/ti(al
content o7 a(ino side grou/s, the /ol+silo*ane seg(ents )etween the anchor sites are
long enough to (aintain their high 7le*i)ilit+. 'his is the (ain reason 7or the so7tness
and the lu)ricating e77ect o7 a(ino 7unctional silicones on /olar 7i)res.
$n the case o7 relati2el+ non./olar 7i)res such as /ol+ester, the h+dro/ho)ic
seg(ents o7 the silicone chains interact strongl+ with the h+dro/ho)ic 7i)re sur7ace
@3ig. 4.<, lower 7igureA. 'he /ositi2el+ charged a(ino side grou/s o7 the silicone
chains re/el each other and gi2e rise to enhanced 7le*i)ilit+ o7 the silicone chain
loo/s. 'his again is the reason 7or the s/eciall+ so7t hand o7 a(ino 7unctional
silicones on non./olar 7i)res. 'he rate o7 a(ino (odi7ication o7 silicone so7teners as
shown in 3ig. 4.- is low9 y O 9 is ,.01 co(/ared to x o7 a)out ,11 @;1.011A.
,5
Uuaternar+ (odi7ied grou/s /ro2ide high alkaline and shear sta)ilit+.
:
*.. 0chematic com!a2ison of im!o2tant !2o!e2ties of
softene2s
!n o2er2iew o7 the generic /ro/erties o7 the di77erent che(ical so7tener t+/es is
gi2en in 'a)le 4.,. Naturall+, non.ionic so7teners ha2e the )est co(/ati)ilit+ with
other 7inishing co(/ounds.
*.- Com!ati7ilit9 and com7ina7ilit9
So7tener 7inishes are o7ten co()ined with eas+ care and antistatic treat(ents. !s a
rule o7 thu(), h+dro/ho)ic so7teners cause an e*tra so7t hand whereas
1.& 0chematic a22angement of amino1modified silcone softene2s on the fi72e
s62face as s6ggested 79 Ge2ec@ et a/.
1*
a O loo!s of the !ol9dimeth9lsiloxane
chain? 7 O !a2tiall9 cationic aminoeth9l1 amino!2o!9l side g2o6!s Aa7o6t half
of them a2e !ositi5el9 cha2gedB? c O fi72e s62face with !a2tiall9 negati5e
cha2ge? fo2 exam!le cotton and wool? d O h9d2o!ho7ic att2action of
6nmodified silicone chain segments and fi72e s62face? fo2 exam!le !ol9este2.
h+dro/hilic so7teners )ring a)out so(e 7ullness. $n co()ination with 7luorocar)ons,
(ost so7teners reduce oil re/ellenc+. So(e ionic, sur7ace acti2e and silicone 7ree
so7teners are not co(/ati)le with water re/ellents. Since so7teners are usuall+ also
e*cellent 7i)re lu)ricants, so7tening 7inishes o7ten gi2e /oor anti./illing and sli//age
/ro/erties.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image)+.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
a
Tab2e 1.1 Im!o2tant softene2 cha2acte2istics
Chemical 0oftness L672icit9 >9d2o1 067stanti5it9 0ta7ilit9 Non1
t9!e !hilicit9 to 9ellowing foaming
(nionic V VV VV 1 VV 1
Cationic VVV 1 1 VVV 1 V
(m!hote2ic VV 1 VVV V 1 1
Non1ionic
Ethox9lates V VV VV VV V 1
Pol9eth9lene V VVV 1 1 V VV
0ilicones VVV VVV 1 to V VVV VVV to V VV
V? cha2acte2istic !2esentW 1? cha2acte2istic a7sent.
*./ E5al6ation and testing methods
3a)ric hand is de7ined as the esti(ated 8ualit+ o7 a 7a)ric, e2aluated as reaction o7
the sense o7 touch, which is integrated in our )rain to a total 2alue.
;,;
$(/ortant
co(/onents o7 the sensor+ /erce/tion are the s(oothness, co(/ressi)ilit+ and
elasticit+ o7 the te*tile sa(/le. !s the hand o7 7a)rics is /ri(aril+ a su)Eecti2e 7eeling
. si(ilar to the i(/ression o7 colour . there ha2e )een (an+ e77orts to 7ind (ethods
7or o)Eecti2e e2aluation o7 the 7a)ric hand. While instru(ental colour (easure(ent
is 2er+ co((on in te*tile 8ualit+ control, the auto(ated (easure(ent o7 7a)ric hand
is still a to/ic o7 discussion and su)Eecti2e (anual hand e2aluation is still the (ost
i(/ortant (ethod. Si(/le (ethods to (easure so(e as/ects o7 7a)ric hand were
descri)ed )+ Dawes and Owen.
,-
&an+ 7actors such as the colour o7 the te*tile, the
light and the surroundings, in7luence the (anual e2aluation o7 7a)ric hand.
,<
'he
!(erican !ssociation o7 'e*tile Che(ists and Colorists has /u)lished guidelines 7or
su)Eecti2e hand e2aluation.
,:
$n so(e te*tile /roduction la)oratories single re7erence standards or a si(/le set
o7 hand standards with di77erent hand 2alues is used. 'his set o7 standards is
/roduced 7ro( the sa(e 7a)ric as the one )eing e2aluated )+ a//l+ing the sa(e
so7tener at incre(ental concentrations. $7 the so7tener is used in co()ination with
other 7inishes, the concentration o7 the other 7inishes (ust )e held constant.
Relati2el+ si(/le (ethods to e2aluate onl+ the )ending /ro/erties o7 7a)ric @7le*
rigidit+A are the cantile2er (ethod and a si(ilar de2ice called So7to(eter, which are
descri)ed in Cha/ter 5 on hand )uilding.
'he Handle.O.&eter
4
is another (ethod in which di77erent kinds o7 de7or(ation
ha2e a si(ultaneous e77ect on the sa(/le, resulting in a total 2alue 7or the hand. !
rectangular sa(/le o7 (a*i(u( 01 c( or : inches width is /ushed )+ a )lade into a
2aria)le slit. 'he (a*i(u( resistance 7orce on the )lade is registered, gi2ing a 2alue
that de/ends on the 7le* rigidit+ o7 the sa(/le and the 7rictional resistance on the
corner o7 the slit. 'hus )oth the sur7ace s(oothness and the co(/ressi)ilit+ are
included in the (easure(ent. 'he (ean 2alues o7 )oth sides o7 the 7a)ric in
lengthwise and crosswise directions are deter(ined and recorded. $n other relati2el+
si(/le (ethods the resistance is (easured, when a te*tile sa(/le is drawn through a
ring a/erture
,=
or a noCCle.
01
'he (easured resistance 7orce consists o7 co(/onents o7
the 7le*ural rigidit+, the sur7ace 7riction, the shear rigidit+ and the co(/ressi)ilit+.
'he (ost co(/rehensi2e )ut (ost e*/ensi2e (ethod o7 o)Eecti2e hand e2aluation
was de2elo/ed )+ Jawa)ata and co.workers
0,.04
and is called JS.3 @Jawa)ata
2aluation S+ste(.3a)ricsA. $t consists o7 se2eral di77erent (easuring instru(ents,
7or e*a(/le 7or tensile and shear /ro/erties @JS.3,A, )ending /ro/erties @JS.30A,
co(/ressi)ilit+ @JS.34A, sur7ace @JS.35A and ther(al @JS.3<A /ro/erties. 'he
(easured /ara(eters and the area weight are nor(alised and correlated to the
su)Eecti2e handle scores. 3ro( this correlation, 7or e2er+ hand e2aluation a
trans7or(ation e8uation is de2elo/ed, resulting in a /ri(ar+ hand 2alue )etween 1
and ,1. 3ro( these /ri(ar+ hand 2alues a total hand 2alue can )e calculated, ranging
7ro( 1 @not acce/ta)leA to ; @e*cellentA. 3or e2er+ 7a)ric t+/e new correlation
e8uations ha2e to )e de2elo/ed. 'here7ore (an+ users o7 the JS.3 e8ui/(ent
correlate onl+ selected /ro/erties with the su)Eecti2e assess(ents o7 their interest, 7or
e*a(/le the shear h+steresis with so7tness. Jawa)ata /ara(eters can also )e
(easured, with so(e restrictions, with the usual testing (achines @such as $nstronA at
low stress settings.
<
3!S' @3a)ric !ssurance )+ Si(/le 'estingA is another well known s+ste(.
05
$t
was de2elo/ed 7or 8ualit+ assess(ent in the wool gar(ent industr+. 3!S' is less
e*/ensi2e and (uch 8uicker than the JS.3 )ecause it (easures onl+ so(e as/ects
o7 the 7a)ric hand such as co(/ression, )ending, e*tension and di(ensional sta)ilit+
at a 7ew gi2en /oints in a si(/li7ied 7or(. 'he 7irst three /ara(eters correlate 7airl+
well with the /ercei2ed so7tness )ut no 8uantitati2e hand 2alues are calculated. 3or
the e2aluation o7 +arn so7tness, there are se2eral other de2ices in use, 7or e*a(/le the
^.&eter @_weigleA, a 7rictional )alance @Rei)wertwaage 7ro( Schla7horstA and the 3.
(eter.
!s can )e seen, there are nu(erous instru(ents a2aila)le to (ake o)Eecti2e, )ut
inco(/lete, (easure(ents o7 those /h+sical /ro/erties that deter(ine 7a)ric hand. $t
is 7air to sa+, howe2er, that the )est o7 these 2er+ e*/ensi2e tools is, in general, not
an+ )etter 7or (aking real ti(e /roduction decisions than an e*/erienced 7inisher
who knows what his or her custo(er e*/ects.
*., Pa2tic6la2s of and t2o67leshooting fo2 softening
finishes
&icroe(ulsions o7 so7teners, (ainl+ a(ino.(odi7ied silicones, gi2e s/ecial
so7tening e77ects. 'heir (ain ad2antage is high e(ulsion sta)ilit+. 'his is i(/ortant
7or a//lications with high shear, as in Eet or /ackage d+eing (achines. (ulsions
that do not ha2e e*cellent shear sta)ilit+ can actuall+ )reakdown and de/osit so7tener
/articles on e8ui/(ent and 7a)ric that are either 2er+ di77icult or i(/ossi)le to
re(o2e. $n 'a)le 4.0, so(e characteristics o7 nor(al and (icroe(ulsions are
co(/ared.
Emulsion stability: When the sta)ilit+ o7 a nor(al @not (icro.A e(ulsion is 2er+
high in an e*haust treat(ent, then the so7tening e77ect decreases. !n e(ulsion o7
(oderate sta)ilit+ gi2es the )est results, /ro)a)l+ )ecause s(all dro/s o7 the
e(ulsi7ied so7tener can e*haust to the 7i)re sur7ace. Poor e(ulsion sta)ilit+ causes
stains.
Reactive softeners: So(e so7teners ha2e 7unctional grou/s that can react with the
corres/onding grou/s o7 so(e 7i)res, 7or e*a(/le N.(eth+lolated a(ines with the
h+dro*+l grou/s o7 cellulose @co(/are the (echanis( o7 the crease resistance
7inishA. 'he result is a 2er+ dura)le 7inish, co()ined with the t+/ical ad2antages and
disad2antages o7 this crosslinking che(istr+, as discussed in Cha/ter ;.
So7teners and ther(o(igration o7 d+es9 Many hydrohobic softeners are
sol2ents 7or dis/erse d+es. 'here7ore the+ increase ther(o(igration o7 the d+es and
the staining o7 adEacent +arns @)leedingA. 'he crock7astness and wash7astness o7 the
7a)ric decrease as the d+es (igrate to the 7i)re sur7ace.
!olatility: So(e so7teners are 2olatile or contain 2olatile co(/onents. During
dr+ing, heatsetting or curing these 2olatile co(/onents can condense on cooler areas
o7 the o2ens and then dro/ )ack onto the 7a)ric, causing s/ots. Heating the to/ o7 the
o2ens can hel/ /re2ent this /ro)le(.
"ello#in$: 'his /ro)le( arises es/eciall+ with und+ed 7a)rics. $t can )e caused
)+ the o*idation o7 cationic so7teners or a(ino.(odi7ied silicones or )+ the ionogen
attraction o7 cationic so7teners and anionic 7luorescent )righteners @e*tinguishing the
7luorescence )+ salt 7or(ationA.
-
Dis/ersing agents and /roduct selection are then
hel/7ul.
Mechanical softenin$: So7tening e77ects can )e gained on so(e 7a)rics without
che(icals, onl+ )+ (echanical treat(ent, 7or e*a(/le washing or in a tu()ler or
with high /ressure water Eets. 'his h+droentangle(ent o7 the 7i)res is si(ilar to the
s/unlace techni8ue 7or nonwo2ens, with the ad2antage o7 an additional cleaning
e77ect and the disad2antage o7 dr+ing and (achiner+ costs. 'he degree o7 so7tness is
nor(all+ increased in the 7ollowing order9 going 7ro( (echanical treat(ents to
7a)ric construction @7or e*a(/le with (icro 7i)resA to che(ical so7tening, in other
words che(ical so7tening has the greatest e77ect.
Table 1.2 Em6lsion !2o!e2ties
No2mal em6lsion $ic2o em6lsion
0i8e of the d2o!s AnmB 1.41*44 141)4
0ee also >ol8do2fe2
).
: no
d2o!lets? onl9 micelles
(!!ea2ance $il@9 clo6d9?
scatte2ing of light of
wa5elength of +44 nm
and mo2e
Clea2 as wate2? 7eca6se the
d2o!lets a2e m6ch smalle2
than the wa5elength of 5isi7le
light
Em6lsifie2 content
No2mal AU* C on
weight of the softene2
solidsB
De29 high Acan 7e e<6al to
softene2 solidsB
Dist2i76tion afte2 a!!lication 'n the fi72e s62face
$o2e inside the fi72e 76ndle
>andle 0oft to g2eas9 De29 soft? not g2eas9
0ta7ilit9 to mechanical fo2ces $ode2ate >igh
067stanti5it9 %ood Less good
Effect on c2oc@fastness None 0ometimes negati5e A7eca6se
of the high em6sifie2 contentB
%eeer colour, dar&er blac&: 3inishes with silicone so7teners or elasto(erics
generate dee/er colour i(/ressions, si(ilar to wet te*tiles. 'his is caused )+ a lower
light re7lection, es/eciall+ )+ a low re7racti2e inde* @silicone ,.54 and water ,.44A. !
(iddle re7racti2e inde* is t+/ical 7or cotton @,.;-A and n+lon @,.;<A. But the high
re7racti2e inde* o7 /ol+ester @,.-4A causes such a high light re7lection that a dee/
)lack on /ol+ester 7i)res needs relati2el+ high a(ounts o7 d+estu77. 'his )eco(es
(ore critical with (icro 7i)res. 'heir large sur7ace @a)out dou)le that o7 nor(al
7i)resA causes e2en (ore re7lection. With silicone 7inishes, /re7era)l+ with a(ino.
(odi7ied (acroe(ulsions, a dee/ )lack or other dee/ colour on /ol+ester (icro
7i)res is achie2a)le, co()ined with a 2er+ so7t handle. ! disad2antage is the
increased ther(o(igration, leading to lower wet and crocking 7astness. 'his can )e
reduced )+ a2oiding o2er.dosing and dr+ing te(/eratures o2er ,01 PC.
0-
Refe2ences
, 2ans W P, ?Cationic 7a)ric so7teners?, Chemistry and Industry ,=-=, :=4.=14.
0 Baughan ! and Ji( C J, ?De7inition and assess(ent o7 7a)ric hand?, AATCCBoo+ of
!a"ers: (:;<6ational Technical Conference, ,=<;, --.<<.
4 Ji( C J and Baughan !, ?Ph+sical /ro/erties associated with 7a)ric hand?, AATCC Boo+
of !a"ers: (:;< 6ational Technical Conference, ,=<;, <:.=;.
5 Wakel+n P J and Johnson R 3, ?Orientation o7 antistatic agents at the sur7ace o7 acr+lic
7i)res?, 2ournal 3ociety .yers Colourists, ,=<0, '', ,;1.
; Textile Terms and .efinitions, ,1th edn, &anchester, 'e*tile $nstitute, ,==;.
- Hausch 3, ?'e*tilweich(acher?, Textil#eredlung, 011,, 36, 04.0:.
< &oone+ W, ?Che(ical so7tening?, in Textile Finishing, He+wood D @ed.A, Brad7ord, Societ+
o7 D+ers and Colourists, 0114, 0;,.41<.
: 'hu(( S, ?ProCesso/ti(ierte Siliconweichgri77(ittel?, International Textile Bulletin, 011,,
47@5A, ::.
= 3lath H.J, ?!ktuelle Pro)le(e der Weichgri77ausrustung?, Textiltechni+, ,=:<, 37, 0;;0;:.
,1 Ha)ereder P, ?Silicon.Weich(acher9 Struktur.Wirkungs)eCiehungen?, -elliand
Textilerichte, 0110, '3, 44-.44:.
,, 'hoss H, Hesse !, Hocker H, Wagner R and #ange H, ?!u7Cieh2erhalten 2on
a((oniu((odi7iCierten Silikonweich(achern au7 CO.%ewe)e?, -elliand Textilerichte,
0114, '4, 4,5.4,:.
,0 Ha)ereder P, ?'e*tilsilicone und "(welt . 7ur den Praktiker in _ahlen?, -elliand
Textilerichte, ,==<, 7', 4;0.4;5.
,4 Bereck !, We)er B, Riegel D, Bindl J, Ha)ereder P, Huhn J %, #autenschlager H.J and
Preiner %, ?in7luss 2on Siliconweich(achern au7 %ri77 und (echanische igenscha7ten
2on te*tilen 3lachenge)ilden, 'eil 5?, Textil#eredlung, ,==<, 32, ,4:.,5,.
,5 Sand C, Bruck(ann R and _+schka R, ?&odische !kCente in der te*tilen !usrustung?,
-elliand Textilerichte, 0111, '1@,,F,0A, ==0.==<.
,; llis B C and %arnsworth+ R, ?! re2iew o7 techni8ues 7or the assess(ent o7 hand?, Textile
)esearch 2ournal, ,=:1, (), 04,.
,- #i2es+ R J and Owen J D, ?Cloth sti77ness and h+steresis in )ending?, 2ournal Textile
Institute, ,=-5, ((, ';,-.
,< Bisho/ D P, ?3a)rics9 sensor+ and (echanical /ro/erties?, Textile To"ics, &anchester,
'e*tile $nstitute ,==-, @see also Textile !rogress, 26@4A.
,: !!'CC 2aluation Procedure ;, AATCC Technical -anual (:::, Research 'riangle Park.
,= hrler P, &a2el+ J, Weisse 3, !ugenadel ! and Blanken)urg %, ?Descri/tion and control
o7 tactile /ro/erties )+ the Jawa)ata and alternati2e test s+ste(s?, .%I )e"orts, ,==4,
111, 5=;.;1:.
01 Behery 1 -, 'e*tile Research Journal, (:=6, 56, &&;/
0, Jawa)ata, S, The 3tandardi9ation and Analysis of 1and $#aluation, Bol. 0, Osaka, 'e*tile
&achiner+ Societ+ Ja/an, ,=:1.
00 5a*aata 3 and 6i#a -, Proceedings ;th $nternational Wool 'e*tiles Research
Con7erence, Aachen (:;<, >ol/ >, (:;6, ?(8/
04 3inni(ore , ?O)Eekti2e %ri77)eurteilung nach de( JS.3 S+ste(?, Chemiefasern,
Textilindustrie, ,=:0, 32*'4, :0-.
05 !llen C 3, Shaw ', de Boos ! % and #+ N %, ?Ber)esserung der Uualitat 2on
Wollgewe)en durch !nwendung des 3!S'.S+ste(s?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,==1, 71,
-,5.
0; HolCdor7er " D, ?H+dro/hile Weich(acher au7 Basis 2on Silikonen?, Textil#eredlung,
011,, 36, ;.
0- Po//enwi((er J and Sch(idt J, ?!usrusten 2on S+nthese7asersto77en . 'eil 0?,
Textil#eredlung, ,===, 34@<F:A, -.
+
>and 76ilding finishes
4.1 Int2od6ction
'he hand )uilding 7inish is not onl+ one o7 the oldest )ut also one o7 the (ost
i(/ortant kind o7 7inishes. Ber+ di77erent natural and s+nthetic /ol+(ers are used 7or
an astonishing 2ariet+ o7 hand e77ects. 'he (ain e77ects o7 7ullness and sti77ness
ena)le a 2er+ interesting hand design, o7ten in co()ination with other 7inishes.
So7tness and hardness or sti77ness are inco(/ati)le contrasts, )ut there are .
es/eciall+ with the 7illing 7inish . (an+ 7luent transitions. 3illing /roducts can )e
co()ined as well with so7teners as with sti77ening /roducts.
3inishes that add 7ir(ness to 7a)ric hand are o7ten called hand )uilders. 3a)ric
hand was discussed in detail in Cha/ter 4 on so7tening 7inishes. #arge 8uantities o7
hand )uilders are used toda+ to i(/ro2e the hand o7 7a)rics that are too 7li(s+, li(/
or ragg+ 7or either the custo(er, as /oint.o7.sale 7inishes, or su)se8uent /rocessing,
such as sewing or auto(ated (aterials handling. 'hese 7inishes are also used to
increase the weight o7 7a)rics that are )elow weight s/eci7ications. With increased
)ulk, sti77ness or weight, the /rocessa)ilit+ and (arketa)ilit+ o7 these 7a)rics is
increased. When a /er(anent 7inish is not re8uired, non.dura)le /roducts can )e
used to /ro2ide a ?counter 7inish? 7or increased sale a//eal. Hand )uilders dura)le to
re/eated laundering and dr+ cleaning are e(/lo+ed 7or /er(anent e77ects.
4.2 Definitions and te2ms
Hand )uilders can )e roughl+ di2ided into two grou/s de/ending on the (aEor e77ect
on 7a)ric hand. One grou/ adds 7ullness, which is a 7eeling o7 increased )ulk or
weight. 'he second grou/ /ro2ides sti77ness or a resistance to )ending. Howe2er, it is
not alwa+s /ossi)le to (ake clear distinctions )ecause so(e sti77ening /roducts also
+ield a 7uller hand and (an+ /roducts that add 7ullness also /ro2ide sti77ening
e77ects, es/eciall+ at high concentrations.
4.3 The hand 76ilding effect
High (olecular weight and es/eciall+ the crosslinked hand )uilders tend to /ro2ide
(ostl+ sti77ness with so(e added 7ullness. 'his is due to their attach(ent at the
7a)ric sur7ace and accu(ulation in s/aces )etween +arns. $ndi2idual 7i)res and +arns
are )ound together, which accounts 7or the sti77ness o)ser2ed. S(aller
(acro(olecules /enetrate (ore easil+ )etween indi2idual 7i)res o7 the +arn )undle,
)inding the 7i)res with a (ini(u( o7 +arn.to.+arn connections and resulting in )oth
7ullness without a high degree o7 sti77ness. Crosslinka)le /roducts can /ro2ide )oth
7a)ric 7ullness and sti77ness that is dura)le to laundering and dr+ cleaning.
4.4 Exam!les of textiles with hand 76ilding finishes
Sti77ening with starch is o7ten used a7ter laundering shirts, )louses and ta)le linens.
!n increased 7ullness is 7re8uentl+ i(/ortant 7or 7a)rics with low war/ and 7ill
densities, such as so(e lining, suit and costu(e 7a)rics, o2ercoat /o/lin and also 7or
/ile 7a)rics, 7or e*a(/le corduro+. So(e sti77ness and 7ullness e77ects are necessar+
7or laces and knitted dress 7a)rics. 2en greater sti77ness is usual 7or selected deni(
articles, work clothes and industrial uni7or(s, such as so(e Eeans, o2eralls, a/rons
and la) coats. ! 7ull and sti77 hand is de(anded 7or (attress duck, ta/estries and
awning 7a)rics. 3a)rics 7or window treat(ents like )linds and curtains re8uire a
(easure o7 sti77ness. &an+ te*tiles recei2e a non.dura)le sti77ening 7inish 7or ease in
cutting and /rocessing. So(e dura)le hand )uilders are also used as /ig(ent )inders,
)inders 7or non.wo2ens, 7inishes 7or car/et )ackings, coatings 7or glass 7i)re 7a)rics
and as additi2es @7or e*a(/le adhesi2esA 7or other s/ecialit+ 7inishes.
+.. T9!ical hand 76ilde2 chemist29
+...1 Non1d62a7le hand 76ilding finishes
Hand )uilding 7inishes that lose their e77ect a7ter one or two launderings are
considered non.dura)le. 'he two (aEor /roduct t+/es o7 non.dura)le hand )uilders
are starch deri2ati2es and /ol+2in+l alcohol. Natural starch is /roduced co((erciall+
7ro( /otatoes, corn, wheat, rice and ta/ioca. $ts two (ain co(/onents are /ol+(ers
o7 a.glucose, a(+lo/ectin and a(+lose, shown in 3ig. 5.,. 'he thickening e77ect o7
starch is (ainl+ due to the long and )ranched a(+lo/ectin chains.
Pol+2in+l alcohol @PB!A is a water.solu)le /ol+(er with a glass transition
te(/erature, 'g, o7 :1 PC. !lthough its na(e i(/lies a ho(o/ol+(er structure, the
structure o7 co((ercial PB! is a co/ol+(er o7 2in+l alcohol and 2in+l acetate as
seen in 3ig. 5.0. PB! is (ade )+ the inco(/lete h+drol+sis o7 /ol+2in+l acetate
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image)..!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
OH OH
OH
'.1 0t26ct62es of sta2ch
com!onents.
and se2eral grades with 2ar+ing degrees o7 h+drol+sis are a2aila)le. $ncor/orating B.
(eth+lol crosslinking agents into PB! and starch 7or(ulations can increase the
laundering dura)ilit+ o7 their hand )uilding e77ects. $n addition to their use as hand
)uilders, starch and /ol+2in+l alcohol are i(/ortant war/ siCes.
+...) D62a7le hand 76ilding finishes
Hand )uilding 7inishes that retain their sti77ening and 7ullness e77ects a7ter re/eated
launderings are considered to )e dura)le. 'hese /roducts are usuall+ a8ueous
e(ulsions o7 /ol+(ers that 7or( water.insolu)le 7il(s on the 7i)re sur7ace when
dried. 'he three (ain t+/es o7 /roducts are 2in+l acetate.containing /ol+(ers, acr+lic
co/ol+(ers and ther(osetting /ol+(ers.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image)-.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
'.2 Pol95in9l alcohol
st26ct62es.
Bin+l acetate.containing /ol+(ers include )oth /ol+2in+l acetate and eth+lene.
2in+l acetate co/ol+(ers @B!A, as shown in 3ig. 5.4. Pol+2in+l acetate has a glass
transition te(/erature o7 41 PC and /ro2ides a sti77 hand to treated 7a)rics. B!
co/ol+(ers can +ield a 2ariet+ o7 hand e77ects de/ending on the relati2e a(ounts o7
eth+lene and 2in+l acetate in the co/ol+(er. $ncreasing the a(ount o7 eth+lene @T o7
/ol+eth+lene K .<1 PCA in the co/ol+(er will gi2e /roducts with increasingl+ so7ter
hand e77ects. !nother 2in+l /ol+(er used 7or hand )uilding is /ol+2in+l (eth+l ether
@PB&A as shown in 3ig. 5.5. PB& has a low 'g, less than .01 PC and /ro2ides a
2er+ 7ull hand. $t is /articularl+ use7ul with ra+on lining 7a)ric.
'he largest and (ost 2ersatile grou/ o7 hand )uilders is )ased on /ol+acr+late and
/ol+(ethacr+late che(istr+. 'he general structures o7 acr+late and (ethacr. +late
/ol+(ers are gi2en in 3ig. 5.;. So(e o7 the (ore i(/ortant indi2idual /ol+(ers are
listed in 'a)le 5.,. 3ro( this ta)le, se2eral trends concerning 'g are e2ident.
&ethacr+lates ha2e higher 'g 2alues than the corres/onding acr+lates, and the longer
the alcohol grou/, the lower the Tg o7 the /ol+(ers. 3ischer has shown that a high 'g
o7 /ol+(ers leads to a 7ir(, sti77 hand when the+ are a//lied to 7a)ric and that a low
'g leads to a so7ter, (ore 7le*i)le e77ect.
,
'he sa(e relationshi/ )etween Tg and
sti77ness is a//lica)le to acr+lic e(ulsions used as /rint /aste
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image)/.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
'.1 Pol95in9l acetate
st26ct62es.
'.' Pol95in9l meth9l ethe2
st26ct62e.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image),.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
)inders.
0
Products with a low ' 2alue can )e used to )uild u/ 7a)ric weight and
7ullness without causing the 7a)rics to )eco(e e*cessi2el+ sti77, while high 'g
/roducts can add 7a)ric sti77ness with onl+ slight weight gain. $ndeed, the e*tre(el+
high 'g @,1; PCA o7 /ol+(eth+l(ethacr+late leads to its use as an acr+lic glass.
'+/icall+, /ol+(ers o7 these acr+lic and (ethacr+lic esters are /roduced as
co/ol+(ers with other acr+lic and 2in+l (ono(ers. 3or e*a(/le, acr+lonitrile is
o7ten added to i(/art additional water and sol2ent resistance. Other 7eatures that can
)e i(/ro2ed include a)rasion resistance, adhesion, elasticit+, 7le*i)ilit+ and 7il(
hardness. nhanced dura)ilit+ to laundering can )e achie2ed )+ incor/orating
reacti2e, es/eciall+ crosslinking, (ono(ers such as B.(eth+lol acr+la(ide,
h+dro*+eth+l acr+late, acr+la(ide, acr+lic and (ethacr+lic acid. O/ti(isation o7
/ol+(er /ro/erties with the large 2ariet+ o7 a2aila)le (ono(ers leads to near endless
co()inations o7 co/ol+(ers
4
that are li(ited onl+ )+ the i(agination o7 the che(ist
and )+ the realit+ o7 the cost.e77icienc+ ratio.
!nother categor+ o7 dura)le hand )uilders are 7or(aldeh+de.containing ther(o.
setting /ol+(ers. 'hese /roducts are usuall+ su//lied as dis/ersions or a8ueous
solutions o7 /recondensates o7 urea or (ela(ine with 7or(aldeh+de, 7or e*a(/le di.
(eth+lol urea or di. to he*a.(eth+lol (ela(ine and their (eth+l ethers. 'he
ther(osetting /ol+(ers are co(/arati2el+ ine*/ensi2e and /ro2ide 7a)rics with
sti77ness and resilience. Howe2er, the+ ha2e a tendenc+ to reduce a)rasion resistance,
+ellow a7ter e*/osure to heat, and release 7or(aldeh+de. &ela(ine. )ased hand
)uilders are (ore highl+ crosslinked than urea.)ased /roducts and are accordingl+
(ore dura)le. But+lated urea condensates are es/eciall+ use7ul 7or ra+on 7a)rics @see
also Cha/ter ;9 as+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes o7 cellulosicsA.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image)3.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
'.( Pol9ac29late and
!ol9methac29late
st26ct62es.
&odi7ied /ol+urethanes as shown in 3ig. 5.- are used 7or 2alua)le hand 2ariations
and as additi2es 7or cellulose crosslinkers. 'heir 7le*i)le and elastic 7il(s on the 7i)re
sur7ace i(/ro2e elastic resilience, which is, 7or e*a(/le, i(/ortant 7or /ile 7a)rics.
5
'he /rinci/le o7 their elasticit+ is, as in elastan 7i)res, the (olecular co()ination o7
so.called weak and hard seg(ents. 'he large weak
(acrodiol seg(ents with low inter(olecular attraction ena)le elongation and
7le*i)ilt+. 'he s(aller rest o7 the (olecule, called hard seg(ents )ecause o7 the
strong inter(olecular )onding, (ainl+ h+drogen )ridges, causes local 7i*ation and
7inall+ the e77ect o7 the retaining 7orces in the so7t seg(ents a7ter elongation, there)+
generating elasticit+.
+.- E5al6ation methods
'he sa(e su)Eecti2e and o)Eecti2e (ethods 7or deter(ining the e77ects o7 so7teners
discussed in Cha/ter 4 can )e a//lied to the assess(ent o7 hand )uilders. Process
control o7 7ullness is (ost easil+ acco(/lished )+ (onitoring the /ercentage weight
increase o7 the 7a)ric in 7inishing. Standard.siCed sa(/les are cut 7ro( the 7a)ric
)e7ore and a7ter the 7inish is a//lied. 'he gain in weight @g (
.0
or oC +d
.0
A on
4OC i
N>
P '2iginall9 a di1isoc9anate
N> $
4OC
111111I1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
4
( '2iginall9 a mac2o diol with ali!hatic
1
)
!ol9este2 o2 !ol9ethe2 st26ct62e
1
. . . .,`.........................................................
4OC
,
N>
! '2iginall9 a di1isoc9anate
N>
$
Table '.1 T 5al6es fo2 im!o2tant !ol9ac29lates and !ol9methac29lates
Pol9me2 R in &ig. +.. %lass t2ansition tem!e2at62e #Tg$
Pol9meth9lac29late C>* ca. - XC
Pol9eth9lac29late C>)C>* ca. 11, XC
Pol91n176t9lac29late
ch
)
ch
)
ch
)
ch
*
ca. 1+. XC
Pol9meth9lmethac29late C>* 14. XC
Pol9eth9lmethac29late C>)C>* ca. -* XC
Pol91n176t9lmethac29late C>)C>)C>)C>* ca. )* XC
4OC
.....$...........................................................
Y
I Chain extension with small diols o2 diamines
'.- 0t26ct62e of modified !ol962ethanes.
7inishing di2ided )+ the weight )e7ore the 7inish a//lication, ti(es ,11, is the weight
increase in /ercent that is due to the 7inish. 'his is so(eti(es re7erred to as the
/ercent relati2e weight increase. Continuous (easure(ents o7 7a)ric weight can )e
(ade using P.radiation with the a/tl+ na(ed ?)eta gauges?. 'hese on.line
(easure(ents allow 7or correcti2e action to )e taken i((ediatel+, 7or e*a(/le
2ariation o7 the roller /ressure o7 the /adder, to (aintain 7a)ric weight within
s/eci7ied li(its.
3a)ric sti77ness and dra/e 8ualities can )e easil+ 8uanti7ied )+ the cantile2er
(ethod.
;,-
!s shown in 3ig. 5.<, a sa(/le o7 s/eci7ied width and length is /laced on
the to/ o7 the test de2ice and co2ered with a ruler, /re7era)l+ a trans/arent one. 'he
7a)ric edge, the Cero (ark o7 the ruler and the u//er edge o7 the inclined /lane are
aligned @inclination angle 5,.;PA. 'he 7a)ric sa(/le and the ruler are (o2ed together
o2er the horiContal /lane towards the inclined /lane until the sagging edge o7 the
R6le2
I
06!!o2t Is.
0.

+
Y
"
Il@.
H.
#
. a 1 1
.
\
" S+
I@5
'.& De5ice fo2 the cantile5e2 test method with ! 3 sagged length.
7a)ric sa(/le touches the inclined /lane. 'he length indicated on the ruler at that
/oint is recorded as the )ending length. !n a2erage o7 ,1 (easure(ents is
deter(ined. 'he 7le*ural rigidit+, %, can )e e*/ressed )+9
G K @,F:A * % * A
4
M5.,N
where % is the 7a)ric weight in g c(
.0
and A is the a2erage sagged length o7 the
sa(/le in c(. 'he 7le*ural rigidit+ de/ends (ainl+ on the internal 7riction )etween
the 7i)res and the 7a)ric construction. $n other test (ethods the )ending o7 the 7a)ric
sa(/le is not caused )+ its own weight )ut )+ se2eral load weights there)+ )eing
)etter ada/ta)le to di77erent degrees o7 sti77ness degrees.
<:
B+ the wa+, (ost
/er(anent hand )uilders decrease the water a)sor)enc+, which can easil+ )e /ro2ed
)+ the dro/ test.
=
+./ T2o67leshooting fo2 hand 76ilding finishes
So(e /otential di77iculties with hand )uilders include9
H increased soiling and staining o7 the 7inished 7a)rics
H increased 7a)ric 7la((a)ilit+ and
H (ark.o77, a s/ecial 7inishing 7ault that e*ists when 7a)rics show chalk.like (arks
when scratched.
!ll o7 these /ro)le(s are (ore se2ere at high hand )uilder concentrations. Selection
criteria 7or /roducts that add sti77ness andFor 7ullness include cost, ease o7
a//lication, co(/ati)ilit+ with other che(icals /resent in the 7inishing )ath and, o7
course, the /ro/erties o7 the resulting 7inished 7a)rics and their degree o7
/er(anence. Hand )uilders /ro2ide antisli/ e77ects and can )e used 7or anti/illing.
5
O)2iousl+ the sti77ening e77ect is not co(/ati)le with an elasto(eric 7inish.
Refe2ences
, 3ischer J, ?&odern trends in the use o7 !//retan )rands 7or the 7inishing, )inding and
coating o7 te*tiles?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,==1, 71, 0=1.414, ,4,.,4-.
0 Patel D C, ?S+nthethic Binders 7or Pig(ent Printing?, in !igment !rinting 1andoo+,
!!'CC, Research 'riangle Park, ,==;.
4 Wilhel( H, ?Reaktions7ahige Hoch/ol+(ere 7ur die 'e*til2eredlung?, Textil#eredlung,
,=::, 23@/art ,A, =-.,11, @/art 0A, ,<:.,:,, @/art 4A, 0;.041, @/art 5A, 41<.4,0.
5 Sand C, Bruck(ann R and _+schka R, ?&odische !kCente in der te*tilen !usrustung?,
-elliand Textilerichte, 0111, '1@,,F,0A, ==0.==<.
; Pierce 3 ', ?Cantile2er (ethod, corres/onding to BS 44;-.,=-, and to !S'& ,4::;; '?,
2ournal Textile Institute, ,=41, 21, '4<<.
- &oone+ W, in Textile Finishing, He+wood D @ed.A, Brad7ord, Societ+ o7 D+ers and
Colourists, 0114, 0;,.41<.
< .I6 <8 =6?, Deter(ination o7 the )ending strength, (ethod according to Schlenker.
.eutsches Institut fur 6ormung/
: !S'& D ,4::, 3tandard Test -ethod for 3tiffness of Farics/ !(erican Societ+ 7or
'esting and &aterials.
= Wurster P, Sch(idt % et al, ?Der '%W!.'ro/7test, eine &ethode Cur schnellen
Besti((ung der Saug7ahigkeit an te*tilen 3lachenge)ilden?, -elliand Textilerichte,
,=:<, 6'@:A, ;:,.;:4.
Eas91ca2e and d62a7le !2ess finishes of
cell6losics
..1 Int2od6ction
Cellulose 7i)res and es/eciall+ cotton are still the (ost i(/ortant kind o7 7i)res,
)ecause o7 their nu(erous ad2antages. One o7 their (ain disad2antages, wrinkling
a7ter washing is o2erco(e )+ a 2er+ i(/ortant and s/ecial kind o7 7inish. $t is
di77icult to 7ind the one )est ter( to descri)e this class o7 7inishes. So(e o7 the words
and /hrases that ha2e )een used in the /ast include eas+.care, (ini(u( care, eas+.
to.iron, no.iron, wash and wear, crease resistant, dura)le /ress, /er(anent /ress,
shrink /roo7, wrinkle resistant and wrinkle 7ree. 'a)le ;., shows the (ain /ositi2e
e77ects o7 cellulosic 7inishes. Writing ad2ertising co/+ 7or these /roducts has )een an
ad.(anFwo(an?s drea( co(e true. $n actual 7act, all o7 these ter(s do descri)e so(e
i(/ortant /er7or(ance 7eatures o7 these (ulti.talented 7inishes. 'he (ost technicall+
correct descri/tion would )e ?cellulosic anti. swelling? or ?cellulosic crosslinking?
7inishes, )ut these ter(s /ro)a)l+ wouldn?t )e o7 (uch 2alue 7or increasing retail
sales. $n this cha/ter, the ter(s ?eas+.care? and ?dura)le /ress? will )e used /re7era)l+.
as+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes are generall+ a//lied to cellulose and
cellulose )lend 7a)rics, )ut other 7i)res can )ene7it 7ro( these 7inishes also. $n
addition to the di(ensional sta)ilit+ /ro/erties (entioned a)o2e, the sheen o7
calendered 7a)rics @/er(anent chintCA and the stand and hand o7 /ile 7a)rics are
generall+ i(/ro2ed )+ dura)le /ress 7inishes. 'he /ri(ar+ e77ects o7 the eas+.care
and dura)le /ress 7inish on cellulosic 7i)res are reduction in swelling and shrinkage,
i(/ro2ed wet and dr+ wrinkle reco2er+, s(oothness o7 a//earance a7ter dr+ing, and
retention o7 intentional creases and /leats. 'he total crease reco2er+ angle @CR!A,
that is the su( o7 the crease reco2er+ angles o7 the war/ and the 7ill directions o7 the
7a)ric, increases 7ro( a)out ,;1P to a)out 411P. ! 7a)ric shrinkage o7 less than ; I
can usuall+ )e achie2ed.
!n una2oida)le side e77ect o7 the cellulosic crosslinking 7inishes is a reduction in
the elasticit+ and 7le*i)ilit+ o7 the cellulose 7i)res. 'his /roduces a considera)le
decrease in a)rasion resistance and tear and tensile strengths on natural cellulose
Table (.1 Positi5e effects of cell6losic c2osslin@ing finishes and co22es!onding
textiles
Co22es!onding textile

Easy-care and wrinkle resistance, a
smooth w2in@le1f2ee a!!ea2ance afte2
washing witho6t i2oning
Dimension stability, sh2in@ 2esistance
afte2 washing
Durable press, 2etention of
intentional c2eases
$ainl9 fo2 wo5en fa72ics
$ainl9 fo2 @nitwea2
&o2mal and leis62e wea2 with
some demands? !lisee/!leated
goods
Pile fa72ics

Sheen and wash permanence of chintz Calende2ed Achint8edB fa72ics

ermanent knitter !hand knitted" look,
2etention of i22eg6la2 c2eases and w2in@les
#ntipillin$ 79 7ette2 a72asion of the !ills? a
t62n a2o6nd of the disad5antage of st2ength
loss
%i&ation of other finishes, fo2 exam!le
stiffening with wate21sol67le hand 76ilde2s
%i&ation of dyestuffs and pi$ments 79
inco2!o2ation in the c2osslin@ed
cell6lose and in the finish netwo2@? also
!2o5iding 7ette2 wet fastness fo2
con5entional d9eings and !2intings
C26shed fa72ics? a fashion t2end simila2 to
the 6sed loo@
$ost im!o2tant fo2 @nitwea2 f2om 144 C
cell6lose
P2ima29 effect
ile resilience, im!2o5ed stand of !ile 79
7ette2 elastic 2esilience
7i)res. ! rule o7 thu() states that an increase in the wrinkle reco2er+ angle o7 ,1P
corres/onds to a loss in a)rasion and tear strength o7 a)out < I. 'he dr+ tear
strength o7 regenerated cellulose 7i)res decreases onl+ slightl+ with a crosslinking
7inish, )ut the wet tear strength actuall+ increases )ecause o7 the strongl+ reduced
swelling. 'a)le ;.0 gi2es an o2er2iew o7 the disad2antages o7 the cellulosic
crosslinking 7inishes and the /ossi)le corres/onding re(edies.
..) $echanisms of eas91ca2e and d62a7le !2ess
finishing
'he /ri(ar+ cause o7 the shrinkage o7 cellulosic 7i)res is the 7act that these 7i)res
can readil+ a)sor) (oisture. 'his a)sor)ed (oisture 7acilitates internal /ol+(er
chain (o2e(ents in the a(or/hous 7i)re areas )+ lu)rication. $t disru/ts the
&a72ics with low wa2! and fill densities?
@nitted d2ess fa72ics? denim a2ticles? matt2ess
d6c@? awning fa72ics
Cell6losics mainl9 with di2ect and acid d9es?
1
cotton/!ol9este2 7lends with 2eacti5e d9es?
)
!2e!a2ation fo2 d29 heat t2ansfe2 !2inting of
cell6losics
*
'eneral disad(anta$es)
Loss of a72asion? tea2 and 2i!!ing st2ength
;et
condensation?
li<6id
ammonia
t2eatment?
addition of silicones and othe2 a6xilia2ies
fo2 exam!le !ol95in9l acetate?
!ol962ethane

>a2d handle
%2e9ing d62ing washing
Less dilata7le and elastic
*ase-wise disad(anta$es)
Release of la2ge2 amo6nts of
fo2maldeh9de
Com7ination with softene2s
Com7ination with soil12elease finishes
Com7ination with silicones? fo2 exam!le
elastome2ics
&o2maldeh9de1f2ee o2 low fo2maldeh9de
finishes? selection of !2od6cts and
condensation conditions A7ette2 than
fo2maldeh9de sca5enge2s and chea!e2
than washing with new d29ingB

Red6ction of light fastness and shade
changes of colo62ed fa72ics
Eellowing? es!eciall9 when not d9ed
and/o2 fl6o2escent 72ightened
'7ectiona7le odo62s? sometimes fish
smell
Chlo2ine 2etention? ca6sing ma2@ed
9ellowing and st2ength loss
0election of !2od6cts as d9est6ffs?
c2osslin@e2s? catal9sts
0election of catal9sts? fl6o2escent
72ightene2s and a!!lication conditions
0election of catal9sts Ano ammoni6m
!2od6ctsB? c2osslin@e2s? if necessa29
washing
0election of c2osslin@ing agents? 6se of
chlo2ine f2ee washing !2od6cts

internal h+drogen )onding )etween these /ol+(er chains. When a (oisture laden
cellulosic 7i)re is stressed, the internal /ol+(er chains o7 the a(or/hous areas are
7ree to (o2e to relie2e that stress. H+drogen )onds can re7or( )etween the /ol+(er
chains in their shi7ted /ositions, in e77ect locking in the new con7iguration. With no
restoring 7orces a2aila)le, a newl+ 7or(ed wrinkle or crease will re(ain until
additional /rocesses @ironing 7or e*a(/leA a//l+ ade8uate (oisture and (echanical
7orces to o2erco(e the internal 7orces.
'he swelling o7 cellulosic 7i)res )+ (oisture can )e reduced )+ the a//lication o7
sel7 crosslinking urea or (ela(ine /roducts as well as )+ /roducts that (ainl+
crosslink with cellulose (olecules. Without such a crosslinking 7inish, cellulose
7i)res can take u/ (ore than ,1 I o7 their weight in water. !s the 7i)res swell, the
7a)ric (ust crease and shrink to relie2e the internal stresses caused )+ the swelling.
Table (.2 Disad5antages of cell6losic c2osslin@ing finishes and !ossi7le
2emedies
Possi7ilities fo2 2emed9
'he new arrange(ent o7 the cellulose (olecules in the swollen 7or( o7 the 7i)re is
7i*ed )+ newl+ 7or(ed h+drogen )onds )etween adEacent cellulose (olecules,
(ostl+ in the a(or/hous 7i)re area. 'here7ore the une2en and wrinkled a//earance
o7 the cellulose 7a)ric re(ains a7ter dr+ing, in contrast to 7a)rics (ade o7 non.
swelling s+nthetic 7i)res.
'wo di77erent che(ical a//roaches ha2e )een used co((erciall+ to /roduce non.
swelling or dura)le /ress cellulose 7a)rics. 'he original a//roach is the
incor/oration o7 a /ol+(erised 7inish in the /ores o7 the 7i)res, so that water
(olecules cannot easil+ /enetrate the 7i)re. 'he newer a//roach is the reaction o7
(ulti7unctional crosslinking agents with the h+dro*+l grou/s o7 adEacent cellulose
(olecules that hinder the swelling o7 the cellulose 7i)re.
..* Exam!les of textiles with eas91ca2e and d62a7le
!2ess finishes
as+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes are a//lied to cellulose 7a)rics and 7a)ric
)lends with high cellulose content that are laundered and which should (aintain a
s(ooth, ?Eust ironed? a//earance through the li7eti(e o7 the article. 'hese include
shirts, )louses, trousers, work clothes, lining 7a)rics, suits, 7or(al wear and
o2ercoats. ! no2el 7ashion trend is the used and knitter @hand knittedA look. Here the
(arked creases o7 the crushed articles are irregular and 7i*ed )+ /er(anent /ress
7inishes. !lthough wrinkles and creases are not as se2ere a /ro)le( with knitted
7a)rics @the loo/s o7 knitwear ha2e a greater 7reedo( o7 +arn (o2e(ent when the+
are swelling, reducing the internal 7i)re stressesA, eas+.care 7inishes are also use7ul
in /ro2iding di(ensional sta)ilit+ to knitted 7a)rics @see 'a)le ;.4A. Pile 7a)ric 7or
clothes and u/holster+ can achie2e a )etter a//earance and resilience o7 the /ile, in
addition to the shrink and crease/roo7 e77ects. 'his eas+.care 7inish is also used 7or
ta)le and )ed linen )ecause the wrinkling o7 linen a7ter washing is 2er+ (arked. One
s/ecial use o7 the cellulose crosslinking 7inishes are wash /er(anent chintC articles,
/roduced )+ the heat and high /ressure o7 calendering the i(/regnated 7a)rics.
Chemical finishing of textiles.......................................1
, *
0 ,=
* +,
5 -;
;.4 *a(/les o7 te*tiles with eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes...........................................:,
;.5 Che(istr+ o7 eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes;-...........................................................:-
;.; !//lication (ethods...........................................................................................................,14
;.-Co(/ati)ilit+ with other 7inishes........................................................................................,1;
;.<2aluation (ethods.............................................................................................................,1;
;.: 'rou)leshooting and /ractical /ro)le(s............................................................................,1:
Re7erences................................................................................................................................,,5
-..............................................................................11.
Re!ellent finishes........................................................................................11.
-., $ntroduction........................................................................................................................,,;
-.0 &echanis(s o7 re/ellenc+..................................................................................................,,-
-.4 Re/ellent che(istr+............................................................................................................,,:
-.52aluation o7 te*tiles treated with re/ellent 7inishes...........................................................,41
-.;'rou)leshooting 7or re/ellent 7inishes and /articularities...................................................,41
Re7erences................................................................................................................................,40
/..............................................................................1**
0oil12elease finishes....................................................................................1**
<.,$ntroduction.........................................................................................................................,44
<.0&echanis(s o7 soil release..................................................................................................,44
<.4 Soil.release che(istr+........................................................................................................,4:
<.5 2aluation o7 soil release....................................................................................................,55
<.; 'rou)leshooting 7or soil.release 7inishes............................................................................,5;
Re7erences................................................................................................................................,5-
,..............................................................................1+,
Table (.1 Im!o2tance of the 2e<6i2ements of eas91ca2e finishes de!ending on the t9!e of
fa72ic
+
Im!o2tance ;o5ens Fnitwea2
1 No1i2on o2 eas91to1i2on Ext2a soft handle
) D62a7le !2ess !e2fo2mance >igh dimension sta7ilit9
* Dimension sta7ilit9 Elasticit9 and 2esilience
+ 0oft and !leasant handle De29 good sewa7ilit9
. >igh a72asion sta7ilit9 >9d2o!hilicit9
- Tea2 st2ength >igh deg2ee of whiteness
&lame12eta2dant finishes.............................................................................1+,
:.,$ntroduction.........................................................................................................................,5:
:.0&echanis(s o7 7la(e retardanc+.........................................................................................,5:
:.4 3la(e.retardant che(istr+..................................................................................................,;4
:.5 3la(e retardants 7or cellulose.............................................................................................,;5
:.; 3la(e retardants 7or wool...................................................................................................,-0
:.- 3la(e retardants 7or /ol+ester............................................................................................,-4
:.< 3la(e retardants 7or n+lon..................................................................................................,-5
:.:3la(e retardants 7or other 7i)res.........................................................................................,-;
:.=3la(e.retarding 7i)re )lends...............................................................................................,-;
:.,1No2el a//roach to 7la(e retardanc+9 intu(escents...........................................................,--
:.,,2aluation o7 7la(e retardants...........................................................................................,--
:.,0 'rou)leshooting 7or 7la(e.retardant 7inishes and /articularities......................................,-=
Re7erences................................................................................................................................,<1
3..............................................................................1/1
Non1sli! finishes..........................................................................................1/1
=., $ntroduction........................................................................................................................,<,
=.0 &echanis(s o7 non.sli/ 7inishes........................................................................................,<0
=.4 Che(istr+ o7 non.sli/ 7inishes............................................................................................,<0
=.5 !//lication (ethods and co()ina)ilit+.............................................................................,<4
=.; 2aluation o7 non.sli/ 7inishes...........................................................................................,<5
=.- 'rou)leshooting 7or non.sli/ 7inishes.................................................................................,<;
Re7erences................................................................................................................................,<;
14............................................................................1/.
(ntistatic finishes........................................................................................1/.
,1., $ntroduction......................................................................................................................,<;
,1.0&echanis(s o7 antistatic 7inishes......................................................................................,<<
,1.4Che(istr+ o7 antistatic 7inishes.........................................................................................,<:
,1.5 Conducti2e 7i)res.............................................................................................................,:0
,1.; 2aluation o7 antistatic 7inishes........................................................................................,:4
,1.- 'rou)leshooting 7or antistatic 7inishes and /articularities................................................,:5
Re7erences................................................................................................................................,:;
11............................................................................1,-
(nti1!illing finishes......................................................................................1,-
,,.,$ntroduction.......................................................................................................................,:-
,,.0Pilling (echanis(.............................................................................................................,:<
,,.4 &echanis(s and che(istr+ o7 anti./illing 7inishes..........................................................,=,
,,.5 2aluation o7 anti./illing 7inishes....................................................................................,=0
,,.; 'rou)leshooting 7or anti./illing 7inishes and co(/ati)ilit+.............................................,=5
Re7erences................................................................................................................................,=<
1)............................................................................13,
Elastome2ic finishes....................................................................................13,
,0., $ntroduction......................................................................................................................,=:
,0.0 lasto(eric (echanis(....................................................................................................,==
,0.4 Che(istr+ o7 elasto(eric 7inishes....................................................................................,==
,0.5 2aluation o7 elasto(eric 7inishes....................................................................................010
,0.; 'rou)leshooting 7or elasto(eric 7inishes and /articularities............................................014
Re7erences................................................................................................................................014
1*............................................................................)4+
&inishes to im!2o5e colo62 fastness............................................................)4+
,4.,$ntroduction.......................................................................................................................015
,4.0$(/ro2ed wet 7astness.......................................................................................................015
,4.4 $(/ro2ed light 7astness.....................................................................................................0,1
,4.5 $(/ro2ed crocking and ru))ing 7astness..........................................................................0,5
Re7erences................................................................................................................................0,-
1+............................................................................)1/
Ult2a5iolet !2otection finishes.....................................................................)1/
,5., $ntroduction......................................................................................................................0,<
,5.4 Che(istr+ o7 "B /rotection 7inishes................................................................................005
,5.5 2aluation o7 "B /rotection 7inishes...............................................................................00<
,5.; 'rou)leshooting 7or "B /rotection 7inishes and co()ina)ilit+.......................................00=
Re7erences................................................................................................................................00=
1.............................................................................)*4
(ntimic2o7ial finishes..................................................................................)*4
,;., $ntroduction......................................................................................................................041
,;.0Pro/erties o7 an e77ecti2e anti(icro)ial 7inish5.................................................................04,
,;.4&echanis(s o7 anti(icro)ial 7inishes...............................................................................04,
,;.5 Che(istr+ o7 anti(icro)ial 7inishes;=..............................................................................040
,;.; 2aluation o7 anti(icro)ial 7inishes.................................................................................04=
,;.- 'rou)leshooting 7or anti(icro)ial 7inishes.......................................................................05,
Re7erences................................................................................................................................05;
1-............................................................................)+-
Insect 2esist and mite !2otection finishes....................................................)+-
,-.,$ntroduction.......................................................................................................................05-
,-.0&echanis(s o7 insect resist 7inishes..................................................................................05-
,-.4 Che(istr+ o7 insect resist 7inishes....................................................................................05=
,-.5!//lication o7 insect resist 7inishes...................................................................................0;1
,-.;2aluation o7 insect resist 7inishes....................................................................................0;1
,-.-'rou)leshooting 7or insect resist 7inishes..........................................................................0;1
,-.< 3inishes 7or /rotection 7ro( dust (ites............................................................................0;,
Re7erences................................................................................................................................0;,
1/............................................................................).)
&inishing with en89mes: 7io1finishes fo2 cell6lose.......................................).)
,<., $ntroduction......................................................................................................................0;0
,<.0 !ction o7 cellulase enC+(es on cellulose.........................................................................0;;
,<.4 Che(istr+ o7 enC+(e 7inishing.........................................................................................0;:
,<.5 2aluation o7 )io.7inishing...............................................................................................0-1
,<.; 'rou)leshooting 7or )io.7inishing.....................................................................................0-1
Re7erences................................................................................................................................0-,
1,............................................................................)-)
No5el finishes..............................................................................................)-)
,:.,$ntroduction.......................................................................................................................0-0
,:.0!nti.odour and 7ragrance 7inishes.....................................................................................0-0
,:.4 3i)re sur7ace (odi7+ing 7inishes using /las(a and radiation technologies......................0-:
,:.5 3i)re sur7ace (odi7ication )+ sol.gel 7inishes with inorganic o*ide 7il(s.......................0-=
Re7erences................................................................................................................................0<0
13............................................................................)/*
(ct6al and f6t62e t2ends in chemical finishing............................................)/*
,=.,$ntroduction.......................................................................................................................0<4
,=.0Cost reduction and greater e77icienc+................................................................................0<4
,=.4New kinds o7 e77ects..........................................................................................................0<4
,=.53ewer undesira)le side e77ects...........................................................................................0<;
,=.;asier a//lication..............................................................................................................0<;
,=.-&icroenca/sulation, a new trend 7or storage and release o7 acti2e 7inishing /roducts......0<;
,=.< %reater /er(anence in washing and che(ical cleaning...................................................0<-
,=.:asier care o7 the 7inished te*tiles.....................................................................................0<<
,=.=Better ecolog+....................................................................................................................0<<
,=.,1 "sing 7ewer che(icals...................................................................................................0<:
,=.,, S(art te*tiles )+ che(ical 7inishing...............................................................................0<=
,=.,0 Su((ar+ and outlook.....................................................................................................0:1
Re7erences................................................................................................................................0:,
Index ),1
D$U $ethanol 6,6' Dimethox9meth9l 62ea (.1 Dimeth9lol 62ea
2eactions.
..+ Chemist29 of eas91ca2e and d62a7le !2ess finishes
.-
'he end o7 the ,=01s saw the introduction o7 7or(aldeh+de condensation /roducts
7or the dura)le /ress 7inishing o7 7a)rics (ade o7 2iscose, linen or cotton. $nitiall+
(ainl+ urea.7or(aldeh+de /roducts were used, soon 7ollowed )+ (ela(ine.
7or(aldeh+de co(/ounds. $n ,=5< di(eth+loleth+lene urea /roducts )egan to
a//ear. as+.care 7inishing o7 cotton has )een a (aEor (arket success since the
(iddle o7 the ,=;1s. During the ,=-1s and ,=<1s, concern a)out 7or(aldeh+de
encouraged de2elo/(ent o7 cellulose crosslinking 7inishes with low 7ree 7or(al.
deh+de le2els. Continued research has /ro2ided /roducts with 2er+ low 7ree
7or(aldeh+de content as well as /roducts that are co(/letel+ 7or(aldeh+de 7ree.
..+.1 &o2maldeh9de1containing !2od6cts
"rea.7or(aldeh+de @"F3A /roducts are readil+ s+nthesised 7ro( water solutions o7
urea and 7or(aldeh+de at /H <.;.=. 'he resulting B,B.di(eth+lol urea @D&"A is
o7ten (odi7ied )+ 7urther reaction at /H :.= with (ethanol to the (ore sta)le and
li8uid di(eth+lether o7 D&" @di(etho*+(eth+l ureaA as shown in 3ig. ;.,. 'hese
reactions are e8uili)riu( reactions with signi7icant concentrations o7 the starting
co(/ounds. 'hese e8uili)ria are the reasons 7or the high content o7 7ree and easil+
released 7or(aldeh+de 7ound with "F3 /roducts. Because o7 their high reacti2it+,
un(odi7ied "F3 7inish )aths (ust )e used within a 7ew hours. 'he high sti77ness and
7ir(ness o7 the "F3 7inish can )e i(/ortant 7or ra+on 7a)rics which o7ten are
considered too li(/ when co(/ared with cotton. 'he "F3 7inish gi2es the )est
elastic resilience.
<
'he (ain /ro/erties o7 "F3 /roducts are9
D&" is highl+ reacti2eD 7inish )aths ha2e to )e used in a 7ew hours #ow sta)ilit+
to h+drol+sis, low dura)ilit+ to laundering High chlorine retention
$ethanol
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image*4.!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
(.2 $elamine1fo2maldeh9de 2eactions.
H High content and release o7 7or(aldeh+de
H Ber+ high elastic resilience.
&ela(ine.7or(aldeh+de @&F3A /roducts ha2e (ostl+ three to si* reacti2e N.
(eth+lol grou/s connected to one (ela(ine ring. 'his leads to a higher crosslinking
and an eas+.care 7inish with )etter wash 7astnesses. 'heir s+nthesis is si(ilar to the
"F3 /roducts, /ro2iding tri. to he*a(eth+lol (ela(ine @'&&, H&&A and their
(eth+l ethers @tri. or he*a(etho*+(eth+l (ela(ineA as shown in 3ig. ;.0. '&& is
/re7erred 7or the eas+.care 7inish, o7ten onl+ as a co(/onent o7 a /roduct (i*ture to
gi2e a )etter /er(anence o7 the e77ects. $t is also used 7or /er(anent chintC @glaCing,
e()ossing, SchreineringA o7 cellulosics. H&& 7inds additional uses in /ig(ent
)inders and Baso7ilb 7i)res.
:,=
'he (ain /ro/erties o7 &F3 /roducts are9
H Better sta)ilit+ to h+drol+sis and )etter washing dura)ilit+ than "F3 /roducts
H Relati2el+ high 7or(aldeh+de content and release
H 3ewer /ro)le(s with chlorine retention than "F3 /roducts
H &ore di(ensional sta)ilit+ and sti77ness @also 7or n+lon and /ol+esterA.
'he /redo(inant reaction o7 "F3 and &F3 /roducts is their sel7 condensation to
three.di(ensional resin structures @3ig. ;.4A. 'hese structures i(/art a 2er+ sti77,
7ir( handle to 7a)rics treated with "F3 and &F3 /roducts. 'he sel7 condensation is
caused )+ the acti2e h+drogen ato( attached to the nitrogen o7 the N.(eth+lol
grou/. $7 this acti2e h+drogen ato( is su)stituted )+ a car)on ato( in a ring
structure, as in eth+lene urea, the reaction with the h+dro*+l grou/s o7 cellulose
)eco(es do(inant. Crosslinking o7 neigh)ouring cellulose (olecules is then the
(ain reaction, es/eciall+ acti2ated )+ inducti2e e77ects o7 the h+dro*+l grou/s in the
dih+dro*+eth+lene urea heteroc+cle @DH"A.
N,N?.Di(eth+lol.5,;.dih+dro*+eth+lene urea @D&DH"A is the che(ical )asis o7
a)out =1 I o7 the eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inish /roducts on the (arket.
D&DH" is s+nthesised 7ro( urea, gl+o*al and 7or(aldeh+de as shown in 3ig. ;.5.
$t is less reacti2e than D&" and '&& and there7ore re8uires (ore acti2e
catal+sts. Howe2er, 7inish )aths containing D&DH" are (ore sta)le than 7inish
)aths with D&" or '&&. 'he reacti2it+ o7 D&DH" can )e 7urther reduced )+
reaction with (ethanol or dieth+lene gl+col, leading to ether.(odi7ied D&DH"
/roducts. 'hese alcohols are also 7or(aldeh+de sca2engers and are o7ten added to
co((ercial 7inish /roducts 7or that /ur/ose. Dieth+lene gl+col has the additional
ad2antage o7 a high )oiling te(/erature o70;5 PC @5=1 P3A. 'here7ore a signi7icant
/ortion can re(ain in the cured 7a)ric and reduce the 7ree 7or(aldeh+de content 2ia
acetal 7or(ation. !dddition o7 dieth+lene gl+col also i(/ro2es the chlorine 7astness
and the degree o7 whiteness.
! t+/ical D&DH" co((ercial /roduct is (ade 7ro( a)out 5; I D&DH", =
I dieth+lene gl+col and 0 I (ethanol. 'his /roduct could contain less than
(.1 0elf condensation 2eactions of U/& and $/& !2od6cts.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image*1.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image*).!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
(.' 09nthesis of D$D>EU.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image**.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
Eas91ca2e and d62a7le !2ess finishes of cell6losics Table (.'
Effects of the ethe2 modification of D$D>EU
14

&o2maldehde 2elease in !!m DP 2ating
A((TCC 11)113,*B

Unmodified D$D>EU Pa2tiall9 meth9lated
D$D>EU
&6ll9 meth9lated Atet2a1s67stit6tionB D$D>EU R
*44 D$D>EU V dieth9lene gl9col AUL& !2od6ctB R
.4

DP O deg2ee of !ol9me2isation.
1.4 I 7ree 7or(aldeh+de. !s indicated there are two wa+s to incor/orate dieth+lene
gl+col into these /roducts. One 2ersion is a si(/le (i*ture o7 the gl+col and
D&DH". 'he other in2ol2es reacting the gl+col with D&DH" to 7or( a
gl+colated /roduct. Both /roducts /er7or( si(ilarl+ and )oth t+/es are a2aila)le in
the (arket /lace and are re7erred to as ?ultra low 7or(aldeh+de? @"#3A with less than
;1 //( released 7or(aldeh+de in the !!'CC 'esting &ethod ,,0.,=:4 @'a)le ;.5A
'he /rinci/al reaction o7 D&DH" /roducts is the crosslinking o7 adEacent
cellulose (olecules, as shown in 3ig. ;.;. 'his crosslinking /re2ents the (o2e(ent
o7 the 7i)re (olecules during stress and hinders shrinkage and wrinkle 7or(ation.
'his lack o7 (olecular (o2e(ent also leads to the 7a)ric tensile strength and tear
strength loss associated with dura)le /ress 7inishes )ecause without crosslinking, the
tear stresses can )e distri)uted o2er (an+ (olecules which can slightl+ shi7t sharing
the e*ternal 7orces. 'he (ain /ro/erties o7 D&DH".)ased /roducts are9
H #ow to 2er+ low reacti2it+ @when ether (odi7iedA
H *cellent dura)ilit+ to laundering
H #ow chlorine retention
H &ediu( to 2er+ low 7or(aldeh+de release @'a)le ;.5A
H 'he (ost co((onl+ used dura)le /ress /roducts.
..+.) &o2maldeh9de conside2ations
'here are se2eral as/ects to the ?7or(aldeh+de /ro)le(?. 3or(aldeh+de is not onl+ a
2er+ use7ul and ine*/ensi2e che(ical co(/ound )ut also a natural /roduct. 'races o7
7or(aldeh+de are /resent in air, 7ruits, 2egeta)les, wood, and in )lood. 2er+
inco(/lete )urning /rocess, including cigarette s(oking, /roduces 7or(aldeh+de.
C2osslin@e2
/.41
1444
*441.44
+
*.
4
*.
4
*.
).
3or(aldeh+de does not )uild u/ in the en2iron(ent )ecause o*+gen in the air reacts
with it to 7or( 7or(ic acid. &ore than , //( o7 7or(aldeh+de in the air causes a
/ungent odour @the threshold detection le2el )+ s(ell is 1.; //(A. 3or(aldeh+de
irritates (ucous (e()ranes, causes tear+ e+es, induces cough, and
can lead to di77iculties in )reathing and headaches. Skin contact with a8ueous
solutions o7 7or(aldeh+de or with te*tiles that contain a high le2el o7 7or(aldeh+de
can gi2e rise to ecCe(a and occasional allergic reactions. $n addition, 7or(aldeh+de
is a sus/ected hu(an carcinogen.
'he (ost se2ere /ro)le(s with 7or(aldeh+de and te*tiles occurred in the cut and
sew industries )e7ore the introduction o7 D&DH". $n nor(al usage, when clothing
is /eriodicall+ laundered, there are no 7or(aldeh+de.related /ro)le(s. Howe2er, it is
ad2isa)le to wash dura)le /ress treated te*tiles )e7ore their 7irst use. Se2eral
countries ha2e enacted laws designating concentration li(its 7or 7or(aldeh+de in the
work/lace @1.<; //( in the "S! and 1.; //( in %er(an+A. 'here are also
go2ern(ental restrictions @7or e*a(/le uro/ean Co((unit+, Ja/anA, co(/an+
re8uire(ents @7or e*a(/le #e2i Strauss, &arks and S/encerA and se2eral la)els @7or
e*a(/le Oko.'e* Standard ,11A that set li(its 7or 7ree or easil+ 7reed 7or(aldeh+de
in te*tiles. 'hese li(its are alwa+s s/eci7ied )+ a /articular test (ethod 7or
7or(aldeh+de )ecause there are signi7icant di77erences in results )etween the 2arious
7or(aldeh+de test (ethods. 3or e*a(/le, 7inished 7a)rics 7or adult clothing and
other skin contact te*tiles (a+ )e la)elled and called low 7or(aldeh+de 7inished
according to Oko.'e* Standard ,11 when their 7ree 7or(aldeh+de content is lower
than <; //( according to the Ja/an #aw ,,0 (ethod.
..+.* Non1fo2maldeh9de containing !2od6cts
N,B.Di(eth+l. 5,;.dih+dro*+eth+lene urea @D&eDH"A should not )e con7used
with D&DH". D&eDH" does not contain 7or(aldeh+de. $t is s+nthesised
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image*+.!
eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
(.( C2osslin@ing of cell6lose with D$D>EU !2od6cts.
7ro( the relati2el+ e*/ensi2e N,Nc.di(eth+l urea and glo*al @3ig. ;.-A and is o7ten
re7erred to as D&"% @di(eth+lurea gl+o*alateA or DHD&$, deri2ed 7ro( the na(e
dih+dro*+ di(eth+l.0.i(idaColidinone. #ike D&DH", it can )e (odi7ied )+
reaction with alcohols such as (ethanol, dieth+lene gl+col or ,,-.he*anediol to ether
deri2ati2es. 'he crosslinking reaction with cellulose is shown in 3ig. ;.<. 'he two
h+dro*+l grou/s in the 5,;./osition o7 D&eDH" are less reacti2e than the NN?.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image*..!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
(.- 09nthesis of D$eD>EU.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image
*-.!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
(.& C2osslin@ing of cell6lose with D$eD>EU.
(eth+lol grou/s o7 D&DH". Stronger catal+sts or harsher reaction conditions are
needed 7or success7ul crosslinking. D&eDH" costs a)out twice as (uch as
D&DH" and in order to achie2e co(/ara)le eas+.care and dura)le /ress e77ects to
D&DH", nearl+ twice the a(ount o7 D&eDH" is needed.
,,.,4
'his /oor cost /er7or(ance ratio is one reason 7or the relati2el+ s(all (arket
/enetration )+ this 7or(aldeh+de.7ree 7inish. !nother reason is that a co(/letel+
7or(aldeh+de.7ree 7inish is not as co((erciall+ i(/ortant since the ad2ent o7 the
ultra low 7or(aldeh+de /roducts. Howe2er, a ,9, (i*ture o7 D&DH" and
D&eDH" is /o/ular )ecause o7 its reduced 7or(aldeh+de le2els with onl+ slightl+
in7erior /h+sical /ro/erties at an acce/ta)le cost. 'he (ain /ro/erties o7 D&eDH"
/roducts are9
H 3or(aldeh+de 7ree
H Ber+ low reacti2it+
H Ber+ low chlorine retention
H #i(ited dura)ilit+ to laundering
H Yellowing e77ect when not ether (odi7ied
H PriceFe77ect ratio nearl+ 59, co(/ared with D&DH"
H De2elo/(ent o7 un/leasant odours, de/ending on the /roduct 7or(ulation.
,,0,4,5.Butanetetracar)o*+lic acid @B'C!A and si(ilar /ol+car)o*+lic acids /ro2ide
an alternati2e /ossi)ilit+ 7or a 7or(aldeh+de.7ree crease resistant 7inish.
,5,;
'he
acti2ation (echanis( o7 B'C! and the reaction with cellulose are shown in 3ig. ;.:.
B'C! gi2es rise to good crease reco2er+ )ut with li(ited laundering dura)ilit+
owing to h+drol+sis o7 the ester )onds to cellulose. 'hese /ol+car)o*+lic acids are
relati2el+ e*/ensi2e, co(/ara)le in cost to D&eDH". $n addition, the reactions o7
these acids with cellulose re8uire large a(ounts o7 sodiu( h+/o/hos/hite as a
catal+st. Not onl+ is sodiu( h+/o/hos/hite e*/ensi2e, )ut it is also a reducing agent
that discolours certain d+estu77s, es/eciall+ so(e reacti2e and sul7ur d+es. Recentl+,
/ol+acr+lic acid.)ased /roducts, 7or e*a(/le (aleic acid anh+dride co/ol+(ers,
,-
ha2e )een introduced that /ro2ide si(ilar /ro/erties to B'C! 7inishes )ut at a (ore
econo(ical /rice.
,<
No2el cellulosic crosslinking agents with interesting /ro/erties are gained )+
(olecular incor/oration o7 the /hos/horus catal+st in the B'C! structure. 'hese
7or(aldeh+de.7ree /hos/hono. and /hos/hinocar)o*+lic acids @!PC&, (odi7ied
/ol+car)o*+lic acidsA show good crosslinking /ro/erties with (ini(al strength
losses, no shade changes and good dura)ilit+ 7or u/ to 01 washing c+cles. 'he
!PC& /roducts are li8uid, water solu)le and neither to*ic nor skin irritating.
,:
..+.+ $iscellaneo6s c2osslin@ing agents
Other che(ical crosslinking agents that ha2e )een used to /ro2ide dura)le /ress
/ro/erties to cellulose include di(eth+lol eth+lene or /ro/+lene urea, digl+o*al urea,
triaCons, urons, car)a(ates, die/o*ides and diisoc+anates. Howe2er, owing to either
high cost or li(ited technical ad2antages, 2er+ 7ew are actuall+ used co((erciall+,
so(eti(es as (inor co(/onents o7 (i*tures 7or s/ecial e77ects.
..+.. Catal9sts fo2 eas91ca2e and d62a7le !2ess finishes
'he reaction o7 N.(eth+lol reactants such as D&DH" with cellulose re8uires an
acid catal+st 7or acce/ta)le +ields under conditions suita)le 7or te*tile /rocessing, 7or
e*a(/le, ,;1 PC @411 P3A to ,<1 PC @451 P3A 7or 1.; to 4 (in9
&
0O
O 0 H01 [S &@OHA0 O 0H
O
M;.,N
'he catal+sed crosslinking 7ollows the !rrhenius e8uation, so that as a rule o7 thu()
a te(/erature change o7 ,1 PC causes a 7actor o7 0 change in the condensation ti(e
as shown in 'a)le ;.;. 'he (ost co((on catal+sts are #ewis acid salts
Table (.( Exam!les fo2 the 2elation 7etween c62ing tem!e2at62e and time
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/im
age*/.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
(.. C2osslin@ing of cell6lose with GTC(.
Chemical finishing of textiles.......................................1
, *
0 ,=
* +,
5 -;
;.4 *a(/les o7 te*tiles with eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes...........................................:,
;.5 Che(istr+ o7 eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes;-...........................................................:-
;.; !//lication (ethods..........................................................................................................,14
;.-Co(/ati)ilit+ with other 7inishes........................................................................................,1;
;.<2aluation (ethods.............................................................................................................,1;
;.: 'rou)leshooting and /ractical /ro)le(s............................................................................,1:
Re7erences................................................................................................................................,,5
-..............................................................................11.
Re!ellent finishes.......................................................................................11.
-., $ntroduction........................................................................................................................,,;
-.0 &echanis(s o7 re/ellenc+..................................................................................................,,-
-.4 Re/ellent che(istr+............................................................................................................,,:
-.52aluation o7 te*tiles treated with re/ellent 7inishes...........................................................,41
-.;'rou)leshooting 7or re/ellent 7inishes and /articularities...................................................,41
Re7erences................................................................................................................................,40
/..............................................................................1**
0oil12elease finishes....................................................................................1**
<.,$ntroduction.........................................................................................................................,44
<.0&echanis(s o7 soil release..................................................................................................,44
<.4 Soil.release che(istr+........................................................................................................,4:
<.5 2aluation o7 soil release...................................................................................................,55
<.; 'rou)leshooting 7or soil.release 7inishes...........................................................................,5;
Re7erences................................................................................................................................,5-
,..............................................................................1+,
&lame12eta2dant finishes.............................................................................1+,
:.,$ntroduction.........................................................................................................................,5:
:.0&echanis(s o7 7la(e retardanc+........................................................................................,5:
:.4 3la(e.retardant che(istr+..................................................................................................,;4
:.5 3la(e retardants 7or cellulose............................................................................................,;5
:.; 3la(e retardants 7or wool..................................................................................................,-0
:.- 3la(e retardants 7or /ol+ester............................................................................................,-4
:.< 3la(e retardants 7or n+lon.................................................................................................,-5
:.:3la(e retardants 7or other 7i)res.........................................................................................,-;
:.=3la(e.retarding 7i)re )lends...............................................................................................,-;
:.,1No2el a//roach to 7la(e retardanc+9 intu(escents...........................................................,--
:.,,2aluation o7 7la(e retardants..........................................................................................,--
:.,0 'rou)leshooting 7or 7la(e.retardant 7inishes and /articularities......................................,-=
Re7erences................................................................................................................................,<1
3..............................................................................1/1
Non1sli! finishes..........................................................................................1/1
=., $ntroduction........................................................................................................................,<,
=.0 &echanis(s o7 non.sli/ 7inishes........................................................................................,<0
=.4 Che(istr+ o7 non.sli/ 7inishes...........................................................................................,<0
=.5 !//lication (ethods and co()ina)ilit+.............................................................................,<4
=.; 2aluation o7 non.sli/ 7inishes...........................................................................................,<5
=.- 'rou)leshooting 7or non.sli/ 7inishes................................................................................,<;
Re7erences................................................................................................................................,<;
14............................................................................1/.
(ntistatic finishes........................................................................................1/.
,1., $ntroduction......................................................................................................................,<;
,1.0&echanis(s o7 antistatic 7inishes......................................................................................,<<
,1.4Che(istr+ o7 antistatic 7inishes.........................................................................................,<:
,1.5 Conducti2e 7i)res.............................................................................................................,:0
,1.; 2aluation o7 antistatic 7inishes.......................................................................................,:4
,1.- 'rou)leshooting 7or antistatic 7inishes and /articularities................................................,:5
Re7erences................................................................................................................................,:;
11............................................................................1,-
(nti1!illing finishes......................................................................................1,-
,,.,$ntroduction.......................................................................................................................,:-
,,.0Pilling (echanis(.............................................................................................................,:<
,,.4 &echanis(s and che(istr+ o7 anti./illing 7inishes..........................................................,=,
,,.5 2aluation o7 anti./illing 7inishes....................................................................................,=0
,,.; 'rou)leshooting 7or anti./illing 7inishes and co(/ati)ilit+.............................................,=5
Re7erences................................................................................................................................,=<
1)............................................................................13,
Elastome2ic finishes....................................................................................13,
,0., $ntroduction......................................................................................................................,=:
,0.0 lasto(eric (echanis(....................................................................................................,==
,0.4 Che(istr+ o7 elasto(eric 7inishes....................................................................................,==
,0.5 2aluation o7 elasto(eric 7inishes....................................................................................010
,0.; 'rou)leshooting 7or elasto(eric 7inishes and /articularities............................................014
Re7erences................................................................................................................................014
1*............................................................................)4+
&inishes to im!2o5e colo62 fastness............................................................)4+
,4.,$ntroduction.......................................................................................................................015
,4.0$(/ro2ed wet 7astness.......................................................................................................015
,4.4 $(/ro2ed light 7astness....................................................................................................0,1
,4.5 $(/ro2ed crocking and ru))ing 7astness..........................................................................0,5
Re7erences................................................................................................................................0,-
1+............................................................................)1/
Ult2a5iolet !2otection finishes.....................................................................)1/
,5., $ntroduction......................................................................................................................0,<
,5.4 Che(istr+ o7 "B /rotection 7inishes................................................................................005
,5.5 2aluation o7 "B /rotection 7inishes...............................................................................00<
,5.; 'rou)leshooting 7or "B /rotection 7inishes and co()ina)ilit+.......................................00=
Re7erences................................................................................................................................00=
1.............................................................................)*4
(ntimic2o7ial finishes..................................................................................)*4
,;., $ntroduction......................................................................................................................041
,;.0Pro/erties o7 an e77ecti2e anti(icro)ial 7inish5.................................................................04,
,;.4&echanis(s o7 anti(icro)ial 7inishes...............................................................................04,
,;.5 Che(istr+ o7 anti(icro)ial 7inishes;=.............................................................................040
,;.; 2aluation o7 anti(icro)ial 7inishes.................................................................................04=
,;.- 'rou)leshooting 7or anti(icro)ial 7inishes......................................................................05,
Re7erences................................................................................................................................05;
1-............................................................................)+-
Insect 2esist and mite !2otection finishes....................................................)+-
,-.,$ntroduction.......................................................................................................................05-
,-.0&echanis(s o7 insect resist 7inishes.................................................................................05-
,-.4 Che(istr+ o7 insect resist 7inishes....................................................................................05=
,-.5!//lication o7 insect resist 7inishes...................................................................................0;1
,-.;2aluation o7 insect resist 7inishes....................................................................................0;1
,-.-'rou)leshooting 7or insect resist 7inishes..........................................................................0;1
,-.< 3inishes 7or /rotection 7ro( dust (ites............................................................................0;,
Re7erences................................................................................................................................0;,
1/............................................................................).)
&inishing with en89mes: 7io1finishes fo2 cell6lose.......................................).)
,<., $ntroduction......................................................................................................................0;0
,<.0 !ction o7 cellulase enC+(es on cellulose.........................................................................0;;
,<.4 Che(istr+ o7 enC+(e 7inishing........................................................................................0;:
,<.5 2aluation o7 )io.7inishing...............................................................................................0-1
,<.; 'rou)leshooting 7or )io.7inishing....................................................................................0-1
Re7erences................................................................................................................................0-,
1,............................................................................)-)
No5el finishes.............................................................................................)-)
,:.,$ntroduction.......................................................................................................................0-0
,:.0!nti.odour and 7ragrance 7inishes.....................................................................................0-0
,:.4 3i)re sur7ace (odi7+ing 7inishes using /las(a and radiation technologies.....................0-:
,:.5 3i)re sur7ace (odi7ication )+ sol.gel 7inishes with inorganic o*ide 7il(s.......................0-=
Re7erences................................................................................................................................0<0
13............................................................................)/*
(ct6al and f6t62e t2ends in chemical finishing............................................)/*
,=.,$ntroduction.......................................................................................................................0<4
,=.0Cost reduction and greater e77icienc+................................................................................0<4
,=.4New kinds o7 e77ects..........................................................................................................0<4
,=.53ewer undesira)le side e77ects..........................................................................................0<;
,=.;asier a//lication..............................................................................................................0<;
,=.-&icroenca/sulation, a new trend 7or storage and release o7 acti2e 7inishing /roducts.....0<;
,=.< %reater /er(anence in washing and che(ical cleaning...................................................0<-
,=.:asier care o7 the 7inished te*tiles.....................................................................................0<<
,=.=Better ecolog+...................................................................................................................0<<
,=.,1 "sing 7ewer che(icals...................................................................................................0<:
,=.,, S(art te*tiles )+ che(ical 7inishing..............................................................................0<=
,=.,0 Su((ar+ and outlook....................................................................................................0:1
Re7erences................................................................................................................................0:,
Index ),1
such as (agnesiu( chloride and Cinc nitrate that generate acidic conditions during
the curing /rocess, thus /ro2iding neutral li8uors and there)+ good 7inish )ath
sta)ilit+.
Bronsted acids such as sul7uric and h+drochloric acids and their a((oniu( salts,
while ser2ing as e*cellent catal+sts, also lead to undesira)le 7i)re degradation and
unsta)le 7inish )aths. O7ten citric acid is co()ined with a #ewis acid to /ro2ide an
additional )oost to the reaction, es/eciall+ 7or the short shock condensation. !
/articularl+ /ower7ul co.catal+st 7or ether (odi7ied D&DH" /roducts is sodiu(
)orotetra7luoride Na@B35A. But this 7lash catal+st (a+ cause cellulose
de/ol+(erisation leading to high strength loss.
'he /ro/osed reaction sche(e 7or the acid catal+sed reaction o7 N.(eth+lol
co(/ounds is gi2en in 3ig. ;.=. "nder acid conditions, N.(eth+lol co(/ounds can
react either through nitrogen /rotonation or o*+gen /rotonation. Nitrogen
/rotonation leads to the 7or(ation o7 a(ines and 7or(aldeh+de. 'his (ode o7ten
occurs with "F3 and &F3 /roducts, which accounts 7or their larger a(ount o7 7ree
7or(aldeh+de. 'he D&DH" /roducts are (ore likel+ to /roceed 2ia o*+gen
/rotonation )ecause o7 steric hindrance 7ro( the eth+lene )ridge inter7ering with
nitrogen /rotonation. O*+gen /rotonation +ields car)oniu( ions that are sta)ilised
)+ resonance with their i((oniu( 7or(s. With D&DH", the electron.donating
e77ects o7 the h+dro*+l grou/s in the 5 and ; /ositions add to the sta)ilit+ o7 these
ions. 'he car)oniu( ions can then react with h+dro*+l grou/s 7ro( either cellulose
or the original 6.(eth+lol (aterial. "F3 and &F3 /roducts will react /ri(aril+ )+
sel7 condensation, while D&DH" /roducts will +ield the reaction with cellulose.
... (!!lication methods
'he (ost co((on a//lication (ethod 7or eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes is a
/ad.dr+.cure /rocedure. $n this /rocess, the crosslinking reactant, catal+st, so7tener,
and other co(/onents are dried on the 7a)ric /rior to the crosslinking reaction that
takes /lace during the curing ste/. $7 the 7inish is cured i((ediatel+ a7ter dr+ing,
while the 7a)ric is still in an o/en width con7iguration, the 7inish is re7erred to as a
?/re.cure? 7inish, the 7inish is cured "rior to gar(ent (anu7acture. 'e*tiles with a
/re.cure 7inish are (ost suited 7or 7a)rics and a//arel that re8uire wrinkle resistance,
such as sheeting, shirting and casual trousers. 3or 7a)rics that re8uire crease
retention, such as trousers and /leated skirts, the
dura)le /ress 7inish is onl+ dried )+ the 7a)ric (anu7acturer and cured a7ter the
gar(ent has )een (ade and creased a//ro/riatel+. 'his 7inish is re7erred to a ?/ost.
cure? 7inish or ?dela+ cure? 7inish, the 7inish is cured after the gar(ent has )een
(anu7actured.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/medi
a/image*,.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
(.% ;1$eth9lol 2eaction scheme.
$n the s/ecial cases where entire gar(ents are to )e treated with a dura)le /ress
7inish, the 7inishing che(icals can )e s/ra+ed in e*act doses onto the gar(ents
)e7ore the 7inal sha/e is 7or(ed and then cured.
,=
!lso i(/regnation )+ di//ing
@gar(ent di//ingA or in a tu()ler, 7ollowed )+ centri7ugation, dr+ing and /ressing or
ironing is co((on. 'he (ade.u/ gar(ents are 7inall+ sus/ended on hangers in a
curing o2en. So(e ad2antages and disad2antages o7 these a//lication (ethods are
su((arised in 'a)le ;.-.
Se2eral 2ariations on the con2entional /re.cure /rocess ha2e )een e*/lored,
including short one.ste/ 7lash.dr+.curing @shock condensationA o7 cellulosic 7a)rics
with the risk o7 crosslinker (igration during the 8uick dr+ing. 'he
traditional /ad.dr+.cure (ethod is a ?dr+? curing /rocess, i.e. all o7 the water has
)een re(o2ed 7ro( the 7a)ric /rior to the actual crosslinking reaction. $t is also
/ossi)le to crosslink cellulose in a ?wet? /rocess. 3a)ric /added at ] :1 I wet /icku/
with the 7inishing che(icals is wra//ed in /lastic 7il( and )atched at roo(
te(/erature 7or a)out 05 hours )e7ore washing and dr+ing. 'he water content o7 the
cellulose 7i)res during the crosslinking ste/ greatl+ a77ects the 7inal 7a)ric /ro/erties
as is seen in 'a)le ;.<.
Nor(all+ a high dr+ crease reco2er+ angle is /re7erred )ecause the a//earance o7
the dr+ te*tile is (ore i(/ortant than that o7 the wet one. Between these two
e*tre(es is the ?(oist? cure, a ;.01 hour roo( te(/erature reaction with ] - I
Table (.- Com!a2ison of finish a!!lication methods
(!!lication method (d5antages Disad5antages
P2e1c62e >igh !2ocess !2od6cti5it9 Poo2 c2ease 2etention
Post1c62e Excellent c2ease 2etention C62ing e<6i!ment needed
79 ga2ment man6fact62e2
%a2ment 0oftest handle (!!lication and c62ing
e<6i!ment needed 79 ga2ment
!2ocesso2
Table (.& Effects of diffe2ent c62ing conditions on fa72ic !2o!e2ties
ZD29Z c62ing? sho2t times at high Z;etZ c62ing? long times at low
tem!e2at62es tem!e2at62es
Loss of tea2 st2ength and a72asion %ood tea2 st2ength and a72asion
2esistance 2esistance
>igh d29 c2ease 2eco5e29 angle Lowe2 d29 c2ease 2eco5e29 angle
Lowe2 wet c2ease 2eco5e29 angle >igh wet c2ease 2eco5e29 angle
a)o2e nor(al (oisture regain. 'he 7a)ric /ro/erties o7 the ?(oist? cure are a good
co(/ro(ise )etween the e*tre(es o7 the ?dr+? and ?wet? /rocesses. 'he ?(oist? cure is
/re7erred when high tear strength o7 the 7inished 7a)ric is re8uired, )ut controlling
the critical (oisture le2el can )e 2er+ di77icult.
'hese di77iculties with (oisture control are o2erco(e in a continuous /rocess
using a hot 7lue. 'here the residual (oisture o7 the 7a)ric is easil+ regulated )+ the
content o7 stea( in the air at -.,1 I, where the )est co(/ro(ise o7 the eas+.care
7actor @C3A and the strength loss 7actor @S#3A is realised. C3 includes dr+ and wet
crease reco2er+ angles and the &onsanto 2alues. S#3 is a co()ination o7 a)rasion
@!ccelerotorA, tear and ri//ing strength loss 2alues. ! disad2antage o7 this /rocess is
the lack o7 7a)ric width control in the hot 7lue. ! widthwise tentering de2ice
)etween /adder and hot 7lue is hel/7ul.
01
5.6 Com!ati7ilit9 with othe2 finishes
'e*tile che(ical au*iliar+ su//liers will /ro2ide suggested reci/es in their /roduct
in7or(ation. 'hese reci/es will contain reco((endations 7or the a//ro/riate catal+st
and other additi2es that i(/ro2e the /er7or(ance characteristics o7 the eas+.care and
dura)le /ress 7inishes, such as so7teners to i(/ro2e the 7a)ric handle and /roducts to
i(/ro2e tear strength @7or e*a(/le /ol+2in+l acetate, a(ino. (odi7ied or e/o*+.
7unctional siliconesA. #ess decrease in degree o7 /ol+(erisation @DPA rating and
a)rasion resistance is /ro2ided )+ adding water.)ased /ol+. urethane e(ulsions o7
sel7 crosslinking silicone elasto(ers.
$n co((ercial use, eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes are 7re8uentl+ co()ined
with other 7inishes to /ro2ide additional /ro/erties such as water and oil re/ellenc+,
7la(e retardanc+, soil release and the like. O7ten the co()ination o7 another 7inish
with the cellulose crosslinking 7inish will result in a (ore dura)le e77ect 7ro( the
7irst 7inish. Co()ination with /ig(ent /rinting is 2er+ co((on )ecause o7 si(ilar
che(istr+ to cellulose crosslinking agents and )inders and the si(ilar a//lication
conditions.
5.7 E5al6ation methods
../.1 &a72ic !2o!e2ties
! 2ariet+ o7 test (ethods are used to e2aluate the /er7or(ance characteristics o7
7a)rics treated with eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes. So(e o7 the (ore co((on
ones are su((arised in 'a)le ;.:.
../.) E5al6ation methods fo2 fo2maldeh9de
)1
So(e o7
the (ore use7ul 7or(aldeh+de tests are su((arised )elow.
+ualitative test for the resence of formaldehyde in fabrics: !dd a s(all /iece o7
7a)ric to 0.4 (l o7 a solution o7 ,1 (g chro(otro/ic acid /er ,11 (l o7 <0 I sul7uric
acid. War( the solution care7ull+ to not (ore than ,11 PC 7or , (in. ! red to 2iolet
colour in the solution indicates the /resence o7 7or(aldeh+de.
+uantitative test for formaldehyde in air: 'his is (ost con2enientl+ done with
testing tu)es designed 7or this /ur/ose @Drager tu)es 7ro( Dragerwerk !%, #u)eck,
%er(an+, are an e*a(/leA. ! colour change to a certain (ark a7ter a s/eci7ied
a(ount o7 air is drawn through the tu)e gi2es the 7or(aldeh+de concentration.
Table (.. Test methods fo2 finished fa72ic !2o!e2ties
Test method Title Comments

((TCC test method
1)+
))
((TCC test method
1),
(!!ea2ance of fa72ic
afte2 2e!eated home
la6nde2ings
;2in@le 2eco5e29 of
fa72ics: a!!ea2ance
method
;2in@le 2eco5e29 of
wo5en fa72ics:
2eco5e29 angle
&a72ics a2e washed and d2ied
with s!ecified !2oced62es. The
fa72ic a!!ea2ance is com!a2ed
to standa2ds on a 11. scale.
(im is a DP 2ating of [ *...
&a72ics a2e w2in@led on a
s!ecified a!!a2at6s and thei2
a!!ea2ance com!a2ed to
standa2ds on a 11. scale.
&lat fa72ics a2e c2eased in a
s!ecified a!!a2at6s eithe2 in
d29 o2 in wet state. The final
d29 o2 wet c2ease 2eco5e29
angle is meas62ed.

((TCC test method
,,C fa72ics afte2
2e!eated home
la6nde2ing
washed and d2ied 79
s!ecified !2oced62es.
The c2ease
a!!ea2ance is com!a2ed to
standa2ds on a 11. scale.

DIN .*,-1
DIN .*,1+
((TCC test methods
3) and 11+
Da6lting and
762sting test
(72asion 2esistance
of fa72ics:
accele2ato2 method
Dete2mination of
wate2 2etention
!owe2 of fi72es and
9a2n c6ttings
Chlo2ine? 2etained?
tensile loss: single
and m6lti!le
sam!les
&a72ic st2ength? tea2?
and 762st tests
&a72ics a2e a72aded on
a s!ecified a!!a2at6s.
&a72ic weight loss d6e
to the a72asion is
dete2mined.
Z0welling 5al6eZ:
wetting? wate21
ext2action with a
cent2if6ge? weighing.
De29 sensiti5e to c62ing
conditions.
&a72ics a2e t2eated
with a standa2d
h9!ochlo2ite sol6tion
and ex!osed to high
tem!e2at62es. 0t2ength
loss d6e to 2etained
chlo2ine is dete2mined.
((TCC test method --
Retention of c2eases in &a72ics with set1in c2eases a2e
((TCC test method 3*
Ta7le .., contZd
Test method

$onsanto wash and
wea2 standa2ds
0tanda2d sam!les o2
!hotog2a!hs fo2
wash and wea2
!e2fo2mance Astanda2d
one is wo2st and fi5e is
7est
( fa72ic is finished?
washed? d2ied in a
standa2d manne2 and
com!a2ed s67ecti5el9 fo2
a!!ea2ance with a se2ies of
fi5e standa2d sam!les?

6sing a !anel fo2 the test
sam!le with ill6mination at
an angle of indication with
the !lane of fa72ic of 1411.X

Dete2mination of the &a72ic sam!le with w2in@le 2eco5e29 ho2i8ontal
fold edge.
+uantitative tests for formaldehyde in fabrics: 'here are two t+/es o7 test 7or
7or(aldeh+de content o7 7a)ric. 'he 7irst t+/e is designed to i(itate dr+ skin contact
with the 7a)ric and es/eciall+ 7or the release o7 7or(aldeh+de during storage and
trans/ortation in closed containers. During the test the 7a)ric sa(/le is held a)o2e
water in a sealed Ear. 3ree and easil+ released 7or(aldeh+de dissol2es in the water
during the test and can )e deter(ined )+ s/eci7ic anal+tical (ethods.
'he second t+/e o7 test is intended to si(ulate e*traction o7 7or(aldeh+de )+
/ers/iration. 'his test deter(ines (ainl+ the 7ree 7or(aldeh+de that is dissol2ed in
the test li8uid during a direct e*traction. 'he test li8uid can )e water onl+ or water
with s/eci7ic additi2es like wetting agents or )u77er salts. So(e o7 the (ore i(/ortant
7or(aldeh+de anal+sis (ethods are gi2en in 'a)le ;.=.
'he /H o7 the 7a)ric and the solution a77ects the a(ount o7 7or(aldeh+de
e*tracted. ! neutral /H (ini(ises the a(ount deter(ined. Higher e*traction
te(/eratures and longer e*traction ti(es increase the a(ount o7 7or(aldeh+de
e*tracted owing to h+drol+sis o7 the crosslinker )ond to cellulose @3ig. ;.5 and 3ig.
;.;A. $n (an+ cases the usual order o7 these 7or(aldeh+de content 2alues related to
the deter(ination (ethod is Shirle+ $ d !!'CC ,,0 d Ja/an #aw ,,0 d D$N ;5 0-1.
.., T2o67leshooting and !2actical !2o7lems
Pro/er /re/aration is critical to achie2ing the o/ti(al /er7or(ance 7ro( dura)le /ress
7inishes. Residual alkali will deacti2ate the catal+st. Non.uni7or( wetting will cause
une2en 7inish /icku/ and result in unle2el 7inish e77ects. Since the dura)le /ress
e77ect de/ends on che(ical reactions taking /lace in the 7i)re during curing, all
/ara(eters that (a+ a77ect the reaction @concentrations o7 all 7inish co(/onents,
Title Comments
smoothnessB
I0' )*1*
te(/erature and ti(e o7 curingA (ust )e care7ull+ controlled. *cessi2e curing leads
to increased losses o7 strength and a)rasion resistance.
'he e77ects o7 a dura)le /ress 7inish are di77erent with regenerated cellulosic
7i)res. 'heir lower cr+stallinit+, their higher actual content o7 a(or/hous areas,
re8uires higher concentrations o7 crosslinking agents than does cotton. Cotton is
a)out 41 I and regenerated cellulose is u/ to -1 I a(or/hous. With regenerated
cellulose, di(ensional sta)ilit+ and 7ir( handle are the /rinci/al ad2antages
o)tained 7ro( dura)le /ress 7inishes. 'ear strength is not a//recia)l+ lowered and
loss o7 a)rasion resistance is si(ilar to cotton.
<
Chlorine retention is a s/ecial /ro)le( with a(ine and a(ide.containing 7inishes.
When 7a)rics treated with these 7inishes are laundered with chlorine )leach,
unsu)stituted nitrogen ato(s can react to 7or( chlora(ines @3ig. ;.,1A. Chlora(ines
h+drol+se to 7or( h+/ochlorous acid that can deco(/ose to (aterials that will
degrade cellulose )+ signi7icant strength loss and (arked +ellowing. D&DH"
/roducts show less chlorine retention than do '&& or D&" /roducts. Chlorine
retention o7 N.(eth+lol.)ased 7inishes is used 7or anti(icro)ial e77ects @Cha/ter
Table (.% $ethods fo2 the dete2mination of f2ee and 2eleased fo2maldeh9de
$ethod T9!e 1 T9!e ) T9!e ) T9!e )
Name ((TCC Ha!an Law 0hi2le9 I
)+
DIN .+ )-4
11)1133* 11)
)*
G0 -,4- !a2t )
A)/13,,B
Reagent (cet9l (cet9l Ch2omot2o!ic 1N Na)0'*
acetone acetone acid/>)0'+ V 4.4.N
iodine
0am!le !2e!a2ation '5e2 wate2 In wate2 In wate2 with In 76ffe2
in 5a!o62 wetting agent sol6tion at
atmos!he2e !> 3.+
Tem!e2at62e +3\1 XC +4 XC ). XC? 2oom 41) XCA*)1
A1)4\) X&B A14+ X&B tem!. A// X&B *... X&B
Time )4 ho62s 1 ho62 )4 min 14 min
Co5e2ing
On1ch
)
och
*
ON1C>
)
'>
1 1 V 1
V V V 1
C>)'? >'AC>)'Bn>?
hoch
)
o2
V V V V
T9!e 1: sam!le in the ai2 a7o5e the wate2? t9!e ): sam!le in the wate2? EN I0' 1+ 1,+
!a2t 1 O Ha!an Law 11)? !a2t ) O ((TCC 11). G0 -,4- !a2t * is a slight modification of
((TCC 11). G0 -,4- !a2t ) is called a f2ee fo2maldeh9de test method? 76t it also co5e2s
2eleased fo2maldeh9de? ca6sed 79 ele5ated 2eaction tem!e2at62e and the 6se of
concent2ated s6lf62ic acid fo2 the colo62 de5elo!ment 7efo2e colo2imet2ical
dete2mination.
,;.5 and 3ig. ,;.4 and ,;.5A. Cellulose 7a)rics can )e treated with li8uid a((onia to
/roduce 7a)rics with
R
Chlo2ine 2etention NL> V CCI RZ

Chlo2amine

hci O God
Leads to fi72e damage
(.1/ Chlo2ine 2etention 2eactions.
i(/ro2ed /ro/erties. !((onia, a li8uid )elow .41 PC or .44 P3, causes cellulose
7i)res to swell, )ringing a)out so(e e77ects si(ilar to (ercerisation. Co((ercial
treat(ent with anh+drous li8uid a((onia is called a San7orsetb treat(ent. 3a)rics
so treated ha2e reduced shrinkage and s(ooth dr+ing /ro/erties without large losses
in strength and a)rasion resistance. Best results are achie2ed )+ co()ining the
a((onia treat(ent with a low le2el o7 a D&DH" 7inish. 'his 7inish is used 7or
high 8ualit+ 7a)rics where the relati2el+ e*/ensi2e a((onia treat(ent can )e
Eusti7ied.
$n order to (ini(ise the 7ree 7or(aldeh+de le2els in the 7inal 7inished 7a)ric, the
correct choice o7 crosslinking agent @ether (odi7ied D&DH" is /re7erredA,
catal+st, and /rocessing conditions (ust )e (ade. 3or(aldeh+de sca2engers such as
urea, eth+lene urea and dieth+lene gl+col can )e added to dura)le /ress 7inish )aths
to lower the 7or(aldeh+de le2els o7 the 7inal 7a)ric e2en 7urther. 'he disad2antages
o7 this a//roach include lower dura)le /ress /er7or(ance, higher chlorine retention
and lower light 7astness. 'he dura)ilit+ o7 the eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes to
re/eated launderings decreases 7ro( D&DH" o2er '&& to D&" /roducts.
Dis/osal o7 the re(ainders o7 7inish )aths should )e done in co(/liance with
local regulations. So(e catal+sts used with these 7inishes contain Cinc or other
(etals whose /resence in waste water (a+ )e restricted. One side )ene7it o7
cellulose crosslinking 7inishes, es/eciall+ the 7or(aldeh+de.containing ones, is
increased resistance o7 the 7a)ric to (icro)ial attack. 'he e77ects o7 wrong
R
N1CI V
I
RZ
R
I
N1> V >'CI
R
heat
N1CI V >)4 Chlo2ine 2elease
I
RZ
I
RZ
>'CI
condensation conditions 7or the co((on dr+ crosslinking /rocess and ste/s to their
o/ti(isation are listed in 'a)le ;.,1.
5
Table (.1/ '!timisation of the d29 c2osslin@ing !2ocess
+
= Condensation cont2ol 79 the tem!e2at62e of the fa72ic
= (d6sted c2osslin@e2 t9!e and concent2ation
= (de<6ate condensation time and tem!e2at62e.
*onse+uences of o(er-condensation)
= Loss of tea2 and a72asion st2ength
= Eellowing
= >a2she2 handle
= Damage of elastan fi72es
= Ex!ensi5e.
*onse+uences of under-condensation)
= Effect le5el too low
= &o2maldeh9de content too high
= Dange2 of offensi5e odo62 de5elo!ment.
Refe2ences
, Nechwatal ! and Nicolai &, ?&oglichkeiten Cur gleichCeitigen !n7ar)ung und
!usrustung 2on Bau(wollgewe)en?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,===, ')@4A, ,:;.,=,.
0 Schindler W, 'auwald and Jruger R, ?!re reacti2e d+es 7i*ed with co2alent )onds
a7ter one.)ath d+eing and low.swell 7inishing o7 PSFcottonR?, -elliand Textilerichte,
,==1, 71@;A, 4::.4=0, ,<-.,<:.
4 Hau/t.Ste/han R, ?New de2elo/(ents 7or the trans7er /rinting on cotton?, International
Textile Bulletin, 0110, 4'@;A, <4.<:.
5 Jako) B, Ci)a S/ecialit+ Che(icals, /ri2ate co((unication.
; #e2in &, 1andoo+ of Fier 3cience and Technology: >ol/ II/ Chemical !rocessing of
Fiers andFarics/ Functional Finishes: !art A, Cha/ters , @Cross.linking o7 cellulosicsA
and 0 @Cross.linking with 7or(aldeh+de.containing reactantsA, New York, &arcel Dekker,
,=:4.
- Shar/e % and &allinson P, ?as+ care 7inishing o7 cellulosics?, in Textile Finishing,
He+wood D @ed.A, Brad7ord, Societ+ o7 D+ers and Colourists, 0114, 44<.4;1.
< %eu)tner &, ?3ortschritte )ei der Hoch2eredlung 2on Biskose. und &odal7aserartikeln?,
-elliand Textilerichte, ,==1, 71, 0,5.0,:.
: Ber)ner H, ?ine neue 3aser 7ur SchutCkleidung gegen HitCe und 3euer au7 Basis
&ela(inharC?, Chemiefasern,Textilindustrie, ,==1, 4)*92, ' ,;5.,;<.
= Widler %, Nahr ", ichhorn H and Schindler W, ?D+eing and /rinting o7 Baso7il 7a)rics?,
Technische Textilien, ,==<, 4), ,15.,1;, 0-.
,1 Tomasino C, Che(istr+ and 'echnolog+ o7 3a)ric Pre/aration and 3inishing, 6C 3tate
4ni#ersity Courseoo+, )aleigh, (::6/
,, Reinert 3, ?Neue ntwicklungen in der !usrustung?, Textil#eredlung, ,=:=, 24, 00400:.
,0 BolC W, ?3or(aldeh+d7reie Hoch2eredlung?, Taschenuch der Textilindustrie, Berlin,
Schiele e Schon, ,==1, 50=.54<.
,4 %eu)tner &, ?&odern 7or(aldeh+de.7ree eas+.care 7inishing 7or a handle in line with
(odern trends?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,==1, 71, 4=5.4=<, ,:1.,:0.
,5 Welch C &, ?3or(aldeh+de.7ree dura)le./ress 7inishes?, )e#ie* !rogress Coloration,
,==0, 22, 40.5,.
,; 'urner J D, ?Jnitter7reiausrustung 2on Bau(wollte*tilien?, International Textile
Bulletin,Finishing, ,==5, 4), ;1.;:.
,- We)er S and Schindler W, ?3or(aldeh+d7reie P7legeleichtausrustung (it
anh+drid)ildenden Co/ol+(eren?, 50. Deutscher 3ar)ertag, Juni 0111, &onchenglad)ach.
,< Shank D, ?Non7or(aldeh+de wrinkle.7ree 7inishing9 a co((ercial u/date?, AATCC
)e#ie*, 0110, 2@4A, 0=.40.
,: %ela)ert ! and J+riaCis J, ?!PC& . a new t+/e o7 7or(aldeh+de.7ree crosslinking agents
7or wash.and.wear 7inishes?, -elliand International, ,===, (@0A, ,:,.,:5 and @in %er(anA
-elliand Textilerichte, ,===, ')@,F0A, ;1.;4.
,= Worsha( J B $$$, ?Cotton 8ualit+ and the (etered addition /rocess 7or wrinkle.resistant
/roducts?, International Textile Bulletin, ,==:, 44@0A, 00.0:.
01 Wersch J 2an, ?Hoch2eredlung 2on Bau(wolle?, -elliand Textilerichte, 0110, '3@<F :A,
;4:.;50.
0, Wea2er J W @ed.A, Analytical -ethods for a Textile Aaoratory, 4rd edn, !!'CC,
Research 'riangle Park, North Carolina, ,=:5.
00 'echnical &anual o7 the !(erican !ssociation o7 'e*tile Che(ists and Colorists, >ol/ ;?,
(::=/
04 -inistry of International Trade and Industry @-ITIB, Ja/anese $ndustrial Standards . ,15,D
#aw o7 Control o7 Household %oods Containing Har(7ul Su)stancesD #aw No. ,,0
o7,=<4, %elfare -inistry Crdinance, 2a"an 6o/8?-(:;?/
05 #und %, ?3or(aldeh+de odour /ro)le(s in resin.7inished (aterials?, 3hirley Institute
Bulletin, ,=<;, 4', ,<.0,.
-
Re!ellent finishes
-.1 Int2od6ction
3inishes that re/el water, oil and dr+ dirt are i(/ortant in all /arts o7 the te*tile
(arket . 7or clothing, ho(e and technical te*tiles. Water re/ellenc+ is achie2ed using
di77erent /roduct grou/s, )ut oil re/ellenc+ is attained onl+ with 7luorocar)on
/ol+(ers. 'he+ are (odi7ied to ha2e a wide range o7 /ro/erties to 7it the di77erent
de(ands o7 the users and the intended /ur/ose. 'his is one o7 the (ost interesting
new de2elo/(ents o7 che(ical 7inishing.
'he oldest re/ellent 7inish is to re/el water. 'he /ur/ose o7 this 7inish is sel7
e2ident. Dro/s o7 water should not s/read on the sur7ace o7 the te*tile and should not
wet the 7a)ric. 'he dro/s should sta+ on the sur7ace and easil+ dri/ o77.
,.4
Si(ilarl+,
oil re/ellent 7inishes should /re2ent oil+ 7luids 7ro( wetting treated te*tiles. $n a
si(ilar (anner, soil.re/ellent 7inishes should /rotect te*tiles 7ro( )oth dr+ and wet
soils. $n all cases, the air /er(ea)ilit+ o7 the 7inished 7a)ric should not )e
signi7icantl+ reduced.
5
Water/roo7ing treat(ents will not )e co2ered in de/th. !
water/roo7 te*tile should withstand the h+drostatic /ressure e*erted )+ a colu(n o7
water 7ro( at least a ,( height )e7ore the 7irst dro/s o7 water /enetrate through the
7a)ric.
;-
$n /ractice this is (ostl+ achie2ed with coatings which ha2e the
disad2antages o7 sti77 handle, lack o7 air and 2a/our /er(ea)ilit+ and conse8uentl+
/oor wear co(7ort.
$n addition to the desired re/ellenc+ e77ects, other undesira)le 7a)ric /ro/erties are
o7ten 7ound with re/ellent 7inishes. 'hese include /ro)le(s with static electricit+,
/oor soil re(o2al in a8ueous laundering, sti77er 7a)ric hand, gre+ing @soil
rede/ositionA during a8ueous laundering and increased 7la((a)ilit+. So(e 7a)ric
/ro/erties that are o7ten i(/ro2ed )+ re/ellent 7inishes include )etter dura)le /ress
/ro/erties, (ore ra/id dr+ing and ironing, and increased resistance to acids, )ases and
other che(icals. 'a)le -., shows t+/ical te*tile a//lications 7or re/ellent 7a)rics and
their re8uire(ents.
-.) $echanisms of 2e!ellenc9
Re/ellent 7inishes achie2e their /ro/erties )+ reducing the 7ree energ+ at 7i)re
sur7aces. $7 the adhesi2e interactions )etween a 7i)re and a dro/ o7 li8uid /laced on
the 7i)re are greater than the internal cohesi2e interactions within the li8uid, the dro/
will s/read. $7 the adhesi2e interactions )etween the 7i)re and the li8uid are less than
the internal cohesi2e interactions within the li8uid, the dro/ will not s/read. Sur7aces
that e*hi)it low interactions with li8uids are re7erred to as low energ+ sur7aces. 'heir
critical sur7ace energ+ or sur7ace tension y, (ust )e lower than the sur7ace tension o7
the li8uid y- @the internal cohesi2e interactionA that is re/elled. "l o7 water, at <4 (N
(
.,
, is two to three ti(es greater than y- o7 oils @014; (N (
.,
A. 'here7ore, oil
Table -.1 T9!ical textiles and thei2 2e<6i2ements fo2 2e!ellenc9 finishes acco2ding to
Lamme2mann.
14
Find of textile 'R ;R D0 0R C& (0 > P
0!o2t wea2? leis62e wea2 V VV
V
4 V V V V
V
V
VV
Unifo2ms? wo2@wea2 VV
V
VV
V
VV VV
V
V V V
V
VV
V
U!holste29 and a6tomoti5e fa72ics VV
V
VV VV
V
VV VV
V
VV
V
V V
(wnings? s6n7linds? c62tain fa72ics V VV
V
VV
V
4 4 4 4 V
Ta7le and 7ed linen VV
V
VV VV VV
V
V 4 V VV
V
Ca2!ets VV VV VV
V
4 VV VV 4 V
'il 2e!ellenc9 O 'R? wate2 2e!ellenc9 O ;R? d29 soil O D0? soil 2elease O 0R? c2oc@ing
fastness O C&? antistatic O (0? handle O >? !e2manence O P.
re/ellenc+ 7inishes with 7luorocar)ons .y, K ,1.01 (N (
.,
A alwa+s achie2e water
re/ellenc+, )ut 7luorine.7ree /roducts, 7or e*a(/le silicones .y, K 05.41 (N (
.,
A
will not re/el oil.
<
#ow energ+ sur7aces also /ro2ide a (easure o7 dr+ soil re/ellenc+
)+ /re2enting soil /articles 7ro( strongl+ adhering to 7i)re sur7aces. 'his low
interaction allows the soil /articles to )e easil+ dislodged and re(o2ed )+
(echanical action.
'here are di77erent wa+s that low energ+ sur7aces can )e a//lied to te*tiles. 'he
7irst wa+ is (echanical incor/oration o7 the water.re/ellent /roducts in or on the
7i)re and 7a)ric sur7ace, in the 7i)re /ores and in the s/acing )etween the 7i)res and
the +arns. *a(/les o7 these are /ara77in e(ulsions. !nother a//roach is the
che(ical reaction o7 the re/ellent (aterial with the 7i)re sur7ace. *a(/les o7 these
are 7att+ acid resins. Yet another (ethod is the 7or(ation o7 a re/ellent 7il( on the
7i)re sur7ace. *a(/les o7 these are silicone and 7luorocar)on /roducts. 'he 7inal
a//roach is to use s/ecial 7a)ric constructions
-,:
like stretched
/ol+tetra7luoroeth+lene 7il(s @%orete*A, 7il(s o7 h+dro/hilic /ol+ester @S+(/ate*A
and (icro/orous coatings @h+dro/hilic (odi7ied /ol+urethanesA.
-.* Re!ellent chemist29
-.*.1 Pa2affin 2e!ellents
'hese were one o7 the earliest water re/ellents used, )ut do not re/el oil. '+/icall+
the /roducts are e(ulsions that contain alu(iniu( or Circoniu( salts o7 7att+ acids
@usuall+ stearic acidA. 'hese (aterials increase the 7inish?s adhesion to /olar 7i)re
sur7aces )+ 7or(ing /olar.non./olar Eunctions as shown in 3ig. -.,. 'he /ara77inic
/ortion o7 the re/ellent (i*ture is attracted to the h+dro/ho)ic regions, while the
/olar ends o7 the 7att+ acid are attracted to the (etal salts at the 7i)re sur7ace. 'hese
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/ima
ge*3.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
-.1 &att9 acid metal salts. (? h9d2o!ho7ic
inte2actionsW G? !ola2 inte2actionsW C?
fi72e s62face.
7inishes can )e a//lied )+ )oth e*haustion and /adding. 'he+ are co(/ati)le with
(ost kinds o7 7inishes )ut the+ increase 7la((a)ilit+. !lthough the+ are a2aila)le at
relati2el+ low cost and generate uni7or( water/roo7 e77ects, the lack o7 dura)ilit+ to
laundering and dr+ cleaning and their low air and 2a/our /er(ea)ilit+ li(its the use
o7 /ara77in.)ased re/ellents.
-.*.) 0tea2ic acid1melamine 2e!ellents
Co(/ounds 7or(ed )+ reacting stearic acid and 7or(aldeh+de with (ela(ine
constitute another class o7 water.re/ellent (aterials. !n e*a(/le is shown in 3ig. -.0.
'he h+dro/ho)ic character o7 the stearic acid grou/s /ro2ide the water re/ellenc+,
while the re(aining N.(eth+lol grou/s can react with cellulose or with each other
@crosslinkingA to generate /er(anent e77ects. !d2antages o7 the stearic acid.(ela(ine
re/ellents include increased dura)ilit+ to laundering and a 7ull hand i(/arted to
treated 7a)rics. So(e /roducts o7 this t+/e can )e e77ecti2el+ a//lied )+ e*haustion
/rocedures. 'heir use as e*tenders 7or 7luorocar)on re/ellents is now increasingl+
re/laced )+ )oosters
<
as descri)ed in Section -.4.5. Disad2antages o7 stearic acid.
(ela(ine re/ellents include /ro)le(s si(ilar to dura)le /ress 7inishes @a tendenc+ to
e*hi)it 7inish (ark.o77, decreased 7a)ric tear strength and a)rasion resistance,
changes in shade o7 d+ed 7a)ric, and release o7 7or(aldeh+deA.
-.*.* 0ilicone wate2 2e!ellents
Pol+di(eth+lsilo*ane /roducts that are use7ul as water re/ellents can 7or( a
h+dro/ho)ic la+er around 7i)res @3ig. -.4A. 'he uni8ue structure o7 the
/ol+di(ethl+silo*anes /ro2ides the a)ilit+ to 7or( h+drogen )onds with 7i)res as
well as dis/la+ a h+dro/ho)ic outer sur7ace.
=
$n order to gain so(e (easure o7
dura)ilit+, silicones designed as water.re/ellent treat(ents usuall+ consist o7 three
co(/onents, a silanol, a silane and a catal+st such as tin octoate @3ig. -.5A. 'he
catal+st ena)les not onl+ (oderate condensation conditions )ut also /ro(otes the
orientation o7 the silicone 7il( on the 7i)re sur7ace. 'he outward oriented (eth+l
grou/s generate the water re/ellenc+. During the dr+ing ste/ a7ter /ad a//lication, the
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/i
mage+4.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
-.2 0tea2ic acid1melamine de2i5ati5e.
silanol and silane co(/onents can react @3ig. -.;A to 7or( a three.di(ensional
crosslinked sheath around the 7i)re. 'his reaction is o7ten co(/leted a7ter storage o7
a)out one da+, then /ro2iding 7ull re/ellenc+. 'he Si.H grou/s o7 the silane are the
reacti2e links in the silicone chain, generating crosslinks or )eing o*idised )+ air or
h+drol+sed )+ water to h+dro*+l grou/s. 'hese h+dro*+l grou/s (a+ cause 7urther
crosslinking, )ut i7 too (an+ o7 the( sta+ unreacted, their h+dro/hilicit+ will
decrease the re/ellenc+.
-.1 Pol9dimeth9lsiloxane on a fi72e s62face. (? h9d2o!ho7ic s62faceW G?
h9d2ogen 7onds to !ola2 s62faceW C? fi72e s62face.
C>* >'0i1A'0i1B+D0i'> C>*
C>*0i1A'0i1J'0i1J'0iC>* * * *
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image+1.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
0ilanol
0ilane
e"0nN]
Tin octoate
S*A)B-4 J
-.' Com!onents of a silicone wate2 2e!ellent.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image+).!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
-.( 0ilanol1silane 2eaction. ( is 2emo5al of >)W G is 0i1'10i c2osslin@ed
!ol9me2W tin octoate is the catal9st.
-.- 0ilicone do67le la9e2 on the fi72e. (? !ola2 s62faceW G? h9d2o!ho7ic
att2action of the meth9l g2o6!sW C? h9d2ogen 7onds to !ola2 fi72e s62faceW D?
fi72e s62face.
!d2antages o7 silicone water re/ellents include a high degree o7 water re/ellenc+
at relati2el+ low @ 1.;., I ow7A on weight o7 7a)ric concentrations, 2er+ so7t 7a)ric
hand, i(/ro2ed sewa)ilit+ and sha/e retention, and i(/ro2ed a//earance and 7eel o7
/ile 7a)rics. So(e (odi7ied silicone re/ellents can )e e*haust a//lied @to /ressure.
sensiti2e 7a)ricsA.
'he disad2antages o7 silicone re/ellents include increased /illing and sea(
sli//age, reduced re/ellenc+ i7 e*cessi2e a(ounts are a//lied @7or e*a(/le silicone
dou)le la+er with /olar outside, 3ig. -.-A, onl+ (oderate dura)ilit+ to laundering
@through h+drol+sis o7 silo*ane and ru/ture o7 the 7il( )+ strong cellulose 7i)re
swellingA and dr+ cleaning @adsor/tion o7 sur7actantsA, and no oil and soil re/ellenc+.
'he silicone 7inish (a+ enhance the attraction o7 h+dro/ho)ic dirt. $n addition, the
waste water, es/eciall+ the residual )aths, 7ro( these 7inish a//lication /rocesses are
to*ic to 7ish.
-.*.+ &l6o2oca27on17ased 2e!ellents
3luorocar)ons @3CA /ro2ide 7i)re sur7aces with the lowest sur7ace energies o7 all the
re/ellent 7inishes in use. Both oil and water re/ellenc+ can )e achie2ed. 3C re/ellents
are s+nthesised )+ incor/orating /er7luoro alk+l grou/s into acr+lic or urethane
(ono(ers that can then )e /ol+(erised to 7or( 7a)ric 7inishes @3ig. -.<A. Originall+,
the /er7luoro alk+l grou/s were /roduced )+ electroche(ical 7luorina. tion, )ut toda+
the+ are /roduced )+ telo(erisation @3ig. -.:A. 'he 7inal /ol+(er, when a//lied to a
7i)re, should 7or( a structure that /resents a dense C34 outer sur7ace 7or (a*i(u(
re/ellenc+. ! t+/ical structure is shown in 3ig. -.=. 'he length o7 the /er7luorinated
side chains should )e a)out :.,1 car)ons. 'he s(all s/acer grou/, (ostl+ eth+lene,
can )e (odi7ied to i(/ro2e e(ulsi7ication and solu)ilit+ o7 the /ol+(er.
,1
Co(ono(ers @>, Y, 7or e*a(/le stear+l. or laur+l. (ethacr+late, )ut+lacr+late,
(eth+lol. or e/o*+.7unctional acr+lates and )lock co/ol+(ers 7ro( a,ra.
dih+dro*+di(eth+l/ol+silo*aneA a77ect 7a)ric hand, 7il(
R&C>)C>)'> Rf
O
Cm&)mV1
i i
R&C>)C>)'CCOC>) R


-.& P2e!a2ation of !e2fl6o2o containing ac29lic !ol9me2s.

C&*I
n&)COC&) 111111111111111&*CAC&)C&)BPI
>
I II
>)COC'CC>* ^
1111111111111111111[ & *CAC&)C&)B
PC>)C>'CC>*
65

n O )1.
Y ft _n? >CI
&*CAC&)C&)BnC>)C>'CC>*
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111`
1

-.. Telome2isation !2ocess fo2 !2e!a2ing fl6o2oal@9ls.
>'CCOC>) R
RO>?C>* 1>)4
ch0 ch0 ch0
ch0 ch0 ch0
1 1 1
cKo cKo
cKo ,
c.ch0 [c[ch0 ,
.c[f ,
R R R
I
F'>
R'>
1
&*CAC&)C&)BnC>)C>)'>
-.% &l6o2oca27on 2e!ellent on fi72e s62face. m O ,114. M and E a2e co1
monome2s? mainl9 stea29lac29lates. R O > o2 C>* A!ol9ac29lic o2
!ol9methac29lic acid este2sB. ( is the fi72e s62face.
C>)LE1
/11
A&1
&
Y
&
i
&
1C1& &1 1C1& &1 1C1&
$
1C1&B A&1
, '--,
5
Lg0
1C1&B A&1 C>)
1Rh
C>)
C>) C>) C>)
4 4 4
cKo cKo cKo
. c[Lg0 [
.C111111111C>)
L
1C
1111111111
A
R R R
Table -.2 Effects of 7loc@ed isoc9anates as &C 7ooste2s
Ca6sed 79

>ighe2 2e!ellenc9
>ighe2 !e2manence to washing?
d29 cleaning and 2677ing
Lowe2 c62ing tem!e2at62e
L(D Ala6nd291ai21d29B? lowe2
tem!e2at62e of the 2e!ellenc9
2egene2ation afte2 washing
Less D'C A5olatile o2ganic
com!o6ndsB
0ofte2 hand
Gette2 film fo2mation and o2ientation of the
!e2fl6o2inated side chains
C2osslin@ing with f6nctional g2o6!s on the
fi72e s62face and 79 inco2!o2ation in the
netwo2@ of the 2eaction !2od6cts of
m6ltif6nctional isoc9anates
Catal9tic effects? acti5ation of
the c2osslin@ing and
c29stallisation
Gette2 and easie2 o2ientation of the
!e2fl6o2inated side chains
>ighe2 fl6o2oca27on efficienc9 Aless &C
!ol9me2 fo2 e<6al 2e!ellenc9B
Less &C !ol9me2 ca6sed 79 highe2
flo62oca27on efficienc9

7or(ation and dura)ilit+. $n this wa+ and )+ adding a//ro/riate e(ulsi7iers, 3C
/roducts can )e widel+ (odi7ied 7or (an+ s/ecial /er7or(ance /ro7iles @see 'a)le
-.,A. ! (ore detailed o2er2iew o7 this interesting area o7 te*tile che(ical engineer.
ing is gi2en )+ %rotten(uller
,,
and Hol(e.
:
&ost 3C /roducts are /added, dried and cured. Heat treat(ent causes an
orientation o7 the /er7luoro side chains to al(ost cr+stalline structures. 'his is
crucial 7or o/ti(al re/ellenc+. Washing and dr+ cleaning distur) this orientation and
reduce 7inish /er7or(ance. 'he orientation (ust )e regenerated )+ a new heat
treat(ent @ironing, /ressing or tu()le dr+ingA. But with so(e new 3C /roducts,
dr+ing in air is su77icient @laundr+.air.dr+ or #!D /roductsA. 'ailored 3Cs and
)locked isoc+anates, the so.called )oosters, are used 7or this e77ect. De/ending on
the kind o7 )locking grou/, the isoc+anate is acti2ated at di77erent te(/eratures and
then reacts with the 7unctional grou/s o7 the 3C, the 7i)re or with itsel7
@crosslinkingA. 'his 7i*ation on the 7i)re sur7ace /ro2ides dura)ilit+ to washing, dr+
cleaning and ru))ing as a second i(/ortant e77ect. Boosters also cause )etter 7il(
7or(ation and there)+ higher re/ellenc+ e77ects.
,0
"se7ul e77ects o7 )oosters are
listed in 'a)le -.0. Howe2er, high a(ounts o7 )oosters ad2ersel+ a77ect 7a)ric hand.
%eneral ad2antages o7 7luorocar)on.re/ellent 7inishes include low acti2e addons
@G , I ow7A and (ore ra/id dr+ing o7 treated 7a)rics. S/ecial 3Cs allow i(/ro2ed
Effect
soil release during household laundering or stain resistance on n+lon, which is
es/eciall+ use7ul 7or car/ets.
,4
Disad2antages o7 7luorocar)on re/ellents include high
cost, gre+ing during laundering, /otentiall+ haCardous aerosols, the
need 7or s/ecial treat(ent o7 waste water 7ro( a//lication /rocesses and the 7act
that the+ usuall+ cannot )e a//lied e77ecti2el+ )+ e*haustion @)ut there are so(e
new 3C /roducts that are e*ce/tions to this ruleA.
#ow.curing 3Cs are another new de2elo/(ent. 'he+ get their re/ellenc+ without
heat, onl+ a7ter dr+ing at roo( te(/erature. 'his is o7 interest 7or the i(/regnation
o7 gar(ents, u/holster+ and car/ets. !n ine2ita)le disad2antage is their low
dura)ilit+ )ecause o7 the lack o7 7i*ation )+ crosslinking.
! no2el 3C de2elo/(ent is ins/ired )+ nature and there7ore called )ionic
7inishes.
,5
3luorocar)on /ol+(ers are a//lied together with dendri(ers, causing sel7
organisation where the 7luorocar)on chains are enriched on the sur7ace and co.
cr+stallise with the dendri(ers. Dendri(ers are highl+ )ranched oligo(ers with
non./olar chains 7or(ing a star)rush structure. 'he+ 7orce the /olar /arts o7 the 3C
/ol+(ers to 7or( the sur7ace structure (entioned at the )eginning o7 this section.
<
'he resulting /olar and non./olar sandwich arrange(ents are highl+ ordered,
causing e8ual or )etter re/ellenc+ e77ects with lower a(ounts o7 7luorocar)on
co(/ared to dendri(er.7ree 3C 7inishes. Other ad2antages include low condensation
te(/erature @:1.,41 PCA, high a)rasion resistance, good wash /er(anence and so7t
hand. ! h+/othetical structure o7 a dendri(er is shown in 3ig. -.,1.
!n o2er2iew on the i(/ortance o7 3C 7inishes in the three (arket seg(ents o7
clothing, household and technical te*tiles is /resented )+ Otto.
,;
!n i(/ortant grou/
o7 water.re/ellent te*tiles are (icro7i)re 7a)rics 7inished with 7luorocar)on
/ol+(ers. (erising creates 7urther e77ects that are o7 interest 7or leisure wear.
Pro)le(s and their solutions that arise 7ro( this 7inish co()ination are discussed )+
Nassl et al.
,-
! grou/ o7 3C 7inished articles with s/ecial i(/ortance are )allistic
7a)rics, /ro2iding /rotection against )ullets, s/linters and cutting.
,<
'he+ consist o7
se2eral la+ers o7 /ara.ara(ide wo2ens, thoroughl+ 7inished with 7luorocar)on
/ol+(ers. Without this water re/ellenc+ the+ would lose their /rotecti2e action
when wetted @gliding e77ect o7 waterA.
Table -.1 Test methods fo2 fa72ics with 2e!ellent finishes
P2oced62e s6mma29

((TCC T$ )) 1 ;ate2
2e!ellenc9: s!2a9 test
((TCC T$ +) 1 ;ate2
2esistance: im!act
!enet2ation test
((TCC T$ *. 1 ;ate2
2esistance: 2ain test
I0' 3,-. ADIN .* ,,,B
G6ndesmann 2ain1showe2
test
((TCC T$ 1)/ and I0' ,11
o2 EN )4 ,11 1 ;ate2
2esistance: h9d2ostatic
!2ess62e test Afo2me2 DIN
.*,,-? 0cho!!e21 o2
0chme27e2 testB
((TCC T$ 11, 1 'il 2e!ellenc9: h9d2oca27on 2esistance
test? e<6i5alent to I0' 1+ +13
D6Pont wate2 2e!ellenc9 test
*$ D29 soil 2esistance test
T2eated fa72ic is st2etched ta6t? held at a +.X angle
and s!2a9ed with ).4 ml of wate2 f2om a7o5e. The
2es6lting wetting !atte2n? if an9? is 2ated 6sing
!hotog2a!hic standa2ds. This is a sim!le? 2a!id
method s6ita7le fo2 the !lant floo2.
0imila2 to ((TCC T$ ))? 76t a weighed !iece of
7lotte2 !a!e2 is !laced 6nde2 the fa72ic. The weight
gain of the !a!e2 afte2 .44 ml of wate2 has 7een
s!2a9ed on the fa72ic is 2eco2ded.
The t2eated fa72ic? 7ac@ed 79 a weighed !iece of
7lotte2 !a!e2? is s!2a9ed with wate2 6nde2 constant
h9d2ostatic !2ess62e fo2 . min. The weight gain of the
!a!e2 afte2 the test is 2eco2ded. This test 2e<6i2es a
s!ecial a!!a2at6s.
&o62 sam!les of t2eated fa72ic a2e s67ected to
sim6lated 2ain fo2 14 min. The fa72ics A!laced on
inclined c6!s and sealed at the edgesB a2e in constant
motion and the side of the fa72ic not ex!osed to the
2ain is s67ected to a 2677ing action. The 2e!ellenc9 of
the fa72ic is dete2mined 79 the a!!ea2ance of the
wetted side? the amo6nt of wate2 a7so27ed 79 the
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image+*.!eg" "
# $ER%E&'R$(T
-.1/ >9!othetical st26ct62e of a dend2ime2 s9nthesised f2om
th2ee distea29l1amines o2 1amides and a t2if6nctional
isoc9anate MANOCO'B*.
Test method
fa72ic and the amo6nt of
wate2 !assing th2o6gh the
fa72ic. This test 2e<6i2es
an ela7o2ate s!ecial
a!!a2at6s.
'ne s62face of the t2eated
fa72ic is s67ected to a
constantl9 inc2easing
h9d2ostatic !2ess62e 6ntil
th2ee !oints of lea@age
a!!ea2 on the o!!osite
s62face. The !2ess62e at
the thi2d !oint of lea@age
is 2eco2ded in centimet2es
o2 met2es on a wate2
ga6ge. ( static !2ess62e
5a2iation of this test
dete2mines the time 6ntil
the named lea@age occ62s
at a gi5en !2ess62e. This
test 2e<6i2es a s!ecial
a!!a2at6s.
D2o!s of eight standa2d
fl6ids? consisting of a
selected se2ies of eight
h9d2oca27ons with
dec2easing s62face
tensions? a2e !laced on the
t2eated fa72ic and
o7se25ed fo2 wetting?
wic@ing and contact angle.
The highest n6m7e2ed
fl6id that does not wet the
fa72ic is 2eco2ded as the oil
2e!ellenc9 2ating with
g2ade n6m7e2s f2om 4 to
,. This method is a sim!le?
2a!id test s6ita7le fo2 the
!lant floo2 76t it is a static
test in5ol5ing no
mechanical st2ess that is
often common in 2eal life.
0imila2 to ((TCC T$ 11,?
76t with , wate21!2o!an1
)1ol mixt62es with
inc2easing alcohol content.
0am!les of t2eated fa72ic
a2e sha@en in a sealed
containe2 with a standa2d
d29 soil. Loose soil is
2emo5ed with com!2essed
ai2 and the a!!ea2ance of
the fa72ics is com!a2ed to
!hotog2a!hic standa2ds.
6.4 E5al6ation of textiles t2eated with
2e!ellent finishes
Ra/id and si(/le tests 7or water re/ellenc+ are the water dro/ test @(ethod
standardised )+ '%W!A
,:
and the s/ra+ test. $7 there is insu77icient di77erentia.
tion, e2en with a higher distance )etween sa(/le and noCCle, the water resistance
with the h+drostatic /ressure test should )e checked. So(e o7 the (ost i(/ortant
8uantitati2e test (ethods are gi2en in 'a)le -.4. 3or 7a)rics that re8uire dura)le
re/ellenc+ /er7or(ance, the test (ethods in 'a)le -.4 can )e a//lied to 7a)rics that
ha2e )een laundered or dr+ cleaned )+ standard (ethods @as !!'CC '& ,05 and
'& :-A in order to deter(ine the dura)ilit+ o7 the re/ellenc+ /ro/erties. 'hree
grou/s o7 corres/onding test (ethods (a+ )e distinguished, static dro/ tests, s/ra+
tests and h+drostatic /ressure tests.
6.5 T2o67leshooting fo2 2e!ellent finishes
and !a2tic6la2ities
Conditions 7or high re/ellenc+ o7 7inished 7a)rics include a close./acked te*tile
structure with s(all inter.+arn s/aces @there7ore )etter wo2en than knittedA with 7ine
+arns @/re7era)l+ (icro7i)res or (icro7ila(entsA and a uni7or( distri)ution o7 the
re/ellent 7inish. 'his last condition is enhanced )+ the re(o2al o7 /rotruding sur7ace
7i)res )+ singeing or shearing.
!n+ residual siCing agents or sur7actants /resent on the 7a)ric can de7eat the
re/ellenc+ /ro/erties. !ll 7a)rics destined 7or re/ellent 7inishes should )e well
/re/ared /rior to 7inishing.
,=
Non.rewetting, ther(all+ degrada)le or 2olatile
sur7actants such as iso/ro/anol should )e used in the re/ellent 7inish )ath to
(a*i(ise the 7inal /ro/erties.
Re/ellent 7inishes are usuall+ co(/ati)le with eas+.care and dura)le /ress
7inishes and (an+ so7teners. Howe2er, (ost silicone /roducts inter7ere with the oil
re/ellenc+ o7 7luorocar)on 7inishes and should generall+ )e a2oided in an oil.
re/ellent 7or(ulation. 'his is a re(arka)le contrast to the incor/oration o7 silicone
seg(ents in the )ack)one chain o7 7luoro/ol+(ers, which generates a s/ecial so7t
handle.
'he co()ination o7 3C and antistatic 7inishes, achie2ed with selected /roducts
0
is
i(/ortant 7or s+nthetic (icro7i)re te*tiles. Other co((on 7inish co()inations
include hand )uilders, 7la(e retardant and anti(icro)ial agents, which generate
2alua)le and use7ul (ulti7unctional 7inishes.
3C 7inishes alone do not su77icientl+ /re2ent co77ee, tea and other 7oodstu77s 7ro(
?d+eing? n+lon and wool car/ets with coloured s/ots, es/eciall+ when these li8uids
are not 8uickl+ re(o2ed. Stain )locking 7or these car/ets is achie2ed )+ the
co()ination o7 3C /roducts with s+ntans. 'he latter are also used 7or wet 7astness
i(/ro2e(ent o7 acid d+ed n+lon @see Cha/ter ,4A. Stain re/ellenc+ is /ro(oted )+
h+dro/ho)ic 7inishes, (ostl+ 7luorocar)ons, )ut with decreasing costs also )+
silicones, 7att+ acid.(odi7ied (ela(ine /roducts and )+ /ara77in wa*es 7i*ed with
Circoniu( salts.
Naturall+, water re/ellenc+ i(/edes the access o7 the washing li8uor during
laundering. 'here7ore, so.called dual.action 7luorocar)on )lock co/ol+(ers were
de2elo/ed, which co()ine re/ellenc+ in the dr+ state and soil.release e77ects in an
a8ueous en2iron(ent @see Cha/ter < on soil.release 7inishesA. Dual acti2e
7luorocar)ons ena)le a )etter re(o2al o7 oil+ stains and dirt in do(estic washing or
laundering. With con2entional 3C /roducts, the wash water is hindered 7ro(
wetting and /enetrating the 7a)ric. Dual action 7luorocar)ons are called h+)rid
7luoroche(icals )ecause the+ are )lock co/ol+(ers containing h+dro/ho)ic @like
the usual 3CsA and highl+ h+dro/hilic seg(ents. $n air the /er7luorinated side chains
are, as usual, outwardl+ oriented and de2elo/ high re/ellenc+, )ut in water the
dou)le 7ace sur7ace structure 7li/s and the h+dro/hilic seg(ents turn outwards to
/ro(ote the wash e77ect as an oil+ soil release 7inish. During heat dr+ing or ironing
the sandwich.like sur7ace 7li/s again to generate water, oil and soil re/ellenc+.
'raditional co((ercial 3C /roducts consist o7 ,;.41 I 7luorocar)on /ol+(er, ,.
4 I e(ulsi7ier, :.0; I organic sol2ents and water. 'he e*haust air o7 the dr+ing
and curing /rocesses o7 7luorocar)on 7inishes there7ore o7ten contains high a(ounts
o7 2olatile organic co(/ounds @BOCA, like gl+cols and other organic sol2ents and a
lower content o7 residual (ono(ers. Cellulosic 7i)res retain (ost o7 the gl+cols.
'he e*haust air /ro)le( is greater with 3C 7inishes on s+nthetic 7i)res. BOCs can
)e reduced )+ (ore than =1 I )+ the addition o7 corres/onding )oosters, /ro2iding
e8ual e77ects with lower 8uantities o7 7inish /roducts.
<
#ong.li7e )+./roducts o7 the 7luorocar)on s+nthesis )+ electroche(ical 7luori.
nation are the /er7luorooctansul7onic acid and their corres/onding salts
@/er7luorooct+l sul7onate, P3OSA. 'hese en2iron(entall+ critical /roducts @with
concerns a)out /ersistence, )ioaccu(ulation and /otential to*icit+A are a2oided )+
s+nthesis 2ia telo(erisation.
Silicones and 7luorocar)on /ol+(ers cannot easil+ )e stri//ed o77, es/eciall+
when the+ are crosslinked. !s it is the nature o7 re/ellent 7inishes to reduce
adhesion, there are /ro)le(s with )ackcoating and la(inating o7 7a)rics 7inished )+
/adding 7luoroche(icals. One solution is the one side a//lication o7 the re/ellents
)+ ni/./adding, s/ra+, 7oa( or s8ueegee techni8ues.
Refe2ences
, 5issa $, Hand)ook o7 3i)er Science and 'echnolog+, Bol. $$, Che(ical Processing o7
3i)ers and 3a)rics. 3unctional 3inishes, Part B, Ae#in - and 3ello 3 B @edsB, 6e* Dor+,
-arcel .e++er, (:=?, (<:-(;&/
0 Sahin B, ?3luoroche(icals in te*tile 7inishing?, International Textile Bulletin - .yeing,
!rinting,Finishing, ,==-, 42@4A, 0-.41.
4 Singh O P, ?Stain re(o2al characteristics o7 7a)rics and stain.resistanceFrelease 7inishing?,
Textile .yer E !rinter, ,=:<, 2)@0;A, 05.0<.
5 3riedrich S and Schindler W, ?$n7luence o7 water. and oil re/ellent 7inishing on the
/er(ea)ilit+ to air o7 a wo2en cotton 7a)ric?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,==1, 71, 0,, . 0,4,
-<.-:.
; Croskell R, ?Burden o7 @WaterA/roo7?, A""arel International, ,==5, 2(, =.
- Fun+tionelle 3"orttextilien, $nternationales S/ort(odeinstitut, &unchen, ,=:=.
< Duschek %, ?(issionsar(e und !PO.7reie 3luorcar)on.!usrustung?, -elliand
Textilerichte, 011,, '2@<F:A, -15.-1:.
: Hol(e $, ?Water re/ellenc+ and water/roo7ing?, in Textile Finishing, He+wood D @ed.A,
Brad7ord, Societ+ o7 D+ers and Colourists, 0114, ,4;.0,4.
= JurC , ?!usrustung aus organischen #osungs(itteln?, Textil#eredlung, ,=-=, 4, <<4<:-.
,1 #a((er(ann D, ?3luorocar)ons in te*tile 7inishing?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,==,, 72,
=5=.=;5, 4:1.
,, %rotten(uller R, ?3luorocar)ons . an inno2ati2e au*iliar+ 7or the 7inish o7 te*tile
sur7aces?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,==:, 79@,1A, <54.<5-, ,=;.
,0 'hu(( S, ?#!D.7luorocar)on technolog+ 7or high.tech s/orts.wear?, International
Textile Bulletin, 0111, 46@,A, ;-.-,.
,4 Buck R C, ?Neue 3leckenschutC.Che(ie 7ur N+lon?, Textil#eredlung, ,==:, 33, ;<.-,.
,5 !non+(ous short re/ort in -elliand Textilerichte, 0114, '4@<F:A, -15D Rudol7.$n7o
:F0114, Rudol7 %()H, %eretsried, %er(an+.
,; Otto P, ?No2el 7luoro/ol+(ers 7or te*tile 7inishing?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,==,, 72@;A,
4<:.4:1, ,;;.,;-.
,- Nassl W, Sahin B and Schuirer &, ?3unctional 7inishing o7 s/orts and leisure wear?,
Chemiefasern,Textilindustrie, ,==0, 42*94, ,4<.,50.
,< WallitCer ', ?Scotchgard 3aserschutC?, Textil#eredlung, ,==:, 33, 5.,4.
,: Wurster P, Sch(idt %, et al, ?'%W!. 'ro/7test?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,=:<, 6',
;:,.
,= Juster B, 3ie)ig D and Herlinger H, ?Beein7lussung 2on wassera)weisenden
!usrustungen durch o)er7lachenakti2e 'e*tilhil7s(ittel?, Textil !raxis International, ,=:5,
39, ,-0,--.
/
0oil12elease finishes
7.1 Int2od6ction
'he eas+.care attri)utes o7 gar(ents (ade 7ro( dura)le /ress 7inished cotton and
s+nthetic 7i)res led to their read+ acce/tance )+ consu(ers in the ,=-1s. Howe2er, it
8uickl+ )eca(e a//arent that these gar(ents were (ore di77icult to clean than
gar(ents (ade 7ro( natural 7i)res. ! great deal o7 research in the te*tile industr+
was 7ocused on the /ro)le( o7 soil release and (an+ /roducts were introduced to the
(arket to o2erco(e this /er7or(ance de7icienc+.
,.4
Soil.release 7inishes on te*tiles
7acilitate the re(o2al o7 soils during laundering under co((on household conditions.
'he (ain 7actors a77ecting soil release are listed in 'a)le <.,.
3a)rics treated with soil.release 7inishes are /articularl+ suited to acti2e wear and
leisure wear, (arkets that are continuing to grow in i(/ortance. $ndustrial uni7or(s
and na/er+ are other (arket areas where soil release is a desira)le /roduct 7eature.
5
Recent work has shown that soil release can e2en )e incor/orated into +arn 7inishes.
;
Other 7a)ric /ro/erties that are enhanced )+ soil.release 7inishes include /rotection
7ro( soil rede/osition during laundering and a)sor)enc+ or trans/ort o7 li8uid water.
3a)rics with increased a)sor)enc+ /ro2ide gar(ents that 7eel (ore co(7orta)le
under hot, hu(id conditions, thus leading the na(e ?co(7ort 7inish? that has o7ten
)een a//lied to 7a)rics treated with soil.release agents.
7.2 $echanisms of soil 2elease
Re(o2al o7 soils 7ro( 7a)rics has )een attri)uted to se2eral (echanis(s.
,,0
'hese
, !dsor/tion o7 detergent and a)sor/tion o7 water leading to9
H Rollu/ o7 oil+ soil
H Penetration o7 soil.7i)re inter7ace )+ wash li8uid
H Solu)ilisation and e(ulsi7ication o7 soils.
,, Chemical finishing of textiles Table &.1 $ain facto2s affecting soil 2elease
&acto2 Ex!lanation
Nat62e of the soil 'il9 soil o2 !a2tic6late soil? h9d2o!ho7ic o2
h9d2o!hilic? li<6id o2 solid
Find of fi72es T9!e of fi72e? h9d2o!hilic o2 h9d2o!ho7ic?
smooth o2 !o2o6s fi72e s62face
Nat62e of textile Textile const26ctionW 9a2n Asta!le o2 filamentB?
fa72ic A@nit? wo5en o2 nonwo5enB
Effects of !2e!a2ation Resid6al waxes? wa2! si8es? o2 othe2
h9d2o!ho7ic mate2ials
Effects of d9eing and !2inting Diffe2ence in 7inde2 films? 2esid6al h9d2o!ho7ic
d9eing a6xilia2ies
Effects of othe2 finishes Com!ati7le with antistatic finishes? eas91ca2e
finishes and othe2 finishes not ha2med 79 a
h9d2o!hilic s62face.
Not com!ati7le with con5entional 2e!ellent
finishes and othe2 finishes whe2e h9d2o!hilicit9 is
det2imental to finish !e2fo2mance
;ashing conditions Dete2gents? h9d2od9namic flow in the washing
machine
Re!ellent finishes ,45
that lea2e the 7i)re sur7ace during washing and take the soil /articles along with the(
can also )ene7it /articulate soil release.
0
3or the (ost /art howe2er, the re(o2al o7
/articulate soils is deter(ined )+ detergent co(/osition and (echanical action.
Oil+ soils that are li8uids at wash te(/eratures are released )+ a ?roll u/? (echanis(
@3ig. <.0A, i7 the sur7ace 7ree energies o7 the 7i)re and oil ha2e the relationshi/
indicated )+9
R
K"3O
.
"3W O"OW
cos
1
d
1
where ) is the resultant 7orce o7 the inter7acial energies )etween the 7i)re and
the oil, "3 O D the 7i)re and the wash li8uid, y/0 D and the oil and the wash li8uid, y1023
'he angle ) is the angle 7or(ed at the intersection o7 the 7i)re.oil.water inter7ace
@3ig. <.4A. 3or ) to )e greater than 1, the contact angle ) (ust )e ,:1P @cos) K .,A.
'his leads to9
+
7o
+
7w d
+
o
indicating that the di77erence )etween the two 7i)re li8uid interactions (ust
)e greater than the inter7acial tension o7 the oil with the wash li8uid. !nal+sis o7 this
ine8ualit+ leads to the 7ollowing conclusions9
H ! low 7i)re.wash li8uid inter7acial energ+ is desired, that is a hydro"hilic 7inish is
/re7erred 7or s/ontaneous oil roll u/.
H ! high 7i)re.oil inter7acial energ+ is desired, that is the 7inish should also )e
oleo/ho)ic.
H ! low inter7acial tension )etween the oil and the wash li8uid will 7a2our oil+ soil
release.
!dditional 7inish characteristics that should 7acilitate oil+ soil release include the
a)ilit+ o7 the 7inish to swell during the washing /rocess and 7le*i)ilit+ under
(echanical action. !s in /articulate soil release, sacri7icial 7inishes are e*/ected to
)ene7it oil+ soil release.
'he e77ects o7 7a)ric and +arn construction on soil release (ust )e considered.
'ightl+ wo2en 7a)rics will )e (ore di77icult to clean than loosel+ knit 7a)rics and
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/med
ia/image++.!eg" "
# $ER%E&'R$(T
&.1 Release of !a2tic6late soil.
M<.,N
M<.0N
,4;
+arns (ade 7ro( s/un 7i)res will )e (ore di77icult to clean than +arns (ade 7ro(
te*tured 7ila(ent 7i)res )ecause the tighter structures will ha2e less a)ilit+ to 7le*
7ro( (echanical action during laundering.
'he colour o7 the treated and stained 7a)ric cannot )e ignored. Ber+ dark 7a)rics and
2er+ light 7a)rics can a//ear to ha2e less soil si(/l+ 7ro( o/tical e77ects.
0
'a)le <.0
gi2es an o2er2iew on the che(ical (echanis(s o7 soil.release 7inishing.
Table &.2 Chemical mechanisms of soil12elease finishes
Exam!les of st26ct62e t9!es in5ol5ed

Inc2easing h9d2o!hilicit9?
swelling of fi72e and finish
0ome h9d2o!ho7icit9? A>LG
5al6e a7o6t 1.B
Elect2ostatic 2e!6lsion
P2otecti5e coating with a7lati5e o2 sac2ificial finishes
(l@ali t2eatment of !ol9este2 Plasma t2eatment
)>LG is the h9d2o!hilic1li!o!hilic 7alanceW PD(? !ol95in9l alcoholW C$C? ca27ox9meth9l
cell6lose.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image+..!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
&.2 Roll 6! of oil9 soil.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image+-.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
&.1 &i72e1oil1wate2 inte2face.
Chemical mechanism
,4- Chemical finishing of textiles
PD(? C$C? ca!2olactam
oligome2s? ethox9lated
!2od6cts? s6lfonates?
!ol9ac29lic acid o2 adi!ic
acid co!ol9me2s
>972id fl6o2oca27ons Ad6al
action 7loc@ co!ol9me2sB? o2
!ol9ac29lic acid este2s o2
!ol9eth9lene te2e!hthalate
7loc@ co!ol9me2s (nionic
!ol9me2s s6ch as
!ol9ac29lates and C$C in
al@aline washing li<6o2s o2
s6lfonates 2e!6lse !a2tl9
negati5el9 cha2ged soil
!a2ticles o2 micelles?
incl6ding dis!e2sed soil
!a2ticles PD(? C$C? sta2ch
New ca27ox9lic and
h9d2ox9l g2o6!s on the fi72e
s62face 79 h9d2ol9sis of
este2 st26ct62es New
ca27ox9lic and h9d2ox9l
g2o6!s on the fi72e s62face
79 ca27on 2adical fo2mation
and oxidation
,4<
/.* 0oil12elease chemist29
3inishes /ro2iding soil release can )e classi7ied in nu(erous wa+s, )+ (ethod o7
a//lication, )+ 7i)re t+/e used with the(, )+ che(ical structure, electrical charge
and so on. Here, che(ical structure will )e used.
/.*.1 Ca27ox917ased finishes
So(e o7 the earliest car)o*+.)ased 7inishes were de2elo/ed to )e used in conEunc.
tion with dura)le /ress 7inishes on cotton and cotton )lend 7a)rics. 'he 7irst /atent
a//eared in ,=-=.
<
'he co(/osition o7 these 7inishes is )ased on acr+lic and
(ethacr+lic acid and ester co/ol+(ers @3ig. <.5A. !n ester to acid ratio o7 ]<1941 is
t+/ical. 'his ratio see(s to /ro2ide the /ro/er )lend o7 h+dro/hilicit+ and
oleo/ho)icit+ @h+dro/hilic.li/o/hilic )alance, H#BA re8uired 7or a soil.release
7inish. 'he H#B scale
:
is o7ten used 7or the /reselection o7 sur7actants and ranges
7ro( a)out 1 @2er+ h+dro/ho)icA to nearl+ 01 @2er+ h+dro/hilicA. 3or good soil.
release /er7or(ance, H#B 2alues o7 a)out ,; are 7a2oured. But this is onl+ a rough
orientation, )ecause the i(/ortant co/ol+(er )lock arrange(ents are not e*/ressed
)+ these H#B 2alues. %reater h+dro/hilicit+ would strongl+ reduce dura)ilit+ to
laundering. 'hese /roducts are usuall+ /ad a//lied in co()ination with D&DH"
crosslinkers @as descri)ed in Cha/ter ;A and /ro2ide soil release )+ a 7inish swelling
(echanis( @3ig. <.;A. 'he ease o7 incor/orating di77erent acr+lic (ono(ers into
co/ol+(ers has led to a wide 2ariet+ o7 a2aila)le 7inishes. O7ten a (ono(er such as
6.(eth+lol acr+la(ide that can react easil+ with D&DH" during the 7inish curing
ste/ is added 7or increased laundering dura)ilit+. 3or these 7inishes to )e e77ecti2e,
a)out 0.; I solids add.on o7 the soil. release /ol+(er is necessar+. Other car)o*+
/ol+(ers that ha2e )een used as soil.release 7inishes include st+rene.(aleic
anh+dride co/ol+(ers and sodiu( car)o*+(eth+l cellulose @Na.C&CA.
=
/.*.) >9d2ox917ased finishes
One o7 the earliest soil.release (aterials was starch, which 7unctioned as a
sacri7icial treat(ent. Other starch. and cellulose.)ased /roducts that ha2e )een
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image+/.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
&.' (c29lic co!ol9me2 soil12elease finishes.
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image+,.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
&.( $echanism of soil 2elease with ac29lic co!ol9me2s.
used as soil.release agents include (eth+l cellulose, eth+l cellulose, h+dro*+/ro/+l
starch, h+dro*+eth+l cellulose, h+dro*+/ro/+l(eth+l cellulose and h+drol+sed
cellulose acetates.
,
With so(e e*ce/tions,
,1
these 7inishes lack the laundering
dura)ilit+ desired in a 7inish e*/ected to last the li7e o7 a gar(ent and (ust )e
a//lied in co()ination with a )inder or crosslinking agent.
/.*.* Ethox917ased finishes
! great 2ariet+ o7 (aterials containing o*+eth+lene grou/s ha2e )een o77ered as
soil.release 7inishes. 'hese /roducts (a+ contain actual /ol+eth+lene )locks or
eth+lene o*ide reaction /roducts with acids, alcohols, a(ines, /henols, etc. Binding
agents (a+ or (a+ not )e re8uired, de/ending on the dura)ilit+ o7 the 7inish. One
i(/ortant grou/ o7 soil.release agents 7or /ol+ester 7i)res is )ased on condensation
co/ol+(ers o7 tere/hthalic acid with eth+lene gl+col and /ol+eth+lene gl+col @3ig.
<.-A.
,,
'he structure o7 this /ol+ester.ether co/ol+(er contains )locks o7
/ol+eth+lene tere/hthalate and /ol+o*+eth+lene tere/hthalate that /ro2ide a
structure that has regions o7 h+dro/hilicit+ inters/ersed with h+dro/ho)ic regions
that ha2e a strong attraction 7or the /ol+ester sur7ace @3ig. <.<A. 'hese /roducts can
/ro2ide e*tre(el+ dura)le soil.release /ro/erties 7or /ol+ester 7a)rics )+ either
e*haust or /ad a//lications with a)out 1.; I solids add.on. $t is /ossi)le to e*haust
a//l+ these /roducts during the d+eing /rocess.
! (odi7ication o7 the condensation co/ol+(er co(/ounds
in2ol2es incor/orating anionic character into the /ol+(er chain )+
use o7 sul7onated (ono(ers.
,0
'he necessar+ h+dro/hilicit+ is
/ro2ided )+ the sul7onated )locks @3ig. <.:A. #ike the other /ol+ester
condensation /ol+(ers, these anionic /roducts can )e a//lied )+ e*haust or
/adding. 'he e*haustion e77icienc+ can )e signi7icantl+ i(/ro2ed )+ adding s(all
a(ounts o7 (agnesiu( chloride to the a//lication )ath.
High soil.release /er7or(ance, e*cellent so7tness and co()ina)ilit+ with
7luorocar)on 7inishes (a+ )e achie2ed )+ s/ecial siliconeF/ol+alk+lene o*ide
co/ol+(ers.
,4,,5
'he silicone seg(ents contain h+dro/ho)ic di(eth+lsilo*ane
structures and h+dro/hilic silicone (odi7ications with etho*+lated or a(ino grou/.
containing side grou/s. 'he di77erent h+dro/hilic.li/o/hilic )alance @H#BA o7 the
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image+3.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
&.- Pol9este21ethe2 condensation co!ol9me2.
>9d2o!hilic 7loc@s
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image.4.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
&.& Co!ol9me2 with h9d2o!hilic and h9d2o!ho7ic 7loc@s on h9d2o!ho7ic fi72e.
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image.1.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
&.. $odified !ol9este2 condensation co!ol9me2.
INCLUDE
PICTURE
"../Downl
oads/med
ia/image.
).!eg" "#
$ER%E&'
R$(T
/ol+alk+lene )locks is adEusted )+ the ratio o7 h+dro/ho)ic @/ol+/ro/+lene o*ideA
and h+dro/hilic @/ol+eth+lene o*ideA co(/onents.
3+ Chemical finishing of textiles /.*.+ &l6o2ine1
7ased finishes
!tte(/ting to use a 7luorine.containing co(/ound to i(/art h+dro/hilicit+ to a
7i)re sur7ace (a+ at 7irst a//ear to )e a ho/eless task owing to the e*tre(e
h+dro/ho)icit+ o7 (ost 7luorocar)ons. Howe2er, with the /ro/er choice o7 co.
/ol+(er )locks, this see(ingl+ i(/ossi)le 7eat can )e acco(/lished.
,;
!n e*a(/le
o7 the che(ical structure o7 a success7ul 7luorine.)ased soil.release co(/ound is
shown in 3ig. <.= and classi7ied as a h+)rid 7luorocar)on o7 the )lock co/ol+(er
t+/e. 'hese uni8ue /ol+(ers ha2e the unusual /ro/ert+ o7 )eing h+dro/ho)ic and
oleo/ho)ic in air and h+dro/hilic and oil.releasing during the laundering /rocess.
'his ?dual action? (echanis( is illustrated in 3ig. <.,1. 'he h+dro/hilic )locks are
shielded )+ the 7luorocar)on seg(ents when dr+, /resenting a re/ellent sur7ace.
!7ter i((ersion in the wash )ath, the h+dro/hilic )locks can swell and actuall+
re2erse the inter7acial characteristics o7 the sur7ace, +ielding the h+dro/hilic sur7ace
necessar+ 7or oil+ soil release. '+/icall+, these (odi7ied 7luoro/ol+(ers are /ad
a//lied to 7a)rics in co()ination with dura)le /ress crosslinking agents to increase
the dura)ilit+ o7 the 7inish. 'he higher cost o7 the 7luoroche(ical soil release agents
co(/ared to the acr+lic co/ol+(ers is so(ewhat co(/ensated )+ the low add.on
@]1.; I solids add.onA re8uired 7or soil.release /er7or(ance. &i*tures o7 )oth
/ol+(er t+/es /ro2ide a co((on co(/ro(ise )etween e77icienc+ and costs.
/.*.. Non1!ol9me2 soil12elease t2eatments
!lkali and /las(a treat(ents o7 /ol+ester generate a (ore h+dro/hilic 7i)re sur7ace
)+ 7or(ing new car)o*+l and h+dro*+l grou/s. "nder alkaline washing conditions
the car)o*+l structures )eco(e anionic car)o*+late grou/s, gi2ing rise to high
electrostatic re/ulsion o7 the negati2el+ charged soil /articles )oth in /ure 7or( and
those enclosed in anionic sur7actant (icelles. So(e in7or(ation on /las(a
treat(ents is included at Cha/ter ,:.4.
/.+ E5al6ation of soil 2elease
'he ideal e2aluation (ethod 7or a soil.release 7inish would )e to stain the 7a)ric with
the sa(e (aterial that will soil consu(ers? clothes and then to wash the 7a)ric with
the sa(e detergents in the sa(e washing (achines at the sa(e water te(/eratures
that consu(ers will use. 'his is not /ractical in real li7e so co(/ro(ises (ust )e
(ade. 'he !(erican !ssociation o7 'e*tile Che(ists and Colorists @!!'CCA has
de2elo/ed standardised /rocedures 7or e2aluating soil.release 7inishes that /ro2ide a
strong indication o7 the actual 7inish /er7or(ance in the real world. When used )+
7a)ric (anu7acturers and their custo(ers, these /rocedures are hel/7ul guides in
/roduct de2elo/(ent and resolution o7 7inish 8ualit+ issues. Howe2er, reliance on
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image.*.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
&.% &l6o2ine17ased soil12elease com!o6nd.
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image.+.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
&.1/ ZD6al actionZ fl6o2oca27on in ai2 and wate2.
these tests alone (a+ )e (isleading. %ood 7inish de2elo/(ent /rocedures should
alwa+s include so(e testing with the actual soils and detergents likel+ to )e
encountered )+ the consu(er.
2aluation o7 soil.release e77ects a7ter washing is (ostl+ 2isuall+ done )+
co(/arison with /hotogra/hic standards, )ut also )+ re7lectance (easure(ents and
other instru(ental techni8ues, including (icrosco/+. Re7lectance data using the
Ju)elka.&unk e8uation correlate 7airl+ with the oil+ soil content )ut not with
residual /articulate soil @which is /ro)a)l+ /artl+ )uried within the 7a)ric and
shielded 7ro( the light /athA.
,
/.+.1 'il9 soil12elease testing
!!'CC 'est &ethod ,41
,-
s/eci7ies all the /ara(eters that strongl+ in7luence soil
release o7 oil+ soils. ! (easured a(ount o7 corn oil is /laced on the 7a)ric to )e
tested and /ressed into the 7a)ric with a s/eci7ied 7orce. 'he soiled 7a)ric is washed
with a standardised detergent under s/eci7ic conditions o7 water te(/erature and
ti(e in a s/eci7ied washing (achine. !7ter tu()le dr+ing and e8uili)ration, the
stained 7a)ric is co(/ared to /hotogra/hic standards and rated accordingl+. 3or
dura)ilit+ testing, the 7a)rics are washed /rior to staining in accordance with
!!'CC 'est &ethod ,05.
,<
/.+.) 0oil 2e!osition
!!'CC 'est &ethod ,;,
,:
can )e used to esti(ate the degree o7 soil rede/osition
likel+ to occur during laundering. 'he 7a)rics to )e tested are e*/osed to a soiling
(ediu( @two dr+ soils and 7a)ric swatches /retreated with a standard oil+ soilA
during a laundering si(ulation with a standard detergent. 'he change in re7lectance
o7 the 7a)ric )e7ore and a7ter the testing is an indication o7 the rede/osition /otential
o7 the 7a)ric.
/.+.* $oist62e t2ans!o2t
'he /rocedure gi2en in !!'CC 'est &ethod <=
,=
can also )e used to deter(ine the
degree o7 a)sor)enc+ o7 7a)rics 7inished with soil.release agents. '+/icall+, near
instantaneous wetting o7 the 7a)ric with water @ G ,sA is e*/ected 7ro( non.
7luorine.containing soil.release 7inishes.
/.. T2o67leshooting fo2 soil12elease finishes
'he /er7or(ance o7 a soil.release 7inish de/ends u/on its a)ilit+ to /ro2ide a
h+dro/hilic sur7ace during the laundering /rocess. 'here7ore an+ (aterial de/osited
on the 7i)re sur7ace that would reduce this necessar+ h+dro/hilicit+ should )e
a2oided. So7teners, lu)ricants and other /roducts that (odi7+ sur7ace /ro/erties
should )e care7ull+ in2estigated in la)orator+ trials )e7ore )eing used with 7a)rics
treated with soil.release 7inishes.
'he relati2e a(ounts o7 the )inders and crosslinkers a//lied in conEunction with
acr+lic co/ol+(er soil.release co(/ounds (ust )e care7ull+ deter(ined. 'oo little
crosslinking and the soil.release 7inish is not dura)le to (ulti/le launderingsD too
(uch crosslinking and the 7inish cannot swell as (uch as is needed 7or ade8uate soil
release.
Refe2ences
, 5issa $, Hand)ook o7 3i)er Science and 'echnolog+, Bol. $$, Che(ical Processing o7
3i)ers and 3a)rics. 3unctional 3inishes, Part B, Ae#in - and 3ello 3 B @edsB, 6e* Dor+,
-arcel .e++er, (:=?, &((-&=:/
0 Cooke ' 3, ?Soil release 7inishes 7or 7i)res and 7a)rics?, Textile Chemist and Colorist,
,=:<, 19@,A, 4,.5,.
4 Pailthro/e & and Da2id S J, ?!ntistatic and soil release 7inishes?, in Textile Finishing,
He+wood D @ed.A, Brad7ord, Societ+ o7 D+ers and Colourists, 0114, 441.
5 Hol(e $, ?New de2elo/(ent in the che(ical 7inishing o7 te*tiles?, 2ournal Textile Institute,
,==4, '4@5A, ;01.;44.
; Schuette R #, De&ott P, 'a+lor D and #ee !, ?&ethod and a//aratus 7or /re/aring nitride
/roducts?, uro/ean Patent 1<=4<5-, assigned to &illiken Research Cor/., ,==<.
- Hinks D, North Carolina State "ni2ersit+, /ri2ate co((unication, ,===.
< &arco 3 W, ?Soil release o7 /ol+ester containing te*tiles through treat(ent with
a(ino/last resins in conEunction with acr+lic e(ulsion /ol+(ers containing at least 01 I
acid calculated as acr+lic acid?, "S Patent 4,4<<,05=, assigned to Deering &illiken $nc.,
,=-=.
: %ri77in W C, ?Classi7ication o7 sur7ace.acti2e agents )+ H#B?, 2ournal 3ociety Cosmetic
Chemists, ,=;1, 1, 4,,.
= &o+se J !, ?3inishing /rocesses 7or s+nthetic and )lended 7i)re te*tiles to con7er soil
release and related e77ects?, Textil#eredlung, ,=<1, (, 4<<.4:;.
,1 Hauser P J and &arco 3 W, ?'e*tile (aterials ha2ing dura)le soil release and (oisture
trans/ort characteristics and /rocess 7or /roducing sa(e?, "S Patent 5,,-5,4=0, assigned
to Deering &illiken $nc., ,=<=.
,, &clnt+re J and Ro)ertson & &, ?Sur7ace (odi7+ing treat(ent o7 sha/ed articles (ade
7ro( /ol+esters?, "S Patent 4,5,-,=;0, assigned to $C$, ,=-:.
,0 #arson W J, #+nn & & and &c!llister S, ?Process 7or (odi7+ing the sur7aces o7
/ol+ester 7i)ers? "S Patent 5,441.;::, assigned to 4&, ,=:0.
,4 Hol(e $, ?Water re/ellenc+ and water/roo7ing?, in Textile Finishing, He+wood D @ed.A,
Brad7ord, Societ+ o7 D+ers and Colourists, 0114, ,:;.,:-.
,5 CCech ! &, Pa2len+i J and Sa)ia ! J, Textile Chemist Colorist, ,==<, 29@=A, 0=.
,; Sher(an P O, S(ith S and Johannessen B, ? 'e*tile characteristics a77ecting the release o7
soil during laundering. Part $$ 3luoroche(ical soil release te*tile 7inishes?, Textile
)esearch 2ournal, ,=-=, 39, 55=.
,- !!'CC 'est &ethod ,41 Soil release9 oil+ soil (ethod, AATCC Technical -anual,
!(erican !ssociation o7 'e*tile Che(ists and Colorists, Research 'riangle Park, NC,
,===, 0,<.0,=.
,< !!'CC 'est &ethod ,05 !//earance o7 7a)rics a7ter re/eated ho(e laundering, AATCC
Technical -anual, !(erican !ssociation o7 'e*tile Che(ists and Colorists, Research
'riangle Park, NC, ,===, 01;.01:.
,: !!'CC 'est &ethod ,;, Soil rede/osition, resistance to9 launder.o(eler (ethod,
AATCC Technical -anual, !(erican !ssociation o7 'e*tile Che(ists and Colorists,
Research 'riangle Park, NC, ,===, 0-<.0-:.
,= !!'CC 'est &ethod <= !)sor)enc+ o7 )leached 7a)rics, AATCC Technical -anual,
!(erican !ssociation o7 'e*tile Che(ists and Colorists, Research 'riangle Park, NC,
,===, ,10.
,
&lame12eta2dant finishes
8.1 Int2od6ction
3la(e.retardant 7inishes /ro2ide te*tiles with an i(/ortant /er7or(ance character.
istic. Protection o7 consu(ers 7ro( unsa7e a//arel is onl+ one area where 7la(e
retardanc+ is needed. 3ire7ighters and e(ergenc+ /ersonnel re8uire /rotection 7ro(
7la(es as the+ go a)out their duties. 3loor co2erings, u/holster+ and dra/er+ also
need /rotection, es/eciall+ when used in /u)lic )uildings. 'he (ilitar+ and the
airline industr+ ha2e (ulti/le needs 7or 7la(e.retardant te*tiles.
'he re8uire(ents 7or a co((erciall+ success7ul 7la(e.retardant te*tile /roduct
ha2e )een gi2en
,
as (eeting 7la((a)ilit+ re8uire(ents9 ha2ing little or no ad2erse
e77ect on the te*tile?s /h+sical /ro/ertiesD retaining the te*tile?s aesthetics and
/h+siological /ro/ertiesD )eing /roduced )+ a si(/le /rocess with con2entional
e8ui/(ent and ine*/ensi2e che(icalsD and )eing dura)le to re/eated ho(e
launderings, tu()le dr+ings and dr+ cleaning. $t has )een /ossi)le to (eet these
re8uire(ents 7or (an+ te*tile /roducts since )e7ore ,=:4
,
and our societ+ enEo+s a
sa7er en2iron(ent as a result. Progress is continuing in this 7ield and recent re2iews
ha2e highlighted ad2ances in the understanding and che(istr+ o7 7la(e retardants,
0,4
)ut /rogress has )een relati2el+ slow and the ad2ances 8uite (inor and s/ecialised.
'wo e*cellent re2iews ha2e a//eared
,,5
and should )e re8uired reading 7or those
wishing to ha2e a co(/rehensi2e understanding o7 treat(ent with 7la(e.retardant
7inishes. 'his cha/ter will co2er the sa(e ground in a (uch (ore general wa+.
8.2 $echanisms of flame 2eta2danc9
$n order to understand the (echanis(s o7 e77ecti2e 7la(e retardants )etter, the
(echanis( o7 co()ustion should 7irst )e clari7ied. Co()ustion is an e*other(ic
/rocess that re8uires three co(/onents, heat, o*+gen and a suita)le 7uel. When le7t
unchecked, co()ustion )eco(es sel7 catal+sing and will continue until the o*+gen,
the 7uel su//l+ or the e*cess heat is de/leted. ! diagra( o7 the current (odel o7
co()ustion o7 te*tile 7i)res is gi2en in 3ig. :.,.
0
When heat is a//lied, the 7i)re?s te(/erature increases until the /+rol+sis
te(/erature, T!, is reached. !t this te(/erature, the 7i)re undergoes irre2ersi)le
che(ical changes, /roducing non.7la((a)le gases @car)on dio*ide, water 2a/our
and the higher o*ides o7 nitrogen and sul7urA, car)onaceous char, tars @li8uid
condensatesA and 7la((a)le gases @car)on (ono*ide, h+drogen and (an+ o*idis.
a)le organic (oleculesA. !s the te(/erature continues to rise, the tars also /+rol+se,
/roducing (ore non.7la((a)le gases, char and 7la((a)le gases. 2entuall+, the
co()ustion te(/erature, 'C, is achie2ed. !t this /oint, the 7la((a)le gases
co()ine with o*+gen in the /rocess called co()ustion, which is a series o7 gas
/hase 7ree radical reactions @3ig. :.0A. 'hese reactions are highl+ e*other(ic and
/roduce large a(ounts o7 heat and light. 'he heat generated )+ the co()ustion
/rocess /ro2ides the additional ther(al energ+ needed to continue the /+rol+sis o7
the 7i)re, there)+ su//l+ing (ore 7la((a)le gases 7or co()ustion and /er/etuating
the reaction. 'he )urning )eha2iour o7 te*tiles is deter(ined (ore )+ the s/eed or
rate o7 heat release than )+ the a(ount o7 this heat.
!tte(/ts to disru/t this c+cle 7or te*tile su)strates ha2e 7ocused on se2eral
a//roaches. One (ethod is to /ro2ide a heat sink on or in the 7i)re )+ use o7
(aterials that ther(all+ deco(/ose through strongl+ endother(ic reactions. $7
enough heat can )e a)sor)ed )+ these reactions, the /+rol+sis te(/erature o7 the
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image...!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
..1 Com76stion c9cle fo2 fi72es.
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image.-.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
..2 0ome f2ee 2adical com76stion 2eactions.
7i)re is not reached and no co()ustion takes /lace. *a(/les o7 this (ethod are the
use o7 alu(iniu( h+dro*ide or ?alu(ina trih+drate? and calciu( car)onate as 7illers
in /ol+(ers and coatings @3ig. :.4A.
!nother a//roach is to a//l+ a (aterial that 7or(s an insulating la+er around the
7i)re at te(/eratures )elow the 7i)re /+rol+sis te(/erature. Boric acid and its
h+drated salts 7unction in this ca/acit+ @3ig. :.5A. When heated, these low (elting
co(/ounds release water 2a/our and /roduce a 7oa(ed glass+ sur7ace on the 7i)re,
insulating the 7i)re 7ro( the a//lied heat and o*+gen.
! third wa+ to achie2e 7la(e retardanc+ is to in7luence the /+rol+sis reaction to
/roduce less 7la((a)le 2olatiles and (ore residual char. 'his ?condensed /hase?
(echanis( can )e seen in the action o7 /hos/horous.containing 7la(e retardants
which, a7ter ha2ing /roduced /hos/horic acid through ther(al deco(/osition,
crosslink with h+dro*+l.containing /ol+(ers there)+ altering the /+rol+sis to +ield
less 7la((a)le )+./roducts @3ig. :.;A. But there are also other e*/lanations 7or the
7irst ste/s o7 this deh+dration, including single esteri7ication without crosslinking,
7or e*a(/le, o7 the /ri(ar+ h+dro*+l grou/ in the C.- /osition o7 the cellulose units.
'hese /hos/horous esters catal+se the deh+dration @3ig. :.-A and /re2ent the
7or(ation o7 undesired le2oglucosan @3ig. :.<A, the /recursor o7 7la((a)le
2olatiles.
;
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image./.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
..1 Endothe2mic decom!osition 2eactions.
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image.,.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
..' &o2mation of foamed glass.
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image.3.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
..( C2osslin@ing with !hos!ho2ic acid.
..& The2mal deg2adation of cell6lose.

Table ..1 Com!a2ison of two im!o2tant flame12eta2dant mechanisms

T9!e of mechanism

T9!e of chemist29 in5ol5ed
T9!ical t9!e of s9ne2gism
Effecti5e fo2 fi72e t9!e
Pa2tic6la2ities
(!!lication !2ocess
En5i2onment? toxicit9
P92ol9sis chemist29
P/N
$ainl9 cell6lose? also
wool? catal9sing thei2
deh9d2ation to cha2
De29 effecti5e 7eca6se
deh9d2ation and ca27on1
isation dec2ease the
fo2mation of 762na7le
5olatiles
If fo2 d62a7le flame
2eta2danc9 then demand1
ing m6lti1ste! !2ocesses
;ith d62a7le flame 2eta2d1
anc9? fo2maldeh9de
emission d62ing c62ing and
afte2 finishing?
!hos!ho2o6s com!o6nds
in the waste wate2
&lame chemist29 07/G2
o2 07/Cl (ll @inds of
fi72es? 7eca6se thei2
flame chemist29 is
simila2 A2adical
t2ansfe2 2eactionsB
&ixation with 7inde2
changes textile
!2o!e2ties s6ch as
handle and d2a!e?
!2efe2a7l9 fo2 7ac@
coating? fo2 exam!le of
f62nishing fa72ics and
ca2!ets Relati5el9
sim!le? standa2d
methods of coating?
76t 5iscosit9 cont2ol is
im!o2tant (ntimon9
oxide and o2ganic
halogen donato2s
ADGDP' and >CGCB
a2e disc6ssed as
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image-4.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
..- Deh9d2ation of cell6lose 79 st2ong acids.
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image-1.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
'> C>)'>
U$
Le5ogl6cosan
%as !hase
Condensed !hase
!2o7lems Afo2 exam!le
!ossi7ilit9 of gene2ating
!ol9halo1 genated dioxins
and f62anesB
'he ?condensed /hase? strateg+ includes the descri)ed (echanis( o7 re(o2al o7
heat and the enhance(ent o7 the deco(/osition te(/erature as in heat resistant
7i)res. $n 'a)le :., the ?condensed /hase? and the ?gas /hase? (echanis(s are
co(/ared.
! 7ourth a//roach to /re2enting co()ustion is to inter7ere with the 7ree radical
reactions @7la(e che(istr+, 3ig. :.0A that /ro2ide the heat needed 7or the /rocess to
continue. &aterials that act in this ?gas /hase? (echanis( include halogen.
containing co(/ounds which, during co()ustion, +ield h+drogen halides that 7or(
relati2el+ long li2ed, less reacti2e 7ree radicals, e77ecti2el+ reducing the heat
a2aila)le 7or /er/etuating the co()ustion c+cle, and which decrease the o*+gen
content )+ 7la(e gas dilution @3ig. :.:A.
,.* &lame12eta2dant chemist29
'he (ost i(/ortant co((ercial 7la(e retardants can )e classi7ied into three )road
categories.
,
Pri(ar+ 7la(e retardants )ased on /hos/horous @condensed /hase
(echanis(A and halogens @gas /hase (echanis(AD s+nergistic retardanc+ enhancers
that ha2e onl+ s(all 7la(e retarding e77ects )+ the(sel2es, )ut greatl+ enhance the
7la(e retardanc+ o7 /ri(ar+ 7la(e retardants @nitrogen with /hos/horous and
anti(on+ with halogensAD and adEuncti2e 7la(e retardants that e*hi)it their acti2it+
through /h+sical e77ects @)orates, alu(ina trih+drate, calciu( car)onate and
intu(escents, e*/lained in Section :.,1A.
Organic nitrogen is thought to hel/ control the /H during the crosslinking
reactions o7 /hos/horic acid. 'he nitrogen can )eco(e /rotonated, reducing the
a(ount o7 acid a2aila)le. $7 the /H is too low, cellulose will undergo acid h+drol+sis
rather than crosslinking. $7 the /H is too high, the acid catal+sed crosslinking cannot
take /lace. Organic nitrogen (a+ )e con2erted to /hos/horous acid a(ides that also
catal+se the deh+dration and car)onisation o7 cellulose. 'he s+nergistic e77ect o7
anti(on+ co(es 7ro( the 2olatilit+ o7 anti(on+ trihalides and
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image-).!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
... Com!eting f2ee 2adical 2eactions d62ing com76stion of halogen AMB1containing
mate2ial A$B. R is the o2ganic 2esid6e.
Table ..2 09ne2gistic
com7inations of
flame 2eta2dants
-
09ne2gistic
com7ination 06ita7le
fo2
Cell6lose >*P'+? P1
amides 09nthetic
fi72es? es!eciall9
07'M J 07M* P(N?
PP? P(
*
P/halogen AMB
PP? APET? P(N? P(B
P'M*? PM*
>alogen/2adical
gene2ato2 09nthetic
fi72es? es!eciall9
>alogenated
!ol9me2s
PET? CT? C(
PP O !ol9!2o!9lene? PET O !ol9eth9lene tet2achlo2ide? P(N
O !ol9ac29lonit2ile? P( O !ol9amide? CT O cell6lose
t2iacetate? C( O cell6lose
acetate.
the e77ecti2eness o7 anti(on+ co(/ounds in
sca2enging 7ree radicals @3ig. :.=A o2er a )road te(/erature range @7or e*a(/le 05;.
;-; PCA.
-
'a)le :.0 shows co((on s+nergistic co()inations o7 7la(e retardants.
,.+ &lame 2eta2dants fo2 cell6lose
One i(/ortant ther(al degradation (echanis( o7 cellulose 7i)res @cotton, ra+on,
linen, etc.A is the 7or(ation o7 the s(all de/ol+(erisation /roduct le2oglucosan
@3ig. :.<A. #e2oglucosan and its 2olatile /+rol+sis /roducts are e*tre(el+ 7la((a)le
(aterials and are the (ain contri)utors to cellulose co()ustion. Co(/ounds that
are a)le to hinder le2oglucosan 7or(ation are e*/ected to 7unction as 7la(e
retardants 7or cellulose. 'he crosslinking and the single t+/e o7 esteri7ication o7
%ene2ated !2ima29
acti5e com!o6nds
P/N
>alogen AMB/07)'*
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image-*.!e
g" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
..% %as !hase f2ee 2adical 2eactions with antimon9.
cellulose /ol+(er chains )+ /hos/horic acid reduces le2oglucosan generation,
catal+ses deh+dration and car)onisation, and thus 7unctions as an e77ecti2e 7la(e.
retardant (echanis(. 'his car)onisation o7 cellulose is si(ilar to the well known
car)onisation /rocess o7 wool with sul7uric acid, re(o2ing /lant dirt and other
cellulosics. $n an idealised e8uation, 7la(e.retardant 7inished cellulose @C-H,1O;An
would )e deco(/osed to 6n C and <n H0O. 'he 7irst ste/ o7 this reaction is shown in
3ig. :.-. 'he resulting char is (uch less 7la((a)le than the 2olatile organic
/+rol+sis /roducts o7 untreated cellulose.
Che(icals that can +ield /hos/horic acid during the earl+ stages o7 7i)re /+rol+sis
7or( the (aEorit+ o7 success7ul 7la(e retardants 7or cellulose. Howe2er, it is not
su77icient to su//l+ Eust /hos/horic acid /recursors. 'he /resence o7 nitrogen has
)een 7ound to /ro2ide a s+nergistic e77ect with /hos/horous. &ini(u( le2els o7
added /hos/horous and nitrogen 7or e77ecti2e 7la(e retardanc+ ha2e )een esti(ated
at ] 0 I P and ], I N. Howe2er, these (ini(u( le2els can 2ar+ greatl+ de/ending
on 7a)ric construction and test re8uire(ents.
,.+.1 Non1d62a7le flame 2eta2dants fo2 cell6lose
$norganic salts ha2e long )een known to /ro2ide 7la(e retardanc+ on cellulosic
(aterial that will not )e e*/osed to water, rain or /ers/iration. 'he 3rench che(ist
%a+.#ussac /ro/osed a )ora* and a((oniu( sul7ate treat(ent as a 7la(e retard.
ant 7or cotton in ,:01. 'oda+, a (i*ture o7 )oric acid and )ora* is still an e77ecti2e
7la(e retardant 7or cotton at ] ,1 I solids add.on. !((oniu( salts o7 strong acids,
es/eciall+ /hos/horic acid @PFN s+nergis(A are /articularl+ use7ul as nondura)le
7la(e retardants 7or cellulose. 'hree co((erciall+ i(/ortant /roducts are
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image-+.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
..1/ The2mal decom!osition of ammoni6m salts.
dia((oniu( /hos/hate, a((oniu( sul7a(ate and a((oniu( )ro(ide. 'hese salts
readil+ 7or( the corres/onding strong acids u/on heating @3ig. :.,1A.
Dia((oniu( /hos/hate and a((oniu( sul7a(ate are used at ] ,; I solids addon
and 7unction as condensed /hase 7la(e retardants, not onl+ )+ crosslinking )ut also
)+ deh+drating cellulose to /ol+(eric char with reduced 7or(ation o7 7la((a)le )+.
/roducts @3ig. :.-A. 'he water insolu)le a((oniu( /ol+/hos/hate is an e77ecti2e
7la(e retardant and is added to coatings and )inder s+ste(s, 7or e*a(/le 7or
/ig(ent /rinting. !((oniu( )ro(ide is a//lied at ] ,1 I solids add.on and is
e77ecti2e in the gas /hase.
,.+.) D62a7le flame 2eta2dants fo2 cell6lose
!lthough inorganic salts can /ro2ide e*cellent 7la(e.retardant /ro/erties 7or
cellulose, reasona)le laundering dura)ilit+ (ust )e incor/orated into an+ 7inish
destined 7or a//arel use. 'he (ost success7ul dura)le 7la(e retardants 7or cellulose
are )ased on /hos/horous. and nitrogen.containing che(ical s+ste(s that can react
with the 7i)re or 7or( crosslinked structures on the 7i)re. 'he ke+ ingredient o7 one
o7 these 7inishes is tetrakis@h+dro*+(eth+lA/hos/honiu( chloride @'HPCA, (ade
7ro( /hos/hine, 7or(aldeh+de and h+drochloric acid @3ig. :.,,A.
,
'HPC reacts with
urea to 7or( an insolu)le structure on cellulose in a /ad.dr+.cure /rocess @3ig. :.,0A.
Phos!hine &o2maldeh9de Tet2a@isAh9d2ox9meth9lB!hos!honi6m Chlo2ide
..11 09nthesis of T>PC.
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image-..!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
1N>C>)PC>)N>CN>C>)PC>)N> ..12 Reaction of T>PC with 62ea.
So(e reaction with cellulose also occurs. 'reating the cured 7inish with h+drogen
/ero*ide to con2ert the /hos/horous ato(s to their highest o*idation state results in
cellulosic goods with 2er+ dura)le 7la(e retardanc+. !//l+ing 0; I 'HPC with ,;
I urea +ields a 7inal /hos/horous add.on o7 4.;.5 I, which is ade8uate 7or (ost
7a)rics. !lthough the 'HPC.urea s+ste( can gi2e highl+ e77ecti2e and dura)le 7la(e
retardanc+ to cellulose, treated 7a)rics are sti77 and ha2e signi7icantl+ i(/aired
tensile and tear strengths as well as releasing 7or(aldeh+de during /rocessing.
'+/icall+, care7ull+ chosen so7teners and (echanical 7inishing techni8ues are used
to /ro2ide co((erciall+ acce/ta)le 7a)rics. Bariations on 'HPC.)ased s+ste(s
ha2e )een the use o7 the sul7ate or h+dro*+ saltsD 'HP.S to eli(inate the /ossi)le
7or(ation o7 highl+ to*ic )is@chloro(eth+lA ether during /rocessing, and 'HP.OH to
reduce acidic tendering o7 the goods.
! 2ariation on the 'HPC.urea s+ste( was de2elo/ed to /roduce 7inishes with less
sti77ness and 7i)re da(age @Pro)an /rocessA. ! /recondensate is /re/ared )+ the
care7ul reaction o7 'HPC with urea. 'his /recondensate is /added onto the 7a)ric
and the 7a)ric is dried to a s/eci7ic (oisture content @] ,; IA. 'he 7a)ric is then
e*/osed to a((onia 2a/ours in a s/ecial reaction cha()er, 7ollowed )+ o*idation
with h+drogen /ero*ide @3ig. :.,4A. 'he /ol+(er that 7or(s is /ri(aril+ located in
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image--.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
..11 T>PC162ea1ammonia 2eaction.
the lu(en o7 the cotton 7i)re. 'he 7inal 7inish /ro2ides dura)le 7la(e retardanc+ to
cotton with (uch i(/ro2ed 7a)ric /ro/erties.
,
$t is i(/ortant to note

II II
AC>*4B)PC>)C>)CN>C>)4> V
o
II II
AC>*4B)PC>)C>)CN>C>)41

/
V >)4
..1' Reaction of ;1meth9lol dimeth9l!hos!hono!2o!ionamide with
cell6lose.
that 2er+ 7ew direct or 7i)re reacti2e d+es can withstand e*/osure to 'HP.)ased
7inishes. !l(ost all cellulosic goods that are to )e 7la(e retardant treated with a
'HP 7inish should )e d+ed with 2at d+es.
!nother success7ul co((ercial a//roach to dura)le /hos/horous.containing
7inishes is the use o7 N.(eth+lol di(eth+l/hos/hono/ro/iona(ide @3ig. :.,5A in
co()ination with tri(eth+lol (ela(ine and /hos/horic acid as catal+st in a /ad.
dr+.cure /rocess.
,
'he re8uired add.on is 01.41 I de/ending on the weight o7 the
7a)ric. $n this /rocess, washing a7ter curing is necessar+ to re(o2e the /hos/horic
acid, leading to higher costs associated with the second dr+ing ste/. $n addition, the
7inish (a+ gi2e rise to an un/leasant odour during the curing ste/. No2el
de2elo/(ents include higher /roduct /urit+, decrease in 7or(aldeh+de e(ission
during curing
;
and )+ the 7inished te*tile, and also higher 7i*ation rates ena)led )+
(oderate condensation conditions @acco(/anied )+ less 7i)re da(ageA. 'a)le :.4
shows a co(/arison o7 these two i(/ortant /er(anent 7la(e.retardant 7inishes 7or
cellulosics. Both /rocesses are Eusti7ied )+ the co((on 7inishing /ractice.
Table ..1 Com!a2ison of two !e2manent flame12eta2dant finishes fo2 cell6losics

$odified T>PC162ea finish AZP2o7anZ
t9!eB
Demanding !2ocess? incl6ding
moist62e cont2ol? ammonia 5a!o62
t2eatment and oxidation
0malle2 wash sh2in@age
Gette2 sta7ilit9 to h9d2ol9sis
0omewhat 7ette2 2i!!ing st2ength
Less odo62 7othe2ing
(lso fo2 fi72e 7lends with small
cell6lose content
P2efe2a7l9 fo2 la2ge !2od6ction 26ns? to
minimise the !2ocess costs incl6ding
machine29 2e<6i2ements
;1meth9lol !hos!ono!2o!ionamide finish
AZP92ocatex CP newZ t9!eB
Ext2a washing afte2 c62ing incl6ding d29ing
costs
0ofte2 handle
&ewe2 d9est6ff 2est2ictions? incl6ding 72illiant
shades
$6ch less f2ee fo2maldeh9de de5elo!ment
0ho2te2 afte21762ning time
Less smo@e de5elo!ment
1
No licence 2e<6i2ed? incl6ding
co22es!onding 2est2ictions and costs
..1( Discose s!inning 7ath additi5e fo2 flame12eta2dant 2a9on.
,.+.* &lame 2eta2dants fo2 2a9on
!lthough in /rinci/le ra+on can )e 7la(e retarded )+ the sa(e /rocesses de2elo/ed
7or cotton, the (aEorit+ o7 research e77orts ha2e 7ocused on additi2es to the 2iscose
s/inning )ath. One success7ul additi2e, )ased on an alk+l dio*a/hos/horinane
disul7ide @3ig. :.,;A, is used at ] 01 I 7or e77ecti2e 7la(e retardanc+.
,
,.. &lame 2eta2dants fo2 wool
Des/ite the 7act that wool 7i)res are inherentl+ less 7la((a)le than (ost other
7i)res, so(e 7la(e.retardant treat(ent is usuall+ necessar+ in order to (eet s/eci7ic
7la((a)ilit+ tests. One well known /rocess @_ir/ro, de2elo/ed )+ Benisek 7or the
$WSA is )ased on he*a7luoro Circonate and titanate salts.
,,;
'hese /roducts can )e
a//lied )+ e*haustion and /ad /rocesses under acid conditions @at /H G 4A. 'he
hea2+ (etal co(/le* anions 7or( ionic and /erha/s other /olar )onds with the wool
7i)re, si(ilar to d+estu77 anions. 'he 7la(e.retardanc+ (echanis( is thought to take
/lace in the condensed /hase through Circoniu( ions or Circoniu( co(/ounds that
enhance or catal+se the char 7or(ation.
;
_irconiu( le2els o7 ] 0 I are needed 7or
e77ecti2e 7la(e retardanc+. 'he he*a7luoro titaniu( salt is (ore e77ecti2e and
chea/er, )ut a +ellow shade is i(/arted to the treated wool, which is increased )+
e*/osure to light. 'he 7inish is dura)le to dr+ cleaning and water washing u/ to 51
PC at /H G -. !t higher /H 2alues ine77ecti2e Circoniu( o*ide is 7or(ed.
<
'his
7inish can )e co()ined with d+eing at /H G 4 @le2elling acid or ,9, (etal co(/le*
d+esA. $t is co(/ati)le with shrink.resist and insect.resist 7inishes. Re/ellent 7inishes
should )e a//lied a7ter the _ir/ro /rocess.
:
'his 7inish was (odi7ied 7or wool used
7or ther(al insulation (aterial, es/eciall+ with skin contact,
=
ena)ling less strength
loss a7ter heating and high 7la(e retardanc+ @li(iting o*+gen inde*, #O$ u/ to 4;,
see Section :.,,A.
!nother 7la(e.retardant treat(ent 7or wool )ased on e*haustion o7 an anionic
s/ecies is the use o7 tetra)ro(o/hthalic anh+dride, 'BP! @3ig. :.,-A, which
h+drol+ses to the car)o*+lic 7or( during a//lication. "se o7 'BP! at ] ,1 I on
weight o7 7a)ric under acid conditions /ro2ides e77ecti2e 7la(e retardanc+ that is
dura)le to dr+ cleaning and (ild laundering conditions @cold water washing at
neutral /HA.
,
But 'BP! is sus/ected to generate /ol+)ro(inated dio*ins under
)urning conditions.
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image-/.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
..1- Tet2a72omo!hthalic anh9d2ide ATGP(B.
,.- &lame 2eta2dants fo2 !ol9este2
'he three /ossi)le a//roaches to 7la(e.retardant /ol+ester . additi2es to the /ol+(er
(elt, 7la(e.retardant co/ol+(ers and to/ical 7inishes . ha2e all )een used
co((erciall+ to /roduce 7la(e.retardant /ol+ester te*tiles.
,
!ll the (ethods e(/lo+
/hos/horous. or )ro(ine.containing co(/ounds as the acti2e 7la(e retardant.
One o7 the (ost use7ul 7la(e.retardant 7inishes 7or /ol+ester was a )ro(ine.
containing /hos/hate ester, trisdi)ro(o/ro/+l/hos/hate, co((onl+ known as ?'ris?
@3ig. :.,<A. &ost si(/le /hos/hate triesters could also ha2e )een gi2en the na(e o7
?tris? 7or si(/licit+ )ut the )est known is the di)ro(o/ro/+l /roduct. ?'ris? was an
e*tre(el+ 2ersatile and e77ecti2e /roduct, )eing a//lied )+ )oth /adding and
e*haustion /rocesses @e2en though the su)stanti2it+ and e*haustion +ields were lowA
and /ro2ided e*cellent 7la(e retardanc+ at reasona)le add.ons. Howe2er, ?tris? was
shown to )e a /otential carcinogen and was e2entuall+ re(o2ed 7ro( the
(arket/lace )+ legislation.
,
!t the ti(e, in the (ind o7 the general /u)lic, an+thing
that could )e na(ed ?tris? was considered to )e a dangerous carcinogenh
One current co((ercial 7la(e retardant 7or /ol+ester is a (i*ture o7 c+clic
/hos/hateF/hos/honates used in a /ad.dr+.heat set /rocess @3ig. :.,:A.
,1
Heat set
conditions o7 ,=1.0,1PC 7or 1.;.0 (in are ade8uate. 'his /roduct when a//lied at ]
4.5 I add.on can /ro2ide dura)le 7la(e retardanc+ to a wide 2ariet+ o7 /ol+ester
te*tiles.
PA'C>)C>G2C>)G2B*
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image-,.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
..1& T2isA)?*1di72omo!2o!9lB !hos!hate.
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image-3.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
..1. C9clic !hos!hate/!hos!honate flame 2eta2dant.
..1% >exa72omoc9clododecane A>GCDB.
!nother a//roach to dura)le 7la(e retardant 7inishes 7or /ol+ester is the use o7
highl+ )ro(inated che(icals as to/ical 7inishes. One /articularl+ use7ul (aterial is
he*a)ro(oc+clododecane @HBCD, 3ig. :.,=A. 'o achie2e dura)le 7la(e retardanc+,
7a)ric /added with ] : I o7 a dis/ersion o7 this water insolu)le (aterial (ust )e
heated a)o2e ,=1 PC or 4<; P3 to 7or( a 7il( o7 the 7la(e retardant on the 7i)re
sur7ace.
,,
Pol+ester 7a)rics when )urned e*hi)it a (elt.dri/ )eha2iour. Since the 7a)ric
(elts awa+ 7ro( the 7la(e, so(e /ol+ester 7a)ric constructions can actuall+ /ass
2ertical 7la(e tests without an+ 7la(e.retardant treat(ent. 'he wai2ing o7 (elt. dri/
s/eci7ications 7or children?s slee/wear has allowed untreated /ol+ester gar(ents to
)e sold into that (arket.
,./ &lame 2eta2dants fo2 n9lon
!lthough there are se2eral /ossi)le (ethods o7 incor/orating 7la(e retardants into
n+lon, onl+ additi2es to the /ol+(er (elt and to/ical 7inishes ha2e )een co((er.
cialised. Phos/horous. and )ro(ine.containing co(/ounds are the (ost co((on
(elt additi2es.
,0
'he to/ical 7la(e.retardant 7inishes 7or n+lon that are o7 s/ecial
interest are the treat(ents )ased on the condensation /roduct o7 thiourea with
7or(aldeh+de and urea. 'he 7la(e.retardanc+ e77ect o7 these /roducts is attri)uted
to the lowering o7 the (elting /oint o7 n+lon )+ 51 PC and allowing the 7i)re to dri/
awa+ 7ro( the ignition source.
,
Co((on /ractice in n+lon 7la(e retardanc+,
es/eciall+ 7or n+lon car/ets, is )ack.coating with anti(on+ trio*ide co()ined with
)ro(ine donators and a )inder as shown in 3ig. :.01.
INCLUDEPICTURE "../Downloads/media/image/4.!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
G2 G2 G2 G2
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/medi
a/image/1.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
Deca72omodi!hen9l oxide
ADGDP'B
G2 G2 G2 G2 (ntimon9 t2ioxide
..2/ &lame12eta2dant s9stem fo2 fi72e 7lends.
8.8 &lame 2eta2dants fo2 othe2 fi72es
'he (ost success7ul a//roach 7or 7la(e.retarding acr+lic 7i)res is to co/ol+(erise
halogen.containing (ono(ers into the 7i)re. 'hese (odacr+lic 7i)res ha2e e*cellent
/er(anent 7la(e retardanc+ and acce/ta)le 7i)re /ro/erties.
,
So(e /ro)le(s
including re/roduci)ilit+ o7 d+eing ga2e rise to their su)stitution )+ 7la(e.retardant
(odi7ied /ol+ester, 7or e*a(/le 7or curtain 7a)rics and other decorati2e te*tiles.
Pol+/ro/+lene 7i)res can )e 7la(e retarded with )ro(ine. and /hos/horous.
containing additi2es to the /ol+(er (elt. Howe2er, 2er+ high add.ons are necessar+
and 7i)re /ro/erties are ad2ersel+ a77ected. When /ol+/ro/+lene is used in car/ets,
7la(e retardanc+ can )e achie2ed )+ incor/orating halogen.containing co(/ounds
and anti(on+ trio*ide into the late* )acking.
,
!lthough (.ara(id 7i)res @7or e*a(/le No(e*bA ha2e an inherent 7la(e
retardanc+, caused )+ their high deco(/osition te(/erature, this retardanc+ can )e
enhanced )+ the use o7 certain halogenF/hos/horous co(/ounds during e*haust
d+eing.
,4
!long with No(e*b, other inherentl+ 7la(e.resistant 7i)res such as
Je2larb @/.ara(idA, PB$ @/ol+)enCi(idaColeA, Baso7ilb or J+nolb @(ela(ine or
/henol 7or(aldeh+de condensatesA, and 7la(e.redardant (odi7ied /ol+ester and
regenerated cellulose 7ind uses in /rotecti2e clothing and other te*tiles that re8uire
7la(e resistance.
$norganic 7i)res such as cera(ic and glass (a+ )e incor/orated into, or used
entirel+ 7or, te*tile /roducts where a//ro/riate to take ad2antage o7 their inherent
non.7la((a)ilit+. Product e*a(/les are curtains, te*tile ta/estries and 7ire)lockers
in air/lane, auto(oti2e and (ilitar+ te*tiles.
8.9 &lame12eta2ding fi72e 7lends
Pro2iding 7la(e retardanc+ 7or 7i)re )lends has /ro2ed to )e a di77icult task. 3i)re
)lends, es/eciall+ )lends o7 natural 7i)res with s+nthetic 7i)res, usuall+ e*hi)it a
7la((a)ilit+ that is worse than that o7 either co(/onent alone. Natural 7i)res
de2elo/ a great deal o7 char during /+rol+sis, whereas s+nthetic 7i)res o7ten (elt
and dri/ when heated. 'his co()ination o7 ther(al /ro/erties in a 7a)ric (ade 7ro(
a 7i)re )lend results in a situation where the (elted s+nthetic (aterial is held in the
contact with the heat source )+ the charred natural 7i)re. 'he natural 7i)re char acts
as a candle wick 7or the (olten s+nthetic (aterial, allowing it to )urn readil+. 'his
can )e de(onstrated )+ the #O$ 2alues o7 cotton @,:.,=A, /ol+ester @01.0,A and a
;1F;1 )lend o7 )oth @#O$ ,:A, indicating a higher 7la((a)ilit+ o7 the )lend as
descri)ed later @Section :.,,A. But a rare case o7 the o//osite )eha2iour is also
known @(odacr+lic 7i)res with #O$ 44 and cotton in )lends 7ro( 51.-1 I can raise
the #O$ to 4;A.
2en an antagonistic )eha2iour is re/orted 7or woolF/ol+ester )lends.
:,,5
Both
_ir/ro 7inished wool and 're2ira CS, which is inherentl+ 7la(e retardant (odi7ied
)+ co/ol+(erisation with (eth+l/ro/ion+l/hos/hinic acid, are e*cellent 7la(e
/rotectors. But their )lends )urn easil+.
$n order to 7la(e retard naturalFs+nthetic 7i)re )lends, high le2els o7 7la(e
retardants are o7ten re8uired. One a//roach to this dile((a is to add the necessar+
a(ounts o7 retardant as a 7a)ric coating. B+ using deca)ro(odi/hen+l o*ide
@DBDPOA in co()ination with anti(on+ trio*ide @3ig. :.01A, a cottonF/ol+ester
)lend 7a)ric has )een /roduced that e*hi)its dura)le 7la(e retardanc+.
,
"n7ortu.
natel+, the 7inish re8uired 4< I add.on o7 the retardants in addition to a late* )inder
and so7tener. 'he colour and hand o7 the 7inished 7a)ric are signi7icantl+ altered and
che(ical costs are high. Howe2er, i7 all o7 the coating is on the )ack o7 the 7a)ric,
the 7a)ric 7ace can )e le7t essentiall+ unaltered. 'he ru))er.like hand o7 the 7a)ric
)ack can )e (ini(ised i7 the coating is a//lied discontinuousl+. Des/ite these
draw)acks, ad2ances in a//lication technolog+ and care7ul 7a)ric design ha2e led to
the co((ercialisation o7 7la(e.retardant )lends o7 cottonF/ol+ester
,;
and
cottonFn+lon
,-
using /recise co()inations o7 /hos/horous and )ro(ine 7la(e
retardants and 7or(ulations that ca/italise on a narrow window o7 e77ecti2eness.
8.10 No5el a!!2oach to flame
2eta2danc9: int6mescents
Pre2ention 7ro( )urning as earl+ as /ossi)le is an acce/ted ai(. ngineering the
7irst ste/s o7 the )urning /rocess see(s to )e )etter than (anaging the last ones. $n
this conte*t it (ight )e /re7era)le to (oderate 7irst the /+rol+sis and then the 7la(e
che(istr+. 'he concentration o7 research and de2elo/(ent @ReDA work on the
catal+sis o7 the /+rol+sis ste/ ga2e rise to a new and /ro(ising a//roach, called
intu(escent.
;
'his is the generation o7 e*/anded, 7oa(ed char 7or(ed )+ heat and
s/ecial additi2es, such as char 7or(ers @7or e*a(/le starchA, catal+sts that +ield
inorganic acids at a)out ,;1 PC, generators that /ro2ide non.7la((a)le gases 7or
the 7oa( and )inders 7or 7i*ation to the 7a)ric. 'his s+ste( /ro2ides a 7oa(ed
insulation la+er on the 7a)ric sur7ace, si(ilar to the 7or(ation o7 char )+ cellulose,
wool and es/eciall+ )+ Baso7il 7i)res. 'his /orous char la+er see(s to 7ul7il (an+
7la(e retardenc+ re8uire(ents, such as /re2enting or retarding 7urther ignition )+
ther(al and che(ical insulation, creating a 7la(e )arrier, including reduction o7
(aterial e*change @2olatiles, o*+genA. !dditionall+ s(oke and to*ic gas de2elo/.
(ent is decreased. 'his dou)le )arrier 7unction @7or heat and (aterial e*changeA is
2er+ e77ecti2e and a2oids so(e ecological disad2antages o7 co((on 7la(e
retardants. ! (ore detailed and co(/etent o2er2iew is gi2en )+ Horrocks.
;
8.11 E5al6ation of flame 2eta2dants
&an+ 7actors in7luence the 7la((a)ilit+ o7 te*tiles, including the 7i)re t+/e, the
7a)ric weight and construction, the (ethod o7 ignition, the e*tent o7 heat and
(aterial e*change, and the /resence or a)sence o7 7la(e retardants. Di77ering
Table ..' Common flamma7ilit9 tests

0!onso2ing o2ganisation Comments

Commission ACP0CB 1-
C&R 1-1./1-1- CP0C
N&P( 13/1
National &i2efighte2s
P2otection (ssociation
AN&P(B
N&P(
N&P(/41
(0T$ D1),-* Limiting
ox9gen index AL'IB
G0 .,.) Pa2t 1 and )? fo2
ignition so62ces Zciga2etteZ and ZmatchZ
e<6i5alent also EN 14)1 and EN .3/
Inte2national 0tanda2ds '2ganisation
De6tsches Instit6t f62 No2m6ng
&a72ic held 5e2tical to flame fo2 * s. &o2
child2enZs slee!wea2.
&a72ic held 5e2tical to flame fo2 1)
s. &o2 !2otecti5e clothing.
&a72ic held 5e2tical to flame fo2 +.
s to ) min. &o2 d2a!e29.
&a72ic is held 5e2tical in
atmos!he2e of diffe2ent ox9gen/
nit2ogen 2atios and ignited f2om
to!. Dete2mines minim6m ox9gen
le5el to s6!!o2t com76stion.
G62ning 7eha5io62 of 6!holste2ed
f62nit62e fa72ics Aalso fo2 !2i5ate
6seB against smo@e21mate2ials li@e
ciga2ettes and matches. &inished
fa72ic m6st 7e soa@ing 2esistant
at +4 XC acco2ding to G0 .-.1?
then ho2i8ontall9 and 5e2ticall9
fixed on a mini chai2 on a s6!!o2t
of foamed PU? 79 se5en ignition
methods.
De2ticall9 held s!ecimens?
dete2mination of the ease of
ignition/the flame s!2ead
!2o!e2ties.
>o2i8ontall9 held s!ecimens?
7eca6se of the heat dist2i76tion
less se5e2e than 5e2tical tests
Test method
(0T$
G2itish 0tanda2ds
Instit6tion
I0' -3+4/-3+1
DIN .+*** T1
1- C&R 1-14 Cons6me2 P2od6ct 0afet9 &a72ic at +.X angle to flame fo2
1 s. &o2 gene2al a!!a2el.
! (easure that ena)les an o)2ious assess(ent o7 7la(e /rotection /ro/erties is
the li(iting o*+gen inde* @#O$A, deter(ined according to !S'& D.0:-4. 'he #O$
is de7ined as the content o7 o*+gen in an o*+genFnitrogen (i*ture that kee/s the
sa(/le at the li(it o7 )urning9
#O$ K ,11 * O0 9 @O0 O N0A M:.,N
!s the o*+gen content o7 air is 01 I corres/onding to #O$ K 01 all te*tiles with
lower #O$ 2alues will )urn 8uite easil+ in air and those with #O$ 2alues (uch
higher than 01 will not )urn. 'a)le :.; illustrates this readil+ i(agina)le (easure
7or the 7la((a)ilit+ and )urna)ilit+ o7 di77erent t+/es o7 7i)res.
3or all (ethods, strict adherence to the testing /rotocol is crucial to o)taining
relia)le and re/eata)le results. Howe2er, it is i(/ortant to recognise that i7 a 7a)ric
/asses a /articular test, it Eust (eans that the 7a)ric /assed this /articular test. 'here
are no other /er7or(ance guarantees. &ore detailed in7or(ation on actual 7la(e
retardanc+ test (ethods and an outlook on their de2elo/(ent ha2e )een
/u)lished.
5,;,,:
Table ..( Limiting ox9gen index AL'IB 5al6es of diffe2ent t9!es of fi72es
&lamma7ilit9 in ai2 L'I &i72e t9!e
Eas9 ignition? 2a!id 762ning 1,.) (c29lic
1,.+ Cotton
1,.- Discose
13 Pol9!2o!9lene
No2mal ignition and )41)1 Pol9este2 PET
762ning 7eha5io62 )41
)1..
N9lon - and -.-
(lmost ignition 2esistant ). ;ool
&lame 2eta2dant with L'I [ )- )31*4 $odac29lic
),1*1 $eta1a2amide
)31*1 Pa2a1a2amide
&lame 2eta2dant 6nde2 se5e2e *41*+ Phenol1fo2maldeh9de t9!e AF9nolB
conditions? fo2 exam!le with *) $elamine1fo2maldeh9de t9!e AGasofilNB
hea59 ai2 5entilation? L'I *) Pol9Aa2amide1imideB AFe2melB
a7o6t [ *4 *+ Pol9!hen9lenes6lfide APP0B
*. Pol9ethe2ethe2@etone APEEFB
*-1*, Pol9imide API? P,+B
[+1 Pol97en8imida8ole APGIB
++1+. Pol9ethe2imide APEIB
+.1.. Pa2tiall9 oxidised P(N AP2eox? PanoxB
-4 Pol9A5in9lidene/5in9lchlo2ideB PDDC
-, Pol97en8oxa8ole APG'? _9lonB
3, Pol9tet2afl6o2oeth9lene APT&EB
Not 762ning? e5en in !62e %lass and ce2amic fi72es? ino2ganic
ox9gen AL'I 144B? onl9 melting com!o6nds on thei2 highest oxidation
le5el
,.1) T2o67leshooting fo2 flame12eta2dant finishes and
!a2tic6la2ities
'he legal i(/lications o7 selling a 7la(e.retardant 7a)ric re8uire a 2er+ thorough
testing /rogra((e to guarantee that all areas o7 the 7a)ric, side to side, end to end,
and /iece to /iece (eet the necessar+ /er7or(ance re8uire(ents. "ni7or( a//li.
cation o7 7la(e retardants is the ke+ to (eeting these re8uire(ents. 3or /ad a//lied
7inishes, all the 7actors that in7luence uni7or(it+ (ust )e identi7ied and controlled.
'hese include /ad roll /ressures, 7inish )ath concentrations and uni7or(it+ o7 dr+ing
and heat setting. Both e*haust and /ad a//lied 7inishes are also susce/ti)le to
ad2erse 7la((a)ilit+ interactions 7ro( so7teners, lu)ricants and other 7inish
co(/onents. #a)orator+ e2aluations o7 all new co(/onents (ust )e co(/leted
)e7ore introducing an+ new 7inish into a /roduction en2iron(ent.
'here are also serious side e77ects to 7a)ric /h+sical /ro/erties 7ro( 7la(e.
retardant 7inishing that (ust )e recognised, o7ten caused )+ the high a//lication
le2els o7 the 7la(e retardants. Harsh hand, loss o7 tensile strength and colour e77ects
@7a)ric +ellowing and d+e shade changesA are co((on /ro)le(s with dura)le 7la(e.
retardant 7inishes 7or cotton. 'he co()ination with other 7inishes, such as so7teners,
eas+.care and re/ellent 7inishes, (ust )e care7ull+ tested. 'he 7la(e retardanc+ o7 the
(ulti./ur/ose 7inish is (ore o7ten reduced than it is acce/ta)le.
'he to*icit+ o7 so(e 7la(e.retardant co(/onents and o7 their co()ustion gases is
a /articular concern 7or 7la(e.retardant 7inishes, es/eciall+ i7 )ased on halogens and
se2eral hea2+ (etals. 'here7ore, aircra7t te*tile e8ui/(ent has to 7ul7il s/ecial
re8uire(ents, 7or e*a(/le, s(oke densit+ and to*icit+ tests. 'o*icit+ /ro)le(s
include9
H halogenated co(/ounds, es/eciall+ aro(atics, are ca/a)le o7 generating
/ol+halogenated dio*ins and 7urans,
H whether or not the he*a. or the /enta.)ro(iu( co(/ounds @HBCD or DBDPOA
are (ore dangerous,
H dust that contains anti(on+ o*ide,
H /hos/horous, anti(on+ and Circoniu( co(/ounds in the waste water,
H halogenated organic 7la(e retardants, es/eciall+ aro(atic ones, get into the waste
water @o7ten the+ are onl+ slowl+ )iodegrada)le and cause high !O>
@halogenated adsor)a)le organicsA 2aluesA and
H 7or(aldeh+de release during curing o7 the /er(anent 7la(e retardant 7inishes o7
cellulose and 7ree 7or(aldeh+de o7 7inished 7a)rics @storage, trans/ortA.
&ost 7la(e.retardant 7inished te*tiles are e*cluded 7ro( the Oko.'e* Standard ,11
la)el. $n all cases, the dura)ilit+ o7 the 7inish is o7ten a /ro)le(. $t is the
res/onsi)ilit+ o7 the 7a)ric 7inisher to address these issues i7 co((ercial 7la(e.
retardant 7a)rics are to )e /roduced. !n alternati2e 7or the 7a)ric designer without
(ost o7 the na(ed /ro)le(s is the use o7 7la(e.resistant (odi7ied 7i)res, )ut
un7ortunatel+ these gi2e rise to other /ro)le(s. Co()ination with other 7inishes
(ostl+ enhances the 7la((a)ilit+ i7 the+ include 7la((a)le organic co(/ounds.
With silicone.containing 7inishes the silicate residue, 7or(ed during )urning, (a+
/re2ent ther(o/lastic 7i)res 7ro( (elting awa+ 7ro( the 7la(e, thus increasing the
)urning. Si(ilar e77ects are re/orted 7or 7luorocar)on 7inishes on /ol+ester.
Refe2ences
, Ae#in -, Hand)ook o7 3i)er Science and 'echnolog+, Bol. $$, Che(ical Processing o7
3i)ers and 3a)rics. 3unctional 3inishes, Part B, Ae#in - and 3ello 3 B @edsB, 6e* Dor+,
-arcel .e++er, (:=?, (-(?(/
0 Horrocks ! R, ?3la(e retardant 7inishing o7 te*tiles?, )e#ie* !rogress Coloration, ,=:-,
16, -0.,1,.
4 Hol(es $, ?Recent ad2ances in che(ical /rocessing?, Colourage, ,==:, 4(@annualA, 5,;-.
5 Horrocks ! R, ?'e*tiles?, in Fire )etardant -aterials, Horrocks ! R and Price D, @edsA,
Ca()ridge, Woodhead Pu)lishing, 011,, Cha/ 5, ,0:.,:,.
; Horrocks ! R, in Textile Finishing, He+wood D @ed.A, Brad7ord, Societ+ o7 D+ers and
Colourists, 0114, 0,5.0;1.
- insele ", ?Wirkungsweise und s+nergistische 77ekte )ei 3la((schutC(itteln 7ur
Che(ie7asern?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,=<-, (7, -5.<0.
< Benisek #, /ri2ate co((unication.
: HeiC H, ?3la((he((ende !usrustung 2on Wolle?, Textil#eredlung, ,=:,, 16@0A, ;4;:.
= Schindler W and Jorndor7er C, ?&odi7iCierung 2on Wolle Cur Ber)esserung ihrer
'her(osta)ilit+ und 3la((resistenC?, Chemiefasern,Textilindustrie, ,=::, 3'*'9@<F:A,
':0.':4.
,1 @aA !nderson J J, Ca(acho B % and Jinne+ R , ?C+clic /hos/honate esters and their
/re/aration?, "S Patent 4,<:=,1=,, ,=<5D @)A !nderson J J, Ca(acho B % and Jinne+ R ,
?3ire retardant /ol+(ers containing ther(all+ sta)le /hos/honate esters?, "S Patent
4,:5=,4-:, ,=<5D )oth /atents assigned to !l)right e Wilson $nc.
,, Johnson J R, Functional Finishes and 1igh !erformance Textiles, !!'CC S+(/osiu(,
Charlotte, NC, Januar+ 0<.0:, 0111.
,0 Pearce &, Shala)+ S W and Barker R H, ?Retardation o7 co()ustion o7 a(ides?, Flame
)etardant !olymeric -aterials, >ol/ (, #ewin &, !tlas S & and Pearce & @edsA, New
York, Plenu( Press, ,=<;, Cha/ -, 04=.0=1.
,4 Riggins P H and Hauser P J, ?*haust /rocess 7or si(ultaneousl+ d+eing and i(/ro2ing
the 7la(e resistance o7 ara(id 7i)ers?, "S Patent5,:=:,;=-, ,==1, assigned to Burlington
$ndustries.
,5 Benisek #, ?!ntagonis( and 7la(e retardanc+?, Textile )esearch 2ournal, ,=:,, (1, 4-=.
,; Johnson J R and SuEarit C, ?3la(e resistant /ol+esterFcotton 7a)ric and /rocess 7or its
/roduction?, "S Patent 5,<5:,<1;, ,=::, assigned to Burlington $ndustries.
,- Hauser P J, 'ri/lett B # and SuEarit C, ?3la(e.resistant cotton )lend 7a)rics?, "S Patent
5,<40,<:=, ,=::, assigned to Burlington $ndustries.
,< Standard D.5<04, !(erican Societ+ o7 'esting &aterials, ,===.
,: Wakel+n P J, Rearick W and 'urner J, ?Cotton and 7la((a)ilit+ . o2er2iew o7 new
de2elo/(ents?, American .yestuff )e"orter, ,==:, '7@0A, ,4.0,.
3
Non1sli! finishes
3.1 Int2od6ction
Non.sli/ 7inishes are eas+ to understand. 'heir /ractical i(/ortance is (uch greater
than one (ight su//ose 7ro( 7irst looking at these 7ew /ages. Since the (ain e77ect
o7 non.sli/ 7inishes is to increase the adhesion )etween 7i)res and +arns regardless o7
7a)ric construction, the generic ter( 7or these 7inishes would )e 7i)re and +arn
)onding 7inishes. Other ter(s that can )e used include anti.sli/, non.shi7t and sli/.
/roo7ing 7inishes.
!dhesion )etween +arns is es/eciall+ i(/ortant in wo2en 7a)rics at the sea(s and
in highl+ stretched areas like the el)ows o7 shirts, )louses and Eackets. Sli//age o7
war/ and 7ill +arns can also )e a /ro)le( during /re/aration, d+eing, /rinting and
7inishing. 'his shi7ting generates an une8ual a//earance o7 wo2en 7a)rics, )ut the
+arns are not da(aged as in si(ilar knitwear de7ects. 3a)ric elongation, (oire and
crack (arks can )e caused )+ a too low +arn densit+, under.constructed 7a)rics and
)+ 2er+ s(ooth 7i)res.
S(ooth 7i)res, such as 7ila(ents o7 s+nthetic +arn, can cause si(ilar /ro)le(s in
knitted 7a)rics. Runs, dro//ed stitches and snags are 7a)ric de7ects that can )e
attri)uted to lack o7 7i)re adhesion. Co((on ter(s 7or these interrelated /ro)le(s
are /icking and snagging. 'he che(ical /roducts that reduce or eli(inate these
de7ects @anti./icking and anti.snagging 7inishesA are 8uite si(ilar to non.sli/
7inishes. !(ong the 7actors that can a77ect +arn sli//age are 7i)re t+/e, +arn siCe,
7a)ric wea2e, +arn count @ends and /icks /er s8uare inch or centi(eterA, 7a)ric
weight and t+/e o7 7inishing /rocess.
,
Non.sli/ 7inishes are o7ten used with under.constructed 7a)rics to co(/ensate 7or
the reduced +arn count and to achie2e acce/ta)le /h+sical /ro/erties. #ining and
/ocketing 7a)rics (ade with s(ooth s+nthetic 7ila(ents are 7inished with 7riction
enhancers co()ined with dura)le /ress agents, water re/ellents or hand (odi7iers to
/re2ent sea( sli//age. "()rella 7a)rics (ade 7ro( n+lon or /ol+ester 7ila(ent
+arns are treated with 7riction enhancers and water re/ellents. 'he /ro/erties o7 an+
wo2en 7a)ric with long 7loats can usuall+ )e i(/ro2ed with non. sli/ 7inishes. $n
/articular, Jac8uard u/holster+ 7a)rics with long 7loats are sta)ilised )+ )ackcoating
with 7il(.7or(ing /ol+(ers. ! s/ecial 2ariation o7 the non.sli/ 7inishes, o7ten
co()ined with the incor/oration o7 (etal 7ila(ents, is the sta). and stitch.resistant
7inish, used 7or /rotecti2e clothing and 7urniture, 7or e*a(/le in trains and )uses.
3.) $echanisms of non1sli! finishes
'he /ri(ar+ (echanis( 7or the e77ecti2eness o7 non.sli/ 7inishes is increased
adhesion )etween 7i)res, 7ila(ents and +arns. 'his increased adhesion is acco(.
/lished )+ two a//roaches. 'he 7irst is the addition o7 inorganic solids to the sur7ace
o7 the 7i)res to increase 7rictional 7orces. 'he second is to use 7il(.7or(ing /ol+(ers
to hold the +arns /h+sicall+ in /lace.
0
O7ten co((ercial non.sli/ /roducts contain
)oth 7riction enhancers and 7il( 7or(ers.
3.* Chemist29 of non1sli! finishes
'he (ost co((on 7riction enhancing agents are )ased on dis/ersions o7 silicic acid
called ?sols? @3ig. =.,A. !)out two.thirds o7 the co((ercial non.sli/ 7inishing
/roducts, listed in the International Textile Auxiliary Buyers' Guide,
8
are )ased on
silicic acid solsD onl+ a 7ew are alu(iniu( o*ide dis/ersions. 'hese /roducts can )e
7or(ed in a 2ariet+ o7 /article siCes 7ro( ; to ,;1 /( and +ield dis/ersions that
range 7ro( clear to (ilk+ white. When the sols are de/osited on the 7i)re sur7ace, the
sur7ace )eco(es (uch rougher and 7rictional 7orces )etween 7i)res )eco(e (uch
larger.
'he /ol+(eric 7il( 7or(ers used as non.sli/ 7inishes are t+/icall+ co/ol+(ers o7
2in+l, acr+lic and (ethacr+lic (ono(ers. 'hese (aterials are si(ilar in structure to
the co/ol+(ers used as hand )uilders @see Cha/ter 5, 3ig. 5.4 and 3ig. 5.;A.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image/).!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
%.1 0ilicic acid st26ct62e.
3.+ (!!lication methods and com7ina7ilit9
Non.sli/ 7inishes are (ostl+ a//lied )+ the /ad.dr+ /rocess, co()ined as needed
with hand )uilders, re/ellents or cellulose crosslinkers @eas+.care 7inishA. 'he
co()ination o7 silicic acid sols with so7teners or silicone.)ased water re/ellents is
crucial . their e77ects are contrasting.
Table %.1 Test methods fo2 non1sli! finished wo5en fa72ics

Exam!les and comment
1. Resistance to 9a2n sli!!age within the
fa72ic s9stem
). Resistance to 9a2n sli!!age nea2 a seam
).1 Dete2mination of the extent of sli!!age
afte2 the effect of a defined fo2ce
).) Dete2mination of the fo2ce that is
necessa29 fo2 a defined seam o!ening
Dete2mination of the sliding 2esistance of wo5en
fa72ics to dis!lacement? fo2 exam!le DIN .*3*+
((TCC Test $ethod ,,G Low
!2iced small de5ices fo2 2o6gh
o2ientation? fo2 exam!le >a2di
de5ice? >a2di (%? C>1.4*-
'7e2entfelden? 0wit8e2land Need
fo2 an ex!ensi5e tea2 st2ength
teste2 with 2egist2ation of tea2
st2ength/length alte2nation? fo2
exam!le (0T$ D +*+? DIN .*,-,?
$a2@s I 0!ence2 T$ P1)

Per7or(ance /ro)le(s can occur when non.sli/ 7inishes are co()ined with
re/ellent 7inishes. Pol+(eric non.sli/ /roducts, (ore than silicic acid sols, can
reduce re/ellenc+ /er7or(ance. One solution is to a//l+ the non.sli/ 7inish, dr+ the
7a)ric, then a//l+ the re/ellent 7inish. nhanced /er7or(ance o7 anti./illing and
hand)uilding 7inishes can )e seen when these are co()ined with a non.sli/ 7inish.
3urniture 7a)rics are )ack.coated with non.sli/ 7inishes, o7ten with /ol+(er.
)ased ones. 'he 7or(ulation (a+ include thickeners and 7la(e retardants. Back.
coating is (ostl+ achie2ed )+ ni/./adding or using a doctor @s8ueegeeA or )+ 7oa(
a//lication or s/ra+ techni8ues @7or a lower add.onA. !nother one.side a//lication is
rotar+ /rinting @screens with regular /er7orationA.
3.. E5al6ation of non1sli! finishes
%enerall+ the sli//ing o7 wo2en 7a)rics is tested )+ two di77erent (ethods, those that
i(itate +arn shi7ting within the 7a)ric s+ste( and those that co2er +arn shi7ting near
a sea( sewn into the treated 7a)ric @'a)le =.,A. 'he latter are (ore i(/ortant in the
te*tile industr+.
5
Sea( sli//age tests register the 7orce that is necessar+ 7or a de7ined sea( o/ening
or the+ record the +arn shi7ting a7ter the e77ect o7 a de7ined 7orce. 'he last t+/e o7
test /ro2ides a rough di77erentiation o7 7a)rics according to their usage. 'he !!'CC
'est &ethod ::B /ro2ides a 8ualitati2e rating )ased on sea( a//earance a7ter
laundering and /hotogra/hic standards, while !S'& D 545 +ields (ore 8uantitati2e
results.
Test method
3.- T2o67leshooting fo2 non1sli! finishes
So(e /otential di77iculties with non.sli/ 7inishes include less 7le*i)ilit+ and a
harsher 7a)ric hand @so(eti(es dr+ or 7att+A, dusting during cutting and sewing and
delustering o7 7i)res.
Refe2ences
, &c$nt+re J and Daniels P N, Textile Terms and .efinitions, &anchester, "J, 'he 'e*tile
$nstitute, ,==;.
0 Chwala ! and !nger B, @edsA 1anduch der Textilhilfsmittel, Weinhei(, Berlag Che(ie,
,=<<, <0<.<45 and :=;.=,1.
4 $nternational 'e*tile !u*iliaries Bu+ers? %uide, 0111, &elliand and T$G$%A, Fran+furt ,
-ain, .eutscher Fach#erlag, &'''/
5 Schro)sdor7 B, ?Pru7ung der Schie)e7estigkeit i( Naht)ereich?, Chemiefasern,
Textilindustrie, ,==1, 4)*92, ,110.,11-.
1
4
(ntistatic finishes
14.1 Int2od6ction
Static electricit+ can cause (an+ /rocessing /ro)le(s 7or te*tile (aterials, es/e.
ciall+ those (ade 7ro( h+dro/ho)ic s+nthetic 7i)res. $n (ost dr+ te*tile /rocesses,
7i)res and 7a)rics (o2e at high s/eeds o2er 2arious sur7aces which can generate
electrostatic charging 7ro( 7rictional 7orces. 'his electrical charge can cause 7i)res
and +arns to re/el each other, leading to )allooning. 3a)rics and non.wo2ens are
also a77ected )+ static charges, causing (aterials handling /ro)le(s. Consu(ers are
well aware o7 the clinging o7 gar(ents and the s(all electrical shocks caused )+
walking on car/ets in low hu(idit+ conditions. Co(/uters and other electronic
e8ui/(ent can )e da(aged )+ static discharges. Sa7et+ re8uire(ents 7or (an+
te*tiles include antistatic li(its at a de7ined relati2e hu(idit+ @(ostl+ ranging 7ro(
-; to 0; IA.
&ost te*tile 7i)res do not conduct electricit+ e77icientl+ and can )e classi7ied as
dielectric (aterials, de(onstrating insulating /ro/erties when dr+. Whene2er two
sur7aces co(e into contact, electrons can 7low 7ro( one to the other. Conducting
(aterials allow this electron 7low to )e e8ualised instantl+ when the sur7aces are
se/arated. $nsulating (aterials, on the other hand, can retain the electrical charge
di77erence 7or so(e ti(e. Ru))ing is not necessar+ 7or this charge di77erence to
occur, )ut it usuall+ increases the a(ount o7 charge /roduced signi7icantl+.
'ri)oelectri7ication is the ter( used 7or electrical charges generated )+ 7rictional
7orces. 3i)res can )e ordered in a ?tri)oelectric? series such that each 7i)re t+/e
)eco(es /ositi2el+ charged when ru))ed with 7i)res )elow it in the series. ! t+/ical
series is gi2en in 'a)le ,1.,.
$7 /ol+ester and wool 7i)res touch and then se/arate, the /ol+ester 7i)res )eco(e
negati2el+ charged and the wool 7i)res /ositi2el+ charged. $7, howe2er, /ol+ester
and /ol+eth+lene 7i)res touch and se/arate, the /ol+ester 7i)res )eco(e /ositi2el+
charged and the /ol+eth+lene 7i)res negati2el+ charged. 'he greater the se/aration
o7 two 7i)res in the series, the greater the charge generated )+ their contact. When
the charge di77erence )etween the two 7i)res reaches the electrical discharge
/otential o7 air @]4 * ,1
-
B (
.,
A, the charge is released )+ an electrical discharge
acco(/anied )+ light and sound. 'he crackling noise heard when an acr+lic sweater
is /ulled o2er a cotton shirt and the s/ark seen when touching a (etal door kno)
a7ter walking across a car/et are e*a(/les o7 these discharges. 'he electrical
charging o7 7i)res )+ 7riction is a77ected )+ the nature o7 the (echanical contact, the
ranking o7 the 7i)res in the tri)oelectric series, the hu(idit+ o7 the en2iron(ent, and
the /resence or a)sence o7 (oisture on the 7i)res. lectric charging and discharging
Table 1/.1 T2i7oelect2ic se2ies of textile fi72es
&i72e t9!e
Positi5e end of se2ies %lass
;ool
N9lon -
N9lon -.-
Ra9on
Cotton
(cetate
>em!
0il@
Pol9este2
(c29lic? modac29lic
Pol9eth9lene? !ol9!2o!9lene
Negati5e end of se2ies Pol9tet2afl6o2oeth9lene
)eha2iour is crucial 7or electrostatic s/inning /rocesses and 7or 7locking 7or e*a(/le
7lock /rinting.
,
!ll s+nthetic 7i)res are treated with a 7inish 2er+ shortl+ a7ter their e*it 7ro( the
s/innerets. 'his ?s/in 7inish? contains lu)ricating oils and other co(/onents,
including antistatic agents. 'he high s/eeds o7 (odern 7i)re /rocessing would not )e
/ossi)le without these 7inishes. Che(ical /rocessing aids in +arn (aking, knitting,
wea2ing and nonwo2en (anu7acture also contain antistatic agents. Ha2ing
acco(/lished their /ur/ose, these /rocessing aids are usuall+ re(o2ed during 7a)ric
/re/aration. Non.dura)le antistats are also a//lied to technical te*tiles that are
neither washed nor sha(/ooed, 7or e*a(/le te*tile 7ilters, con2e+er )elts, trans/ort
)ands and dri2ing cords.
!lthough antistatic 7inishes a//lied a7ter d+eing or /rinting are (ore co((on
with h+dro/ho)ic 7i)res, 7a)rics (ade 7ro( cotton, ra+on and wool (a+ also )e
antistatic treated de/ending on the intended use. *a(/les o7 te*tiles that are treated
with antistatic 7inishes include car/ets 7or co(/uter roo(s, u/holster+ 7a)rics and
air)ags 7or auto(o)iles, con2e+or )elts, 7iltration 7a)rics, air(ail )ags, /arachutes,
7a)rics 7or hos/ital o/erating roo(s, and /rotecti2e clothing 7or work with
7la((a)le gases, li8uids and /owdered solids.
10.2 $echanisms of antistatic finishes
'he /rinci/al (echanis(s o7 antistatic 7inishes are increasing the conducti2it+ o7
the 7i)re sur7ace @e8ui2alent to lowering the sur7ace resisti2it+A and reducing
7rictional 7orces through lu)rication. 'he sur7ace resisti2it+ is de7ined @!!'CC '&
<-A as a ?(aterial /ro/ert+ o7 a su)stance whose nu(erical 2alue is e8ual to the ratio
o7 the 2oltage gradient to the current densit+?. 'he resisti2it+ is in e77ect the
resistance o7 the 7i)re to electrical 7low. $ncreasing conducti2it+ /roduces a lower
charge )uildu/ and a (ore ra/id dissi/ation while increased lu)ricit+ decreases the
initial charge )uildu/.
!ntistatic agents that increase 7i)re sur7ace conducti2it+ 7or( an inter(ediate
la+er on the sur7ace. 'his la+er is t+/icall+ h+grosco/ic. 'he increased (oisture
content leads to higher conducti2it+. 'he /resence o7 (o)ile ions on the sur7ace is
2er+ i(/ortant 7or increased conducti2it+. 'he e77ecti2eness o7 h+grosco/ic
antistatic 7inishes de/ends greatl+ on the hu(idit+ o7 the surrounding air during
actual useD lower hu(idit+ leads to lower conducti2it+ @higher resistanceA and
greater /ro)le(s with static electricit+.
&ost non./ol+(eric antistatic 7inishes are also sur7actants that can orient
the(sel2es in s/eci7ic wa+s at 7i)re sur7aces. 'he h+dro/ho)ic structure /arts o7 the
(olecule act as lu)ricants to reduce charge )uildu/. 'his is /articularl+ true with
cationic antistatic sur7actants that align with the h+dro/ho)ic grou/ awa+ 7ro( the
7i)re sur7ace, si(ilar to cationic so7teners @see Cha/ter 4, 3ig. 4.,A. 'he (ain
antistatic e77ect 7ro( anionic and non.ionic sur7actants is increased conducti2it+
7ro( (o)ile ions and the h+dration la+er that surrounds the h+dro/hilic /ortion o7
the (olecule since the sur7ace orientation 7or these (aterials /laces the h+drated
la+er at the air inter7ace.
10.3 Chemist29 of antistatic finishes
14.*.1 Non1d62a7le finishes
Both dura)le and non.dura)le e77ects are /ossi)le with antistatic 7inishes. Non.
dura)le antistatic agents are /re7erred 7or 7i)re and +arn /rocessing 7inishes since
ease o7 re(o2al is i(/ortant. Other i(/ortant re8uire(ents o7 s/in 7inish and 7i)re
lu)ricants are heat resistance and oil solu)ilit+. 'his grou/ o7 (ostl+ h+grosco/ic
(aterials includes sur7actants, organic salts, gl+cols, /ol+eth+lene gl+cols,
/ol+electrol+tes, 8uaternar+ a((oniu( salts with 7att+ alk+l chains, /ol+eth+lene
o*ide co(/ounds and esters o7 salts o7 alk+l/hos/honiu( acids. 'he general
re8uire(ents 7or non.dura)le antistats are low 2olatilit+, low 7la((a)ilit+, non.
+ellowing @heat sta)leA, and non.corrosi2e. #ow 7oa(ing /ro/erties are also
desira)le.
sters o7 /hos/horic acid 7or( the largest grou/ o7 non.dura)le antistats @3ig.
,1.,A. 'he alk+l grou/s are usuall+ deri2ed 7ro( 7att+ acids. tho*+lated 7att+

Ra4ac>)C>)4a11PCXb
)$V
1/.1 Phos!ho2ic este2 antistats.
alcohols are also used to 7or( the esters. 'he dura)ilit+ o7 these /hos/horic acid
esters increases with (olecular siCe.
Uuaternar+ a((oniu( co(/ounds are the ne*t largest grou/ o7 non.dura)le
antistats. 'he (ost widel+ used are ditallowdi(eth+la((oniu( chloride and
dih+drogenated tallowdi(eth+la((oniu( chloride @3ig. ,1.0A. 'hese are co((on
ingredients in laundr+ and dr+er a//lied consu(er so7teners. #ike (an+ other
cationic (aterials, cationic antistats ha2e an a77init+ 7or te*tile 7i)res and can )e
a//lied )+ e*haustion /rocesses.
1/.2 K6ate2na29 ammoni6m antistats.
'he last grou/ o7 non.dura)le antistats is co(/osed o7 non.ionic co(/ounds such
as etho*+lated 7att+ esters, alcohols and alk+la(ines @3ig. ,1.4A. &i*tures o7
cationic and non.ionic sur7actants de(onstrate s+nergistic antistatic /ro/erties. 'he
non.ionic (aterials /ro2ide increased (oisture a)sor/tion and the cationic /roducts
/ro2ide the (o)ile counterions.

RLC14JC>)C>)4TJ> R O CP>)nVi An O 1111/B 1/.1


Non1ionic antistats.
14.*.) D62a7le antistats
O)taining antistatic /ro/erties that are dura)le to re/eated launderings 7ro( a single
7inish a//lication is di77icult to achie2e. 'he )asic /rinci/le is to 7or( a crosslinked
/ol+(er network containing h+dro/hilic grou/s. '+/icall+, /ol+a(ines are reacted
with /ol+gl+cols to (ake such structures. 'hese /ol+(ers can )e 7or(ed /rior to
a//lication to 7a)rics, or the+ can )e 7or(ed in situ on the 7i)re sur7ace a7ter /ad
a//lication. ! 2ariet+ o7 crosslinking a//roaches can )e used, one )ased on
/ol+e/o*ides is shown in 3ig. ,1.5. 'he a(ount o7 h+dro/hilic character in the 7inal
/ol+(er can )e 2aried to (eet indi2idual re8uire(ents. 'he
ROCP>)nVi Ac O 1111/B

)$
V
INCLUDEPI
CTURE
"../Downloa
ds/media/i
mage/*.!
eg" "#
$ER%E&'R
$(T
$ O Na? N>+
>Q

/ " / "
>)C 1 >)4AC >)C >)4BnC ) 1 ) 1
N
"
f

)
I I II
N 1) )4A ) )4B ) )L N
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image/+.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
)
C>)
N1>
IN
CL
UD
EPI
CT
UR
E
"../
Do
wn
loa
ds/
m
edi
a/i
m
ag
e/
..
!e
g"
"#
$E
R%
E&
'R
$(
T

LN
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image/-.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image//.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
I
N
C
L
U
D
E
PI
C
T
U
R
E
"..
/D
o
w
nl
o
a
ds
/
m
e
di
a/
i
m
a
g
e
/
,.
!
e
g"
"#
$
E
R
%
E
&
'
R
$
(
T
IN
CL
UD
EPI
CT
UR
E
"../
Do
wn
loa
ds/
m
edi
a/i
m
ag
e/
3.
!e
g"
"#
$E
R%
E&
'R
$(
T
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image,4.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
LN

1/.' C2osslin@ing of !ol9amines to fo2m d62a7le antistats.
larger the h+dro/hilic /ortion, the (ore (oisture is a)sor)ed and the greater the
antistatic e77ect o)tained. Howe2er, at high le2els o7 a)sor)ed (oisture, the /ol+(er
sur7ace 7il( so7tens and is (ore easil+ re(o2ed )+ a)rasion during laundering.
Higher degrees o7 crosslinking will reduce the (oisture a)sor/tion and su)se8uent
swelling, )ut the antistatic e77ecti2eness decreases. !dditional di77iculties with
crosslinked h+dro/hilic /ol+(ers include inter7erences with soil release and soil.
rede/osition /ro/erties. Owing to the di77iculties in achie2ing the /er7ect )alance o7
desired /ro/erties, the use o7 dura)le antistatic 7inishes is li(ited. Other wash.7ast
antistatic agents are descri)ed in the literature, including /ol+h+dro*+/ol+a(ines
@PHP!, )+ Sello and Ste2enA
0
or /ol+alk+lene and /ol+acr+lic co/ol+(ers @)+
Pailthor/e and Da2idA.
4
14.+ Cond6cti5e fi72es
lectricall+ conducti2e 7i)res ha2e )een /roduced )+ se2eral (ethods9 dis/ersing
car)on /articles or other antistatic agents in /ol+(er (elts /rior to e*trusion,
de/ositing car)on @e/itro/ic 7i)resA or (etallic @7or e*a(/le nano.sil2erA coatings
onto 7i)re sur7aces @7or e*a(/le Ni, CuSA, incor/orating h+dro/hilic co(ono(ers,
and )+ 7a)ricating 7i)res 7ro( stainless steel, alu(iniu( or other (etals. !lthough
e*cellent dura)le control o7 static electricit+ is achie2ed )+ incor/orating these 7i)res
into 7a)rics during s/inning, knitting or wea2ing, these conducti2e 7i)res are alwa+s
)lack or (etallic in a//earance and can )e easil+ seen in (ost te*tiles, e2en
at low le2els o7 use @(ostl+ 1.0.0 I wtFwtA. 'his draw)ack li(its conducti2e 7i)res
to industrial 7a)rics and 2er+ s/ecialised a//arel and car/eting.
14.. E5al6ation of antistatic finishes
!ll la)orator+ e2aluations o7 antistatic 7inishes should )e conducted in an en2iron.
(ent where the te(/erature and es/eciall+ the relati2e hu(idit+ are thoroughl+
controlled. 'he relati2e hu(idit+ has a great e77ect on the antistatic e77ect since the
resisti2it+ o7 the 7i)re de/ends on its (oisture content. 'he higher the relati2e
hu(idit+, the higher the (oisture content and the lower the resisti2it+. 'he large
2ariet+ o7 electrostatic test (ethods can )e di2ided in three (ain grou/s, (easuring
the cling ti(e, the electrical resistance or the electrostatic 2oltage or charge, o7ten as
hal7.li7e ti(e.
Perha/s the si(/lest test (ethod 7or the e2aluation o7 antistatic 7inishes is the ash
test. ! /iece o7 the 7a)ric to )e e2aluated is ru))ed )riskl+ on a /iece o7 /lastic or
ru))er @the 2in+l co2ered ar(s o7 a chair, 7or e*a(/leA. 'he 7a)ric is then /laced
o2er an ashtra+ containing cigarette ash. 'he a(ount o7 ash trans7erred to the 7a)ric
is an indication o7 the a(ount o7 static charge i(/arted to the 7a)ric. Owing to the
di77icult+ in 8uanti7+ing the results, this test is (ainl+ used as a 8ualitati2e tool to
distinguish )etween antistatic.treated and untreated 7a)rics.
&ore 8uantitati2e results )ased on the sa(e /rinci/le o7 charge )uild.u/ can )e
o)tained with !!'CC 'est &ethod ,,;9 ?lectrostatic clinging o7 7a)rics9 3a)ric to
(etal test?, also known as the ?cling? test. ! 7a)ric that has )een electricall+ charged
in a re/eata)le (anner )+ ru))ing is /laced ne*t to a grounded inclined (etal /late.
!n+ residual electrical charge causes the 7a)ric to cling to the /late. 'he ti(e
re8uired 7or the 7a)ric to )e released 7ro( the /late is (easured. 'he shorter the cling
ti(e, the )etter the antistatic /ro/erties. Howe2er, 7a)ric.to.(etal cling ti(es are not
directl+ related to 7a)ric.to.)od+ cling ti(es.
5
!!'CC 'est &ethod <- 9 ?lectrical resisti2it+ o7 7a)rics? is used to (easure the
sur7ace resisti2it+ o7 7a)rics @units are oh(Fs8uareA. 'he 2oltage dro/ across a ring
electrode s+ste( is used to deter(ine the 7a)ric?s resisti2it+. ! resisti2it+ 2alue o7
,1
,,
oh(Fs8uare or lower is considered to )e indicati2e o7 a 7a)ric with negligi)le
static /ro/ensit+. 'he National 3ire Protection !ssociation @N3P!A has s/eci7ied a
resisti2it+ o7 ,1
,,
oh(Fs8uare 7or te*tiles intended 7or use in o/erating roo(s with
7la((a)le aneasthetic gases. 'a)le ,1.0 shows a co((on assign(ent o7 sur7ace
resisti2it+ 2alues to /ractical usage o7 the 7inished te*tiles at -; I relati2e hu(idit+
@corres/onding to D$N ;5 45;.,9 ?deter(ination o7 electrical resistance?A.
'he sur7ace resisti2it+ is eas+ and relati2el+ re/roduci)le to deter(ine with the
ring electrode )ut it is li(ited 7or 2arious reasons,
0
7or e*a(/le it is )ased on a static
test with no in7or(ation a)out the i(/ortant charging and discharging )eha2iour o7
the te*tiles. 'here7ore, co()ination with a charge dissi/ation test is 7a2oured.
! charge dissi/ation test is /er7or(ed with the Static Bolt(eter @Rothschild,
_urich, SwitCerlandA. 'he 7a)ric sa(/le is 7i*ed 2erticall+ and charged with direct
2oltage or )+ ru))ing with a glass rod. 'he Static Bolt(eter (easures the (a*i(u(
charge generated as well as the charge deca+. 'he ti(e necessar+ 7or the charge to
7all to one hal7 its (a*i(u( 2alue is recorded @7ield intensit+ hal7.li7e ti(eA. 'he
shorter this hal7.li7e, the )etter the antistatic /ro/erties, as shown in 'a)le ,1.4.
! charge generation test 7or car/ets is gi2en in !!'CC 'est &ethod ,459
?lectrostatic /ro/ensit+ o7 car/ets?. 'he )od+ 2oltage o7 a /erson wearing shoes
with standard neo/rene or leather soles is (easured as the+ walk across a car/et.
'he (a*i(u( 2oltage a7ter 41.-1 s is recorded. !gain, the lower the 2oltage, the
)etter the antistatic /ro/erties. ! (ore detailed o2er2iew on antistatic test (ethods
is /resented )+ Pailthor/e and Da2id
4
and )+ hrler and Sch(eer.#ioe.
,
14.- T2o67leshooting fo2 antistatic finishes and
!a2tic6la2ities
'he /er7or(ance o7 (ost antistatic 7inishes de/ends on the kind o7 7i)re and
so(eti(es also on the kind o7 7a)ric @anisotro/ic )eha2iour, 7or e*a(/le, di77erent
in war/ and we7t directionsA. !lthough wool is a h+dro/hilic 7i)re, wool 7a)rics
o7ten are highl+ charged, caused )+ the strong 7riction )etween the wool scales.
Table 1/.1 &ield intensit9 half1life time and !2actical 6se
of antistatic finished textiles
/
&ield intensit9 half1life time AsB
a
(ssessment
414.* De29 good
4.*11 %ood
11) 0atisfacto29
)1* 06fficient
7
[ * Ins6fficient
c
a
No2mal climate with -. C 2elati5e ai2 h6midit9.
7
Need fo2
mo2e cont2ol and detailed s!ecification.
c
(7sol6te times
fo2 change of cha2ge a2e an additional hel!f6l c2ite2ion fo2
the selection of antistats.
Table 1/.2 062face 2esisti5it9 and !2actical 6se of antistatic finished textiles
/
062face 2esisti5it9 2ange AKB
a
(ssessment
1 x 14
-
1 1 x 14
,
De29 good
1 x 14
,
1 1 x 14
3
%ood
1 x 14
3
1 1 x 14
14
0atisfacto29
1 x 14
14
1 . x 14
14
Limit of s6fficienc9
1.
[ . x 14
14
Ins6fficient
a
No2mal climate with -. C 2elati5e ai2 h6midit9.
7
Need fo2 mo2e cont2ol and detailed
s!ecification.
When a//l+ing antistatic 7inishes to 7a)rics, uni7or( 7a)ric /enetration is
i(/ortant 7or o/ti(al /er7or(ance. 'he use o7 wetting agents in the 7inish
7or(ulation is reco((ended. Pad, s/ra+ and kiss.roll a//lications are 7a2oured.
Cationic antistats are suita)le 7or e*haust /rocesses. S/ra+ and 7oa( a//lications are
ena)led )+ the low add.on 2alues @(ostl+ a)out one or a 7ew /ercent on weight o7
7i)reA. With identical adds.on, /adding leads to lesser e77ects than does 7oa(
a//lication.
;
'his is /ro)a)l+ caused )+ the higher concentrations o7 antistatic agents
on the 7i)re sur7ace )+ the 7oa( a//lication. On the other hand, the dura)ilit+ o7 the
/added 7inish (ight )e greater.
So(e o7 the /otential side e77ects o7 the use o7 antistatic 7inishes include wear
co(7ort @no clinging and a /leasant skin contact caused )+ h+dro/hilicit+A, soil.
release /ro/erties, increased soiling with dr+ soil, +ellowing a7ter e*/osure to heat
and i(/aired crock7astness o7 te*tiles d+ed or /rinted with dis/erse d+es. 'he
/er(anence o7 antistatic 7inishing e77ects to re/eated washings, e2en at onl+ 51 PC,
is li(ited, as the (echanical stress o7 the washing /rocess decreases the antistatic
/er7or(ance signi7icantl+. So the washing and the a)rasion resistances o7 antistatic
7inishes are crucial.
Per(anent antistatic 7inishes, )ased on crosslinked /ol+a(ines and /ol+gl+cols,
need an alkaline catal+st. 'here7ore the one.)ath co()ination with 7inishes, which
need acid catal+sis, is di77icult )ut not i(/ossi)le.
-
*a(/les o7 acid.catal+sed
7inishes are the eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes, dura)le h+dro/h+lic silicone
so7teners and elasto(eric 7inishes, also 7luorocar)on.)ased re/ellenc+ and so(e
7la(e.retardant 7inishes. High 7inish e77ects result 7ro( a two.)ath a//lication with
o7 the eas+.care 7inish 7irst 7ollowed )+ the sur7ace.related antistatic 7inish.
Refe2ences
, hrler P and Sch(eer.#ioe %, ?Das elektrostatische Berhalten als 7unktionale igenscha7t
und als Uualitats(erk(al te*tiler 3lachenge)ilde?, Textil !raxis International, ,==,,
46@,1A, ,,11.,,1=.
0 3ello 3 B and 3te#ens C >, Hand)ook o7 3i)er Science and 'echnolog+, Bol. $$, Che(ical
Processing o7 3i)ers and 3a)rics. 3unctional 3inishes, Part B, - Ae#in and 3 B 3ello @edsB,
-arcel .e++er, 6e* Dor+, (:=?, &:(-8(</
4 Pailthor/e & and Da2id S J, ?!ntistatic and soil release 7inishes,? in Textile Finishing, D
He+wood @ed.A, Brad7ord, Societ+ o7 D+ers and Colourists, 0114, 41:.44-.
5 AATCC Technical -anual, !(erican !ssociation o7 'e*tile Che(ists and Colorists,
Research 'riangle Park, NC, ,===.
; l)adawi ! &, ?3oa( a//lication9 the 7uture o7 te*tile wet /rocessingR?, International
Textile Bulletin, 0111, 46@0A, <1.<5.
- &ahall J, ?Die /er(anent antistatische !usrustung heute?, .eutscherFarer+alender, ,=<0,
76, 440.4;,.
< %oe)el $, CognisFHenkel, /ri2ate co((unication, ,=:= and 0114.
1
1
(nti1!illing finishes
11.1 Int2od6ction
Pilling is a /heno(enon e*hi)ited )+ 7a)rics 7or(ed 7ro( s/un +arns @+arns (ade
7ro( sta/le 7i)resA. Pills are (asses o7 tangled 7i)res that a//ear on 7a)ric sur7aces
during wear or laundering. 3a)rics with /ills ha2e an unsightl+ a//earance and an
un/leasant handle. #oose 7i)res are /ulled 7ro( +arns and are 7or(ed into s/herical
)alls )+ the 7ictional 7orces o7 a)rasion. 'hese )alls o7 tangled 7i)res are held to the
7a)ric sur7ace )+ longer 7i)res called anchor 7i)res. 3a)rics (ade 7ro( cotton, wool
or ra+on do not usuall+ dis/la+ /illing /ro)le(s since the anchor 7i)res are easil+
)roken and /ills 7all 7ro( the 7a)ric soon a7ter the+ are 7or(ed. When 7a)rics are
(ade 7ro( /ol+ester or n+lon s/un +arns, howe2er, the stronger anchor 7i)res are not
easil+ )roken and the /ills that are 7or(ed are not released 8uickl+ 7ro( the 7a)ric,
leading to a//earance /ro)le(s. $n the case o7 7i)re )lends, such as cotton and
/ol+ester, the /illing can )e /articularl+ se2ere with the weaker cotton 7i)res easil+
entangled with and then held to the 7a)ric sur7ace )+ the stronger /ol+ester 7i)res.
'he sa(e is true 7or )lends o7 s+nthetic 7i)res with wool. Pills on one 7a)ric can
contain 7i)res 7ro( other 7a)rics that were in2ol2ed in the a)rasion, 7or e*a(/le,
/ills on /aEa(as (a+ contain 7i)res 7ro( the )ed sheets.
3a)ric and +arn construction /la+ a (aEor role in /illing. 'ighter constructions
@wo2en 2ersus knit, high twist 2ersus low twistA show less /ro)le(s than do looser
constructions. !lthough /illing a77ects onl+ the 7a)ric aesthetics and does not cause
an+ 7unctional /ro)le(s, it is i(/ortant to (ini(ise or /re2ent /illing in order to
(aintain custo(er satis7action.
11.2 Pilling mechanism
'he nu()er o7 /ills on a 7a)ric sur7ace at an+ ti(e is the result o7 a d+na(ic
e8uili)riu( )etween two o//osing e77ects, /ill 7or(ation and /ill wear o77.
,,0
3igure
,,., shows the /rocess sche(aticall+. 'hrough a)rasion, loose 7i)res are /ulled to
the 7i)re sur7ace and 7or( a la+er o7 ?7uCC?. 'he loose 7i)res are then
11.2 Pill c625e.
entangled )+ the a//lied a)rasion to 7or( /ills. !s the a)rasion continues, the anchor
7i)res are e2entuall+ )roken and the /ills )reak o77. When the rate o7 /ill 7or(ation
and the rate o7 /ill )reak o77 are e8ual, an e8uili)riu( state e*ists. When the a)rasion
lasts long enough, the source o7 loose 7i)res )eco(es e*hausted, the rate o7 /ill
7or(ation decreases and the total nu()er o7 /ills decreases. 'his is illustrated )+ /ill
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image,1.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
11.1 Pilling mechanism.
/Pill g2owth Pill loss
1 2egion 2egion
-1 1)4 1,4 )+4 Time
AminB
*4
4
*-4
cur2es @3ig. ,,.0A that show the nu()er o7 /ills as a 7unction o7 ti(e. 2er+ /oint on
this cur2e is the result o7 the rate o7 /ill 7or(ation and the rate o7 /ill )reak o77 at a
gi2en ti(e. !s can )e seen, a7ter an initial /eriod o7 /ill growth, the total nu()er o7
/ills is (a*i(ised and then decreased as /ill loss increases.
11.1 Pill c625es fo2 @nit and wo5en fa72ics.
'he ke+ 7i)re /ro/ert+ that deter(ines /ill loss is the 7le* li7e o7 the anchor 7i)res.
'he higher the 7le* li7e, the longer the /ill re(ains on the 7a)ric sur7ace. 'he
s/eci7ic details o7 these cur2es de/end on 7a)ric and +arn characteristics as well as
on the /articular (echanical 7orces acting on the 7a)ric. 'he /ill cur2es 7or a knit
and a wo2en 7a)ric (ade 7ro( the sa(e /ol+ester +arns are shown in 3ig. ,,.4.
'he knit 7a)ric cur2e de(onstrates the ad2erse e77ect o7 looser constructions on
/illing. Other 7actors that can increase /illing tendenc+ include short sta/le length,
7ine +arn count, round 7i)re cross.section, o/en.end s/un +arn, loose +arn and 7a)ric
construction, +arn hairiness, long wet /rocessing ti(es and na//ing. 3actors that can
reduce /illing tendenc+ include +arn cri(/, high +arn twist, ring s/un +arn, rough
+arn sur7ace, singeing, heat setting, stea(ing and shearing. 'a)le ,,., shows a
correlation o7 7i)re /ro/erties to the three /illing ste/s.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/i
mage,).!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
4 -4 1)4 1,4 )+4 *44
Time Ami2iB
'he in7luence o7 che(ical 7inishing on /illing is relati2el+ s(all. $n the 7irst
/illing ste/ anti./illing 7inishing (a+ increase the 7i)re and +arn attraction and in the
last /illing ste/ reduction o7 the a)rasion and tear strength o7 so(e kinds o7 7i)res is
an additional /ossi)ilit+. !ll the other /illing /ara(eters de/end on 7i)re, +arn and
7a)ric construction. 'here7ore, the )est reci/e 7or anti./illing (ight )e an intense co.
o/eration o7 7a)ric designers, /roducers and 7inishers.
11.* $echanisms and chemist29 of anti1!illing finishes
3or all kinds o7 7inishes, s/ecial /roduct grou/s are known and listed in catalogues.
'here is, howe2er, no grou/ o7 anti./illing /roducts in the International Textile
Auxiliaries Buyers' Guide/
8
'he reason is not that this 7inish is not i(/ortant enough.
'his astonishing 7act (a+ )e e*/lained )+9
H the large 2ariet+ o7 /ara(eters that in7luence the /illing )eha2iour,
H the corres/onding 2ariet+ o7 a//roaches to anti./illing 7inishes,
H the circu(stance that te*tile au*iliar+ /roducers (ostl+ reco((end /roducts that
are /ri(aril+ used 7or other /ur/oses 7or anti./illing 7inishes,
H there are onl+ a 7ew general reci/es 7or anti./illing 7inishes,
H the need 7or s/eci7ic solutions 7or e2er+ t+/e o7 article, including all other
7inishing co(/onents.
Se2eral che(ical 7inishing a//roaches ha2e )een taken to /re2ent /ills 7ro(
accu(ulating on 7a)ric sur7aces.
5,;
'he 7irst a//roach is to /re2ent loose 7i)res 7ro(
7or(ing the initial ?7uCC? )+ a//l+ing /ol+(eric coatings that )ind the 7i)res into the
7a)ric sur7ace. 'hese 7inishes t+/icall+ include 7riction reducing lu)ricants to
(ini(ise a)rasion da(age. 'he (ost use7ul /ol+(ers are acr+lic co/ol+(ers since
Table 11.1 Pilling 7eha5io62 and fi72e !2o!e2ties
Pill ste! In5ol5ed fi72e !2o!e2t9
1. &688 fo2mation 062face 2o6ghness? st26ct62ed !2ofile
&lexing 2esistance? 2igidit9? stiffness
Tea2 st2ength
(72asion 2esistance
0ta!le length
C2im!
). Entanglement Co6nt Adenie2B
0tiffness? 2igidit9
Elongation
Reco5e29 !owe2
062face 2o6ghness? st26ct62ed !2ofile
C2im!
*. Pill 72ea@ off &lexing and 7ending 72ea@ 2esistance
Tea2 st2ength
0ta!le length
C2im!
the+ can )e easil+ (odi7ied to +ield tough, 7le*i)le 7il(s with good adhesion to 7i)re
sur7aces.
'he second che(ical 7inish a//roach to reduce /illing is to cause the /ills to 7all
o77 the 7a)ric as soon as the+ are 7or(ed. 'his can )e acco(/lished )+ reducing 7i)re
strength. 3or s+nthetic 7i)res, changes in the /ol+(er structure can )e (ade /rior to
e*trusion. 3igure ,,.5 gi2es /ill cur2es 7or two identical 7a)rics (ade 7ro( di77erent
/ol+ester +arns. One +arn was (ade with nor(al /ol+ester sta/le 7i)res, the second
was (ade with /ol+ester 7i)res that had )een (odi7ied to ha2e lower strength. 'he
7a)ric (ade 7ro( the lower strength 7i)res had signi7icantl+ less /illing, illustrating
the /ositi2e e77ect o7 weaker 7i)res on /illing. 'he use o7 these lower strength
/ol+ester 7i)res in /ol+esterFcotton )lend 7a)rics will greatl+ reduce /illing. &odi7ied
7i)res are called /illing./oor i7 the /ills are scru))ed o77 within two hours in the
rando( tu()le /illing test and i7 the (a*i(u( o7 the /ill cur2e is lower than rating
- o7 the ?Reutlinger Pillgrad? as shown )+ the horiContal )roken line in 3ig. ,,.5.
With ,11 I cotton 7a)rics, treat(ent with dura)le /ress agents will, in addition to
/ro2iding dura)le /ress /ro/erties, reduce the 7i)re strength su77icientl+ to i(/ro2e
/illing /er7or(ance.
! third a//roach to reducing /illing tendenc+ is a//lica)le to ,11 I cotton
7a)rics. !s descri)ed in Cha/ter ,< on enC+(atic 7inishes the use o7 cellulase
enC+(es during wet /rocessing can re(o2e enough o7 the loose 7i)res in the +arns so
that /illing is greatl+ reduced.
11.+ E5al6ation of anti1!illing finishes
'he e*act nature o7 the a)rasi2e 7orces that cause te*tiles to /ill 2aries signi7icantl+
a(ong indi2idual consu(ers. Ph+sical characteristics, /ersonal ha)its and wearing
en2iron(ent can all a77ect 7a)ric /illing. $n order to esti(ate the /illing /ro/ensit+ o7
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image,*.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
11.' Pill c625es fo2 fa72ics with no2mal and modified !ol9este2 fi72es.
7a)rics accuratel+, standardised testing (ethods are used. 2en then, results 7ro(
these tests (ust )e inter/reted with caution. 'he correlation o7 la)orator+ /illing
tests with wear tests is discussed 8uite di77erentl+.
-.:
. Wegener and Wul7horst
descri)e an o2er2iew on the /ill literature and on 0, /illing tests. 'he+ co(/are ,0
o7 the( using ,, di77erent wo2en and knitted 7a)rics.
=
So(eti(es real wear tests,
which take a long ti(e, are /re7erred to la)orator+ /illing tests, which cannot
/er7ectl+ i(itate the /ill )eha2iour o7 7a)rics during usage in a short testing ti(e. On
the other hand, short la)orator+ /ill tests are indis/ensa)le 7or the /rediction o7
un/ro)le(atic 7a)ric /illing )eha2iour, thus reducing e*/ensi2e custo(er
co(/laints.
! use7ul /illing test (ethod is !S'& D.4;,09 ?Standard test (ethod 7or /illing
resistance and other related sur7ace changes o7 te*tile 7a)rics9 Rando( tu()le /illing
tester?. 'he test a//aratus, de2elo/ed 7ro( the well known accelerotor a)rasion
tester, is a c+linder with an inner cork lining and two /ro/ellers rotating around a
central a*is. ! s8uare sa(/le o7 7a)ric is /laced in the c+linder and the rotation
started. Short cotton 7i)res (a+ )e added to aid in /ill 7or(ation. 'he sa(/le is
a)raded against the cork lining and is tu()led )+ the /ro/ellers. 'he cut edges o7 the
sa(/le (ust )e glued /rior to testing to a2oid unra2elling or deknitting. 'his tester
should not )e le7t unattended during testing, howe2er. 'he sa(/le o7ten )eco(es
stuck against the walls and not (o2ed )+ the /ro/ellers. $7 this occurs, the tester is
sto//ed, the 7a)ric 7reed and the testing )egun again. !t selected ti(e inter2als @;,
,1, 01, 41, 51, ;1, and -1 (inA the /illed sa(/le is re(o2ed, co(/ared to
/hotogra/hic standards or actual a)raded 7a)ric standards and rated accordingl+. $n
the "nited States, the ratings are 7ro( , to ;, with , )eing se2erel+ /illed and ;
showing no /ills. 'he POS @/illing ordinal scaleA @D$N ;4:-<A ranges 7ro( , @worst
rangingA to = @)est ratingA.'he ?Reutlinger Pillgrad? used in uro/e has, )+ contrast, :
ratings with , )eing /ill 7ree and : )eing se2erel+ /illed.
'he Nu.&artindale Pilling 'ester
,1
is a (odi7ication o7 the well known &artindale
!)rasion 'ester. 'he siCe o7 the round /ill test sa(/les is (uch larger and 7a)ric. to.
7a)ric 7riction conditions are (ilder than the a)rasion conditions, )ut the /rinci/le o7
the #issaEous (o2e(ent is the sa(e. "suall+ three si(ilar sa(/les are tested with
,0;, ;11, 0111 and e2entuall+ ;111 rotations. 3or the assess(ent o7 the /ills,
/hotogra/hic standards @7ro( the testing organisation &P! @&P! 'est &aterials
#td, St %allen, SwitCerlandA with rating ; )est and rating , worst /illingA and a
s/ecial o)ser2ation cha()er are needed.
'he shake )o* was de2elo/ed )+ $C$ as a /ill )o* @BS ;:,,.,=<=9 ?&ethod o7 'est
7or Deter(ination o7 the Resistance to Pilling o7Wo2en 3a)rics?A and later (odi7ied,
7or e*a(/le, )+ Hoechst.
<,,,,,0
'wo sa(/les o7 the 7a)ric are cut to < * < c( and
sewed to a sandwich with a so7t ru))er or /lastic /late o7 - * - c( in.)etween. One
outside o7 the sandwich has to )e the 7ace side o7 the 7a)ric, the other one the )ack
side. 'wo short ru))er wire /ieces are added to one sa(/le in each test cha()er. !ll
their inner sides are lined with cork. 'he 7our side )+ side connected cu)ic )o*es
@test cha()ersA rotate a)out their co((on edge at -1 rotations /er (inute 7or 5, :, ,0
or ,- hours. 'he testing ti(e has to )e adEusted to the t+/e o7 sa(/le.
'he assess(ent o7 the /ill tests is done )+ /hotogra/hic standards and )+
correlation with literal descri/tions o7 /ill ratings, relating to the nu()er and to the
/er7or(ance o7 the /ills. !ssess(ents at short ti(e inter2als ena)le /illing cur2es
that /ro2ide a )etter insight o7 the /illing )eha2iour than single /ill ratings.
'a)le ,,.0 shows a co(/arison o7 co((on /ill test (ethods. 'he )est correlation
)etween test (ethod and actual wear is 7ound when a 2ariet+ o7 (echanical 7orces
act u/on the 7a)ric during testing. 3or anti./illing tests o7 a new article with strange
/illing )eha2iour, the co()ination o7 at least two di77erent (ethods is reco((ended.
'he+ should )e )ased on di77erent /rinci/les, 7or e*a(/le a 7riction test @e.g.
&artindaleA and a shock or i(/act do(inated test as R'P' or the shake )o* test.
-
11.. T2o67leshooting fo2 anti1!illing finishes and
com!ati7ilit9
!s a general rule, 7inishes that can lu)ricate 7i)res increase /illing )+ reducing the
7rictional 7orces needed to /ull loose 7i)res 7ro( +arns. 'here7ore care (ust )e
Table 11.2 Com!a2ison of common
!illing test methods

Random t6m7le !illing teste2
ARTPT? D6 PontB

0tanda2ds in5ol5ed
De5ice !2od6ce2
$ain !2inci!le and
effecting fo2ces
Intensit9 of effecting
fo2ces
Us6al testing time
N6m7e2 of sam!les fo2
one testing c9cle
Da2ia7ilit9? exce!t
testing time $ainl9
imitated !ill fo2mation
mechanism
$ain !2o7lems
(0T$ D +3/4 EN I0' 1)
3+.1) I;0 T$ 13-
H > >eal I Co? >alifax? UF
&ixed sam!les with cont2olled
mo5ement ALissao6s fig62es?
+/.. 2!mB? fa72ic1to1fa72ic
f2iction and a72asion
$edi6m to st2ong
0ho2t Aa7o6t +41-4 minB
11-
(da!ta7le !2ess62e Ahighe2 fo2
wo5en than fo2 @nitted fa72icsB
&2iction and a72asion? e.g.
ca6sed 79 mo5ing a2ms and
legs? sitting mo5ements on
f62nit62e fa72ics? soc@s mo5ing
in shoes
;itho6t st2o@e fo2ces?
imitation of 2eal !illing in too
sho2t a time fo2 the !ill
e<6ili72i6m
(0T$ D *.1) DIN .* ,-/
(tlas De5ices Com!an9?
Chicago? U0(
&2ee t6m7ling mo5ement of the
sam!les? st2o@ed 79 !2o!elle2s
with 1)44 2!m? f2iction and
a72asion with co2@ lining and
othe2 fa72ic sam!les 0t2ong
0ho2t A*41-4 min? casewise
6! to 1)4 minB
*11,
(ddition of cotton linte2s
>ea59 st2o@es com7ined with softe2
f2iction and a72asion? faint simila2
to 6s6al wea2ing st2ess on s!o2ts
wea2 o2 wo2@ing clothes Too ha2d
st2o@es? imitation of 2eal !illing in
too sho2t a time fo2 the !ill
e<6ili72i6m
EN I0' 1) 3+.11 G0 .,11
_weigle? Re6tlingen? %e2man9
&2ee t6m7ling mo5ement 79 g2a5it9
in a 2otating 7ox with -4 2!m? st2o@es
f2om 2677e2 2o!e !ieces? f2iction and
a72asion with co2@ lining
$edi6m to low Long A111- ho62sB 11+
0ha@e 7ox APill7ox ICI/>oechstB
Pilling test $a2tindale !illing teste2
[
8
s
i
!
i
n
i


c
n
O
J

0light st2o@es com7ined


with soft f2iction and
a72asion? simila2 to
wea2 st2ess of s!o2ts
wea2? wo2@ing clothes?
7ed linen and clothes?
soc@s in s!o2t shoes
Long testing time?
othe2wise !e2ha!s too
6ne<6al st2ess and !ill
dist2i76tion on the
fa72ic s62face
Table 11.1 Effects of othe2 finishes on the !illing 7eha5io62 and com7ina7ilit9
Effects and com7ina7ilit9

>and 76ilding finishes? fo2 cell6losics eas91ca2e
D62a7le !2ess finishes Cell6lase finishes Non1sli!
finishes
&l6o2oca27on finishes? if not too smooth Athe9
ma9 concent2ate the anti1!illing !2od6cts nea2
the fi72e s62faceB
&lame 2eta2dants Ala2ge amo6nts a2e often
stiffening? c2osslin@e2s 2ed6ce the tea2 and
a72asion st2engthB 0oil12elease finishes
(ntistatics? if not softening and smoothing
&inishes to im!2o5e colo62 fastness &inishes
fo2 !2otection f2om UD o2 insects
(ntimic2o7ial finishes $ost softene2s?
es!eciall9 silicones 0ilicone eleastome2ics
and 2e!ellents Pa2affin wate2 2e!ellents
(ntistats? if softening

taken when using so7teners and silicone elasto(ers. Co()inations o7 so7teners and
/ol+(eric coatings can )e used to achie2e )oth a so7t hand and /illing control.
'a)le ,,.4 gi2es an o2er2iew on the e77ects o7 the di77erent kinds o7 7inishes on the
/illing )eha2iour.
$7 a custo(er co(/lains a)out a /illed te*tile, the onl+ wa+ to re/air it is )+
using an electrical sha2er, /re7era)l+ with rotating kni2es and large slots. S/ecial
/ill sha2ers are a2aila)le 7or /urchase.
Refe2ences
, %intis D and &ead J, ?'he (echanis( o7 /illing?, Textile )esearch 2ournal, ,=;=, 29,
;<:.;:;.
0 Conti W and 'assinari , ?Si(/li7ied kinetic (odel 7or the (echanis( o7 /illing?, 2ournal
Textile Institute, ,=<5, 6(, ,,=.,0;.
4 $nternational 'e*tile !u*iliaries Bu+ers? %uide 0111, &elliand and T$G$%A, Fran+-
furt,-ain, .eutscher Fach#erlag, &'''/
5 Shank D &, Bulcan Per7or(ance Che(icals, Colu()us, %!, /ri2ate co((unication,
0111.
; Patel D C, Consultant, Charlotte, NC, /ri2ate co((unication, 0111.
- Cooke W D and %okso+ &, ?Pro)le(atik der Borhersage des Pilling2erhaltens anhand
2on #a)ortest(ethoden?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,=::, 69, 0;1.0;5.
T9!e of finish
Usa7le fo2 anti1!illing
06!!o2ting anti1!illing
(lmost no effect
Uns6ita7le Ainc2eased !illingB
< Hoechst 're2ira %()H e Co. J%, ? >ergleich #on !illing-!r4f#erfahren und >orschlag
ftir ihre +4nftige .urchf4hrung', 'aschen)uch 7ur die 'e*tilindustrie, Berlin, Schiele e
Schon, ,==<, 500.50=.
: !non+(ous, ?Rando( tu()le /illing test )eats &artindale (ethod?, -elliand Interna-
tional, ,===, (@,A, ::.
= Wegener H and Wul7horst B, ?Pilling an te*tilen 3lachenge)ilden?, Textil-Betrie,
,=:;, 1)3, 4=.;,.
,1 &artindale J %, ?&ethod o7 'est 7or !)rasion Resistance o7 3a)rics?, BS ;-=1, ,=<=.
,, Wiu(e W, ?Pru7ung 2on BeCugssto77en aller !rt?, Textil!raxis International, ,=:;, 4),
<05.<0-, :4=.:54.
,0 %runewald J H, ?_ur Pro)le(atic der Pru7ung te*tiler 3lachenge)ilde au7 Pillneigung?,
Chemiefasern,Textil Industrie, ,=-:, 1'*7), :-0.:-< and =44.=54.
1
)
Elastome2ic finishes
1).1 Int2od6ction
lasto(eric 7inishes are also re7erred to as stretch or elastic 7inishes and are
/articularl+ i(/ortant 7or knitwear. 'hese 7inishes are currentl+ achie2ed onl+ with
silicone.)ased /roducts. 'he (ain e77ect is dura)le elasticit+, )ecause not onl+ (ust
e*tensi)ilit+ )e enhanced, )ut reco2er+ 7ro( de7or(ation is o7 crucial i(/ortance.
!7ter all stresses and distur)ing 7orces ha2e )een released, the 7a)ric should return
to its original sha/e.
!n alternati2e a//roach to /ro2iding 7a)rics with elasto(eric 7inishes is to
incor/orate a 7ew /ercent o7 elastic 7i)res @(ostl+ seg(ented /ol+urethanesA into the
+arn (aking /rocess /rior to 7a)ric (anu7acture. De/ending on the content o7
elastic 7i)res the resulting elasticit+ o7 the 7i)re )lend can )e (uch greater @e.g.
/ower stretchA than with elasto(eric 7inishes. But these 7inishes a2oid the t+/ical
/ro)le(s correlated to wea2ing or knitting, d+eing or /rinting o7 7a)rics 7ro( elastic
7i)re )lends. lasto(eric 7inishes are /re7erred when a lesser degree o7 elasticit+,
co()ined with other use7ul /er7or(ances, as shown in 'a)le ,0.,, is desired. 3or
this reason, e2en the co()ination o7 elasto(eric 7inishes and elastic 7i)re )lends is
co((on.
,
lasto(eric 7inishes are 7re8uentl+ used with swi(wear, lingerie, 7oundation
gar(ents, athletic wear, hosier+ and nor(al clothing. So(e /er7or(ance
enhance(ents /ro2ided )+ elasto(eric 7inishes include 2er+ so7t handle, i(/ro2ed
crease reco2er+, )etter sewa)ilit+, higher a)rasion resistance and so(e stain.
re/ellenc+. 'a)le ,0., shows the i(/ortance o7 the (ain e77ects o7 elasto(eric
7inishes on wo2en and knitted 7a)rics.
0
Silicone /roducts, including elasto(ers, are
used 7or the /re/aration o7 wool, creating shrink resistance and so7t handle,
4
o7ten in
co()ination with /ol+urethane /re/ol+(ers @e.g. )locked isoc+natesA.
5
$n the
te*tile.related silicone (arket elasto(ers are 2er+ i(/ortant. 'he order o7
decreasing share, related to 2alue, is elasto(ers d so7teners dd re/ellents d coatings,
and related to a(ount is so7teners dd elasto(ers d re/ellents d coatings.
;
1).) Elastome2ic mechanism
'he indi2idual 7i)res o7 an elasto(eric 7a)ric (ust )e co(/letel+ co2ered with a
thin 7il( o7 an elastic (aterial without an+ 7i)re.to.7i)re )onding. 'he 7il( causes a
high degree o7 reco2er+ 7ro( de7or(ations owing to its /articular structure o7
widel+ s/aced crosslinks.
1).* Chemist29 of elastome2ic finishes
'he (esh structure res/onsi)le 7or elasticit+ is achie2ed )+ the condensation o7 a
(i*ture o7 silicone /re/ol+(ers on the 7a)ric sur7ace. 'his (i*ture (a+ o7ten con.
sist o7 a ter(inal silanol .a,ra.dih+dro*+ /ol+di(eth+lsilo*aneA, (eth+l h+drogen
silane and a (etal salt catal+st @3ig. ,0.,A. 'he crosslinking reaction that 7or(s the
elastic structure in shown in 3ig. ,0.0. So(e h+drosilane grou/s can )e o*idised )+
air to silanol grou/s. Condensation o7 the silanol grou/s o7 neigh)ouring (olecules
generates crosslinked structures that are necessar+ 7or elasticit+.
'he incor/oration o7 a s(all content o7 tri. or tetra.7unctional silanols,
h+dro*+silanes, ac+lo*+ or ester deri2ati2es is another a//roach that +ields wide.
Table 12.1 (ssessment of the main effects of elastome2ic finishes on wo5en and
@nitted fa72ics
)
;o5ens Fnitwea2
Elasticit9 d d d d
C2ease 2eco5e29 d d d
>andle d d d d d
0ewa7ilit9 d d d d
d O Im!o2tant? d d O 5e29 im!o2tant? d d d O g2eatest im!o2tance.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image,+.!eg
" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
A
*
A
)
B.A0 0N 12.1 Elastome2ic finish com!onents.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image,..!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
C2osslin@ed !ol9me2 12.2 Reaction of a silane and a silanol to fo2m an elastome2ic
finish.
Table 12.2 Test methods fo2 elastome2ic finishes
0tanda2d

(0T$ D +3-+
(0T$ D ).3+a
(0T$ D *14/
(0T$ D --1+
0(E H ,..
D2aft DIN EN 1+/4+11
0tanda2d Test $ethod fo2 Tension and Elongation of Elastic
&a72ics AConstant1Rate1of1Extension T9!e Tensile Testing
$achineB
0tanda2d Test $ethod fo2 0t2etch P2o!e2ties of Fnitted
&a72ics >a5ing Low Powe2
0tanda2d Test $ethods fo2 0t2etch P2o!e2ties of &a72ics
;o5en f2om 0t2etch Ea2ns
0tanda2d Test $ethod fo2 0t2etch P2o!e2ties of Textile
&a72ics 1 CRE $ethod
Test $ethod of 0t2etch and 0et of Textiles and Plastics
Dete2mination of the elasticit9 of fa72ics? !a2t 1: Test of
st2i!s A(6g6st )44*B
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/im
age,-.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
12.1 T2i1f6nctional silicone c2osslin@e2s.
Title
(eshed networks with high /er(anence.
-
'he t+/ical reaction (echanis( is shown
in 3ig. ,0.4. 'he (olar ratio o7 ter(inal silanols and crosslinking (ulti7unctional
co(/ounds deter(ines how widel+ s/aced the resulting silicone 7il( and the
corres/onding elasticit+ will )e.
'he /er(anence o7 these silicone 7il(s on h+dro/hilic 7i)res, such as cellulosics,
is restricted )+ (echanical stress caused )+ re/eated laundering and related
swelling.
-
'here7ore reacti2e 7i*ation o7 e/o*+.(odi7ied silicones was de2elo/ed.
'he e/o*+ grou/s react with the h+dro*+l grou/s o7 cellulose or the a(ino grou/s
o7 wool and silk generating sta)le ether or a(ino )onds )etween the silicone 7il(
and the 7i)re sur7ace. $n addition to their high wash /er(anence these e/o*+.
(odi7ied silicone 7inishes ha2e low +ellowing /ro/erties, )ut their so7tness is less
than that o7 the a(ino silicones.
-
!s with all highl+ reacti2e co(/ounds, the
handling o7 e/o*ides needs s/ecial care. 'he+ are /otentiall+ /h+siologicall+
dangerous. Non. ionic elasto(eric silicones are )est a//lied )+ /adding, while
cationicall+ (odi7ied silicone /roducts (a+ also )e a//lied )+ e*haustion
techni8ues.
1).+ E5al6ation of elastome2ic finishes
'he si(/lest, )ut not necessaril+ the )est, wa+ o7 e2aluating elasto(eric 7inishes is
the ?te(/late? (ethod. 'he 7a)ric is stretched )+ hand with, it is to )e ho/ed,
constant 7orce in )oth war/ and 7ill or we7t and wale directions. 'he residual
elongation is deter(ined )+ the 7a)ric?s di(ensional change. 'his (ethod su77ers
7ro( di77iculties in re/eata)ilit+ owing to the 2aria)le stretching 7orces.
! (ore relia)le e*tension tester is /roduced )+ He/ate* !%, Wattwil, SwitCer.
land. 'his (achine @the Dehnungs/ra7gerat DP.;A has h+draulic da(/ing and
constant tension controls to /ro2ide re/roduci)le stretching 7orces to the 7a)ric.
3a)rics can )e tested in the wet or dr+ states. 'he degree o7 elasticit+, , can )e
calculated )+9
S e*tension a7ter ,1 s . 7inal e*tension ,!nj (n
$ 7 .................................................* ,11I
......................................................M,0.,N
e*tension a7ter ,1 s
!nother suita)le (ethod 7or e2aluating elasto(eric 7inishes is !S'& D 5=-5=-9
?Standard 'est &ethod 7or 'ension and longation o7 lastic 3a)rics @Constant.
Rate.o7.*tension '+/e 'ensile 'esting &achineA?. 3a)ric sa(/les are 7or(ed into
loo/s and are /laced through se2eral e*tension.reco2er+ c+cles under controlled
conditions. 'a)le ,0.0 shows an o2er2iew o7 test (ethods 7or elasto(eric 7inishes.
1).. T2o67leshooting fo2 elastome2ic finishes and
!a2tic6la2ities
lasto(eric 7inishes that ha2e )een co(/letel+ reacted cannot )e easil+ re(o2ed, so
reworking o7 7a)ric seconds can )e a /ro)le(. Other /otential di77iculties with
elasto(eric 7inishes include increased /illing and 7la((a)ilit+ @the silicate residue
/re2ents ther(o/lastic 7i)res 7ro( (elting awa+ 7ro( the 7la(eA. Silicone
elasto(ers can attract dirt. 'he 7a)ric shade a7ter treat(ent with elasto(eric 7inishes
(a+ )e signi7icantl+ altered 7ro( the original shade, there7ore good co((unications
)etween the d+eing and 7inishing de/art(ents are necessar+.
lasto(eric 7inishes are o7ten co()ined with eas+.care and dura)le /ress
7inishes. 'he silicones reduce a)rasion, increase tearing strength @l(endor7 testing
a//aratus . !S'& D,505A, and crease reco2er+. 3or e8ual crease resistance and
dura)le /ress /er7or(ance the a(ount o7 cellulose crosslinking agents can )e
(arkedl+ reduced in these co()inations.
;
Silicone 7il(s ha2e a relati2el+ low light re7lectance and there7ore cause (ore
de/th o7 colour @si(ilar to the a//earance o7 wet 7a)ricsA. $n contrast the high
re7lectance o7 /ol+ester, es/eciall+ o7 /ol+ester (icro 7i)res, i(/edes their d+eing
and /rinting to dee/ shades. Here silicone 7inishes are used as ?)lack i(/ro2ers?.
<
But silicones increase the ther(o(igration o7 dis/erse d+es, causing lower wash
and crocking 7astness. 'his disad2antage is es/eciall+ (arked with (icroe(ul.
sions o7 silicone so7teners, containing high concentrations o7 e(ulsi7iers which also
increase d+estu77 (igration.
Refe2ences
, Hardt P, ?Silicon.'e*tilhil7s(ittel?, Textil#eredlung, ,=:5, 19@;A, ,54.,5-.
0 %+sin H P, ?&oderne 'e*tilausrustung (it Silikonelasto(eren?, Textil#eredlung, ,=:,,
16@,0A, 5<;.5<=.
4 %uise B and Jones 3 W, ?Shrink.resisting wool with silicones?, Textile Chemist Colorist,
,=<<, 9@4A, -;.-=.
5 %eu)tner & and Hanne(ann J, ?Wasch)are Wolle durch (oderne
P7legeleichtausrustung?, -elliand Textilerichte, 011,, '2@<F:A, ;=:.-10.
; #ie)iger &, ?Silikone Cu( !usrusten 2on 'e*tilien?, .eutscherFarer+alender, ,=:=, 93,
,40.,;,.
- &oone+ W, ?Che(ical so7tening?, in Textile Finishing, D He+wood @ed.A, Brad7ord,
Societ+ o7 D+ers and Colourists, 0114, 0:4.0=,.
< Po//enwi((er J and Sch(idt J, ?!usrustung 2on S+nthese7asersto77en, 'eil 0?,
Textil#eredlung, ,===, 34@<F:A, 5.:.
1
*
&inishes to im!2o5e colo62 fastness
13.1 Int2od6ction
Che(ical 7inishing is de7ined as and includes all /rocesses a7ter coloration that
/ro2ide )etter /ro/erties and that ena)le the 8uali7ied use o7 the treated te*tiles. But
d+ers and /rinters are o7ten res/onsi)le 7or 7inishes that i(/ro2e colour 7astness.
Nowada+s coloured te*tiles ha2e to 7ul7il (an+ re8uire(ents. 'here7ore
i(/ro2e(ent in the colour 7astness is a t+/e o7 che(ical 7inishing o7 /articular
/ractical interest and i(/ortance.
Pro/erties /ro2ided )+ these 7inishes are (ostl+ i(/ro2ed wet 7astness, 7or
e*a(/le washing, water, /ers/iration and ironing 7astness, then )etter light 7astness
and onl+ to a s(all e*tent i(/ro2ed crocking and ru))ing 7astness. 3or other kinds
o7 colour 7astness, 7or e*a(/le dr+ ironing, chlorine, /ero*ide and car)onisation,
there are no known /ossi)ilities 7or i(/ro2e(ent )+ an a7ter treat(ent. 'he (arket
i(/ortance o7 these 7inishes is )ased on custo(er /re7erences and econo(ic
/roduction de(ands. 3or a )etter understanding, each o7 these three 8uite di77erent
7astness i(/ro2e(ents will )e dealt with se/aratel+.
13.2 Im!2o5ed wet fastness
1*.).1 Definitions and te2ms
Colour 7astness is the resistance o7 a (aterial to change in an+ o7 its colour
characteristics, to the trans7er o7 its colourants to adEacent (aterials or )oth. 3ading
(eans that the colour changes and lightens. Bleeding is the trans7er o7 colour to a
secondar+, acco(/an+ing 7i)re (aterial. 'his is o7ten e*/ressed as soiling or
staining (eaning that the acco(/an+ing (aterial gets soiled or stained.
%enerall+ 7astness /ro/erties are e*/ressed in ratings o7 7astness. Nor(all+ the+
range 7ro( rating ;, which (eans unchanged to rating ,, which (eans (aEor
changes. Onl+ the light 7astness ratings range u/ to eight 7or the )est )eha2iour.
'he+ are (ostl+ e2aluated on the so.called )lue scales. 'hese contain stri/es o7
standard d+eings on wool with eight )lue d+estu77s that ha2e di77erent light 7astness.
'he other 7astness ratings are nor(all+ e2aluated )+ the gre+ scales 7or )leeding and
7or 7ading. 'he+ consist o7 7i2e di77erent gre+ colour gradations and are co(/ared
with the tested te*tile and its /rescri)ed adEacent (aterial.
1*.).) Gasis of the effect
'he /h+sical and che(ical /rinci/les in2ol2ed in the /er7or(ance o7 the 7astness
i(/ro2ing 7inishes concern either the interaction with the d+estu77 or with the 7i)re
or )oth. 'he si(/lest a7ter treat(ent to achie2e )etter wet 7astness can )e an
intensi2e washing /rocess. 'hus wool d+eings are washed under (ild alkaline
conditions with a((onia, soda or sodiu( h+drogen car)onate. Cellulose 7a)rics
d+ed or /rinted with reacti2e d+estu77s are washed at high te(/erature o7ten with
s/ecial au*iliaries that ha2e dis/ersing, se8uestrating and dissol2ing @h+dration,
increased solu)ilit+A /ro/erties. Co(/ounds with a high a77init+ 7or reacti2e d+es, or
(ore /recisel+ 7or their h+drol+sates are hel/7ul, the so.called colour trans7er
inhi)itors, 7or e*a(/le /ol+acr+lic acid deri2ati2es.
!nother a//roach 7or re(o2ing reacti2e d+e h+drol+sates 7ro( the 7i)re and 7ro(
the wash water @decolourised waste waterA is the use o7 /ero*idases @o*idati2e acti2e
enC+(es such as Ba+lase RPA. 'his (ulti/ur/ose enC+(atic rinse /rocess sa2es
ti(e, energ+ and water )ut it is restricted (ainl+ to Eet a//lications. 'he 8uestion o7
the /otential to*icit+ o7 the resulting aro(atic nitro.co(/ounds @clea2age /roducts
o7 the reacti2e aCoic d+esA has to )e resol2ed.
When /ol+ester te*tiles are dee/l+ d+ed the+ need an a7ter treat(ent with
reducti2e agents to re(o2e and destro+ the un7i*ed or onl+ weakl+ 7i*ed dis/erse
d+estu77s on the 7i)re sur7ace @reducti2e deco(/ositionA. With these a7ter washings
or a7ter cleanings the colour 7astness can )e ele2ated u/ a)out one rating. 'he
wides/read /rinci/le that ena)les the wet 7astness o7 d+eings to )e i(/ro2ed with
anionic d+estu77s @such as reacti2e, direct and acid d+esA is their (olecule
enlarge(ent. $t causes reduced water solu)ilit+, generated )+ d+e.salt 7or(ation o7
the anionic d+estu77s in the 7i)re with the cationic /roducts a//lied a7ter d+eing @3ig.
,4.,A. 3or lesser re8uire(ents, enclosure o7 the d+estu77s in cellulose 7i)res with
7or(aldeh+de condensation /roducts is a low cost alternati2e.
,,0
!nother solution to the /ro)le( is the reactant 7i*ation o7 the d+estu77s to the
7i)re with highl+ reacti2e uncoloured che(icals. 'heir (ain /ro)le( is their
essential high reacti2it+, which causes cancer or (utagenicit+ when the+ co(e into
contact with the 7inish workers. 'he end user is not in2ol2ed )ecause a7ter the
7i*ation reaction these che(icals lose their risk to health.
1*.).* (!!lied chemist29
*
!n older (ethod o7 i(/ro2ing the wet 7astness o7 selected direct d+eings is their
diaCotisation on the 7i)re, 7ollowed )+ the reaction with so.called de2elo/ers
@cou/ling co(/oundsA. 'he great e77ort and handling /ro)le(s in2ol2ed ha2e (ade
this (ethod unattracti2e.
,ationic roducts,
4,(
7or e*a(/le /ol+a((oniu( co(/ounds, the so.called
/ol+8uats are shown in 3ig. ,4.,. &an+ success7ul /roducts are )ased on 8uaternar+
/ol+heteroc+cles such as /ol+diall+ldi(eth+l a((oniu( chloride @D!D&!CA.
'he+ are (ostl+ used 7or direct and reacti2e d+ed cellulose and i(/ro2e the wet
7astness 7or a)out one to, at (ost, two ratings. 'he washing 7astness is usuall+ (ore
i(/ro2ed than the contact 7astness @water or /ers/iration 7astnessA. Uuaternar+
a((oniu( /ol+(ers are o7ten used to shorten the long washing /rocesses @soa/ing
at the )oilA o7 reacti2e d+es on cellulosics, thus /ro2iding relati2el+ good wet
7astness. 'heir high a77init+ 7or cellulose ena)les e*haust a//lication. But cationic
/roducts can cause se2eral /ro)le(s9
H $nsu77icient /er(anence o7 the e77ects o7 re/eated washings, caused )+ salt
7or(ation with anionic sur7actants and release o7 the i((o)ilised d+estu77
H Bariation o7 the degree o7 wet 7astness i(/ro2e(ent, de/ending on the s/eci7ic
d+estu77 interaction
H Reduced light 7astness and colour changes, which are also d+estu77 s/eci7ic
H Co(/etition with cationic so7t handle /roducts @)locking their u/takeA
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image,/.
!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
11.1 K6ate2na29 ammoni6m !ol9me2s im!2o5e wet
fastness with anionic d9es.
H %re+ing and increased soiling when a//lied in large a(ounts @cationised cottonA
H Stri//ing o77 is onl+ /ossi)le with large a(ounts o7 anionic sur7actants
H 3ish to*icit+, al(ost no )iodegradation )ut high rate o7 eli(ination in the waste
water.
5
/ormaldehyde condensation roducts 7ro( urea andFor (ela(ine are shown in
3ig. ,4.0. 'he+ are co(/ara)le to the corres/onding /roducts 7or /er(anent /ress
and eas+.care 7inishes @Cha/ter ;A. 'he+ ha2e the sa(e ad2antages and disad2an.
tages and the+ o7ten i(/ro2e the /ers/iration (ore than the washing 7astness.
'here7ore the+ are (ostl+ used 7or lining 7a)rics, where their /rice ad2antage is
es/eciall+ i(/ortant.
So(e /ossi)le disad2antages are9
Harsher handle @re8uiring co()ination with so7tenersA
Decreased light 7astness u/ to two ratings @a /ro)le( (ore 7or reacti2e d+ed
7a)rics than 7or direct d+ed ones, the latter o7ten /ro2ide greater light 7astnessA
Colour changes @the d+er has to take these into consideration during the d+e
reci/e 7or(ulationA
3or(aldeh+de release.
NAC>)'C>*B)
(M
AC>*'C>)B)N2 N NAC>)'C>*B)
11.2 P2ec62so2 of the fo2maldeh9de condensation !ol9me2 that
im!2o5es wet fastness on cell6losic fa72ics.
4he condensation roducts of aromatic sulfonic acids are used 7or d+eing and
/rintings on n+lon 7i)res, es/eciall+ 7or the a7ter treat(ent o7 car/ets, to i(/ro2e
their wet 7astness )+ u/ to a)out two ratings. 'heir co((on na(e is s+ntan,
deri2ed 7ro( ?s+nthetic tannin?. 3igure ,4.4 shows t+/ical structures o7 s+ntans
@/artl+ 7ro( Brennich and ngelhardtA.
-
'hese 7or(aldeh+de condensation /roducts
o7 sul7onated /henols and na/hthalenes are also used as reser2ation agents 7or
d+eing 7i)re )lends and as stain )lockers.
3or(aldeh+de connects the aro(atic rings in the 7or( o7 relati2el+ sta)le
(eth+lene )ridges. 'here7ore release o7 7or(aldeh+de 7ro( these 7inishes is 2er+
low. 'he /re7erred a//lication o7 anionic s+ntans to n+lon is )+ e*haustion at <1:1
PC and /H 4.;.;. 'he+ 7or( a )arrier near the 7i)re sur7ace to the anionic d+es in the
7i)re, (ainl+ caused )+ anionic re/ulsion. !nother theor+ 7a2ours the aro(atic
attraction o7 d+estu77 and s+ntan, thus hindering the d+estu77 (olecules 7ro(
(igrating out o7 the 7i)re. 'he disad2antages o7 classical s+ntans are reduced )ath
sta)ilit+ and decreased e77icienc+ caused )+ /seudocationic sur7actants, 7or e*a(/le,
le2elling agents )ased on 7att+ a(ine etho*+lates. Newl+ de2elo/ed s+ntans ha2e
decreased these /ro)le(s and can )e used in the e*hausted d+e )ath instead o7 7resh
7inishing solutions.
-,<
/o*+ deri2ati2es with cationic structures @3ig. ,4.5A ha2e )een and are still used as
reactive fi5ation comounds2 "nder alkaline a//lication conditions the
e/ichloroh+drin grou/s generate 2er+ reacti2e e/o*+ ring structures that /ro2ide
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image,,.!e
g" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
11.1 Reaction !2od6cts of fo2maldeh9de and a2omatic
s6lfonic acids As9ntansB im!2o5e wet fastness on
n9lon.
sta)le ether )ondings to the h+dro*+l grou/s o7 the cellulose 7i)re @3ig. ,4.;A. 'hus
the cationic grou/s are /er(anentl+ 7i*ed and attract the anionic d+estu77 2er+
e77ecti2el+ with astonishingl+ high 7astness ratings 7or selected direct d+estu77s o7 u/
to 5.; 7or washing at =; PC.
:
$7 lower wet 7astness is acce/ted, reduced a(ounts o7
7i*ation agents ena)le controlled 7astness ratings. !/art 7ro( the health /ro)le(s
alread+ (entioned during handling and a//lication, there are other disad2antages.
'he 7i*ation agent can onl+ )e a//lied )+ /adding and the high /er(anence causes
/ro)le(s with the correction o7 the shade a7ter i(/er7ect d+eing.
1*.).+ E5al6ation methods
Standard /rocedures 7or colour 7astness and es/eciall+ wet 7astness e2aluations @7or
e*a(/le $SO, !!'CC, !S'&, BS, D$N, 3'&S, &arks e S/encerA are used to
e2aluate the treated and acco(/an+ing 7a)rics.
1*.).. T2o67leshooting finishes that im!2o5e wet fastness
So(e /otential /ro)le(s with 7inishes designed to i(/ro2e wet 7astness include9
H #e2elness when a//lied on /ackages @crosswound )o))insA
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image
34.!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
11.( Reactions of cell6lose 2eacti5e fixati5es.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image,3.!
eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
11.' Reacti5e fixati5es fo2 anionic d9es on cell6lose.
H #ess a)sor)enc+ caused )+ so(e /roducts
H #ow dura)ilit+ o7 the e77ects in use, 7or e*a(/le a7ter se2eral washings,
es/eciall+ with 7or(aldeh+de condensation or non.7i)re reacti2e cationic /rod.
ucts @salt e*change /rocesses with anionic sur7actantsA.
1*.* Im!2o5ed light fastness
1*.*.1 Definitions and te2ms
'he light 7astness is the resistance o7 d+estu77s to the in7luence o7 light energ+,
es/eciall+ the ultra2iolet @"BA /art o7 the electro(agnetic s/ectru(. $t is su)di2ided
into "B! @401.511 n(A, "BB @0:1.401 n(A and "BC @,11.0:1 n(A. 'he shorter
the wa2elength, 6, the higher is the energ+ $ and the d+estu77 da(age. @instein?s
rule9 $ K h * v K h * c*672 3ortunatel+, "BC is a)sor)ed )+ oCone in the higher
at(os/here, the usual content o7 "BB in the total radiation intensit+ @W (
.0
A is less
than , I and the content o7 "B! is a)out ;.- I @see 'a)le ,5., in Cha/ter ,5 on
"B /rotection 7inishesA.
3ading, 7astness ratings, )lue and gre+ scales were descri)ed in the 7irst /art o7
this cha/ter. So.called 7ading in tone is i(/ortant i7 there is not enough light
/rotection. $t onl+ constitutes a )rightening and is generall+ less se2ere than the
(ore usual 7ading out o7 tone.
'he light /rotection o7 the a//lied d+estu77s is connected to the light /rotection o7
the 7i)re. 3i)re da(age also accelerates d+estu77 deco(/osition. 3ading )+ light is
generall+ /ro(oted )+ (oisture, heat @heat.light 7astness is es/eciall+ i(/ortant 7or
auto(oti2e te*tilesA, o*+gen in the air @/hoto. o*idation, tri/let and singlet o*+gen
4
O0 8 927 and other 7actors shown in 'a)le ,4.,. 'he interactions o7 these
in7luencing 7actors, including /hoto. sensitisers, radical sca2engers, singlet o*+gen
8uenchers and /ossi)le che(ical reactions are 8uite co(/le*.
Table 11.1 &acto2s infl6encing light fastness AL&B

Exam!les and comment
T9!e of light Aene2g9 content
incl6ding ex!os62e time? 2h9thm of
change f2om light to da2@B
D9est6ff o2 !igment: t9!e?
concent2ation and dist2i76tion
D9est6ff com7ination &i72e t9!e
$oist62e >eat
(ccom!an9ing s67stances
0t2ictl9 2eg6lated 79 L& test
methods
Gette2 L& with highe2
concent2ation and lowe2 s!ecific
s62face A!igment !a2ticles ha5e 7ette2 L& than
molec6la2 dist2i76ted d9esB. E<6al d9e
dist2i76tion o5e2 the fi72e c2oss1 section has
7ette2 L& than 2ing d9eing with d9es
concent2ated nea2 the fi72e s62face.
Catal9tic fading Aanothe2 d9e catal9ses
!hotodeg2adationB? 2a2el9 also L& !2otection
Identical dis!e2se d9es on PE0 show 7ette2 L&
than on P(. Gasic d9es on P(N ha5e 7ette2 L&
than on meta a2amide Afo2 exam!le NomexB.
Gette2 L& with lowe2 wate2 content. Defined
h6midit9 fo2 L& testing
Less L& with highe2 tem!e2at62e Afo2 exam!le
heat L& fo2 a6tomoti5e fa72icsB? defined 79 L&
testing
$ostl9 lowe2 L&? e.g. with the del6ste2ing agent
titani6m dioxide Ae5en tho6gh it is a st2ong UD
a7so27e2B? 2esid6al si8e? thic@ene2s? a6xilia2ies
s6ch as cationic wet fastness im!2o5e2s?
fo2maldeh9de condensation !2od6cts? oxidising
o2 2ed6cing agents. Exce!tion f2om this 26le: L&
im!2o5e2s

1*.*.) Gasis of the effect
'he /rotecting /roducts show either interaction with the light or with the d+estu77.
*a(/les o7 the 7irst categor+ are the "B.a)sor)er or "B.screener, which ha2e
light 7ilter e77ects @"B.cuttingA. *a(/les o7 the interaction with d+estu77s are the
a7ter treat(ent with co//er salts @7or(ation o7 co//er co(/le*es with high light
7astnessA and the a//lication o7 radical tra/s, so.called anti.o*idants, which are
(ostl+ stericall+ hindered /henols and a(ines. Other in2ol2ed (echanis(s are the
deco(/osition o7 inter(ediate /ero*ides and singlet.o*+gen 8uenching. 3ro( this
sur2e+ o7 the di77erent /ossi)ilities 7or inter7erence, it is o)2ious that the+ can )e
easil+ co()ined, resulting in an increased /rotection e77ect.
1*.*.* (!!lied chemist29
"ltra2iolet light a)sor)ers are colourless organic co(/ounds, (ostl+ with aro(atic
&acto2s infl6encing L&
11.- Ult2a5iolet light a7so27e2s f2om the h9d2ox9 !hen9l class.
structures, 7or e*a(/le )enCo/henone, )enCotriaCol, /hen+l triaCine and a.c+ano.
acr+lic acid deri2ati2es. 'itaniu( dio*ide, the co((on delustering agent in all
s+nthetic 7i)res, also strongl+ a)sor)s "B light. 'his /aragra/h 7ocuses on "B
a)sor)ers that /ri(aril+ /rotect d+es and secondar+ 7i)res. 'he sa(e or si(ilar "B
a)sor)ers are used 7or 7inishes that /rotect the hu(an skin, as descri)ed in Cha/ter
,5.
'hese /roducts ha2e to trans7or( the a)sor)ed "B energ+ into heat energ+ @3ig.
,4.-, co(/are also 3ig. ,5.4 and ,5.5 with "B a)sor)ers 7or 7inishes on s+nthetic
and natural 7i)resA. $n the 7irst ste/ the+ ha2e to a)sor) the high "B energ+ and to
trans7or( it al(ost 8uantitati2el+ into 2i)ration energ+ o7 the a)sor)er (olecules
without clea2age o7 )onds @/hotodegradationA. $n the ne*t ste/ the 2i)ration energ+
is trans7erred to the surrounding (aterial as heat, again with the re8uire(ent o7 no
7i)re or d+estu77 da(age. "se7ul 7urther e77ects o7 the "B a)sor)er (a+ )e
deacti2ation o7 e*cited d+e chro(o/hores and sca2enging o7 radicals. $t is
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/ima
ge31.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
)A)Z1>9d2ox91.Z1meth9l!hen9lB 7en8ot2ia8ole
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image3).!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
)1>9d2ox9!hen9l11?*?.1t2ia8ine
interesting to co(/are di77erences and si(ilarities to 7luorescent )righteners
@whitening agentsA that /roduce heat and 2isi)le light 7ro( the a)sor)ed "B energ+.
'he (ain disad2antages o7 the "B a)sor)ers are their relati2el+ high /rice and
the relati2el+ high concentration @1.;.0 I o7 the weight o7 the 7i)reA that is needed
7or su77icient /rotection. 'here7ore the+ are o7ten used in co()ination with other
light 7astness i(/ro2ing /roducts.
=.,0
'he 7or(ation o7 a co//er co(/le* with the d+estu77 re8uires s/ecial structures
to )e /resent in the d+estu77. 'here7ore, co//er salt a7ter treat(ents work onl+ with
selected d+es. But so(e e77icient light /rotection /roducts consist o7 colourless
co//er co(/le*es. 'he+ show 7i)re a77init+ si(ilar to d+estu77s, destro+ /ero*ides,
sto/ radical reactions and are also "B a)sor)ers. ! content o7 51.-1 //( @Yg g
.,
A
co//er in the 7inished te*tile is su77icient 7or good light /rotection.
,4
$n 7or(er ti(es
direct d+eings and /rintings were a7ter treated with co//er sul7ate solutions.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image3
*.!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
11.& (nti1oxidants that enhance light fastness.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image3+.
!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
11.. (nti1oxidant f2ee 2adical t2a!!ing mechanism.
Nowada+s this is (ostl+ 7or)idden )ecause o7 the high residual concentration o7
co//er in the waste water. 3or )asic d+es sodiu( /hos/horous (ol+)denu(
tungstenate is also known as a light /rotecti2e a7ter treat(ent.
'wo grou/s o7 anti.o*idants are o7 /ractical i(/ortance9 hindered /henol light
sta)ilisers @HP#SA and hindered a(ine light sta)ilisers @H!#SA. *a(/les are
shown in 3ig. ,4.< and the (echanis( o7 the radical tra//ing reaction is shown in
3ig. ,4.:. 'he+ are o7ten co()ined with "B a)sor)ents @7or /artl+ s+nergistic
e77ectsA and (ostl+ used 7or the 7i)re /rotection.
1*.*.+ (!!lication and e5al6ation methods
H "B a)sor)ers can )e co()ined with d+eing or a7ter treat(ent with e*haustion or
/ad.dr+ techni8ues.
"se7ul e2aluation (ethods include $SO ,1; B1,.B1-, !!'CC 'est &ethods,
3!JR! tests and S! J,::; 7or auto(oti2e te*tiles.
1*.*.. T2o67leshooting finishes that im!2o5e light fastness
&ost au*iliar+ che(icals, e*ce/t 7i)re and d+estu77 , decrease light 7astness @'a)le
,4.,A. 'here7ore, it is i(/ortant to wash out care7ull+ all residues o7 siCing agents
and all au*iliaries used 7or /retreat(ent and in d+eing or /rinting @e.g. thickenersA.
So(eti(es co()ination o7 light /rotecting agents with /H )u77ers or /rotecting
agents against o2er.o*idation @with reducing agents such as glucose, de*trin or
NaNO0A or o2er.reduction @with o*idation agents such as (eto.nitro)enColsul7. onic
acidA is use7ul.
Bat d+estu77 selection9 so(e 2at d+estu77s are called 7i)re /rotectors, others are
7i)re da(agers. 'he 7i)re /rotectors (ostl+ contain nitrogen ato(s in their
chro(o/hores. 'hese 2at d+estu77s ha2e good light 7astness and co(/ensate 7or the
in7luence o7 the da(agers. 'he latter andFor their light deco(/osition /roducts
catal+se the 7i)re da(age )+ /hotol+sis.
1*.+ Im!2o5ed c2oc@ing and 2677ing fastness
2er+)od+ who has sat with )lue Eeans on a /ale so7a or an u/holster+ chair knows
a)out the i(/ortance o7 the crocking 7astness. O7 course, indigo.d+ed clothing is
7a(ous 7or /oor crocking and ru))ing 7astness. 'his disad2antage is a desira)le
8ualit+ in other cultures9 the 'uareg and other no(ads in !7rica like to colour their
skin and hair )+ ru))ing it with dark d+ed indigo 7a)rics.
,5
1*.+.1 Definitions and te2ms
Ru))ing 7astness (eans a change in colour o7 the ru))ed te*tile @)+ )leeding and
7adingA. Crocking 7astness is the (igration o7 colour 7ro( the d+ed sur7ace to
another sur7ace )+ intense contact, 7or e*a(/le )+ ru))ing @soilingFstainingA.
De/ending on the kind o7 7i)re, es/eciall+ its tensile strength, s(all a)raded
coloured 7i)re /articles cause the staining e77ect on the /artner te*tile.
,;,-
Coarse
7i)re /articles are not taken into consideration )+ the deter(ination o7 the crocking
7astness rating. $7 the d+estu77 in2ol2ed is water solu)le and not su77icientl+ 7i*ed on
the 7i)re, this can also )e the reason 7or staining. But e2en d+eings with the )est wet
/ro/erties, 7or e*a(/le 2at d+eings, ha2e li(itedFrestricted wet crocking 7astness
)ecause o7 cellulose 7i)re a)rasion.
,;
3astness ratings, according to the gre+ scales 7or staining, range 7ro( , @/oor
ratingA to ; @)est ratingA. Para(eters o7 in7luence include9
H Jind and concentration o7 d+estu77
H D+eing or /rinting /rocedure, degree o7 7i*ation, ring d+eing
H !7ter treat(ent with so7teners, silicones, crosslinking agents
H '+/e o7 7i)re @tensile strength, wet a)rasionA
H '+/e o7 te*tile in contact9 shade, sur7ace, kind o7 7i)re and 7a)ric
H $ntensit+ o7 the contact9 /ressure, ti(e, (oisture and te(/erature.
'he in7luence o7 the (oisture is taken into account in the test (ethods @dr+ or wet
crocking testsA. Wet cellulosic 7i)res (a+ )e /artl+ destro+ed )+ ru))ing, leading to
additional staining. 'he ru))ing 7orce 7or the wet testing /rocedure is a)out dou)le
the ru))ing 7orce 7or dr+ ru))ing.
,<
'here7ore the wet ru))ing ratings o7 the sa(e
sa(/le are alwa+s /oorer than the dr+ ones @u/ to two ratings di77erenceA.
1*.+.) Gasis fo2 im!2o5ement in 2677ing fastness
Ru))ing 7astness is i(/ro2ed )+ 7or(ation o7 7il(s coating the 7i)res, reduced
ru))ing o7 the s(oothed sur7ace and )+ h+dro/ho)ation. 'he 7inish /roducts can
)eha2e si(ilarl+ to lu)ricants in reducing the ru))ing 7orces. %enerall+ also 7inishes
that reduce the swelling o7 h+dro/hilic 7i)res cause an e77ect @dura)le /ress and
eas+.care 7inishes with crosslinking agents 7or cellulose 7i)resA. #ess (igration o7
d+estu77 )ut /oorer tensile strength o7 the cellulose 7i)re cause (ore a)rasion.
1*.+.* (!!lied chemist2ies
$(/ro2ed ru))ing 7astness can )e achie2ed with /artiall+ h+drol+sed
/ol+2in+lacetate @PB!cFPB!A or /ol+2in+lether and the a//lication o7 /ig(ent
)inders, (ostl+ )ased on acr+lic co/ol+(ers si(ilar to those used as hand )uilders
@Cha/ter 5A. !//lication (ethods (ostl+ use /ad.dr+ techni8ues.
1*.+.+ E5al6ation methods
H $SO ,1;.>,0 and !!'CC Crock(eter &ethod, 'est (ethod :9 Color 7astness to
crocking.
H 3or s(all 7a)ric sa(/les and 7or /rinted sa(/les !!'CC de2elo/ed the Rotar+
Bertical Crock(eter &ethod @!!'CC 'est (ethod ,,-A.
H 3or testing loosened 7i)re (aterial, 7or e*a(/le 7lock, tu7t, loose stock, the
(ethod and de2ice according to Ru7 is reco((ended. 'he tested (aterial is /ressed
with a ru))er (e()rane and then ru))ed.
,:
1*.+.. T2o67leshooting and s!ecial !2o7lems
Possi)le /ro)le(s with 7inishes used to i(/ro2e ru))ing 7astness include the
7ollowing.
H 'here (a+ o7ten )e onl+ s(all e77ects.
H !lthough silicones gi2e 2er+ s(ooth 7il(s around an+ kind o7 7i)re, silicone
7inishes @so7t handle, water re/ellenc+, stretchA (a+ reduce the crocking 7astness.
H So7teners on d+ed /ol+ester o7ten cause (ore dis/erse d+e (igration
@es/eciall+ ther(o(igrationA and cause reduced crocking 7astness. 'his is si(ilar
to so7teners on the )asis o7 7att+ acids and aCoic d+eings.
H Dee/l+ d+ed /ol+ester needs an a7ter treat(ent, (ostl+ with reducing agents
that destro+ the low or un7i*ed dis/erse d+es, to o)tain acce/ta)le crocking and
wet 7astness /ro/erties.
,=
Refe2ences
Refe2ences conce2ning finishes that im!2o5e wet fastness
, Schindler W, 'auwald and Jruger R, ?!re reacti2e d+es 7i*ed with co2alent )onds a7ter
one.)ath d+eing and low.swell 7inishing o7 PSFcottonR?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,==1,
71@;A, 4::.4=0, ,<-.,<:.
0 Nechwatal ! and Nicolai &, ?&oglichkeiten Cur gleichCeitigen !n7ar)ung und
!usrustung 2on Bau(wollgewe)en?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,===, ')@4A, ,:;.,=,.
4 4llmann's $ncyclo"edia of Industrial Chemistry, ;th edn, Weinhei(, BCH, ,==;, Bol.
!0-, 0:<.0::.
5 3ischer H, ?'heoretische, /raktische und okologische !s/ekte der kationischen
Nach)ehandlung?, Textil#eredlung, ,==1, 2(@0A, ;5.-,.
; Ro)inson ', ?Neue 'rends in der kationischen Bor. und Nach)ehandlung 2on 3ar)ungen
(it Reakti27ar)sto77en?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,=:<, 6', ,4<.,5,.
- Brennich Wand ngelhardt B, ?Neue Wege )ei der Nach)ehandlung 2on P!.3ar)ungen?,
-elliand Textilerichte, 0114, '4@,F0A, -5.-<.
< Jittler J, ?Neue 77ekte 2on Pol+a(id.Nach)ehandlungen?, -elliand Textilerichte,
0111, '1@,F0A, 5=.;4.
: Pro2isional in7or(ation B9$. 0,0 on #e2ogen RS, Ba+er, #e2erkusen, %er(an+, ,=<:.
Refe2ences conce2ning finishes that im!2o5e light fastness
= Chwala ! and !nger B @edsA, 1anduch der Textilhilfsmittel, Weinhei(FNew York,
Berlag Che(ie, ,=<<, =0-.=40.
,1 Herr(ann &, Hil7iker R, ?Beein7lussen /hotoche(ische !)hangigkeiten durch
3aser/ara(eter )ei PS die Heiss.#icht.!lterungR?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,===, ')@5A,
0<5.0<<.
,, Scha7er J and %roger B, ?#ichtschutCausrustung 2on Wolle?, -elliand Textilerichte,
,==,, 72@:A, --5.-<,.
,0 Reinert %, Sch(idt and Hil7iker R, ?3acts a)out the a//lication o7 "B a)sor)ers on
te*tiles?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,==5, 7(@<F:A, -1-.-,5, ,;,.,;4.
,4 Reinert % and 'ho((en 3, ?Photodegradation und Photosta)ilisierung der Pol+a(id.
3aser?, Textil#eredlung, ,=:=, 24@;A, ,:0.,:<.
Refe2ences conce2ning finishes that im!2o5e c2oc@ing and
2677ing fastness
,5 Heid C, ?Rei)@unAechtheit 2on 'e*tilien . ein 2ielseitiges Pro)le(?, -elliand
Textilerichte, ,=:-, 67, 45;.4;4.
,; Herlinger H and SchulC %, ?"rsachen ungenugender Nassrei)echtheiten )ei te*tilen
3ar)ungen?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,==1, 71@0A, ,0-.,0=.
,- Bredereck J and Strauss , ?!s/ekte der Rei)echtheit reakti2 ge7ar)ter Cellulosete*tilien?,
-elliand Textilerichte, 011,, '2@,1A, :4,.:4-.
,< Bigler N, ?"ntersuchungen u)er die Rei)echtheit 2on 3ar)ungen?, Textil#eredlung, ,=-=,
4, ,--.,:,.
,: Ru7 3, ?%erat Cur Pru7ung der Rei)echtheit an 3locke, %arn und %ewe)e?, -elliand
Textilerichte, ,=;;, 36, <;;.
,= !nders S and Schindler W, ?Co(/arison o7 reducing agents in reduction clearing o7
/ol+ester d+eings and /rints?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,==<, 7', :;.:<, 0,.00.
1
+
Ult2a5iolet !2otection finishes
1+.1 Int2od6ction
'his cha/ter tackles the /re2ention 7ro( har(7ul e77ects o7 solar ultra2iolet @"BA
radiation on hu(an skin. 'hese e77ects were recognised in the earl+ ,==1s. #ong.
ter( e*/osure to "B light can result in acceleration o7 skin ageing, /hotoder(atosis
@acneA, /hototo*ic reactions to drugs, er+the(a @skin reddeningA, sun)urn, increased
risk o7 (elano(a @skin cancerA, e+e da(age @o/aci7ication o7 the corneaA and DN!
da(age.
,
Nu(erous /u)lications ha2e a//eared concerning the use o7 te*tiles to
/rotect the wearer 7ro( these har(7ul e77ectsD a selection are 8uoted.
,.5
Solar radiation striking the earth?s sur7ace is co(/osed o7 light wa2es with
wa2elengths ranging 7ro( the in7rared to the "B. 'a)le ,5., gi2es the wa2elengths,
relati2e intensities and a2erage /hoton energies o7 this radiation.
!lthough the intensit+ o7 "B radiation is (uch less than 2isi)le or in7rared
radiation, the energ+ /er /hoton is signi7icantl+ higher. 'he 2er+ high energ+ o7 the
"B.C /hotons is (ostl+ a)sor)ed )+ oCone in the higher regions o7 the at(os/here
decreasing their relati2e intensit+ on the earth sur7ace to al(ost Cero. But the
energies o7 "B.! and "B.B /hotons that reach the earth sur7ace e*ceed the car)on.
car)on single )ond energ+ o7 44; kJ (ol
.,
, which is wh+ "B radiation can )e used to
initiate che(ical reactions. 'he actual da(age to hu(an skin 7ro( "B radiation is a
7unction o7 the wa2elength o7 the incident radiation, with the (ost da(age done )+
radiation less than 411 n(. $7 this er+the(al e77ect is (ulti/lied )+ the intensit+ o7
the incident solar light, as a 7unction o7 wa2elength, the wa2elengths o7 (a*i(u(
danger to skin are 41;.4,1 n(.
,,5
'here7ore, to )e use7ul in /rotecting the wearer
7ro( solar "B radiation, te*tiles (ust de(onstrate e77ecti2eness in the 411.401 n(
range.
'o 8uanti7+ the /rotecti2e e77ect o7 te*tiles, the solar /rotection 7actor @SP3A is
deter(ined. 'he SP3 is the ratio o7 the /otential er+the(al e77ect to the actual
er+the(al e77ect trans(itted through the 7a)ric )+ the radiation and can )e calculated
7ro( s/ectrosco/ic (easure(ents.
4
'he larger the SP3, the (ore /rotecti2e the
7a)ric is to "B radiation. $n uro/e and !ustralia, the SP3 is re7erred
Table 1'.1 Cha2acte2istics of sola2 2adiation st2i@ing the ea2thZs s62face
Classification ;a5elength AnmB Relati5e intensit9 ACB (5e2age !hoton
ene2g9 A@H mol
11
B
Chemical finishing of textiles.......1
, *
0 ,=
* +,
5 -;
;.4 *a(/les o7 te*tiles with eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes:,
;.5 Che(istr+ o7 eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes;-.........:-
;.; !//lication (ethods........................................................,14
;.-Co(/ati)ilit+ with other 7inishes......................................,1;
;.<2aluation (ethods...........................................................,1;
;.: 'rou)leshooting and /ractical /ro)le(s..........................,1:
Re7erences..............................................................................,,5
-..............................................11.
Re!ellent finishes...............................................11.
-., $ntroduction......................................................................,,;
-.0 &echanis(s o7 re/ellenc+................................................,,-
-.4 Re/ellent che(istr+..........................................................,,:
-.52aluation o7 te*tiles treated with re/ellent 7inishes.........,41
-.;'rou)leshooting 7or re/ellent 7inishes and /articularities. ,41
Re7erences..............................................................................,40
/..............................................1**
0oil12elease finishes............................................1**
<.,$ntroduction.......................................................................,44
<.0&echanis(s o7 soil release...............................................,44
<.4 Soil.release che(istr+......................................................,4:
<.5 2aluation o7 soil release.................................................,55
<.; 'rou)leshooting 7or soil.release 7inishes.........................,5;
Re7erences..............................................................................,5-
,..............................................1+,
&lame12eta2dant finishes.....................................1+,
:.,$ntroduction.......................................................................,5:
:.0&echanis(s o7 7la(e retardanc+......................................,5:
:.4 3la(e.retardant che(istr+................................................,;4
:.5 3la(e retardants 7or cellulose..........................................,;5
:.; 3la(e retardants 7or wool................................................,-0
:.- 3la(e retardants 7or /ol+ester..........................................,-4
:.< 3la(e retardants 7or n+lon...............................................,-5
:.:3la(e retardants 7or other 7i)res.......................................,-;
:.=3la(e.retarding 7i)re )lends.............................................,-;
:.,1No2el a//roach to 7la(e retardanc+9 intu(escents.........,--
:.,,2aluation o7 7la(e retardants........................................,--
:.,0 'rou)leshooting 7or 7la(e.retardant 7inishes and /articularities ,-=
Re7erences..............................................................................,<1
3..............................................1/1
Non1sli! finishes.................................................1/1
=., $ntroduction......................................................................,<,
=.0 &echanis(s o7 non.sli/ 7inishes......................................,<0
=.4 Che(istr+ o7 non.sli/ 7inishes.........................................,<0
=.5 !//lication (ethods and co()ina)ilit+...........................,<4
=.; 2aluation o7 non.sli/ 7inishes.........................................,<5
=.- 'rou)leshooting 7or non.sli/ 7inishes..............................,<;
Re7erences..............................................................................,<;
14............................................1/.
(ntistatic finishes...............................................1/.
,1., $ntroduction....................................................................,<;
,1.0&echanis(s o7 antistatic 7inishes....................................,<<
,1.4Che(istr+ o7 antistatic 7inishes.......................................,<:
,1.5 Conducti2e 7i)res...........................................................,:0
,1.; 2aluation o7 antistatic 7inishes.....................................,:4
,1.- 'rou)leshooting 7or antistatic 7inishes and /articularities,:5
Re7erences..............................................................................,:;
11............................................1,-
(nti1!illing finishes.............................................1,-
,,.,$ntroduction.....................................................................,:-
,,.0Pilling (echanis(...........................................................,:<
,,.4 &echanis(s and che(istr+ o7 anti./illing 7inishes........,=,
,,.5 2aluation o7 anti./illing 7inishes..................................,=0
,,.; 'rou)leshooting 7or anti./illing 7inishes and co(/ati)ilit+,=5
Re7erences..............................................................................,=<
1)............................................13,
Elastome2ic finishes............................................13,
,0., $ntroduction....................................................................,=:
,0.0 lasto(eric (echanis(.................................................,==
,0.4 Che(istr+ o7 elasto(eric 7inishes..................................,==
,0.5 2aluation o7 elasto(eric 7inishes.................................010
,0.; 'rou)leshooting 7or elasto(eric 7inishes and /articularities014
Re7erences..............................................................................014
1*............................................)4+
&inishes to im!2o5e colo62 fastness....................)4+
,4.,$ntroduction.....................................................................015
,4.0$(/ro2ed wet 7astness.....................................................015
,4.4 $(/ro2ed light 7astness..................................................0,1
,4.5 $(/ro2ed crocking and ru))ing 7astness........................0,5
Re7erences..............................................................................0,-
1+............................................)1/
Ult2a5iolet !2otection finishes.............................)1/
,5., $ntroduction....................................................................0,<
,5.4 Che(istr+ o7 "B /rotection 7inishes..............................005
,5.5 2aluation o7 "B /rotection 7inishes.............................00<
,5.; 'rou)leshooting 7or "B /rotection 7inishes and co()ina)ilit+ 00=
Re7erences..............................................................................00=
1.............................................)*4
(ntimic2o7ial finishes..........................................)*4
,;., $ntroduction....................................................................041
,;.0Pro/erties o7 an e77ecti2e anti(icro)ial 7inish5..............04,
,;.4&echanis(s o7 anti(icro)ial 7inishes.............................04,
,;.5 Che(istr+ o7 anti(icro)ial 7inishes;=...........................040
,;.; 2aluation o7 anti(icro)ial 7inishes...............................04=
,;.- 'rou)leshooting 7or anti(icro)ial 7inishes....................05,
Re7erences..............................................................................05;
1-............................................)+-
Insect 2esist and mite !2otection finishes............)+-
,-.,$ntroduction.....................................................................05-
,-.0&echanis(s o7 insect resist 7inishes...............................05-
,-.4 Che(istr+ o7 insect resist 7inishes..................................05=
,-.5!//lication o7 insect resist 7inishes.................................0;1
,-.;2aluation o7 insect resist 7inishes..................................0;1
,-.-'rou)leshooting 7or insect resist 7inishes........................0;1
,-.< 3inishes 7or /rotection 7ro( dust (ites..........................0;,
Re7erences..............................................................................0;,
1/............................................).)
&inishing with en89mes: 7io1finishes fo2 cell6lose).)
,<., $ntroduction....................................................................0;0
,<.0 !ction o7 cellulase enC+(es on cellulose.......................0;;
,<.4 Che(istr+ o7 enC+(e 7inishing......................................0;:
,<.5 2aluation o7 )io.7inishing.............................................0-1
,<.; 'rou)leshooting 7or )io.7inishing..................................0-1
Re7erences..............................................................................0-,
1,............................................)-)
No5el finishes.....................................................)-)
,:.,$ntroduction.....................................................................0-0
,:.0!nti.odour and 7ragrance 7inishes...................................0-0
,:.4 3i)re sur7ace (odi7+ing 7inishes using /las(a and radiation technologies 0-:
,:.5 3i)re sur7ace (odi7ication )+ sol.gel 7inishes with inorganic o*ide 7il(s 0-=
Re7erences..............................................................................0<0
13............................................)/*
(ct6al and f6t62e t2ends in chemical finishing....)/*
,=.,$ntroduction.....................................................................0<4
,=.0Cost reduction and greater e77icienc+..............................0<4
,=.4New kinds o7 e77ects........................................................0<4
,=.53ewer undesira)le side e77ects........................................0<;
,=.;asier a//lication............................................................0<;
,=.-&icroenca/sulation, a new trend 7or storage and release o7 acti2e 7inishing /roducts
................................................................0<;
,=.< %reater /er(anence in washing and che(ical
cleaning..................................................0<-
,=.:asier care o7 the 7inished te*tiles...................0<<
,=.=Better ecolog+.................................................................0<<
,=.,1 "sing 7ewer che(icals.................................................0<:
,=.,, S(art te*tiles )+ che(ical 7inishing............................0<=
,=.,0 Su((ar+ and outlook..................................................0:1
Re7erences..............................................................................0:,
Index ),1
radiation re7lected, a)sor)ed or trans(itted de/end on (an+ 7actors, including the
7i)re t+/e, the 7i)re sur7ace s(oothness, the 7a)ric co2er 7actor @the 7raction o7 the
sur7ace area o7 the 7a)ric co2ered )+ +arnsA and the /resence or a)sence o7 7i)re
delustrants, d+es and "B a)sor)ers.
'he e77ect o7 7i)re t+/e on the SP3 o7 und+ed 7a)rics o7 si(ilar construction is
de(onstrated in 'a)le ,5.0. Cotton and silk 7i)res o77er little /rotection to "B
radiation since the radiation can /ass through without )eing (arkedl+ a)sor)ed.
Wool and /ol+ester, on the other hand, ha2e signi7icant higher SP3s since these
7i)res will a)sor) "B radiation. N+lon 7alls in )etween these e*tre(es. One 7actor
in7luencing n+lon and /ol+ester a)sor)ance is the /resence o7 the delustrant 'iO0, a
(aterial that strongl+ a)sor)s "B radiation.
$7 the 7i)res a)sor) all o7 the incident radiation, then the onl+ source o7
trans(itted ra+s is 7ro( the s/acing )etween the +arns. B+ de7inition, the theoretical
(a*i(u( SP3 is the reci/rocal o7 , (inus the co2er 7actor.
SP3 K [............
,
........ M,5.,N
(a*
, . co2er 7actor
3igure ,5.0 illustrates the relationshi/ )etween the (a*i(u( SP3 and the co2er
7actor. "sing a SP3 2alue o7 ;1 as the goal, a 7a)ric with a co2er 7actor o7 1.=: and
co(/osed o7 7i)res that a)sor) all o7 the non.re7lected "B radiation will /ro2ide its
wearer with e*cellent /rotection against solar "B radiation.
O7 course, tight (icro.7i)re 7a)rics /ro2ide a )etter "B /rotection than 7a)rics
(ade 7ro( nor(al siCed 7i)res with the sa(e s/eci7ic weight and t+/e o7 construc.
tion. &an+ d+es a)sor) "B radiation as well as 2isi)le light. ! cotton 7a)ric d+ed to
a dee/ shade can achie2e SP3 2alues o7 ;1 or higher Eust 7ro( the /resence o7 the
d+e.
,,5
Since 7ashion and co(7ort o7ten dictate the use o7 lightl+ coloured 7a)rics 7or
su((er a//arel, the need arose 7or "B a)sor)ing (aterials that could )e a//lied to
7i)res to /ro2ide the desired SP3 2alues in light shades. D+estu77 and au*iliar+
(!!2oximate 0P&
(anu7acturers ha2e res/onded )+ de2elo/ing a 2ariet+ o7 (aterials suita)le 7or use
as "B /rotection 7inishes.
1+.* Chemist29 of UD !2otection finishes
'he re8uire(ents 7or a (aterial to )e e77ecti2e as a "B /rotection 7inish include
e77icient a)sor/tion o7 "B radiation at 411.401 n(, 8uick trans7or(ation o7 the high
"B energ+ into the 2i)ration energ+ in the a)sor)er (olecules and then into heat
energ+ in the surroundings without /hotodegradation. 3urther re8uire(ents are
con2enient a//lication to te*tile 7i)res and lack o7 added colour 7or the treated 7i)re.
So(e t+/ical che(ical structures use7ul 7or "B /rotection are shown in 3ig. ,5.4
and 3ig. ,5.5.
;.<
'he re2ersi)le che(ical reaction, induced )+ "B a)sor/tion o7
h+dro*+/hen+l structures o7 "B a)sor)ers, is shown in Cha/ter ,4 @3ig. ,4.-A. B+
care7ul choice o7 su)stituents, (olecules can )e 7or(ed that ha2e the re8uired
a)sor)ance o7 "B radiation, lack o7 added colour and the necessar+ a77init+ to 7i)res
and 7astness. $n (ost cases, the "B a)sor)er is a//lied with the d+es during
0P&
max O
)
Co5e2 facto2 O 4..
0P&
max O
1
Co5e2 facto2 O 4
1'.2 Inte2action of 2adiation with fa72ics of 5a29ing co5e2 facto2s.
J 0P&max O 14
Co5e2 facto2 O 4.3
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image3-.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T

R O al@9l? al@ox9? s6lfonate
Mi O >? s6lfonate?
halide? s6lfonated
a29lal@9l
M) O M1i

Gen8ot2ia8ole de2i5ati5es
A2ioB
n
Z
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image3/.
!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
Phen9lt2ia8ines 1'.1 0t26ct62es of UD a7so27e2s fo2
s9nthetic fi72es.
>'
CE>M
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image3,.!eg
" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
aso*m
'xalic acid dianilide de2i5ati5es
R1 O s67stit6ted o2 6ns67stit6ted al@9l7en89l n
7 1 , , , 0
R) O >? halide? al@9l? !hen9lal@9l
R* O R) Aidentical o2 diffe2entB (
O di2ect 7ond o2 al@9lene
lin@age $ O > o2 al@ali metal

1'.' 0t26ct62es of UD a7so27e2s fo2 nat62al fi72es.
Table 1'.1 0tanda2ds fo2 UD !2otection finished fa72ics

'2ganisation

0tanda2ds (6st2alia/ New
_ealand A(0/N_0B
Comite E62o!ean
de No2malisation
G2itish 0tanda2ds
Instit6tion
(me2ican 0ociet9 fo2
Testing and $ate2ials
Commission Inte2nationale
de lZEclai2age Inte2national
Test (ssociation fo2 (!!lied
UD P2otection
(0/N_0 +*33
P2o!osed CEN
G0 /3+3
P2o!osed (0T$
CIE TC -1)3 UD
standa2d ,41
06n !2otecti5e clothing 1
e5al6ation and classification
Classification and ma2@ing of
UD !2otecti5e a!!a2el
Child2enZs clothingW
2e<6i2ements fo2 !2otection
against e29themall9 weighted
sola2 UD 2adiation
0tanda2d g6ide fo2 la7eling of
UD1!2otecti5e textiles
P2o!osed UD !2otecti5e index
fo2 clothing UD standa2d ,41

the d+eing /rocess. Se2eral /ossi)le a//lication (ethods are descri)ed )+ Haerri
and HaenCi.
:
1+.+ E5al6ation of UD !2otection finishes
Se2eral organisations around the world ha2e de2elo/ed or ha2e /ro/osed /er7or(.
ance standards 7or "B /rotection 7a)rics. 'hese organisations and their standards
are su((arised in 'a)le ,5.4.
=
!lthough there are (ulti/le standards 7or "B /rotecti2e 7a)rics, there are signi7icant
di77erences )etween the 2arious organisations. 'he /articular standard 7or the
intended (arket area should )e consulted during 7a)ric de2elo/(ent. Be7ore the
de2elo/(ent o7 instru(ental (ethods, SP3 2alues o7 7a)rics were deter(ined )+
irradiating hu(an su)Eects and (easuring the critical a(ount o7 radiation necessar+
to cause skin reddening at a /articular wa2elength with and without wearing the
7a)rics. 3ortunatel+, se2eral (ethods @'a)le ,5.5A are now
Table 1'.' Test methods fo2 UD !2otecti5e fa72ics
Test method Title
((TCC T$ 1,* T2ansmittance o2 7loc@ing of e29themall9 weighted UD 2adiation
th2o6gh fa72ics
G0 /31+ $ethod of test fo2 !enet2ation of e29themall9 weighted
sola2 UD 2adiation th2o6gh clothing fa72ics
Title
0tanda2d
CEN/TC )+,/;% 1+ (!!a2el fa72icsW sola2 UD !2otecti5e !2o!e2ties? method of test
a2aila)le that do not result in a sun)urned /artici/ant. 'hese (ethods all deter(ine
the trans(ittance o7 "B radiation through 7a)rics and calculate the SP3 2alue using
standard charts 7or the solar s/ectru( and the er+the(al e77ect.
4
"B Standard :1,
considers in addition the e77ects o7 usage o7 the 7inished te*tiles that nor(all+
reduce the "B /rotection.
,1,,,
1+.. T2o67leshooting fo2 UD !2otection finishes and
com7ina7ilit9
"B a)sor)ers ha2e the sa(e need 7or wash 7astness and light 7astness as d+estu77s.
#aundering trials should )e carried out with all new 7or(ulations to con7ir( that the
clai(ed "B /rotection is actuall+ acti2e during the li7e o7 the gar(ent.
One concern is s/eci7ic to the use o7 "B a)sor)ers in co()ination with o/tical
)rightening agents @OB!A. 'hese )rightening agents 7unction )+ a)sor)ing "B
radiation and re.e(itting 2isi)le light. $7 a "B a)sor)er is also /resent in the 7i)re,
the )rightening e77ect 7ro( the OB! can )e greatl+ di(inished or e2en a)sent.
Pro/er choice o7 an a//ro/riate OB! can (ini(ise this /ro)le(.
$n (ost other cases co()ination with other 7inishes does not reduce the "B
/rotection. ! two.ste/ a//lication is necessar+ i7 the /H 2alues o7 the "B
/rotection 7inish )ath and that o7 the other 7inishes are 2er+ di77erent. 'he "B
/rotection 7inish should )e a//lied 7irst. Pro)le(s (a+ arise 7ro( li(ited )ath
u/take a7ter a re/ellent 7inish or a7ter calendering.
,0
Refe2ences
, Reinert %, 3uso 3, Hil7iker R and Sch(idt , ?"B./rotecting /ro/erties o7 te*tile 7a)rics
and their i(/ro2e(ent?, Textile Chemist and Colorist, ,==<, 29@,0A, 4-.54.
0 Textiles and 3un !rotection Conference, "ni2ersit+ o7 New South Wales, S+dne+, &a+
,==4.
4 Hil7iker R, Jau7(ann W, Reinert % and Sch(idt , ?$(/ro2ing sun /rotection 7actors o7
7a)rics )+ a//l+ing "B.a)sor)ers?, Textile )esearch 2ournal, ,==-, 66@0A, -,.<1.
5 Reinert %, Hil7iker R, Sch(idt and 3uso 3, ?SonnenschutCeigenscha7ten te*tiler 3lachen
und deren Ber)esserung?, Textil#eredlung, ,==-, 31@,,F,0A, 00<.045.
; Co((unication 7ro( &eisei Che(ical Works, #td, Ja/an, 4> Asorers E A""lications,
June ,==:.
- Reinert % and 3uso 3, ?Sta)iliCation o7 te*tile 7i)res against ageing?, )e#ie* !rogress
Coloration )elated To"ics, ,==<, 27, 44.45.
< Reinert %, Sch(idt and Hil7iker R, ?3acts a)out the a//lication o7 "B a)sor)ers on
te*tiles?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,==5, 7(@<F:A, -1-.-,5, ,;,.,;4.
: Haerri H P, HaenCi D, ?"B a)sor)ers 7or wo2en cotton 7a)rics?, International Textile
Bulletin, 0110, 4'@;A, -;.-:.
= Hatch J #, Standards 7or "B./rotecti2e te*tiles, 7ro( 1igh !erformance and Functional
Finishes, an !!'CC S+(/osiu(, Charlotte, NC, Januar+ 0111.
,1 Rieker J, %uschl)auer ' and Rus(ich S, ?Wissenscha7tliche und /raktische Bewertung des
"B.SchutCes?, -elliand Textilerichte, 011,, '2@<F:A, -,<.-,=.
,, Rieker J and %uschl)auer ', ?"B Standard :1,?, Textil#eredlung, ,===, 34@,,F,0A, 5,,.
,0 'eich(ann R, 3uchs H, Jor)er W and &att W, ?"B.Cutting.77ekt9 Welchen in7luss
ha)en andere !usrustungenR?, Textil#eredlung, 0110, 37@;F-A, ;.=.
1
.
(ntimic2o7ial finishes
1..1 Int2od6ction
'wo di77erent as/ects o7 anti(icro)ial /rotection /ro2ided )+ che(ical 7inishes can
)e distinguished.
,,0
'he 7irst is the /rotection o7 the te*tile user against /athogenic or
odour causing (icroorganis(s @h+giene 7inishesA. 'he second as/ect is the
/rotection o7 the te*tile itsel7 7ro( da(age caused )+ (ould, (ildew or rot
/roducing (icroorganis(s. Both as/ects will )e discussed in this cha/ter. Protection
o7 te*tiles 7ro( da(age caused )+ insects is co2ered in Cha/ter ,-.
'he growth o7 (icroorganis(s on te*tiles can lead to 7unctional, h+gienic and
aesthetic di77iculties @7or e*a(/le stainingA. 'he (ost trou)le.causing organis(s are
7ungi and )acteria. "nder 2er+ (oist conditions, algae can also grow on te*tiles )ut
are trou)leso(e onl+ )ecause the+ act as nutrient sources 7or 7ungi and )acteria.
3ungi cause (ulti/le /ro)le(s to te*tiles including discoloration, coloured stains,
and 7i)re da(age. Bacteria are not as da(aging to 7i)res, )ut can /roduce so(e 7i)re
da(age, un/leasant odours and a slick, sli(+ 7eel. O7ten, 7ungi and )acteria are )oth
/resent on the 7a)ric in a s+()iotic relationshi/.
Su)stances added to 7i)res, such as lu)ricants, antistats, natural.)ased au*iliaries
@7or e*a(/le siCe, thickener and hand (odi7iersA and dirt /ro2ide a 7ood source 7or
(icroorganis(s. S+nthetic 7i)res are not totall+ i((une to (icroorganis(s, 7or
e*a(/le /ol+urethane 7i)res and coatings can )e da(aged.
4
O7 course, )ecause o7
e2olution, natural 7i)res are (ore easil+ attacked. Wool is (ore likel+ to su77er
)acterial attack than cotton, and cotton is (ore likel+ than wool to )e attacked )+
7ungi.
!nti(icro)ial 7inishes are /articularl+ i(/ortant 7or industrial 7a)rics that are
e*/osed to weather. 3a)rics used 7or awnings, screens, tents, tar/aulins, ro/es, and
the like, need /rotection 7ro( rotting and (ildew. Ho(e 7urnishings such as
car/eting, shower curtains, (attress ticking and u/holster+ also 7re8uentl+ recei2e
anti(icro)ial 7inishes. 3a)rics and /rotecti2e clothing used in areas where there
(ight )e danger o7 in7ection 7ro( /athogens can )ene7it 7ro( anti(icro)ial
7inishing. 'hese include hos/itals, nursing ho(es, schools, hotels, and crowded
/u)lic areas. 'e*tiles in (useu(s are o7ten treated with anti(icro)ial 7inishes 7or
/reser2ation reasons. SiCed 7a)rics that are to )e stored or shi//ed under conditions
o7 high te(/erature @] 51 PC or ,11 P3A and hu(idit+ re8uire an anti(icro)ial 7inish
to retard or /re2ent (icro)ial growth 7uelled )+ the /resence o7 war/ siCe. 'e*tiles
le7t wet )etween /rocessing ste/s 7or an e*tended ti(e o7ten also need an
anti(icro)ial treat(ent.
'he use o7 anti(icro)ial 7inishes to /re2ent un/leasant odours on inti(ate
a//arel, underwear, socks and athletic wear is an i(/ortant (arket need. 'he odours
are /roduced )+ the )acterial deco(/osition o7 sweat and other )od+ 7luids, and
controlling )acterial growth )+ h+giene 7inishes reduces or eli(inates the /ro)le(.
!n alternati2e a//roach is descri)ed in Cha/ter ,: on no2el anti.odour 7inishes.
15.2 P2o!e2ties of an effecti5e antimic2o7ial finish
+
'he growth rate o7 (icro)es can )e astoundingl+ ra/id. 'he )acteria /o/ulation, 7or
e*a(/le, will dou)le e2er+ 01 to 41 (in under ideal conditions @4-.51 PC or <<.=:
P3, /H ;.=A. !t this rate, one single )acteria cell can increase to , 15: ;<- cells in
Eust < hours. 'here7ore, anti(icro)ial 7inishes (ust )e 8uick acting to )e e77ecti2e.
$n addition to )eing 7ast acting, a nu()er o7 other i(/ortant criteria can )e listed
7or anti(icro)ial 7inishes. 'he anti(icro)ial (ust kill or sto/ the growth o7
(icro)es and (ust (aintain this /ro/ert+ through (ulti/le cleaning c+cles or
outdoor e*/osure. 'he anti(icro)ial (ust )e sa7e 7or the (anu7acturer to a//l+ and
the consu(er to wear. 'he 7inish (ust (eet strict go2ern(ent regulations and ha2e
a (ini(al en2iron(ental i(/act. 'he anti(icro)ial 7inish (ust )e easil+ a//lied at
the te*tile (ill, should )e co(/ati)le with other 7inishing agents, ha2e little i7 an+
ad2erse e77ects on other 7a)ric /ro/erties including wear co(7ort, and should )e o7
low cost.
15.3 $echanisms of antimic2o7ial finishes
Des/ite the long list o7 re8uire(ents, a 2ariet+ o7 che(ical 7inishes ha2e )een used
to /roduce te*tiles with de(onstra)le anti(icro)ial /ro/erties. 'hese /roducts can
)e di2ided into two t+/es )ased on the (ode o7 attack on (icro)es. One t+/e
consists o7 che(icals that can )e considered to o/erate )+ a controlled.release
(echanis(. 'he anti(icro)ial is slowl+ released 7ro( a reser2oir either on the
7a)ric sur7ace or in the interior o7 the 7i)re. 'his ?leaching? t+/e o7 anti(icro)ial can
)e 2er+ e77ecti2e against (icro)es on the 7i)re sur7ace or in the surrounding
en2iron(ent. Howe2er, e2entuall+ the reser2oir will )e de/leted and the 7inish will
no longer )e e77ecti2e. $n addition, the anti(icro)ial that is released to the
en2iron(ent (a+ inter7ere with other desira)le (icro)es, such as those /resent in
waste treat(ent 7acilities.
'he second t+/e o7 anti(icro)ial 7inish consists o7 (olecules that are che(icall+
)ound to 7i)re sur7aces. 'hese /roducts can control onl+ those (icro)es that are
/resent on the 7i)re sur7ace, not in the surrounding en2iron(ent. ?Bound?
anti(icro)ials, )ecause o7 their attach(ent to the 7i)re, can /otentiall+ )e a)raded
awa+ or )eco(e deacti2ated and lose long ter( dura)ilit+.
!nti(icro)ial 7inishes that control the growth and s/read o7 (icro)es are (ore
/ro/erl+ called )iostats, i.e. )acteriostats, 7ungistats. Products that actuall+ kill
(icro)es are )iocides, i.e. )acteriocides, 7ungicides. 'his distinction is i(/ortant
when dealing with go2ern(ental regulations, since )iocides are strongl+ controlled.
'e*tiles with )iostatic /ro/erties, howe2er, are su)Eect to 7ewer regulations.
'he actual (echanis(s )+ which anti(icro)ial 7inishes control (icro)ial growth
are e*tre(el+ 2aried, ranging 7ro( /re2enting cell re/roduction, )locking o7
enC+(es, reaction with the cell (e()rane @7or e*a(/le with sil2er ionsA to the
destruction o7 the cell walls and /oisoning the cell 7ro( within.
4
!n understanding
o7 these (echanis(s, although i(/ortant 7or (icro)iologists, is not reall+ a
re8uire(ent 7or the te*tile che(ist who a//lies and e2aluates the e77ecti2eness o7
anti(icro)ial 7inishes.
1..+ Chemist29 of antimic2o7ial finishes
.3
1..+.1 (ntimic2o7ials fo2 cont2olled 2elease
&an+ anti(icro)ial /roducts that were 7or(erl+ used with te*tiles are now strictl+
regulated )ecause o7 their to*icit+ and /otential 7or en2iron(ental da(age. Products
such as co//er na/hthenate, co//er.:.8uinolinate, and nu(erous organo (ercur+
co(/ounds 7all into this categor+. Other (aterials that still ha2e li(ited use in
s/ecialised areas include tri)ut+l tin o*ide @deleted in (an+ countries, 3ig. ,;.,aA,
dichloro/hene @3ig. ,;.,)A and 4.iodo/ro/+n+l)ut+l car)a(ate @3ig. ,;.,cA. 'hese
/roducts t+/icall+ show a 2er+ )road s/ectru( o7 acti2it+ against )acteria and 7ungi,
)ut su77er 7ro( a//lication and dura)ilit+ /ro)le(s.
So(e (ore use7ul /roducts o7 this sa(e general t+/e include )enCi(idaCol
deri2ati2es, salic+lanilides and alk+lola(ide salts o7 undec+lenic acid @/articularl+
e77ecti2e against 7ungiA. !//lication o7 these (aterials with resin /recondensates can
i(/ro2e dura)ilit+ to laundering, )ut also deacti2ation )+ reaction with the resin
(a+ occur.
! widel+ used )iocide and /reser2ation /roduct is 7or(aldeh+de. Solutions o7
7or(aldeh+de in water, called 7or(alin, were used 7or disin7ection and conser2ation,
7or e*a(/le, o7 )iological sa(/les 7or dis/la+. Bound 7or(aldeh+de is released in
s(all a(ounts 7ro( co((on eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes @Cha/ter ;A.
'here7ore these 7inishes include . at least until the+ are washed . a s(all
anti(icro)ial side e77ect. 'his can also )e true 7or so(e 8uaternar+ co(/ounds, 7or
e*a(/le wet 7astness i(/ro2ers and so7teners. But 7or (ore e77ecti2e re8uire(ents
s/eci7ic anti(icro)ial 7inishes are necessar+.
C>*C>)C>)C>)@0n1410nAC>)C>)C>)C>**
T2i76t9l tin oxide ATGT'B

'> >'

)?)Z1Dih9d2ox91.?.Z1dichlo2odi!hen9l methane

>*CC>)C>)C>) N 'C>) COI

T2iclosan

One o7 the (ost widel+ used anti(icro)ial /roducts toda+ is 0,5,5?.trichloro.0?.
h+dro*+di/hen+l ether, known (ore co((onl+ as ?triclosan? @3ig. ,;.,dA. 'riclosan
7inds e*tensi2e use in (outhwashes, tooth/astes, li8uid hand soa/s, deodorant
/roducts, and the like. !lthough it is e77ecti2e against (ost )acteria, it has /oor
anti7ungal /ro/erties. 'riclosan is also i(/ortant as a te*tile 7inish, )ut since its
water solu)ilit+ is 2er+ low, a8ueous a//lication re8uires use o7 dis/ersing agents
and )inders.
Uuaternar+ a((oniu( salts ha2e )een 7ound to )e e77ecti2e anti)acterial agents
in cleaning /roducts and 7or disin7ecting swi((ing /ools and hot tu)s. Howe2er,
their high degree o7 water solu)ilit+ li(its their use as te*tile 7inishes.
AaB
INCLUDEPICT
URE
"../Downloads/
media/image3
3.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(
T
Dichlo2o!hen
e
A7B
Cl CI
AcB
INCLUDEPIC
TURE
"../Download
s/media/imag
e144.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$
(T
*1lodo!2o!9n9l76t9l
ca27amate
AdB CI
CI >'
)?+?+Z1T2ichlo2o1)Zh9d2ox9di!hen9l
ethe2 1(.1 Cont2olled12elease antimic2o7ials.
CI
Research into controlled.release anti(icro)ials continues with organo.sil2er
co(/ounds and sil2er Ceolites, which are /ro(ising candidates 7or te*tile 7inishes.
Sil2er ions, 7or e*a(/le, incor/orated in glass cera(ic, ha2e a 2er+ low to*icit+
/ro7ile and e*cellent heat sta)ilit+.
4
'hese /rinci/les are also used 7or 7i)re
(odi7ication, an alternati2e to the anti(icro)ial 7inishes with high /er(anence.
,1
$n
recent +ears a 2ariet+ o7 anti(icro)ial (odi7ied 7i)res ha2e )een de2elo/ed,
including /ol+ester, n+lon, /ol+/ro/+lene and acr+lic t+/es. !n e*a(/le o7 these
7i)re (odi7ications is the incor/oration o7 1.;.0 I o7 organic nitro co(/ounds
@7or e*a(/le )ased on ;.nitro7ur7uralA )e7ore /ri(ar+ wet or dr+ s/inning.
Regenerated cellulosics can )e (odi7ied with car)o*+lic or sul7onic acid grou/s,
7ollowed )+ i((ersing in a solution o7 cationic anti(icro)ials which are then 7i*ed
to the cellulose )+ salt )onds. ! no2el a//roach to the controlled release o7
anti(icro)ials is (icroenca/sulation. 'hese ca/sules are incor/orated either in the
7i)re during /ri(ar+ s/inning or in coatings on the 7a)ric sur7ace.
1..+.) Go6nd antimic2o7ials
Se2eral anti(icro)ial 7inishes that 7unction at 7i)re sur7aces ha2e )een co((er.
cialised. One /o/ular /roduct is )ased on octadec+la(inodi(eth+ltri(etho*+.
sil+l/ro/+la((oniu( chloride @3ig. ,;.0aA. 'his (aterial can )e a//lied )+ either
e*haust or continuous (ethods. !7ter a//lication, a curing ste/ is re8uired to 7or( a
silo*ane /ol+(er coating on the 7i)re sur7ace. 'his coating i((o)ilises the
anti(icro)ial /art o7 the (olecule @the 8uaternar+ nitrogenA and /ro2ides the
necessar+ dura)ilit+ to laundering. !nother )ound 7inish has )een de2elo/ed with
PH&B, /ol+he*a(eth+lene )iguanide @3ig. ,;.0)A. PH&B can also )e either /ad or
e*haust a//lied. 'his che(ical has the /ro/er (olecular structure to )ind tightl+ to
7i)re sur7aces, +et still )e an e77ecti2e anti(icro)ial. 'he anti(icro)ial e77ect o7
cationicall+ charged (aterials is thought to in2ol2e interaction o7 the cationic
(olecule with anionic /hos/holi/ids in the (icro)e?s cell walls. 'his interaction is
)elie2ed to increase the /er(ea)ilit+ o7 the cell walls to the /oint o7 cell death.
! new and no2el a//roach to )ound anti(icro)ials was recentl+ introduced.
Cotton reacted with (eth+lol.;,;.di(eth+ld+antoin is then treated with h+/ochlorite
to 7or( chlora(ines in the 7i)re @3ig. ,;.4A. 'hese chlora(ine sites ha2e
anti)acterial acti2it+ and can 7unction as renewa)le anti(icro)ial agents )+
continued treat(ent with h+/ochlorite through household )leaching and washing
C>* KY1
AaB C>*4 *01 >)C >)C >) N
V
1, >*/
C>*
'ctadec9laminodimeth9lt2imethox9sil9l!2o!9lammoni6m chlo2ide
N> N>)
C>)C>)C>)N>CN>CN>C>)C>)C>) 1
,0.,-
Pol9hexameth9lene 7ig6anide
1(.2 Go6nd antimic2o7ials.
a7ter reacting with )acteria @3ig. ,;.5A. Pro)le(s with using higher concentrations o7
chlora(ines include +ellowing with heat @7or e*a(/le ironingA and cellulose 7i)re
da(age es/eciall+ signi7icant strength loss, caused )+ o*+. and h+drocellulose
@generated )+ h+/ochlorous acid, see Cha/ter ;.: and 3ig. ;.,1A.
!nother no2el a//roach is the a//lication o7 chitosan. 'his (odi7ied )io/ol+(er
is (anu7actured 7ro( ine*/ensi2e natural waste. Chitin 7ro( crustacean shells @e.g.
7ro( cra)sA is con2erted to chitosan )+ alkaline treat(ent. Chitin is an analogue o7
cellulose with N.acet+l grou/s instead o7 h+dro*+ grou/s in /osition 0 @3ig. ,;.;A.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image
141.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
1(.1 &o2mation of chlo2amines on cell6lose.
Fills 7acte2ia and is con5e2ted to
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image14).
!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
T2eatment with 'CI con5e2ts 7ac@ to 1(.' Renewa7le
7o6nd antimic2o7ial.
!lkali s/lits (ost o7 the( @<;.=; IA, generating 7ree a(ino grou/s that /ro2ide
7ungistatic and )acterostatic e77ects. 'his (ild anti(icro)ial acti2it+ (a+ )e a(/li.
7ied )+ (eth+lation o7 the a(ino grou/s to 8uaternar+ tri(eth+la((oniu(
structures. Chitosan can )e a//lied )+ (icroenca/sulation or )+ reacti2e )onding to
cellulose and )+ crosslinking o7 chitosan. 'he ad2antages o7 the anti(icro)ial 7inish
with chitosan include high a)sor)enc+ /ro/erties, (oisture control, /ro(otion o7
wound healing, non.allergenic, non.to*ic and )iodegrada)le /ro/erties.
,,
1... E5al6ation of antimic2o7ial finishes
'he !!'CC 'echnical &anual
,0
has a nu()er o7 test (ethods that are use7ul 7or
e2aluating anti(icro)ial 7inishes on te*tiles. 'hese tests are su((arised in 'a)le
,;.,. 'wo t+/es o7 anti(icro)ial tests are do(inant, the agar.)ased Cone o7
inhi)ition tests and the )acteria counting tests. 'he relati2el+ new $SOFD$S 01-5;
and the corres/onding N $SO 01-5; are )ased on the agar di77usion test and $SO
,,<0, is a )urial test @/art , 7or the deter(ination o7 an anti(icro)ial 7inish and /art
0 7or the deter(ination o7 the long.ter( resistanceA. ! detailed sur2e+ and a
co(/arison o7 the (ain test (ethods 7or e2aluating anti(icro)ial 7inishes is gi2en
)+ Dring
4
and su((arised in 'a)le ,;.0. 'he (ain di77iculties o7 these tests are
(ostl+ /oor re/roduci)ilit+ o7 the test results and o7ten insu77icient correlation
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image14*.!e
g" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
1(.( Chitosan f2om chitin.
)etween la)orator+ results and actual conditions in the 7ield. Care7ul attention to
detail and trained la)orator+ /ersonnel are essential 7or accurate and re/eata)le
results 7ro( these (ethods.
! (ore ra/id test (ethod, de2elo/ed )+ the British 'e*tile 'echnolog+ %rou/ in
the late ,=:1s, is )ased on adenosine tri/hos/hate @!'PA lu(inescence. 'he growth
o7 (icroorganis(s is assessed )+ 7ire7l+ )iolu(inescent detection and !'P
anal+sis.
4
Table 1(.1
(ntimic2o7ial test
methods 6sed with
textiles
((TCC test method

(nti7acte2ial acti5it9 of
textile mate2ials:
!a2allel st2ea@ methodW
test method 1+/ Aaga2
!late testB
(nti7acte2ial finishes on
textile mate2ials?
assessment of: test
method 144
(ntif6ngal acti5it9?
assessment on textile
mate2ials: mildew and
2ot 2esistance of
textilesW test method *4
(ntimic2o7ial acti5it9
assessment of ca2!etsW
test method 1/+
Ra!id <6alitati5e method fo2 dete2mining anti7acte2ial
acti5it9 of t2eated textile mate2ials against 7oth %2am1
!ositi5e and %2am1negati5e 7acte2ia. T2eated mate2ial is
!laced in n6t2ient aga2 that is st2ea@ed with test 7acte2ia.
Gacte2ial g2owth is dete2mined 5is6all9 afte2 inc67ation.
(nti7acte2ial acti5it9 is demonst2ated 79 8ones of
inhi7ition on and a2o6nd the textile.
K6antitati5e method fo2 dete2mining the deg2ee of
antimic2o7ial acti5it9 of t2eated textiles. The amo6nt of
7acte2ial g2owth in inoc6lated and inc67ated textiles is
dete2mined th2o6gh se2ial dil6tions and s67se<6ent
inoc6lations of ste2ile aga2. %2am1 !ositi5e and %2am1
negati5e 7acte2ia a2e 6sed.
&o62 methods fo2 dete2mining the antif6ngal !2o!e2ties
of t2eated textiles. 'ne method in5ol5es testing fa72ic
!2o!e2ties afte2 762ial in soil that contains f6ngi. In a
second method? cell6lose fa72ic is ex!osed to
Chaetomium globosum in an aga2 !late and the
s67se<6ent g2owth 5is6all9 dete2mined. The thi2d
method ex!oses textiles to 4spergillus niger in an aga2
!late and 5is6all9 dete2mines an9 f6ngal g2owth. The
fo62th method 6ses a h6midit9 a2 to ex!ose textiles to
mixt62e of f6ngi s!o2es. (n9 g2owth on the textile is
5is6all9 dete2mined. $ethods a2e gi5en fo2 the
<6alitati5e and <6antitati5e dete2mination of
anti7acte2ial acti5it9 and the <6alitati5e e5al6ation of
antif6ngal !2o!e2ties of ca2!et sam!les 6sing !2oced62es
and mate2ials simila2 to those in the a7o5e test methods.

1..- T2o67leshooting fo2 antimic2o7ial finishes
Di77iculties arise in se2eral areas with anti(icro)ial 7inishes. 'he use o7 )inders and
resins with controlled.release 7inishes can lead to sti77 hand and 7a)ric strength loss.
Colour changes a7ter 7inishing can also occur. So(e consu(ers (a+ de2elo/
der(atitis 7ro( /rolonged skin contact with anti(icro)ial 7inishes. 'here7ore
anti(icro)ial 7inishes are e*cluded 7ro( the Oko.'e* Standard ,11 la)el. $7 residual
7inish is i(/ro/erl+ dis/osed o7 at the 7inishing /lant, the desira)le and necessar+
(icro)es in the waste treat(ent 7acilit+ can )e destro+ed, causing serious ecological
/ro)le(s. !nother area o7 concern is whether the long ter( use o7 anti(icro)ial
Comments
/roducts in our societ+ will lead to the e2entual de2elo/(ent o7 resistant (icro)es
with /erha/s deadl+ conse8uences.
! general /ro)le( o7 anti(icro)ial 7inishes is their selecti2e e77ect. So(e are
Table 1(.2 Com!a2ison of main antimic2o7ial test methods acco2ding to D2ing
*

0at62ated atmos!he2e test Co6nt test
0imila2 to ((TCC T$ 1+/ ATa7le 1..1B and I0'
)4-+.. (ga2 ma9 contain a
n6t2ient o2 7e n6t2ient1f2ee
to test if sam!les a2e a
5ia7le
ca27on
so62ce.
Dis6al? g2owth of contact and
halo
K6ic@ test fo2 7acte2ia and
f6ngi?
5a2ia7ilit9 of
test
conditions
0i8e of halo indicates high diff6sion o2
efficienc9 of the 7iocide
(cc62ac9 %ood
Aat a5e2age A+ sam!lesB sam!le n6m7e2B
0am!les a2e 762ied 6! to
), da9s? longe2 fo2
coatings and !lastics.
Loss of tensile st2ength o2
weight. Cont2ol sam!les
m6st 2ot in a7o6t / da9s.
The most se5e2e test
\ 14 C A14
sam!lesB
0am!les a2e s!2a9ed with a
mixed s!o2e s6s!ension
Af6ngiB and held o5e2
wate2. '2ganism m6st
o7tain its ca27on f2om
mate2ial 6nde2 test.
Dis6al assessment
Aincl6ding a mic2osco!eB
Es!eciall9 s6ita7le fo2
testing f6ngi o2 9easts
Inoc6lated sam!les a2e left
in contact fo2 41)+ ho62.
'2ganisms a2e then
ext2acted and co6nted.
N6m7e2 of colon9
fo2ming 6nits Acf6B
Relati5el9 <6ic@?
disting6ishes 7etween
7iocide and 7iostat
'nl9 fo2 7acte2ia. Time
cons6ming and ex!ensi5e
\ *41+4 C
A- sam!lesB
(ga2 !late test 0oil 762ial test
Disad5antages
P2oced62e
E5al6ation
(d5antages
Long te2m and ex!ensi5e Long time of inc67ation
\ 14C
[

[
s
4
1
a


4
B

w
e77icient against 7ungi, others against %ra(./ositi2e or %ra(.negati2e )acteria.
'here7ore co((ercial )iocide 7or(ulations are o7ten co(/osed o7 a (i*ture o7
se2eral su)stances with di77erent acti2ities. !nother general /ro)le( is to 7ind the
)alance )etween high )iocide acti2it+ and the re8uire(ents o7 sa7e handling,
including non.to*icit+ to hu(ans at usual concentrations and en2iron(ental
de(ands. Consu(ers and their organisations ha2e )eco(e (ore aware o7 to*ico.
logical and en2iron(ental /ro)le(s, such as skin irritation, sensitising and allergic
/otential, )iodegrada)ilit+ and )ioaccu(ulation. $n res/onse to these concerns,
legislation increasingl+ restricts co((erce, handling, use and dis/osal o7 dangerous
and /otentiall+ dangerous su)stances.
Refe2ences
, >igo T A, Hand)ook o7 3i)er Science and 'echnolog+, Bol. $$, Che(ical Processing o7
3i)ers and 3a)rics, 3unctional 3inishes, Part !, - Ae*in - and 3 B 3ello @edsB, 6e*
Dor+, -arcel .e++er, (:=8, 86;-?&;/
0 >igo T A, 'e*tile Science and 'echnolog+ $$, 'e*tile Processing and Pro/erties,
Amsterdam, $lse#ier, (::?, &<&-&6&/
4 Dring $, ?!nti(icro)ial, rot/roo7ing and h+giene 7inishes?, in Textile Finishing, D
He+wood @ed.A Brad7ord, Societ+ o7 D+ers and Colourists, 0114, 4;,.4<,.
5 RaEan J, Antimicroial Finishes for Textiles, /resented at the Che(ical Princi/les o7
'e*tile 3inishing Short Course, North Carolina State "ni2ersit+, Raleigh, NC, &arch
,===.
; No(i+a J, 'akahashi, S and Noguchi R, ?S+nthesis o7 cr+stal structure o7 three sil2er @$A
co(/le*es with @sA.@OA.;.i*i.0.tetrah+dro7urancar)o*+lic acid @S.Hoth7A and its iso. (eric
7or(s @).Hoth7 and ), 3.Hoth7A showing wide s/ectra o7 e77ecti2e anti)acterial and
anti7ungal acti2ities. Chiral helical /ol+(ers in the solid state 7or(ed )+ sel7. asse()l+ o7
the di(eric !g@othe7A0 cores?, 2ournal of The Chemical 3ociety - .alton Transactions,
0111, issue :, ,454.,45:.
- htt/9FFwe).archi2e.orgFwe)F0111,01;015,11F htt/9FFwww.du/ont.co(F/owdersF
a(/o2er2.ht(l
< %ettings, R # and 'ri/lett B #, Boo+ of !a"ers, AATCC International Conference E
$xhiition, ,=<:, !nahei(, Cali7ornia, 0;=.0-,.
: Pa+ne J D and Judner D W, ?! dura)le anti.odor 7inish 7or cotton te*tiles?, Textile
Chemist and Colorist, ,==-, 2'@;A, 0:.41.
= Sun % and >u >, ?Dura)le and regenera)le anti.)acterial 7inishing o7 7a)rics9 )iocidal
/ro/erties?, Textile Chemist and Colorist, ,==:, 3)@-A, 0-.41.
,1 Jawata ', ?3irst /er(anentl+ anti)acterial and deodorant 7i)res?, Chemical Fires
International, ,==:, 4'@0A, 4:.54.
,, Jnittel D and Scholl(e+er , ?Chitosan und seine Deri2ate 7ur die 'e*til2eredlung?, /art ,
Textil#eredlung, ,=::, 33@4F5A, -<.<, and /art 5 -elliand Textilerichte, 0110, '3@,F 0A,
;:.-,.
,0 Technical -anual of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists,
!(erican !ssociation o7 'e*tile Che(ists and Colorists, Research 'riangle Park, NC,
,===.
1
-
Insect 2esist and mite !2otection finishes
16.1 Int2od6ction
Protection against )iological attack includes anti(icro)ial 7inishes, discussed in
Cha/ter ,;, and insect resist 7inishes, including /rotection against dust (ites. $nsect
resist 7inishes are che(ical treat(ents that /rotect wool and other ani(al 7i)res 7ro(
attack )+ the lar2ae o7 certain (oths and )eetles. Onl+ keratin. containing 7i)res are
da(aged )+ these insects. Dust (ites cause health /ro)le(s, such as allerg+, asth(a
and neuroder(itis. &ites are not insects, the+ )elong to the s/ider grou/ o7 ani(als.
3inishes that /rotect 7ro( dust (ites are co2ered in Section ,-.<.
Jeratin.digesting /ests include the clothes (oth @Tineola issiellaB, )rown house
(oth @1ofmanno"hilia "seudo"rettellaB, car/et )eetle @Anthrenus fla#i"esB and 7ur
)eetle @Attagenus"ellioB/ &oth /o/ulations can increase dra(aticall+ in a relati2el+
short ti(e. ach 7e(ale (oth la+s a)out ,;1 eggs and 7our to 7i2e generations /er
+ear can )e /roduced. Barious che(icals ha2e )een used to control da(age 7ro(
lar2al attack on wool,
,.<
)ut en2iron(ental concerns ha2e li(ited the use o7 so(e o7
the (ore e77ecti2e /roducts. !nnuall+, a)out 0 (illion /ounds weight @a)out =11
111 kgA o7 insect resist 7inishes are used with wool /roducts.
'he (ost i(/ortant (arket 7or insect resist 7inishes is the car/et industr+. &ore
than two.thirds o7 these 7inishes are used with 7loor co2erings and wall hangings.
Other signi7icant (arkets include ho(e 7urnishing and u/holster+ 7a)rics, )lankets,
uni7or(s, a//arel and 7urs.
16.2 $echanisms of insect 2esist finishes
$nsect resist 7inishes 7all into two t+/es, /oisons that inter7ere with the keratin.
digesting /rocess o7 the lar2ae and ner2e /oisons that ha2e )een s/eci7icall+
7or(ulated 7ro( agricultural /esticides 7or te*tile a//lications. O7 the two t+/es,
digestion.a77ecting /oisons are (ore s/ecies s/eci7ic, killing the 7eeding lar2ae )+
)locking enC+(es needed 7or digestion. Ner2e /oisons are (ore general control
agents, a77ecting a )roader range o7 insects. Both t+/es are considered to enter
through the lar2ae?s digesti2e tract )ecause insect resist treated wool onl+ kills
insects that ingest the 7i)re.
,
ach categor+ has distinct ad2antages and disad2antages. Digesti2e /oisons /resent
a lower en2iron(ental haCard than ner2e /oisons, )ut are not as e77ecti2e against
so(e /ests such as the )rown house (oth. Ner2e /oisons are usuall+ (ore ra/idl+
)iodegraded than digesti2e /oisons, )ut also e*hi)it less dura)ilit+. 'he usual
a//lication le2el o7 insect resist 7inishes 2aries 7ro( 1., to ,.; I on
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image14+.
!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
&*C
1-.1 Digesti5e !oisons 6sed as insect 2esist finishes.
weight o7 goods de/ending on the 7inal /roduct, the s/eci7ic 7inish and the
/er7or(ance re8uire(ents.
1-.* Chemist29 of insect 2esist finishes
Digesti2e /oisons were the 7irst dura)le insect resist 7inishes to )e co((ercialised.
arl+ /roducts were )ased on chlorinated tri/hen+l(ethanes @3ig. ,-.,aA and
chlor/hen+lids @3ig. ,-.,)A. #ater, sulco7enurons @3ig. ,-.,cA and 7luco7enurons
@3ig. ,-.,dA were introduced. 'hese co(/ounds could, 7or the (ost /art, e*haust to
wool under acidic conditions and ha2e reasona)le 7astness /ro/erties.
!gricultural /esticides were 7ound to )e e77ecti2e insect resist agents when
a//lied in e(ulsion 7or( to wool d+e)aths.
<
Dieldrin @3ig. ,-.0aA, one o7 the
original ner2e /oisons, is also highl+ to*ic to (a((als and a8uatic li7e and its use
has )een )anned in (ost countries. Products )ased on /er(ethrin @3ig. ,-.0)A, a
s+nthetic /+rethroid, are 2er+ e77ecti2e against (oth lar2ae, )ut ha2e less e77ect on
Anthrenus )eetles. 'o o2erco(e this disad2antage, co()ination /roducts o7
/er(ethrin and he*ah+dro/+ri(idine deri2ati2es @3ig. ,-.0cA ha2e )een introduced.
AaB Dield2in
A7B Pe2meth2in
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/med
ia/image14..!eg"
"# $ER%E&'R$(T
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/im
age14-.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/i
mage14/.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
>*C '>
AcB >exah9d2o!92imidine
>*C
CI
1-.2 Ne25e !oisons 6sed as insect 2esist finishes.
16.4 (!!lication of insect 2esist finishes
$nsect resist 7inishes are (ost co((onl+ a//lied during d+eing. 'he )est light
7astness and wet 7astness /ro/erties are o)tained when the 7inish is a)le to 7ull+
/enetrate the 7i)res. When a//l+ing insect resist 7inishes to woolFn+lon )lends, care
(ust )e taken in the choice o7 the /articular 7inish used. Chlor/hen+lid deri2ati2es
e*haust /re7erentiall+ to n+lon, lea2ing the wool 7i)res un/rotected, whereas
/er(ethrin.)ased /roducts distri)ute the(sel2es (ore uni7or(l+ )etween the two
7i)re t+/es.
!//lication o7 insect resist 7inishes during scouring is also /ossi)le when wool
+arns 7or car/ets are scoured in hank 7or( or when 7a)rics 7or )lankets, a//arel and
u/holster+ are /re/ared as /iece goods. 3inishes a//lied during scouring do not
co(/letel+ /enetrate the 7i)res owing to the lower te(/eratures and shorter
treat(ent ti(es in the scouring /rocess, so 7astness /ro/erties are not as dura)le as
with 7inishes a//lied during d+eing.
! third a//roach to the a//lication o7 insect resist 7inishes is to co()ine the
7inish with s/inning lu)ricants and then to a//l+ the co()ination to loose wool /rior
to s/inning. 'his (ethod o7 7inish a//lication /roduces +arns with onl+ a su/er7icial
treat(ent with (uch lower 7astness than a//lications (ade during d+eing or
scouring.
Che(ical cleaning o7 wool te*tiles as s(aller car/ets, wall hangings, u/holster+
7a)rics, 7urs or uni7or(s can easil+ )e co()ined with the a//lication o7 insect resist
7inishes. Di/ and cautious s/ra+ a//lication is used 7or the /rotection o7 wool and
silk te*tile e*hi)its in (useu(s.
16.5 E5al6ation of insect 2esist finishes
'he e77icienc+ o7 insect resist 7inishes can )e deter(ined )+ tests that (easure the
weight loss o7 the treated 7a)rics andFor the weight o7 insect e*cre(ent a7ter
e*/osure to insects under controlled conditions. 'he direct e*a(ination o7 e*/osed
7a)rics )+ (icrosco/ic (ethods to o)ser2e 7i)re da(age is also use7ul. 'he t+/ical
hal7 round )ite traces o7 the (oth lar2ae are o)ser2a)le. Standard (ethods 7or
e2aluating 7a)rics with insect resist 7inishes are gi2en in !!'CC 'est &ethod 05.
:
Procedures 7or culti2ating the test insects are included in this (ethod.
16.6 T2o67leshooting fo2 insect 2esist finishes
*/osure to light as well as (ild washing, dr+ cleaning and sha(/ooing can reduce
the e77ecti2eness o7 insect resist 7inishes signi7icantl+. 'he dura)ilit+ re8uire(ents
o7 the 7inal /roduct (ust )e care7ull+ considered during /roduct de2elo/(ent.
3inish )aths that are not co(/letel+ de/leted o7 insect resist 7inishes (ust )e
dis/osed o7 in accordance with local, state and 7ederal regulations. S/ecial care (ust
)e taken to /re2ent accidental release o7 these insect /oisons to the en2iron(ent.
1-./ &inishes fo2 !2otection f2om d6st mites
$n contrast to insects with three /airs o7 legs, (ites ha2e 7our /airs. &ites @lat.
AcariB are a grou/ o7 s/iders, characterised )+ the 7usion o7 the chest with the lower
)od+. Dust (ites li2e and /roli7erate in house te*tiles such as )edding, (attresses,
8uilts and also, )ut to a lesser e*tent in car/ets, u/holster+ and /illows. 'heir (ain
nutrients are skin scales which are /roduced and scra/ed o77 )+ the regeneration o7
the hu(an skin. Co(7orta)le te(/erature and (oisture conditions that are 7ound in
(odern houses are not onl+ agreea)le 7or hu(an inha)itants )ut also 7or dust (ites
and (icroorganis(s. Bedding and (attresses es/eciall+ are a /aradise 7or dust
(ites, /ro2iding ideal li2ing conditions.
Hu(an /ro)le(s arise 7ro( the 7aeces o7 these (ites. 'he+ contain the allergen
DR P,, which is regarded as res/onsi)le 7or the s+(/to(s o7 a)out one.hal7 o7 all
asth(a su77ers. !dditionall+ a)out ; I o7 the western /o/ulation are allergic to
(ildew.
=
Si(/le /rotection 7ro( these /ro)le(s is achie2ed )+ re/eated airing @reduced
(oistureA, lower roo( te(/erature, washing and cleaning. !llergic /ersons store
their )edding 7or se2eral hours in a 7reeCer or 2acuu( the( with a 2acuu( cleaner.
!n easier solution is /ro2ided )+ (ite. and skin.scale.tight 7a)rics 7or sheeting, )ed
co2ers and si(ilar te*tiles. With these tight wo2en 7a)rics, o7ten (ade 7ro(
(icro7i)res, the (ites are se/arated 7ro( their nutrients.
'here are se2eral che(ical a//roaches to sol2ing the dust (ite /ro)le( in
addition to this (echanical solution. &ite.s/eci7ic )iocides and )iostats are a//lied
7ollowing the strategies descri)ed in Cha/ter ,; on anti(icro)ial 7inishes. 'he+ are
either dura)l+ )onded to the 7i)re or control released. &icroenca/sulation is another
interesting /ossi)ilit+ 7or a//lication. Direct che(ical /rotection with s/eci7ic
/roducts against dust (ites is a2aila)le @e.g. "ltra 3resh 7ro( 'ho(/son Research
!ssociates @'R!A, Canada and !ctigard 7ro( SanitiCed !%, SwitCerland
=
A and (a+
)e co()ined with (ite.tight te*tiles. 3ungicides and )actericides hel/ )+ the wa+ o7
a side e77ect. 3ungi grow on the skin scales, /re/are the( as /re.digester and
/ro2ide additional nutrients 7or the (ites. 'R! 7ound out that co((on (ould 7ungi
and )acteria are i(/ortant in the (ite?s 7ood chain. 'heir reduction )+ anti(icro)ial
7inishes hel/s to control the (ite /o/ulation.
Refe2ences
, #ewis D #, %ool .yeing, &anchester, Societ+ o7 D+ers and Colourists, ,==0, ,0-.,40.
0 Haas J and 3uss !, ?&ottenschutCausrustung (it ulan Produkten . ein aktuelles Pro)le(?,
Deutscher Farer-5alender, ,=<:, '2, 51:.505.
4 >igo T A, Hand)ook o7 3i)er Science and 'echnolog+, Bol. $$, Che(ical Processing o7
3i)ers and 3a)rics, 3unctional 3inishes, Part ! and B, - Ae*in and 3 B 3ello @edsB, 6e*
Dor+, -arcel .e++er, (:=8 and (:=?/
5 >igo T A, 'e*tile Science and 'echnolog+ $$, 'e*tile Processing and Pro/erties,
Amsterdam, $lse#ier, (::?, &<;-&<=/
; 3ha* T and %hite - A, Hand)ook o7 3i)er Science and 'echnolog+, Bol. $$, Che(ical
Processing o7 3i)ers and 3a)rics, 3unctional 3inishes, Part B, - Ae*in and 3 B 3ello @edsB,
6e* Dor+, -arcel .e++er, (:=?, 8(=-8:6/
- &a+7ield R J, ?&oth/roo7ing9 a critical a//reciation o7 recent de2elo/(ents?, Textile
!rogress, &anchester, 'he 'e*tile $nstitute, ,=:0, 11@5A, ,.,,.
< Ai"son - and 1o"e ) 2, Proceedings ,st $nternational Wool 'e*tile Research Con7erence,
(:<<, $, <&8/
: Technical -anual of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists,
!(erican !ssociation o7 'e*tile Che(ists and Colorists, Research 'riangle Park, NC,
,===.
= Dring $, in Textile Finishing, D He+wood @ed.A, Brad7ord, Societ+ o7 D+ers and Colourists,
0114, 4;-.
1/
&inishing with en89mes: 7io1finishes
fo2 cell6lose
1/.1 Int2od6ction
Bio.7inishing, also called )io./olishing, is a 7inishing /rocess a//lied to cellulosic
te*tiles that /roduces /er(anent e77ects )+ the use o7 enC+(es. Bio.7inishing
re(o2es /rotruding 7i)res and slu)s 7ro( 7a)rics, signi7icantl+ reduces /illing,
so7tens 7a)ric hand and /ro2ides a s(ooth 7a)ric a//earance, es/eciall+ 7or knitwear
and as a /retreat(ent 7or /rinting. Second rate articles can o)tain the high 2alue e+e
a//eal o7 7irst rate ones. $n deni( /rocessing, )io.7inishing can reduce or eli(inate
a)rasi2e stones and the aggressi2e chlorine che(istr+, achie2ing the desired ?worn?
looks. Bio.7inishing is not onl+ use7ul 7or cotton )ut also 7or regenerated cellulose
7a)rics, es/eciall+ 7or l+ocell and (icro7i)re articles.
,
B+ incor/orating enC+(es
into detergents to re(o2e /rotruding sur7ace 7i)res, i(/ro2ed colour retention is
achie2ed a7ter (ulti/le launderings. 'he disad2antages o7 )io./olishing are the
7or(ation o7 7i)re dust, which has to )e re(o2ed thoroughl+, the re/roduci)ilit+ o7
the e77ect @which is de/endent u/on (an+ /ara(etersA and in the worst case, loss o7
tear strength.
nC+(es are high (olecular weight /roteins /roduced )+ li2ing organis(s to
catal+se the che(ical reactions essential 7or the organis(?s sur2i2al. 'he+ ha2e
co(/le* three.di(ensional structures co(/osed o7 long chains o7 a(ino acids @3ig.
,<.,A with (olecular weights ranging 7ro( ,1111 to a)out ,;1111 and occasionall+
to (ore than , 111 111. 'hese naturall+ occurring (olecules /ro2ide a high degree
o7 catal+tic s/eci7icit+ un(atched )+ (an.(ade catal+sts. 'he enC+(e and su)strate
7or( a ?lock and ke+? co(/le* that re8uires the enC+(e to ha2e a s/eci7ic (olecular
align(ent in order to act as a catal+st. 'he lock and ke+ theor+ o7 (il 3ischer was
)roadened )+ Joshland Jr to the induced.7it theor+ o7 the enC+(e.su)strate.
co(/le*. Che(ical reactions catal+sed )+ enC+(es can t+/icall+ )e carried out . as
is (ost usual in nature . under (ild a8ueous conditions without the need 7or high
te(/eratures, e*tre(e /H 2alues or che(ical sol2ents. What a drea( 7or e2er+
che(isth
(mino acid chain
1&.1 En89me st26ct62e.
Table 1&.1 En89me t2eatments of textiles
T9!e of en89me Textile 6se and effects
Cell6lases Gio1finishing? 7io1!olishing? anti1!illing? softness?
smoothness? l6st2e im!2o5ement and stone1washed effects on
denim
(m9lases 0tanda2d !2oced62e fo2 the 2emo5al of sta2ch wa2! si8e
P2oteases In ho6sehold washing agents 7ette2 2emo5al of !2otein
containing soil o2 stains. (nti1felting of wool? accom!anied 79
high loss of weight? tea2 st2ength and of the t9!ical handle?
)*
deg6mming of sil@ with the !2o7lem of sil@ fi72oin damage
Li!ases In dete2gents fo2 the h9d2ol9sis of li!ids
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image14,.!e
g" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
Pectinases >9d2ol9sis of !ectins? fo2 exam!le in cotton !2e!a2ation
+
and
2etting of flax and hem! Catalases Catal9se the decom!osition
of h9d2ogen !e2oxide? im!o2tant
7efo2e 2eacti5e d9ing o2 !2inting of !e2oxide 7leached fa72ics
and 9a2n
Pe2oxidases Used as an en89matic 2inse !2ocess afte2 2eacti5e d9eing?
oxidati5e s!litting of h9d2ol9sed 2eacti5e d9es on the fi72e and
in the li<6o2? !2o5iding 7ette2 wet fastness? decolo62ised waste wate2 and !otentiall9
toxic decom!osition com!o6nds Aa2omatic nit2o1com!o6ndsB Ligninases Remo5al
of 7622s and othe2 !lant com!o6nds f2om 2aw wool
Collagenases Remo5al of 2esid6al s@in !a2ts in wool Este2ases In de5elo!ment:
!ol9este2 finish? 2emo5al of oligome2s
Nit2ilases In de5elo!ment: !ol9ac29lonit2ile !2e!a2ation fo2 7ette2
colo2ation
nC+(es 7ind co((ercial use in detergents, leather /rocessing, )aking, )rewing,
cheese (anu7acture, 7ruit Euice /rocessing, dair+ /roduction, ani(al 7eed, wine
(aking and te*tiles. ! wide 2ariet+ o7 di77erent enC+(es 7inds use in te*tile areas as
shown in 'a)le ,<.,. 'his cha/ter will 7ocus on cellulases, which are enC+(es that
catal+se the h+drol+sis o7 the cellulose /ol+(er. *ce/t 7or the /ero*idases, which
are used to i(/ro2e colour 7astness and are descri)ed in Cha/ter ,4, all the other
t+/es o7 enC+(es are used 7or /re/aration /rocesses and there7ore not included in
this discussion.
'he na(es o7 the e*a(/les o7 te*tile.rele2ant enC+(es 7ollow the no(enclature
o7 Duclau* 7ro( ,:=:, characterising an enC+(e )+ the end.s+lla)le ?ase?, added to
the na(e o7 the su)strate that is s/lit, s+nthesised or otherwise catal+sed. !s with all
catal+sts, enC+(es reduce the acti2ation energ+ o7 a s/eci7ic reaction. 'he disco2er+
o7 large 8uantities o7 new enC+(e s+ste(s a77orded a (ore di77erentiated
no(enclature, realised in ,=-5 )+ the $nternational "nion o7 Pure and !//lied
Che(istr+ @$"P!CA and the $nternational "nion 7or Bioche(istr+ @$"BA. $n the new
enC+(e classi7ication @CA the 7irst nu()er re7ers to one o7 the si* (ain grou/s and
the 7ollowing nu()ers to su)grou/s, 7or e*a(/le C 4.5.;.-, where 4 stands 7or
h+drolases.
;
1/.) (ction of cell6lase en89mes on cell6lose
nC+(es that h+drol+se cellulose are 7ound in nature in )oth Trichoderma and
1umicola 7ungi.
-
'he :@,.5A linkages )etween adEacent re/eat units in the cellulose
/ol+(er chain are the sites that are 2ulnera)le to catal+tic h+drol+sis )+ cellulases
@3ig. ,<.0A. 'hese enC+(es are thus a)le to /ro2ide a 7ood source 7or the organis(s
)+ /roducing glucose 7ro( cellulose. $ndustrial /roduction o7 cellulases in2ol2es
large scale growth o7 7ungal /o/ulations, 7ollowed )+ e*traction o7 the enC+(e. 'he
e*tracted enC+(es contain (ulti/le co(/onents that work together to +ield glucose
7ro( a cellulose /ol+(er chain.
<
!t least 7our co(/onents ha2e )een identi7ied as
)eing i(/ortant in /ro2iding e77icient glucose /roduction. ndo.glucanases
h+drol+se cellulose at rando( locations along the /ol+(er

! A11+B lin@age
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/i
mage143.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
'> C>)'>
Cell6lose !ol9me2 chain
n
1&.2 Cell6ase h9d2ol9sis site.
chain. Beta.glucanases h+drol+se cellulose /ol+(ers 7ro( the non.reducing end
/roducing glucose and lea2ing a /ol+(er chain with one less re/eat unit.
Cello)ioh+drolases /roduce cello)iose @the glucose di(erA 7ro( /ol+(er chains, and
cello)iases con2ert cello)iose into glucose. 'hese co(/onents and their /oints o7
attack on cellulose /ol+(er chains are shown sche(aticall+ in 3ig. ,<.4 and 3ig.
,<.5.
Nu(erous studies o7 the (echanis( o7 cellulase interactions with cellulose ha2e
)een re/orted.
:.,4
'he generall+ acce/ted (echanis( is adsor/tion o7 the endo.
glucanase, )eta.glucanase or cello)ioh+drolase co(/onents onto the 7i)re sur7ace
7ollowed )+ co(/le* 7or(ation with the cellulose /ol+(er chain and water. !7ter
h+drol+sis o7 the :@,.5A )ond, the enC+(e desor)s and is a2aila)le 7or 7urther
adsor/tion and reaction. ndo.glucanase e77ecti2el+ o/ens u/ (ore o7 the 7i)re
structure to attack )+ )eta.glucanase and cello)ioh+drolase. 'hese two co(/onents
in turn /roduce water.solu)le 7rag(ents 7ro( the e*/osed area. 'his s+nergistic
action allows 7or ra/id reduction in 7i)re strength.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image114.!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
1&.1 0chematic 2e!2esentation of cell6lose fi72e inte2nal st26ct62e.
Red6cing end g2o6!
1/.* Chemist29 of en89me finishing
&ore than with other che(ical reactions, the enC+(e catal+sed h+drol+sis o7
cellulose is strongl+ in7luenced )+ 7actors such as /H, te(/erature, ti(e and
agitation. 'he o/ti(al /H 7or a /articular cellulase de/ends u/on its origin.
Trichoderma-ased /roducts @so(eti(es called ?acid cellulases?A work )est at /H
5.;.-, whereas cellulases 7ro( 1umicola @o7ten called ?neutral cellulases?A are (ore
e77ecti2e at /H -.-.;.
-
'he reaction te(/erature is also critical since at low
te(/eratures, the reaction rate is slower than desired, )ut 2er+ high te(/eratures can
deacti2ate the enC+(e )+ /ro2iding enough energ+ to alter its (olecular align(ents
and there)+ destro+ its catal+tic a)ilit+. Since enC+(es are true catal+sts and are not
consu(ed during the che(ical reaction, the h+drol+sis reaction will continue until
either the reaction conditions change or the cellulose is /h+sicall+ re(o2ed 7ro( the
reaction (i*ture. &echanical agitation is i(/ortant in order 7or the h+drol+sis
reaction to /roceed e77icientl+. Recent work has de(onstrated that the kinetics o7 the
reaction are controlled )+ (ass trans7er e77ects.
,1
'he adsor/tion.desor/tion
(echanis( o7 enC+(e action de/ends on agitation to re(o2e h+drol+sis )+./roducts
and e*/ose new 7i)re areas to attack.
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image11
1.!eg" "# $ER%E&'R$(T
1&.' (ction of cell6lase com!onents on cell6lose.
Because the enC+(e?s catal+tic action is not reduced during the reaction, an
e77ecti2e (ethod o7 ending the h+drol+sis (ust )e e(/lo+ed to /re2ent e*cessi2e
7i)re loss. Since the (olecule?s /h+sical align(ents are crucial to its catal+tic a)ilit+,
/rocedures that alter the cellulase (olecule?s internal structure can )e used to
deacti2ate the catal+sis and halt the h+drol+sis. High te(/eratures @d <1 PC or ,-1
P3 7or at least 01 (in or short dr+ing at ,01 PC or 05: P3A, high /H @ d,1A and high
electrol+te content as well as enC+(e /oisons can ser2e to ter(inate the reaction )+
distorting the enC+(e?s (olecular sha/e.
Recent de2elo/(ents in enC+(e (anu7acturing ha2e led to co((ercial /roducts
that contain a /re/onderance o7 one cellulase co(/onent.
-
'hese ?(ono.co(/onent?
enC+(es are /roduced 7ro( (odi7ied 1umicola strains and are /ri(aril+ endo.
glucanases acti2e at /H <.<.; and are re7erred to as ?alkaline cellulases?.
1/.+ E5al6ation of 7io1finishing
'he re(o2al o7 cellulosic 7i)res to i(/ro2e /illing /er7or(ance, so7ten hand, and
create an a)raded a//earance re8uires not onl+ enC+(atic h+drol+sis )ut also
(echanical action to carr+ awa+ reaction )+./roducts /h+sicall+. 'he 7inal results
7ro( the h+drol+sis with res/ect to a//earance and hand are a77ected Eust as (uch )+
the (echanical co(/onents o7 the /rocess as )+ the che(ical co(/onents.
'here7ore, la)orator+ e2aluations o7 )io.7inished goods can onl+ /roduce relati2e
rather than a)solute results.
nC+(e su//liers deter(ine the acti2it+ o7 their /roducts )+ (easuring the e*tent
o7 the catal+sed reaction under care7ull+ controlled conditions. ! standard test e*ists
7or a(+lases @!!'CC 'est &ethod ,14A
,5
, )ut the e2aluation o7 cellulases is (ore
co(/le* and can 2ar+ 7ro( su//lier to su//lier. One co((on (ethod is to (easure
the degradation o7 car)o*+(eth+lcellulose solutions. !nother is to deter(ine the
weight or strength loss o7 standard cotton 7a)rics under la)orator+ conditions where
there is a correlation /ro)le(, )ecause the (echanical conditions o7 the technical
a//lication are di77erent to the la)orator+ ones. 3or e*a(/le, the h+drol+sis degree,
HD, is deter(ined )+ HD K @(1 . (AF(1 where (1 and m are the weight o7 the test
(aterial )e7ore and a7ter )io.7inishing.
1/.. T2o67leshooting fo2 7io1finishing
!s (echanical agitation is i(/ortant to e77ect the )io.7inishing, onl+ selected
/rocesses and (achines can )e used, 7or e*a(/le tu)ular 7a)ric /re7era)l+ cut to
o/en width and treated in o/en width washers. $n the ro/e 7or( the loosened 7i)re
/articles are 7iltered out )+ the 7a)ric and cannot easil+ )e re(o2ed. 'he /ad.)atch
/rocess, Eig or /ackage d+eing (achines are not e77ecti2e in )io.7inishing.
Not all cellulase enC+(es gi2e identical results, e2en with si(ilar 7a)rics in
si(ilar e8ui/(ent. Cellulases deri2ed 7ro( Trichoderma t+/icall+ are the (ost
aggressi2e in their action, whereas (ono.co(/onent endo.glucanases o7ten re8uire
the (ost (echanical action to achie2e the desired e77ects. Slow deacti2ation o7 the
cellulases during trans/ort and storage can ad2ersel+ a77ect the re/roduci)il. it+ o7
the resulting e77ects. $7 cotton is not washed care7ull+ )e7ore )io.7inishing, secondar+
7i)re co(/ounds as residual )iocides can deacti2ate the cellulases. 'he sa(e is true
7or natural or s+nthetic tannic acids, and resist or 7astness i(/ro2ing agents 7or wool
or n+lon in cellulose 7i)re )lends.
Deacti2ation o7 cellulases a7ter the desired e77ects ha2e )een achie2ed is 2er+
i(/ortant. $7 the enC+(e is not co(/letel+ re(o2ed 7ro( the 7a)ric, or is not
e77ecti2el+ deacti2ated, the h+drol+sis reaction will continue, although at a slower
rate. !s 2er+ large (olecules, cellulases cannot di77use into the cr+stalline /arts o7
the cellulose 7i)res. 'he+ react on the 7i)re sur7ace, so 7i)re da(age takes ti(e. But
e2entuall+ enough h+drol+sis will ha2e taken /lace to weaken the a77ected 7a)rics or
gar(ents, leading to custo(er co(/laints and returns.
"ndesira)le deacti2ation (a+ )e caused )+ high te(/erature and ti(e, 7or
e*a(/le, caused )+ trans/ort and storage and also )+ enC+(e /oisons such as certain
sur7actants @es/eciall+ cationic onesA, 7or(aldeh+de.containing /roducts or hea2+
(etal ions. !n acti2ation e77ect on cellulases was re/orted )+ Nicolai and co.
workers.
,;,,-
!lkaline /retreat(ent, low concentrations o7 selected non.ionic
sur7actants, /ol+car)o*+lic acids and /ol+2in+l /+rrolidone can enhance the )io.
7inishing o7 cellulosics.
'he use o7 /H )u77ers during the h+drol+sis reaction is strongl+ reco((ended,
es/eciall+ when a)rading deni( 7a)rics. Cellulase enC+(es ha2e 2er+ narrow /H
ranges o7 e77ecti2eness and deni( 7a)rics can ha2e signi7icant 8uantities o7 residual
alkali 7ro( the indigo d+eing /rocess. Bu77ers are re8uired to (aintain the
a//ro/riate reaction conditions 7or (a*i(u( enC+(e e77ecti2eness.
Because the e77ect o7 /rocessing au*iliaries on cellulase catal+sis is di77icult to
/redict, it is i(/ortant to e2aluate an+ changes in /rocessing 7or(ulas care7ull+ )+
conducting s(all scale trials )e7ore (aking signi7icant changes in /roduction
/rocedures.
Refe2ences
, Hoh)erg ' and 'hu(( S, ?3inishing o7 l+ocell . /art 4?, -elliand International, ,===, (@,A,
:4.:;.
0 Breier R, ?Rein enC+(atische !nti7ilCausrustung 2on Wolle nach de( #anaC+(. Ber7ahren?,
-elliand Textilerichte, 0111, '1@5A, 0=:.410.
4 Stohr R, ?nC+(e.Biokatal+satoren in der 'e*til2eredlung?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,==;,
76@,,A, ,1,1.,1,4.
5 tters, J N, !nnis P !, American .yestuff )e"orter, ,==: '7@;A ,:.04.
; $n9yme 6omenclature, !(sterda(.#ondon.New York, lse2ier, ,=<4.
- Stewart C W, Boo+ of !a"ers, (::6 AATCC International Technical Conference E
$xhiition, Nash2ille, 'N, !!'CC, Research 'riangle Park, NC, ,==-, 0,0.0,<.
< 6o#o's 1andoo+ of !ractical Biotechnology, Bo+ce C O # @ed.A, Bags2aerd, Den(ark,
No2o $ndustries !FS, ,=:0, <<.:,.
: #ee Y and 3an # ', Biotechnology and Bioengineering, ,=:0, 24@,,A, 04:4.051-.
= Buschle.Biller % and 'raore & J, Textile )esearch 2ournal, ,==:, 6'@4A, ,:;.,=0. ,1
Sarker ! and tters J N, AATCC )e#ie*, 011,, 1@4A, 5:.;0.
,, Ca2aco.Paulo !, !l(edia # and Bisho/ D, Textile )esearch 2ournal, ,==-, 66@;A, 0:<0=5.
,0 #i Y and Hardin $, Textile Chemist and Colorist, ,==:, 3)@=A, 04.0=.
,4 "eda &, Joo H and Wakida ', extile )esearch 2ournal, ,==5, 64@,1A, -,-.-,:.
,5 Technical -anual of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists,
!(erican !ssociation o7 'e*tile Che(ists and Colorists, Research 'riangle Park, NC,
,===.
,; Nicolai & and Nechwatal !, ?in7luss7aktoren )ei( Bio7inish.ProCess?, International
Textile Bulletin, 0110, 4'@-A, ;0.
,- Nicolai &, Nechwatal ! and &iek J.P, ?Bio7inish.ProCesse in der 'e*til2eredlung?,
Textil#eredlung, ,===, 34@;F-A, ,=.00.
1
,
No5el finishes
18.1 Int2od6ction
'he ter( ?no2el 7inishes? is used in the sense o7 new t+/es o7 7inishes. 'his should
(ean (ore than new research and de2elo/(ent @ReDA ideas or /atents. 3irst, new
/roducts should )e a2aila)le or )e in the industrial test /hase. On the other hand, i7
a no2el 7inish is success7ul and acce/ted )+ the (arket, it is no longer reall+ new
and should there7ore )e discussed in a cha/ter o7 its own. So, although the content
o7 this cha/ter (ight )e outdated in a relati2el+ short ti(e, it still deser2es so(e
interest.
18.2 (nti1odo62 and f2ag2ance finishes
'he hu(an sense o7 s(ell registers not onl+ the 8ualit+ o7 di77erent odours )ut also
co()ines it auto(aticall+ and o7ten unconsciousl+ with 7eelings ranging 7ro(
agreea)le to un/leasant. 'his connection is used in (an+ wa+s. Per7u(ed /eo/le
and (erchandise )eco(e (ore attracti2e and stink )o()s are used to the o//osite
e77ect. 'e*tiles ha2e a 2er+ large s/eci7ic sur7ace @7or e*a(/le 1., to , (
0
g
.,
A.
'here7ore the+ attract, adsor) and store 2arious gaseous or 2olatile su)stances 7ro(
their surroundings. 'his high adsor/tion ca/acit+ can )eco(e a /ro)le( with
un/leasant s(elling su)stances under desor/tion conditions. Desor/tion is accel.
erated )+ te(/erature, ti(e and the /ossi)ilit+ o7 gaseous e*change, 7or e*a(/le
airing.
1,.).1 (nti1odo62 finishes
Because un/leasant odours ha2e a negati2e i(/act on te*tiles and their co(7ort
/ro/erties, there is a need 7or anti.odour 7inishing. &alodour is an increasing
/ro)le( with te*tiles /acked, shi//ed and stored o2er a long /eriod o7 ti(e,
es/eciall+ 7or the (ail.order )usiness. 'he si(/lest wa+s o7 re(o2ing such
(alodours are )+ airing and washing. 'here are also consu(er /roducts a2aila)le
which can )e s/ra+ed onto te*tiles to /re2ent or reduce odours. &ostl+ the+ co2er
onl+ the un/leasant odours with )etter ones and the+ are not resistant to
Table 1..1 Possi7ilities fo2 deodo2ising textiles

(d5antages and disad5antages
Co5e2ing $ostl9 79 s!2a9ing of
!e2f6mes
Remo5al (i2ing
Remo5al ;ashing o6t odo2o6s
s67stances
Remo5al (dso2!tion of odo2o6s
s67stances? e.g. in c9clo1 dext2ines o2 on acti5e
ca27on
Decom!osition '8onisation
Catal9tic oxidation with ai2 at 2oom tem!e2at62e
(ntimic2o7ial finishes o2 fi72e
modifications hinde2 the
decom!osition of sweat
Eas9 handling 76t not f2ee f2om odo62? sho2t1
acting? not !e2manent
0im!le and f2ee of a!!lied chemist29 76t needs a
long time and has 2est2icted efficienc9? diffic6lt9
of handling la2ge amo6nts
Con5entional techni<6e with
mostl9 good effects? side effect
cleaning 76t high costs of d29ing
Pe2manent to washing and d29
cleaning 76t limited 6!ta@e and
sat62ation? 2e<6i2es 2egene2a1
tion? fo2 exam!le 79 washing
with the costs of d29ing
De29 effecti5e? side effect
disinfection 76t need of s!ecial
e<6i!ment? !2o7a7ilit9 of
damaging d9est6ffs? fl6o2escent
72ightene2s and sensiti5e fi72es
li@e n9lon Pe2manent with
2es!ect to 6s6al cleaning? no
sat62ation and 2egene2ation 76t
need of la2ge s62faces? 2est2icted
to indoo2 a!!lications li@e
ca2!ets and 2olle2 7linds
Pe2manent with 2es!ect to
washing and d29 cleaning?
es!eciall9 in the case of fi72e
modification? 2est2icted to smells
f2om sweat decom!osition?
the2efo2e onl9 fo2 clothing with
s@in contact.

washing. 'here re(ains a need 7or a /er(anent anti.odour 7inish. 'a)le ,:., shows
an o2er2iew on the /ossi)ilities o7 deodoration o7 te*tiles.
One wa+ to /re2ent the de2elo/(ent o7 un/leasant odours that originate 7ro( the
deco(/osition o7 sweat are anti(icro)ial 7inishes or )acteriostatic (odi7ied 7i)res.
P2inci!le $ethod
Decom!osition
P2e5ention
'he+ /re2ent the deco(/osition o7 /ers/iration )+ )acteria to )ad s(elling /roducts
as descri)ed in Cha/ter ,;.
!nother /rinci/le o7 anti.odour 7inishes is the hindrance and dela+ o7 adsor/tion
and desor/tion o7 un/leasant s(elling su)stances )+ the te*tiles. 'his odour
control is o7ten )ased on c+clode*trins. 'he+ are /ol+saccharides )uilt 7ro( si* to
eight D.glucose units as shown in 3ig. ,:.,.
,,0
'he+ are 7or(ed )+ enC+(atic
degradation o7 starch and are non.to*ic and not skin sensitising. C+clode*trins are
deco(/osed )+ starch desiCing agents and conditions such as high te(/erature, acid,
o*idising agents and a(+lases, )ut these conditions can )e a2oided during 7inishing
and nor(al usage.
C+clode*trins are torus.sha/ed (olecules with h+dro/ho)ic ca2ities )etween 1.;
and 1.:; n(. 'he+ can store other (olecules that 7it into these ca2ities de/ending on
their sha/e and inter(olecular attraction. 'he e(/t+ ca2ities can )e 7illed with organic
(olecules 7ro( sweat so that their (icro)iological deco(/osition and the 7or(ation
o7 (alodours are /re2ented. On the other hand, the (alodorous deco(/osition
/roducts can also )e stored i7 the+ can 7it into the ca2ities. 'hese )ound (olecules can
then )e re(o2ed )+ nor(al washing.
3or an e77ecti2e anti.odour 7inish the c+clode*trins (ust )e resistant to nor(al
washing. 'heir 7i*ation to the te*tile 7i)re is (anaged )+ che(ical )inding, de/ending
on the kind o7 7i)re. C+clode*trin deri2ati2es with reacti2e grou/s, si(ilar to 7i)re
reacti2e d+estu77s, are used 7or cellulose, 7or e*a(/le (onochlorotriaCin+l anchors.
C+lode*trin deri2ati2es with sul7onic acid grou/s 7or( ionic )onds with the a(ino
grou/s o7 /ol+a(ide 7i)res, wool and silk. 3i*ation to wool is also achie2ed with
reacti2e /ol+urethanes, as used 7or anti. 7elting.
4
Nor(all+, howe2er, wool and silk do
not need anti.odour 7inishing. 'hese natural 7i)res are known 7or their a)ilit+ to store
/ers/iration without the de2elo/(ent o7 (alodours. On /ol+ester 7i)res the 7i*ation o7
a1c9clodext2in !1c9clodext2in 91c9clodext2in
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/media/image11).!eg" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
1..1 0t26ct62es and dimensions of c9clodext2ins. The a1fo2m has six? the !1fo2m has
se5en and the 91fo2m has eight? 1?+1connected D1gl6cose 6nitsW dimensions a2e in
!m acco2ding to G6schmann et al.
1
c+clode*trins can )e acco(/lished )+ h+dro/ho)ic attractions, )ased on a
c+clode*trin (odi7ication with long alk+l chains or other h+dro/ho)ic grou/s.
!nother (eans o7 7i*ation is nearl+ inde/endent o7 7i)re t+/e and uses )inders si(ilar
to those used 7or /ig(ent /rinting. 'he )inder is a//lied )+ /adding and 7i*ed )+ heat
in such a wa+ that (ost o7 the adsor/tion /roducts are not co(/letel+ coated )+ the
)inder 7il(. C+clode*trins can also )e 7i*ed on cellulose )+ co()ination with an eas+.
care 7inish such as the usual 6.(eth+lol co(/ounds without losing their ca/a)ilit+ to
attract and store organic (olecules like )ut+ric acid, which is re/resentati2e o7 the
(alodorous sweat deco(/osition /roducts.
,
!nother interesting a//roach to anti.odour 7inishes is the incor/oration o7 s/eci7ic
catal+tic (aterials into a thin sur7ace coating. 'hese catal+sts, 7or e*a(/le a (i*ture o7
organic nitrogen co(/ounds and (etal salts, ena)le o*idation o7 un/leasant or har(7ul
co(/onents in the air o7 interior roo(s at roo( te(/erature. %ood e77ects are re/orted
7or 7or(aldeh+de, nicotine, acetaldeh+de, acetic acid, a((onia, tri(eth+la(ine,
h+drogen sul7ide and (eth+l (erca/tan. 'hese co(/ounds are o*idised to har(less
/roducts like water and car)on dio*ide.
5
!nother ad2antage o7 this catal+tic reaction
co(/ared to odour adsor)ers like the c+clode*trins is that there is no saturation le2el
and no need 7or regeneration. 'his 7inish is restricted to household te*tiles in (ainl+
closed roo(s and there7ore is a//lied to car/ets and indoor light and sun /rotection
roller )linds and 2ertical la(ella.
S/ecial /rotecti2e clothing is a2aila)le co((erciall+ to /ro2ide /rotection against
har(7ul or to*ic gases. 'his o7ten has a 7inish consisting o7 acti2ated car)on /articles
7i*ed )+ a )inder 7il( to the te*tile sur7ace. 'his /rinci/le is also used in odour acti2e
7ilters, 7or e*a(/le air 7reshener 7or cars and also 7or the adsor/tion o7 e(ission gases
7ro( internal co()ustion engines. 'he 2er+ high s/eci7ic sur7ace o7 the /orous
acti2ated car)on @;11.0111 (
0
g
.,
A /ro2ides the high adsor/tion ca/acit+ o7 these
/rotecti2e te*tiles. Other adsor/tion agents incor/orated in te*tile 7ilters are alu(iniu(
o*ide, Ceolite and organic )ono/ore with /article siCes o7 1.5.= /(.
;
Recentl+, se2eral new anti.odour 7inishing /roducts ha2e )eco(e a2aila)le that
corres/ond to the /rinci/les descri)ed a)o2e. So(e o7 these /roducts are also
reco((ended and used 7or 7ragrance 7inishes.
1,.).) &2ag2ance finishes
C+clode*trins can )e 7illed not onl+ with /ers/iration co(/ounds )ut also with
/er7u(e oils. $7 the 2a/our /ressure o7 the oils is high enough )ut not too high, the
/er7u(e will e2a/orate o2er an e*tended ti(e in low concentrations deli2ering a
/leasant scent to the 7inished te*tile. 'his 7inish is not /er(anent to washing or
che(ical cleaning )ut regeneration )+ the user is /ossi)le.
,
'his see(s to )e (ore a
7inish that ai(s to sti(ulate the )u+er o7 these te*tiles. 'he /ur/ose is si(ilar to the
a//lication o7 /er7u(es in household washing agents or in new cars, with the
di77erence that the c+clode*trins ena)le co(/arati2el+ long 7ragrance release and can
)e regenerated. 'his release can )e adEusted (ainl+ to the wearing o7 the te*tiles, 7or
e*a(/le the )od+ (oisture and te(/erature, and /erha/s to (o2e(ent, causing air
circulation. !dditionall+, c+clode*trins can )e 7illed with /har(aceuticall+ acti2e
su)stances or cos(etic /roducts which are o7 interest 7or (edical te*tiles or 7or te*tiles
designed to /ro2ide skin care.
'hese additi2es can also )e /laced into (icroca/sules with a thin /ol+(er skin. 3or
e*a(/le, the+ are 7illed with natural aro(as and a//lied to the te*tile 7ro( a water
dis/ersion in co()ination with a /ol+urethane or silicone )inder. 'he ratio o7 (icro
)u))les to )inder deter(ines the e77icienc+ and /er(anence o7 the 7inish. %ood results
a7ter 5.,0 washing c+cles are re/orted. 'he enca/sulated (aterials are released during
wearing as the (icro )u))les )urst 7ro( ru))ing caused )+ )od+ (o2e(ent or )+
di77usion through the thin la+er o7 the ca/sules.
-,<
! (arket a2aila)le enca/sulation in
(icro )u))les, )uilt 7ro( chitosan, is descri)ed )+ Ha(/e.
:
'he incor/oration and
controlled release o7 7ragrance co(/ounds is also /ro2ided )+ the sol.gel nano.
techni8ue descri)ed in Section ,:.5.
1,.).* Test methods
Si(ilar to the su)Eecti2e e2aluation o7 the hand o7 te*tiles )+ the sense o7 the touch,
odour changing 7inishes were traditionall+ onl+ checked )+ the hu(an nose. Now an
interesting o)Eecti2e (ethod to (easure the odour /ro/erties o7 te*tile 7inishes has
)een re/orted.
=
'he s+ste(atic (easure(ent o7 odour gradation, S&O%, was
de2elo/ed )+ &P! St %allen, SwitCerland in coo/eration with Ci)a S/ecialit+
Che(icals $nc. 'his auto(ated 8uantitati2e anal+tical (easure(ent is )ased on gas
chro(atogra/h+ and i(itates the real li7e odour c+cle o7 te*tiles. !dsor/tion and
desor/tion o7 treated and untreated te*tiles are co(/ared with the relati2e odour inde*
@RO$A 2alue. 'he RO$ can )e calculated 7or (odel su)stances re/resenting hu(an
sweat, cigarette s(oke and /er7u(es. !dditional /ara(eters o7 i(/ortance are the t+/e
o7 te*tile and its 7inish, te(/erature, e*/osure ti(e and hu(idit+. ! recent /u)lication
descri)es si(/ler and su)Eecti2e test (ethods.
4
'he co(/le* interaction o7 7actors
)rings to (ind the /ro)le(atic e2aluation o7 the 8ualit+ o7 /er7u(es and wines and the
old 8uestion o7 whether the hu(an senses or highl+ de2elo/ed anal+tical
(easure(ents are the )est sensors 7or s(ell and taste.
1,.* &i72e s62face modif9ing finishes 6sing !lasma and
2adiation technologies
'his 7i)re and 7a)ric (odi7ication is )ased on /hoto/h+sical and /hotoche(ical
/rocesses induced )+ e*/osure to /las(a gases. Reacti2e gases are used to create
che(ical 7i)re sur7ace (odi7ications such as re/ellenc+ o7 water, oil and soil and
higher 7i)re resistance against aggressi2e che(icals. 'hese (odi7ications are (ainl+
restricted to the 7i)re sur7ace to a2oid da(aging the 7i)re )ulk, 7or e*a(/le loss o7
strength. Other /ossi)le disad2antages are the li(ited e77ecti2eness and dura)ilit+ o7
/las(a treat(ents o7 te*tiles at nor(al /ressures @corona dischargingA and the
technical e77ort re8uired to use /las(a technolog+ at low /ressures.
,1
3ewer disad2antages are re/orted
0,,,
7or the /hoto.induced acti2ation reactions with
e*ci(er.ultra2iolet @"BA light sources. 'he+ co()ine si(/le te*tile /rocessing with
the high e77icienc+ o7 /ulsated (onochro(atic "B light. 'hese reactions are
acco(/lished with either non.a)sor)ing gases and "B a)sor)ing 7i)res like /ol+ester
and ara(id or with "B a)sor)ing gases and "B trans/arent 7i)res such as
/ol+eth+lene.
'he "B radiation a)sor)ed )+ the 7i)re causes clea2age o7 che(ical )onds (ainl+
on the 7i)re sur7ace, 7or e*a(/le the ester grou/s o7 /ol+eth+lene tere/hthalate, and the
7or(ation o7 radicals. 'hese radicals 7or( new )onds with the reacti2e gases in the
at(os/here. 3or e*a(/le, ,,;.he*adiene creates a h+dro/ho)ic h+drocar)on 7i)re
sur7ace and unsaturated 7luorinated gases @such as he*a7luoroeth+leneA 7or(
oleo/ho)ic sur7aces. Photo.o*idation in air at(os/here +ields (ainl+ car)o*+l grou/s
that create a h+dro/hilic 7i)re sur7ace. Pol+eth+lene does not a)sor) "B radiation at,
7or e*a(/le 000 n( wa2elength, in contrast to 2arious acr+lic (ono(ers. 'his s+ste(
leads to /ol+acr+l.gra7ted /ol+eth+lene 7a)rics with interesting new /ro/erties like
h+dro/hilicit+, d+ea)ilit+ or /rinta)ilit+.
Pretreat(ent with e*ci(er lasers can create su/er.re/ellent e77ects on /ol+ester or
ali/hatic /ol+a(ide 7i)res. Radiation changes their originall+ s(ooth sur7ace to a
rather regular roll.like sur7ace structure /er/endicular to the 7i)re a*is caused )+
regular rela*ation.
,0
'his structuring, co()ined with gra7ting /rocesses leads to high
re/ellenc+ e77ects.
,4
On the other hand, adsor/tion and de/osition o7 2er+ s(all
/articles @in the (icro(etre rangeA in the roll structures is /ossi)le, creating s/ecial
7ilter e77ects.
! use7ul side e77ect o7 the radiation and es/eciall+ the /las(a treat(ents is the
cleaning o7 the 7i)re sur7ace. 3i)re lu)ricants, siCing agents, soil and other residuals are
)urned o77. 'his /ro2ides, co()ined with the creation o7 reacti2e radicals on the 7i)re
sur7ace, )etter wetting /ro/erties and a higher adhesion o7 coatings and la(inations.
!nti.7elting 7inishes 7or wool are also achie2a)le with /las(a treat(ents.
1,.+ &i72e s62face modification 79 sol1gel finishes with
ino2ganic oxide films
3or (an+ a//lications, es/eciall+ technical a//lications, te*tiles should )e /rotected
against /h+sical or che(ical assault, 7or e*a(/le a)rasion, da(age )+ "B radiation
and aggressi2e che(icals. 'his can )e achie2ed )+ thin crosslinked la+ers o7 inorganic
or (i*ed inorganic.organic /ol+(ers on the 7i)re sur7ace
0,,5,,;
'hese s/ecial 7inishes
are carried out with co((on techni8ues at (oderate /rocessing te(/eratures that do
not e*ceed ,;1 PC and result in 2er+ thin /ol+(er 7il(s on the 7i)re sur7ace.
Precursors that create a crosslinked /ol+(er )ased on an inorganic network a7ter
h+dro*+lation and /ol+condensation are (ostl+ silica co(/ounds with three or 7our
alko*+ grou/s, /re7era)l+ (etho*+ grou/s. 'he h+drol+sis o7 the alko*+ grou/s
creates so.called nano.sols. 'he+ are a//lied as relati2el+ sta)le dis/ersions with a
(etal o*ide content o7 a)out 4.01 I )+ weight. 'he o*ide /articles are originall+
s(aller than ,1 n(, leading to the na(e nano.sol. During a//lication onto the te*tiles,
a gel is 7or(ed. !7ter dr+ing the gel 7or(s a thin /orous la+er on the 7i)re sur7ace,
called a *erogel 7il(.
$n the case o7 (i*ed inorganic.organic h+)ride /ol+(ers, also called or(ocers
@organicall+ (odi7ied cera(icsA, the 7ourth )ond /artner at so(e silicon ato(s can )e
a h+drocar)on grou/, o7ten 7unctionalised, 7or e*a(/le )+ a gl+cidil, chlorine or
(ethacr+lic reacti2e end grou/. 'hese end grou/s can react with each other or with
corres/onding grou/s o7 7i)res, 7or e*a(/le h+dro*+l grou/s o7 cellulose or a(ino
grou/s o7 /ol+a(ide, creating a highl+ dura)le 7inish. Other organic grou/s connected
to the silicon ato(s can )e 7luoroalk+l, )ioacti2e or d+estu77 grou/s. 2en without
7i)re.reacti2e organic grou/s these /orous o*ide 7il(s ha2e a high a77init+ to the 7i)re
sur7ace.
!nother ad2antage o7 the silicon o*ide network is that it can )e (odi7ied in 2arious
wa+s as shown in 3ig. ,:.0. One wa+ is co.condensation o7 the (ost used
tetra(eth+lol silanes with other kinds o7 (etal o*ides. !nother wa+ is co. h+drol+sis
and co./ol+condensation with su)stituted tri(etho*+ silanes where this su)stituent is,
7or e*a(/le, a long alk+l chain 7or h+dro/ho)ation, an organic /ortion with /olar
structures 7or antistatic e77ects, a 7luorocar)on 7or the release o7 water, oil and soil or a
)ioacti2e grou/. 'he easiest (ethod o7 (odi7ication is the /h+sical one, the si(/le
addition o7 the desired che(icals. 'he+ are then incor/orated in the /orous network o7
the (etal o*ides and are released in a (ore or less controlled wa+.
1..2 0chematic 2e!2esentation of the chemical modifications of the silicon
oxide netwo2@. Ino2ganic modification with $ O (l? Ti? _2 and othe2s? o2ganic
INCLUDEPICTURE
"../Downloads/me
dia/image11*.!e
g" "#
$ER%E&'R$(T
modification with R O al@9l? a29l? 7oth witho6t and with additional f6nctional
g2o6!s? fo2 exam!le fl6o2oal@9l? o2 R O 7ioacti5e o2 d9est6ff g2o6!.
Table 1..2 Possi7ilities fo2 sto2ing and 2eleasing effect chemicals 79 finishing of
textiles
P2inci!les of sto2age? fixation and 2elease (d5antages and disad5antages

Enclosure by com!lex fo2mation with ca$e
compounds like cyclode&trins, fixed with
!2ima29 o2 seconda29 5alence fo2ces to the fi72e
s62face? 2elease 79 e5a!o2ation o2 dis!lacement
Enclosure in micro bubbles f2om !ol91
62ethane o2 silicone? 7inde2 fixation to the fi72e
s62face? 2elease 79 762st of the 7677les th2o6gh
2677ing
#dsorption in porous metal o&ide films,
fixed as a !ol9me2 netwo2@ on the fi72e s62face?
2elease 79 e5a!o2ation o2 t2ansfe2 in li<6id fo2m
79 wetting
Giodeg2ada7le and ha2mless? 76t 2est2icted to
molec6les of fitting sha!e and !ola2it9
Ah9d2o!ho7ic1 it9BW onl9 fo2 small amo6nts
Asat62ationBW need of 2egene2ation
06ita7le fo2 all agg2egate states? fewe2
2est2ictions on the amo6nt and !ola2it9? 76t
the 7inde2 film with the mic2o 7677les changes
textile !2o!e2ties li@e softness?
wetting? ai2 and 5a!o62
!e2mea7ilit9
>igh ca!acit9 fo2 sto2age of
!2efe2a7l9 li<6id effect chemicalsW
onl9 few 2est2ictions on thei2
molec6la2 si8e o2 !ola2it9 76t the
oxide film changes textile <6alities
li@e softnessW ca6ses a ha2de2 hand
and !2o7lems d62ing sewing
Aneedle a72asionB

'he inorganic /art o7 these /ol+(ers gi2es rise to greater hardness and heat
resistance and to so(e (easure o7 7la(e resistance, es/eciall+ i7 7illed with
inorganic nano./articles like alu(iniu( o*ide or h+dro*+de /ig(ents. $ncor/oration
o7 Cinc o*ide /ig(ents causes high "B a)sor/tion which /rotects the 7a)ric as well
as the hu(an skin. S/ecial ad2antages o7 this inorganic "B a)sor)er are the
trans/arenc+ o7 the 7inish @in contrast to titaniu( dio*ideA, resistance to ageing @in
contrast to organic "B a)sor)ersA and the 7act that Cinc o*ide is not har(7ul. 'his
(aterial is also used in the cos(etic industr+. !dditionall+, this 7inish can greatl+
i(/ro2e the wear resistance o7 7i)reglass 7a)rics.
Organic coated (icro )u))les and inorganic silicon networks ha2e )een dis.
cussed. !nother re(arka)le 7inish is si(ilar to these /roducts9 e2acuated (icro
)u))les 7ro( silicon co(/ounds, 7i*ed with an acr+late )inder on the 7i)re sur7ace
/ro2ide new insulation te*tiles. 'he high insulation 2alue o7 the 2acuu( and the
re7lectance o7 the cera(ic )u))les o7 this so.called li8uid cera(ic 7inish /rotects
2er+ e77ecti2el+ 7ro( heat and cold.
,-
'e*tile 7inishes that release 7ragrances, cos(etics and /har(aceutical su)stances
are so(eti(es called wellness 7inishes with corres/onding ter(s 7or the 7inished
te*tiles as attracti2e )u+ing incenti2es. Possi)ilities 7or storing and releasing such
e77ect che(icals )+ the che(ical 7inishing o7 te*tiles are listed in 'a)le ,:.0.
Refe2ences
, Busch(ann H.J, Jnittel D and Scholl(e+er , ?Wie 7unktionieren 'e*tilien (it 7i*ierten
C+clode*trinenR?, -elliand Textilerichte, 0114, '4@,,F,0A, =::.=:= and the older /a/ers
)+ the sa(e authors 8uoted here.
0 Scholl(e+er , 'e*tor ' and Bahners ', 3unctionalisation o7 te*tile (aterial )+ sur7ace
(odi7ication, 8/ Texchem, D2ur Jralo2e, CCech Re/u)lic, 0114.
4 BolC W, ?!nti.S(ell.!usrustungen in der 'e*til2eredlung?, Textil#eredlung, 0114,
3'@,,F,0A, ,<.0,.
5 !non+(ous re/ort on BakaSa2e, -elliand Textilerichte, 0110, '3@,F0A, ,0.
; Bottcher P, ?'e*tile 7ilters?, Industrial Farics Bulletin, 0110, @4A, 45.4-.
- !non+(ous re/ort on Ba+scent, Textil#eredlung, 0114, 3'@,F0A, 51.
< &athis R, ?'e*tilien (it kos(etischen Su)stanCen?, -elliand Textilerichte, 0110, '3@;A,
44=.451.
: Ha(/e &, ?Die nachste %eneration9 'e*tilien (it _usatCnutCen?, Textil#eredlung, 0114,
3'@,,F,0A, ,5.,-.
= Rei7ler 3 !, Ritter !, ll(ann J and Niederstadt R, ?S&O% . eine &ethode Cur
r7assung der !ntis(ell.Wirksa(keit?, Textil#eredlung, 0110, 37@,,F,0A, ;.= and /atent
PC'FP 10F,510=.
,1 #einte J, Sch(alC R, ?Jorona)ehandlung 2on Pol+estergewe)en?, -elliand
Textilerichte, 0114 '4@<F:A -4-.
,, Praschak D, Bahners ', Boss(ann ! and Scholl(e+er , ?O)er7lachen(odi7iCierung
2on PS durch Bestrahlung (it *i(er.#a(/en?. -elliand Textilerichte, ,==<, 7'@<F :A,
;4,.;40.
,0 Scholl(e+er and Bahners ', ?O)er7lachen2eranderungen 2on 3asern durch
#aser)ehandlung?, -elliand Textilerichte, ,==1, 71@5A, 0;,.0;-.
,4 Bahners ', Scholl(e+er , Praschak D, ?Scha77ung su/era)weisender igenscha7ten
(ittels /hotonischer 'echniken?, -elliand Textilerichte, 011,, '2@<F:A, -,4.-,5.
,5 Bottcher H, ?Sol.%el.Beschichtung au7 'e*tilien . &oglichkeiten und Pro)le(e?,
Textil#eredlung, 011,, 36@4F5A, ,-.0,.
,; 'e*tor ', Bahners ' and Scholl(e+er , ?3unktionelle @ada/ti2eA Schichts+ste(e 7ur
Baute*tilien?, Technical Textiles,Technische Textilien, 011,, 44@5A, 415.41- and -elliand
Textilerichte, ,===, '), :5<.:5:.
,- 3uchs H and Hardtke %, ?Jera(ik)eschichtung 7ur 7unktionelle Bekleidung?,
Textil#eredlung, 011,, 36@4F5A, ,4.,;.
1
3
(ct6al and f6t62e t2ends in chemical finishing
19.1 Int2od6ction
New de2elo/(ents in the di77erent t+/es o7 che(ical 7inishing ha2e )een descri)ed
in the rele2ant cha/ters and new kinds o7 7inishing are the su)Eect o7 the cha/ter on
no2el 7inishes. $n this cha/ter tendencies in the de2elo/(ent o7 che(ical 7inishing,
including technical, econo(ical and ecological trends, will )e /ointed out. On this
)asis, and as 7ar as it is /ossi)le to /redict, an e*tra/olation to the 7uture will )e
atte(/ted. 'a)le ,=., gi2es an o2er2iew o7 these trends.
19.2 Cost 2ed6ction and g2eate2 efficienc9
'he (ost i(/ortant trend in che(ical 7inishing is characterised )+ the ke+ ter(
?)etter cost.e77icienc+ relation?. 'he general ai(s are lower costs 7or the 7inishing
/rocesses and 7inal /roducts, /re7era)l+ co()ined with i(/ro2ed (ain e77ects and
less undesira)le side e77ects o7 the 7inish. 'his is eas+ to state and hard to realise.
But in the di77erent cha/ters o7 this )ook se2eral e*a(/les 7or this (ain trend are
gi2en. 'he )est known ones are /ro)a)l+ those with the silicones and 7luorocar)on
/roducts. 'heir costs are relati2el+ high. Naturall+ there ha2e )een (an+ e77orts to
reduce these. $n the /ast e*tenders ha2e )een used, currentl+ )oosters gi2e rise to a
higher 7luorocar)on e77icienc+ and other ad2antages. Better e77ects with less
7luorocar)on /ol+(ers are also reached with additional dendri(ers as descri)ed in
Sections -.4.5 and ,=.,1.,.
19.3 New @inds of effects
De(anding and so/histicated custo(ers as well as 7ashion designers are looking 7or
new e77ects. So(e o7 the( ha2e )een discussed in the cha/ter on no2el 7inishes, 7or
e*a(/le anti.odour and /rotecti2e 7inishes, wellness 7inishes that release 7ragrances
or cos(etics and (edical 7inishes that deli2er drugs. !dditionall+, cellulase
7inishing, es/eciall+ on (icro2iscose or l+ocell 7i)res, ena)les no2el
Table 1%.1 '5e25iew of t2ends in chemical finishing of textiles

T2ends
Cost 2ed6ction and highe2 efficienc9
New t9!es of effects
&ewe2 6ndesi2ed side effects
Easie2 a!!lication
>ighe2 !e2manence in la6nde2ing and
chemical cleaning
Easie2 ca2e of finished textiles
Gette2 ecolog9
Using less chemicals
0ma2t textiles f2om chemical finishing
Exam!les
Gooste2s and dend2ime2s fo2 fl6o2oca27on
finishes A&CB
Gio1!olishing and anti1!illing with cell6lases?
odo62 and anti1odo62? wellness to wea2 o2
medical finishes
Less st2ength loss 79 moist62e cont2olled
fixation of eas91ca2e finishes Low c62ing of
&C finishes
C2osslin@ing of silicones? new catal9sts fo2
the fixation of flame 2eta2dants
La6nd291ai21d29 of &C finishes AL(DB ;ell1
tole2ated 79 the s@in? no !2o7lems with
waste wate2? ai2 !oll6tion? 2ec9cling of
textiles
0oft hand th2o6gh t2eatment in a t6m7le2 o2
with en89mes and 7ionic finishes? with
fl6o2oca27on !ol9me2s and dend2ime2s
ca6sing high fl6o2ine efficienc9 79 self
o2ganised la9e2ed st26ct62es Tem!e2at62e
!2otection 79 coating with !hase change
mate2ials APC$sB foam? <6ic@e2
healing/2eco5e29 of wo6nds 79 moist62e
2eg6lation? 2elease of d26gs on demand 79
signals f2om the s@in

e77ects such as /each skin and cha(ois sur7aces. 'he (etallisation o7 te*tiles with a
thin 7il( o7, 7or e*a(/le, !u, !g, Cu and _n, )+ high 2acuu( 2a/orisation /ro2ides
new o/tical and electric e77ects, such as radiation /rotection, conducti2it+ with
antistatic /ro/erties and electric heating. 'hese can )e used 7or curtains and
ta/estries as well as 7or 7ilters and heata)le seats.
!nother interesting new 7inish e77ect is sel7 cleaning o7 a solid sur7ace )+ s/ecial
(icrostructures, si(ilar to the lotus 7lower @see Section ,=.,1., 7or (ore a)out the
lotus e77ectA. 'his sel7 cleaning is there7ore called the lotus e77ect. $t is )ased on the
interaction o7 three co(/onents in di77erent aggregate states, the solid, 7or e*a(/le
the 7inished nano.structured te*tile, a li8uid such as water or soils and a gaseous
co(/onent, usuall+ air. $7 the last one is (issing, as in /er(anent wetted s+ste(s,
the lotus e77ect is i(/ossi)le. 'his sel7 cleaning 7inish has )een achie2ed 7or e*terior
wall colours and 7or tiles. 'he a//lication to te*tiles, 7or e*a(/le sun)linds and
other outdoor te*tiles, is a challenging su)Eect o7 research and de2elo/(ent.
19.4 &ewe2 6ndesi2a7le side effects
3ocusing on the desired (ain e77ects o7 the che(ical 7inish can lead to the
disad2antages and the negati2e side e77ects )eing o2erlooked. But where there is
light, there is also shadow. So e2er+ kind o7 7inishing has disad2antages and
generates /ro)le(s. Skilled 7inishers are aware o7 these /ro)le(s and tr+ to
(ini(ise the(. ! good e*a(/le o7 such /ro)le(s is the loss o7 strength associated
with the crosslinking o7 cellulose during eas+.care 7inishing. With dr+ crosslinking,
the (ost co((onl+ used /rocedure, a rule o7 thu() is that ten degrees o7 )etter
crease reco2er+ angle corres/ond to a < I loss o7 strength. 'he new continuous
da(/ crosslinking /rocess with controlled hu(idit+ does not 7ollow this rule. $t
creates acce/ta)le (ain e77ects and (ini(ises the disad2antages.
19.5 Easie2 a!!lication
'he de(and 7or eas+, al(ost si(/le, a//lication o7 7inishes has (an+ roots9 cost
reduction )+ shorter /roduction ti(es and less co(/licated (achiner+, less energ+
and water consu(/tion, easier or less e*/ensi2e /rocess control and auto(ation,
7ewer /ossi)ilities to (ake (istakes and less skilled /ersonnel. *a(/les o7 )etter
a//lication include new low curing 7luorocar)on 7inishes )ased on s/ecial )oosters
with 7i*ation te(/eratures near the nor(al dr+ing te(/erature. 'hese sa2e not onl+
energ+, )ut are i(/ortant 7or heat sensiti2e 7i)res like /ol+/ro/+lene. High 7i*ation
te(/eratures can cause d+estu77 (igration, colour changes or +ellowing. #ow
7i*ation te(/eratures are also necessar+ and use7ul 7or a7ter treating and gar(ent
7inishing.
New catal+sts that ena)le the 7i*ation o7 7inishes, 7or e*a(/le 7la(e retardants or
eas+.care 7inishes, in a )roader range o7 /ara(eters . like te(/erature, ti(e and /H
2alue . hel/ to a2oid (istakes and te*tile da(age. ! si(/le (ethod o7 reducing the
/ossi)ilities o7 /roduction (istakes is the incor/oration o7 catal+sts and other
co(/ounds in the (ain /roduct, with the /ositi2e side e77ect 7or the 7inish /roducer
that no co(/etiti2e /roducts are used.
19.6 $ic2oenca!s6lation? a new t2end fo2 sto2age
and 2elease of acti5e finishing !2od6cts
!n interesting actual and /ro)a)le 7uture trend 7or 7inishing, characterised )+ a long
lasting, slow continuous release and trans7er o7 /roducts to the hu(an skin is 7illing
(icroca/sules with acti2e agents and 7i*ing the( on the sur7ace o7 the 7a)ric. !
great 2ariet+ o7 water. or oil.solu)le co(/ounds, such as 7ragrances, cos(etics,
2ita(ins, and drugs are enca/sulated in the )io/ol+(er chitosan @see 3ig. ,;.;A
,
3inishes are a2aila)le with (an+ di77erent ca/sule ingredients, including /roducts
7or wellness to wear, 7or e*a(/le (oisturising, rela*ing and anti.cellulite or
ca/sules 7illed with a hair growth inhi)itor or a sun.tan inducer.
'hese 7inishes are a//lied in /ad.dr+ or e*haust /rocesses to al(ost all kinds o7
7i)res, es/eciall+ s+nthetics. 3a2oured articles include underwear, towels and )ath
(ats that dis/ense )od+ lotion, /ant+hose that reduce cellulite, /+Ea(as and )ed
linen that ease neuroder(itis, and shirts and other clothing that re/el (os8uitoes.
'he 7i*ed chitosan ca/sules are descri)ed to )e /er(anent 7or se2eral c+cles o7 hand
or (achine washing.
&icroca/sules 7illed with /hase change (aterials @PC&sA and incor/orated in
7i)res during /ri(ar+ s/inning or in 7oa( coatings need a ca/sule that has a
relati2el+ sta)le and thick coat. But ca/sules that are engineered to release their
ingredients ha2e to 7ul7il a narrow co(/ro(ise )etween sta)ilit+ to the a//lication
/rocess, dura)ilit+ in do(estic washing and the de7ined release. 'he acti2e
co(/ounds are (ainl+ deli2ered )+ 7riction o7 the 7inished te*tile against the skin.
$n the case o7 chitosan ca/sules there is alread+ an additional release )+
)iodegradation )+ natural skin enC+(es and )+ change o7 the /H 2alue. Chitosan
(e()ranes are insolu)le at /H -.< )ut are slowl+ dissol2ed at the nor(al /H 5.; o7
the skin.
,
13./ %2eate2 !e2manence in washing and chemical
cleaning
&an+ kinds o7 7inishing co(/ete in the (arket/lace with (odi7ied 7i)res, 7or
e*a(/le antistatic 7inishes and antistatic.(odi7ied 7i)res, 7la(e.retardant 7inishes
and 7i)res, anti(icro)ial 7inishes and 7i)res, soil.release 7inishes and 7i)res, anti.
/illing 7inishes and 7i)res, so7t hand 7inishes and silicone.(odi7ied 7i)res or
(icro7i)res. 'he (ain ad2antage o7 these (odi7ied 7i)res co(/ared to the corre.
s/onding 7inishes is their 2er+ high /er(anence in laundering, che(ical cleaning
and e2en (echanical stress. 'his /er(anence is the result o7 the incor/oration o7 the
7inish che(icals during 7i)re /roduction, (ostl+ )e7ore /ri(ar+ s/inning, so that
the+ are e8uall+ distri)uted o2er the 7i)re cross.section. *ce/tions are the anti.
/illing.(odi7ied 7i)res that ha2e less tear strength caused )+ structural loosening
with co(ono(ers and the silicone (odi7ications that consist o7 a silicone 7il( on
the 7i)re sur7ace si(ilar to that achie2ed )+ 7a)ric 7inishing with traditional silicone
7inishes.
3inish /roducers are aware o7 this ad2antage 7or the 7i)re (akers. So /er(anence
in laundering and che(ical cleaning o7 (an+ 7inishes has )een i(/ro2ed in the last
7ew +ears, (ostl+ )+ che(ical reaction with 7unctional grou/s o7 the 7i)res, )+
crosslinking o7 the e77ect che(icals and )+ the 7or(ation o7 insolu)le 7il(s on the
7i)re sur7ace. !nother /rinci/le is the sol2ation o7 the e77ect che(icals in the 7i)re,
7or e*a(/le ther(osolation o7 7la(e retardants in /ol+ester 7i)res. 2en with this
/rogress there re(ains in (an+ )ut not in all cases a disad2antage with res/ect to
/er(anence 7or the 7inished te*tiles co(/ared to the (odi7ied 7i)res. O7 course,
there are also /roducts where no or onl+ little /er(anence is wanted, 7or e*a(/le
technical te*tiles that need no cleaning.
! /rinci/al ad2antage o7 7inishing co(/ared to the corres/onding 7i)re (odi7i.
cation is greater 7le*i)ilit+. O7ten onl+ a /art o7 a )atch has to )e 7inished according
to the s/ecial wishes o7 the custo(ers, other /arts recei2e another or no 7inish. 'his
(eets the trend 7or lower cost /roduction in a shorter ti(e.
19.8 Easie2 ca2e of the finished textiles
'he interests o7 the consu(er are )eco(ing (ore and (ore i(/ortant. 3inished
te*tiles with high /er7or(ance should need no s/ecial care during their usage.
Standard cleaning (ethods should )e su77icient and these te*tiles should not )e 2er+
sensiti2e to heat, light, sweat, soil, ru))ing or ageing.
'he 7irst and )est known e*a(/le is the eas+.care or /er(anent /ress 7inish that
reduces ironing a7ter the washing o7 cellulose te*tiles. !nother esta)lished e*a(/le
is the soil.release 7inish that /ro2ides easier soil re(o2al. ! newer de2elo/(ent is
the laundr+ or line air dr+ 7luorocar)on 7inish @#!D.3CA. S/ecial )oosters ena)le
high re/ellent e77ects a7ter washing without ironing. 'his /ro/ert+ is also i(/ortant
7or water, oil. and soil.re/ellent 7inishes 7or s/ecial articles like )ath and s/ort
clothing, )ags and luggage te*tiles.
19.9 Gette2 ecolog9
cological de(ands 2ar+ greatl+, de/ending on the region o7 the world, the
corres/onding awareness o7 the consu(er and the 7inancial and technical /ossi.
)ilities. But there is a general trend 7or the growing i(/ortance o7 ecological and
econo(ical de(ands and 7or their co()ination.
'he three sectors o7 ecological i(/ortance to te*tiles are te*tile /roduction,
te*tile use and their dis/osal. $n de2elo/ed countries (an+ regulations e*ist . 7ro(
the 2iew/oint o7 /roducers there are o7ten too (an+ o7 the( . 7or the sa7et+ o7
te*tile /roduction and the corres/onding /roducts. 'he correct handling o7 7inishing
/roducts is usuall+ not a general /ro)le(. 'here is no need to use highl+ to*ic
che(icals, and /ro)le(s related to these che(icals, es/eciall+ with so(e earl+
7la(e retardant and anti(icro)ial 7inishes, )elong to the /ast. cological i(/ro2e.
(ents are reached )+ using (ore care7ul s+nthetic routes to 7inishing /roducts and
)+ less energ+ consu(/tion.
'he second sector, the use o7 7inished te*tiles, es/eciall+ those in contact with
hu(an skin, has de2elo/ed greatl+ with the ad2ent o7 eco la)els. Well known
e*a(/les are li(iting 2alues 7or concentrations o7 7ree 7or(aldeh+de and the
corres/onding test (ethods in connection with eas+.care 7inished te*tiles. &ean.
while, low 7or(aldeh+de 7inishes are standard and guaranteed )+ (ost /roducers.
No2el and new de2elo/(ents include 7or(aldeh+de.7ree, eas+.care 7inishes.
!nother e*a(/le is /ro2ided )+ newer 7la(e retardants 7or s+nthetic 7i)res, which
do not contain anti(on+ and halogen. 'he narrow /ath )etween high /er7or(ance
and sa7e ecolog+ with anti(icro)ial 7inishes shows interesting results.
'he third ecological sector, the dis/osal o7 te*tiles a7ter their use, is /ro)a)l+ the
least de2elo/ed. Howe2er, there are al(ost no /ro)le(s caused )+ 7inishing,
co(/ara)le to the other sectors. 'he ecologicall+ )est solution 7or used te*tiles and
the te*tile waste 7ro( /roduction is t+/icall+ rec+cling. 'his de/ends on the 7i)re
t+/e and the che(ical ho(ogeneit+ o7 the te*tile. 'he content o7 7inishing /roducts
in te*tiles that are to )e dis/osed o7 is (ostl+ as little as the a(ount o7 soil /icked u/
during use. $7 the 7i)re rec+cling is )ased on a 7irst h+drol+sis ste/, as with /ol+ester
or /ol+a(ide, the /uri7ication ste/s 7or the reco2ered (ono(ers are not a77ected )+
(ost 7inishing /roducts. $7 the rec+cling is )ased on re(elting and new (elt
s/inning, as is the case with /ol+/ro/+lene, /uri7ication is (ore di77icult or /erha/s
e2en i(/ossi)le. 'he addition o7 larger a(ounts o7 7resh /ol+(er hel/s (aintain the
8ualit+ le2el o7 the rec+cled 7i)re (aterial. 'e*tile waste 7ro( natural 7i)res can )e
co(/osted. &ost 7inishing /roducts ha2e onl+ a s(all in7luence on this /rocess,
e*ce/t cellulose that has )een crosslinked with 7or(aldeh+de. containing 7inishes.
Dis/osal )+ (odern waste co()ustion /lants is not ad2ersel+ a77ected )+ 7inishes.
2en the deco(/ostion /roducts o7 7luorocar)on /ol+(ers, (ainl+ h+drogen
7luoride, can )e washed or 7iltered out.
13.14 Using fewe2 chemicals
3ewer che(icals are discussed here in the sense o7 s(aller a(ounts o7 7inishing
/roducts, co()ined with higher e77icienc+. O7ten large a(ounts o7 che(icals are
necessar+ 7or su77icient e77ect, 7or e*a(/le in 7la(e retardants. 'his is then not onl+
a cost /ro)le( 7or the /roduct, )ut also a 8ualit+ /ro)le( 7or the 7inished te*tile.
$(/ortant te*tile /ro/erties such as hand, dra/e, as well as air and 2a/our
/er(ea)ilit+ can )e un7a2oura)l+ changed )+ large a(ounts o7 7inishing che(icals.
Other /ro)le(s include dusting and the de2elo/(ent o7 chalk+ (arks when
scratched. 'he need 7or large a(ounts o7 7inishing /roducts can also lead to
solu)ilit+ /ro)le(s in che(ical )aths and to non.uni7or( or insu77icient li8uor
u/take, es/eciall+ with h+dro/ho)ic s+nthetic 7i)res.
'here7ore, 7inish /roducers are searching 7or /roducts with greater e77icienc+ so
that high./er7or(ance e77ects can )e achie2ed with s(aller a(ounts o7 7inishing
/roducts while lea2ing the te*tile character al(ost unchanged. 'his a//roach is true
7or water re/ellenc+ 7inishes )ased on s(all a(ounts o7 7luorocar)ons or silicones.
Older re/ellents )ased on /ara77ins and (odi7ied (ela(ines changed the te*tile
character (ore. 'he use o7 a s(all a(ount o7 enC+(es is another /ossi)ilit+ to
reduce the a(ounts o7 con2entional che(icals, 7or e*a(/le, 7or the anti./illing
7inish.
13.14.1 Gionic finishes
Bionic 7inishes are a s/ecial wa+ o7 using 7ewer che(icals 7or greater e77ects. !s
(entioned in Section -.4.5 )ionic (eans using e*a(/les 7ro( nature as an i(/etus
7or a new technical design. $t is the s+ste(atic trans7or(ation and use o7 success7ul
)iological constructions, /rocesses and de2elo/(ents. 'he ter( )io(i(etics
includes this technical (i(icr+ o7 )iological /rinci/les.
! good e*a(/le to e*/lain this i(/etus is the shark skin e77ect. 'he scales o7
/redator+ 7ishes ha2e 7ine longitudinal groo2es that cause less cross.7low in the
dis/laced water. 'his /rinci/le has )een ada/ted to aero/lane sur7aces to hel/ to
reduce 7uel consu(/tion )+ , I. Si(ilar shark skin swi(suit sur7aces allow
co(/etiti2e swi((ers to enEo+ the ad2antages o7 lower resistance to (o2e(ent
through the water.
!nother /o/ular e*a(/le o7 )ionic 7inishes is the lotus e77ect. On the sur7ace o7
the lea7 o7 the lotus /lant, 7ine kno)s o7 wa* are arranged in a nano structure
/ro2iding sel7 cleaning in co()ination with water dro/s and air.
0
'his natural
construction has )een success7ull+ ada/ted 7or the sur7aces o7 walls, roo7 tiles and
road signs. Current R e D @research and de2elo/(entA acti2ities are )eing directed
to a//l+ing this /rinci/le to te*tiles and resol2ing the issues o7 /er(anence 2ersus
handle. $7 these nano structures are created with so7t wa*es, the+ can )e re(o2ed )+
(echanical stresses. $7 the structures are (ade harder, 7or e*a(/le )+ /ig(ents in a
/ol+(er 7il(, the handle o7 the te*tile is changed. $7 these di77iculties can )e
o2erco(e with reasona)l+ /riced technical solutions, the te*tile ada/tation o7 the
lotus e77ect would co()ine su/er.re/ellenc+ with sel7 cleaning. %eneration o7 these
new s/ecial sur7ace e77ects could )e a good e*a(/le 7or a 7uture trend in te*tile
7inishing. !n actual e*a(/le o7 the use o7 )ionic 7inishes is the re/ellent 7inish (ade
with 7luorocar)on /ol+(ers co()ined with dendri(ers, as descri)ed in Section
-.4.5.
4
'he co((on /rinci/le o7 these e*a(/les and in general 7or all )ionic 7inishes is a
success7ul and al(ost intelligent construction o7 so/histicated structures, 7or
e*a(/le like the s/ecial sur7aces or /ol+.la+ers in s/ider hair, insect wings, )utter7l+
scales or /orous )one (aterial. 'his /rinci/le is that (aterial, which is o7ten sel7
organised, is used in s(all a(ounts 7or great e77icienc+ in s/eci7ic regions and not
used where it is less i(/ortant.
2en though it is not the su)Eect o7 7inishing )ut o7 coloration, it is re(arka)le in
this conte*t that the )eauti7ull+ coloured wings o7 )utter7lies ins/ired Ja/anese 7i)re
che(ists to /roduce (ultila+er )ico(/onent 7i)res with di77erent inter7erence
colours without the use o7 an+ d+estu77 or /ig(ent.
5
13.11 0ma2t textiles 79 chemical finishing
S(art te*tiles is an e*aggerated )ut o7ten used ter(. Can te*tiles reall+ )e s(art or
intelligentR Onl+ in the sense that the+ react to changing conditions, 7or e*a(/le
te(/erature, light or (oisture. 'his /ro2ides a greater e77ect than the well known
/rotection 7unction o7 te*tiles that leads to the ter( 7unctional te*tiles.
'e*tiles that cool down when the a()ient te(/erature rises or war( when the
te(/erature dro/s are an interesting new de2elo/(ent. 'his te(/erature )u77er is
/ro2ided )+ incor/orating /hase change (aterials @PC&A into the te*tile. 'hese are
(ostl+ /ara77ins with a (elting /oint in the te(/erature range o7 interest, 7or
e*a(/le 01.41 PC. When the te(/erature o7 the surroundings rises a)o2e the range,
the cr+stalline /ara77ins (elt and their large heat o7 7usion cools the te*tile and its
user te(/oraril+. Con2ersel+, when the te(/erature o7 the surroundings dro/s 7ro(
a)o2e the range to )elow the range, the li8uid /ara77ins cr+stallise and gi2e u/ their
high heat o7 cr+stallisation to war( the te*tile. 'he /ara77ins are /laced into (icro
)u))les and then incor/orated either into the 7i)res, (ostl+ acr+lic, or into a 7oa(
coating on the te*tile. 'he last solution has the ad2antage o7 higher ther(al )u77er
ca/acit+ since (ore PC& can )e incor/orated and the insulation e77ects are greater
and longer lasting.
;
'his e*a(/le is a good illustration o7 s(art te*tiles or clothing,
)ut 7oa( coating is not a t+/ical 7inish, e2en though there are so(e si(ilarities.
!da/ti2e ca(ou7lage with cha(eleon e77ects is also not a t+/ical 7inish )ut is a
(atter o7 /hotochro(ic d+estu77s or /ig(ents.
Reaction that is de/endent on the changing (oisture le2el o7 the surroundings is
)etter suited to the su)Eect o7 che(ical 7inishes. 'e*tile 7i)res ha2e a wide range o7
(oisture u/take, natural 7i)res such as cotton or wool ha2e high (oisture u/take,
while s+nthetic 7i)res such as /ol+ester or /ol+/ro/+lene ha2e a 2er+ low u/take.
H+dro/ho)ic and h+dro/hilic 7inishes can change or enhance this )eha2iour. 'his is
o7 interest 7or (edical te*tiles that su//l+ a (oisture )u77er 7or wounds. $7 the
wounds )eco(e too dr+, the 7inished te*tiles s/end (oisture, and in case o7 too
(uch wound e*cretion, the te*tile a)sor)s it and the healing /rocess is also
shortened. ! (ore so/histicated e*a(/le is a (edical te*tile with a sensor 7or
(oisture or te(/erature, that dis/enses the (edication on de(and to the skin. 'he
drugs are incor/orated into (icro )u))les or in a /orous network 7or(ed )+ silicon
dio*ide nano /articles through a sol.gel 7inishing or coating. 3i*ation o7 these drugs
on to the te*tile sur7ace and their release are challenging 7inish /ro)le(s, since the+
in2ol2e the incor/oration o7 che(icals into a thin 7il( on the 7i)re sur7ace that can
res/ond to deli2er+ signals o2er an e*tended /eriod o7 ti(e.
13.1) 06mma29 and o6tloo@
!)out 01 di77erent t+/es o7 che(ical 7inishing ha2e )een descri)ed in this )ook.
&ost o7 the( were de2elo/ed to sol2e /ro)le(s with un7inished te*tiles or to
e*/and their use7ulness. *a(/les o7 such /ro)le(s are insu77icient 7a)ric hand,
inade8uate a//earance a7ter washing without ironing, high a)sor)enc+ o7 water, oil
and soil, 7la((a)ilit+, and /illing, sli//ing or static /ro)le(s during /roduction and
usage. $t has )een shown how these /ro)le(s and restrictions can )e sol2ed and
o2erco(e with che(ical 7inishing. New ideas and sti(ulation 7ro( 7inish /roducers
result in the de2elo/(ent o7 7inishes that ena)le high /er7or(ance and (eet new
challenges. *a(/les are odour changing 7inishes and s(art te*tiles.
3inish /roducers and 7inish users (eet two (ain challenges, 7irst the ste/wise
e2olution o7 e*isting 7inishes @(ainl+ cost reduction and greater e77icienc+A and then
the search 7or new 7inishes, /ro2iding new usages . technical, 7unctional and
7ashiona)le. Both the i(/ro2ed and the newl+ de2elo/ed 7inishes are 2alua)le tools
that can /roEect an enhanced i(age o7 the 7inish /roducers, de(onstrating their R e
D co(/etence and creating a (ore co(/etiti2e /osition, 7or the(sel2es as well as
7or their custo(ers, in the di77icult world te*tile (arket.
Refe2ences
, Ha(/e &, ?Die nachste %eneration9 'e*tilien (it _usatCnutCen?, Textil#eredlung, 0114,
3'@,,F,0A, ,5.,-.
0 Barthlott W and Neinhuis C, ?Der #otus.77ekt9 Sel)streinigende O)er7lachen nach de(
Bor)ild der Natur?, International Textile Bulletin, 011,, 47@,A, :.,0.
4 !non+(ous, -elliand Textilerichte, 0114, '4@<F:A, -15 and Rudol7.$n7o :F0114 on
Rucostar
4
, Rudol7 Che(ie %eretsriedF%er(an+.
5 De(/se+ , ?'he third (illenniu(9 colla)orati2e strateg+ will gain in in7luence?,
International Textile Bulletin, ,===, 4(@-A, ,0.,:.
; Ru// J, Boehringer ! and Yonenaga !, ?High /er7or(ance te*tiles or s(art te*tilesR
'here?s (one+ in know.how?, International Textile Bulletin, 011,, 47@4A, -.05.
Index

!!'CC 'esting &ethod ;=, -:
acid cellulases ,:; acr+lic 7i)res
,,, algae ,-;
alkali treat(ents =5 a((onia treat(ents
<1.,, ,15.;, ,5-, ,-:
a(/hoteric so7teners 44 anchor
7i)res ,0=
7le* li7e ,4, anionic so7teners 0=, 40.4
anti.odour 7inishes ,:=.=0 anti.o*idants
,;0 anti./illing 7inishes ;0, ,0=.4-
che(istr+ ,40.4 (echanis(s ,40.4
testing and e2aluation ,44.5
trou)leshooting ,45.- anti(icro)ial
7inishes ,-;.<5 )iostats ,-<
)ound anti(icro)ials ,-<, ,-=.<,
che(istr+ ,-<.<,
chitosan ,<1
chlora(ines ,-=.<1
controlled release /roducts ,--, ,-<.=
7a)rics treated ,-;.-
7or(aldeh+de ,-<
(echanis(s ,--.<
PH&B ,-=
/ro/erties ,--
testing and e2aluation ,<,.0, ,<4
triclosan ,-: trou)leshooting ,<0.5
antistatic 7inishes ,0,.: che(istr+ ,04.
; conducti2e 7i)res ,0;.- dura)le
7inishes ,05.;, ,0: (echanis(s ,04
non.dura)le 7inishes ,04.5 side
e77ects ,0: testing and
e2aluation ,0-.< te*tiles treated
,00 trou)leshooting ,0<.:
wetting agents ,0: a//lication
(ethods :.01, 011
eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes -5.
<
insect resist 7inishes ,<: non.
sli/ 7inishes ,,:.,= to gar(ents 01
aro(atic sul7onic acids ,5<.:
!rrhenius e8uation -4 ash test ,0-
!'P @adenosine tri/hos/hateA anal+sis
,<,
)acteria ,-; )atch /rocesses : )ath
re(ainder dis/osal <, )eta gauges
5= )io.7inishes ,:,.< cellulase
enC+(e action ,:4.5 che(istr+ ,:5.
- deacti2ation o7 cellulases ,:<
(echanical agitation ,:;, ,:- /H
)u77ers ,:< testing and e2aluation
,:- trou)leshooting ,:-.< )ionic
7inishes :0, 014.5 )iostats ,-< )lack
i(/ro2ers ,50 )leaching , )leeding
,55 )locked isoc+anates :, )low
ratio ,< )lue scales ,55.;
)ound anti(icro)ials ,-<, ,-=.<,
Bronsted acids -5 B'C! -0
cantile2er (ethod 5= car)onisation ,
car)o*+.)ased 7inishes =, car/ets,
charge generation test ,0< catal+sts -4.
5 cationic /roducts colour 7astness ,5-
so7teners 0=, 4,.0 cellulose ;,.5
a((onia treat(ents <1., cellulase
enC+(e action ,:4.5, ,:< colour
7astness ,5; 7la(e.retardant 7inishes
,14.< regenerated cellulose <1 see
also )io.7inishesD eas+.care and
dura)le /ress 7inishes cera(ic 7i)res
,,, charge dissi/ation test ,0< charge
generation test ,0< che(ical cleaning
01,.0 chintC 7a)rics ;,, ;0 chitosan
,<1 chlora(ines ,-=.<1 chlorine
retention <1 chlor/hen+lid ,<: coating
04.-
colour o7 7a)rics 51.,, =1 colour 7astness
,55.;; aro(atic sul7onic acids ,5<.:
cationic /roducts ,5- cellulose 7a)rics
,5; crocking 7astness ,;4.;
7or(aldeh+de concentration /roducts
,5-.<
light 7astness ,55, ,5=.;4 reacti2e
7i*ation co(/ounds ,5:.= ru))ing
7astness ,;4.; testing and e2aluation
,5=, ,;0.4, ,;5 trou)leshooting ,5=,
,;4, ,;5.; wet 7astness ,55.= see also
d+es co()ustion o7 te*tile 7i)res =:.=
co(/ati)ilit+ and co()ina)ilit+ 0.4
eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes -<
7la(e.retardant 7inishes ,,-
non.sli/ 7inishes ,,:.,= re/ellent
7inishes :5 so7tening 7inishes 4-.< "B
/rotection 7inishes ,-4 concentration
relationshi/s :.=, 0<.: condensed /hase
strateg+ ,11, ,1,, ,10 conduction dr+ing
(ethods 01., conducti2e 7i)res ,0;.-
continuous /rocesses :.=, --.< controlled
release anti(icro)ial /roducts
,--, ,-<.= con2ection
dr+ing (ethods 0, cost.
e77icienc+ relationshi/ ,=:
counter 7inish 54
crease reco2er+ angle @CR!A ;,, ;4, --
critical a//lication 2alue @C!BA ,0
crocking 7astness ,;4.; crosslinked hand
)uilders 55 crosslinking agents -0.4, <0
curing <.:, 0,.4 c+clode*trins ,=,.4
deacti2ation o7 cellulases ,:<
dee/er colour i(/ressions 51.,
dela+ cure 7inishes -; deni(
/rocessing ,:, deodorising
te*tiles ,:=.=0 DH" ;<
dieldrin ,<<
digesti2e /oisons ,<;.-, ,<< D&DH"
;<.=, -1, -5, <,, =, D&eDH" -1.0 dr+
7inishing ,.0 dr+ing wet te*tiles 01.,
dual.action 7luorocar)ons :; dura)le
7inishes < antistatic ,05.;, ,0: 7la(e.
retardant ,1;.<, ,,; hand )uilding 5;.:
see also eas+.care and dura)le /ress
7inishes dust (ites ,<;, ,<= d+es
7i*ation ;0
reacti2e d+e h+drol+sates ,5; so7teners
and ther(o(igration o7 4=51
2at d+estu77s ,;4 see also colour
7astness
eas+.care and dura)le /ress 7inishes ;,<0,
010 a//lication (ethods -5.< catal+sts
-4.5 co(/ati)ilit+ -< crosslinking
agents -0.4, <0 7a)rics treated ;5
7or(aldeh+de /roducts ;;.-1, -<.:
non.7or(aldeh+de /roducts -1.0 testing
and e2aluation -<.= trou)leshooting -=.
<0 ecological de(ands 010.4 e77icienc+.
cost relationshi/ ,=: elasto(eric 7inishes
,4:.50 che(istr+ ,4=.5, (echanis(
,4= testing and e2aluation ,5,.0 te*tiles
treated ,4:.= trou)leshooting ,50
electrical discharge ,0,.0 electrical
resisti2it+ o7 7a)rics ,0- e(ulsion
sta)ilit+ 0, 4= energ+, low energ+
sur7aces <; engra2ed rolls ,;
enC+(e treat(ents see )io 7inishes etho*+
)ased 7inishes =0.4 etho*+lated so7teners
45 e2aluation see testing and e2aluation
e*haust a//lied 7inishes <, 01
7a)ric and +arn construction :=.=1
7ading see light 7astness
3!S' @3a)ric !ssurance )+ Si(/le
'estingA s+ste( 4=
7astness see colour 7astness
7i)re /roduction 5
7i)re sur7ace (odi7+ing 7inishes ,=4.-
7inishing /roduct grou/s 5.- 7ir(ness 54
7la(e.retardant 7inishes =:.,,- 7or acr+lic
7i)res ,,, 7or cellulose ,14.< 7or
cera(ic 7i)res ,,, che(istr+ ,10.4
co()ustion o7 te*tile 7i)res =:.=
co(/ati)ilit+ and co()ina)ilit+ ,,-
condensed /hase strateg+ ,11, ,1,, ,10
dura)le ,1;.<, ,,;
7a)rics treated =: 7or 7i)re
)lends ,,,.,0 gas /hase
strateg+ ,1,, ,10 7or glass 7i)res
,,, heat sinks ==.,11 insulation
o7 7i)res ,11 intu(escants ,,0
7or (.ara(id 7i)res ,,,
(echanis(s =:.,10 non.dura)le
,15.; 7or n+lon ,,1 7or
/ol+ester ,1=.,1 7or
/ol+/ro/+lene ,,, /+rol+sis
reaction ,11 7or ra+on ,1:
re8uire(ents =: side e77ects ,,;
testing and e2aluation ,,0.,5
to*icit+ o7 co(/onents ,,;
trou)leshooting ,,;.,- 7or wool
,1: 7le* li7e ,4,
7luorine.)ased 7inishes =5
7luorocar)ons dual.action
:;
re/ellent 7inishes <;, <=.:4, :; 7oa(
a//lication (ethods ,-.,=
7or(aldeh+de /roducts anti(icro)ial
7inishes ,-< colour 7astness ,5-.< eas+.
care and dura)le /ress 7inishes
;;.-1, -<.: (ela(ine.7or(aldeh+de
@&F3A ;<, -5 urea.7or(aldeh+de @"F3A ;;.
<, -5 7ragrance 7inishes ,=0.4 7riction ,00
7ullness 54, 55 7ungi ,-;, ,:4
gas /hase strateg+ ,1,, ,10
glass 7i)res ,,, glucose
/roduction ,:4
hand )uilding 7inishes 54.;1
crosslinked hand )uilders 55
dura)le 5;.:
e2aluation and testing 5:.;1
7a)rics treated 55 non.dura)le
55.;
trou)leshooting ;1 hand o7 7a)rics 4:.=
hand knitted look ;0 Handle.O.&eter 4:
HBCD ,,1 heat sinks ==.,11 heat trans7er
(echanis(s 01., hindered a(ine light
sta)ilisers @H!#SA ,;0
hindered /henol light sta)ilisers @HP#SA
,;0
H#B @h+dro/hilic.li/o/hilic )alanceA =,
hot 7lue --
h+dro*+.)ased 7inishes =,.0 h+grosco/ic
antistatic 7inishes ,04
induced.7it theor+ ,:, inorganic o*ide
7il(s ,=5.- insect resist 7inishes ,<;.=
a//lication ,<: che(istr+ ,<< dust (ites
,<= (echanis(s ,<;.< /oisons ,<;.-, ,<<
testing and e2aluation ,<: trou)leshooting
,<:.= insulation o7 7i)res ,11
intu(escants ,,0
Jac8uard 7a)rics ,,<.,:
keratin.digesting /ests ,<;
JS.3 @Jawa)ata 2aluation S+ste(.
3a)ricsA 4:.= kiss
rolls ,4, ,5.,; kni7e o2er
roll s+ste( 0;
la(inating 04.- le2oglucosan ,14.5 #ewis
acid salts -4.5 light 7astness ,55, ,5=.;4
li(iting o*+gen inde* @#O$A ,,5 line air
dr+ 7luorocar)on 7inish @#!D
3CA 010 lock and ke+
theor+ ,:, loo/ trans7er s+ste(
,5 lotus e77ect ,==, 015 low
energ+ sur7aces <; low wet
/icku/ (ethods ,,.01
ra.ara(id 7i)res ,,, &achnoCCle s+ste(s
,4 &artindale Pilling 'ester ,45, ,4;
(echanical agitation ,:;, ,:-
(echanical 7inishing ,.0 (edical te*tiles
01;
(ela(ine.7or(aldeh+de @&F3A /roducts
;<, -5
(etallisation o7 te*tiles ,== (icro)es see
anti(icro)ial 7inishes
(icroenca/sulation 011., (ite
/rotection see insect resist 7inishes
(odi7ied /ol+urethanes 5<.: (oisture
)u77er 01; (oisture control -- (oisture
trans/ort testing =- (oths ,<;
ner2e /oisons ,<;.-, ,<< nitrogen,
organic nitrogen ,10.4 non.dura)le
7inishes antistatic ,04.5 7la(e.retardant
,15.; hand )uilding 55.; non.ionic
so7teners 4,, 44.5 non./ol+(er soil
release treat(ents =5 non.sli/ 7inishes
,,<.01 a//lication (ethods ,,:.,=
che(istr+ ,,: co()ina)ilit+ ,,:.,=
(echanis(s ,,: testing and e2aluation
,,= trou)leshooting ,01 no2el 7inishes
,:=
Nu.&artindale Pilling 'ester ,45, ,4;
n+lon ,,1
odour see anti.odour 7inishes oil re/ellent
7inishes see re/ellent
7inishes
oil+ soils :=
release testing =- o/tical )rightening
agents @OB!A ,-4 organic nitrogen ,10.4
o*ide 7il(s ,=5.-
/ad a//lications =.,,, -5.<
dr+ 7a)ric =.,1 wet 7a)ric
,1.,,
/ara77in re/ellents <- /ara77in so7teners
44.5 /er(anence in washing 01,
/er(ethrin ,<< /H )u77ers ,:<
/hase change (aterials @PC&sA 01,, 01;
PH&B ,-=
/ig(ents ;0
/ile resilience ;0
/illing ,0=.40
see also anti./illing 7inishes
/las(a treat(ents =5, ,=4.5
/oisons ,<;.-, ,<< /ol+a((oniu(
co(/ounds ,5-
/ol+di(eth+lsilo*ane /roducts <<
/ol+ester
electrical discharge ,0,.0 7la(e.
retardant 7inishes ,1=.,1
/ol+eth+lene so7teners 44.5
/ol+/ro/+lene 7i)res ,,, /ol+2in+l
alcohol @PB!A 55.; /ost cure
7inishes -; /redr+ing 0,
/ri(ar+ e77ects o7 7inishes 4 Pro)an
/rocess ,1- /rocesses <.0
a//lication o7 7inishes :.01, -5.< )atch
/rocesses : coating 04.-
concentration relationshi/s :.=, 0<.:
continuous /rocesses :.=, --.< curing
<.:, 0,.4 dr+ing wet te*tiles 01.,
la(inating 04.- low wet /icku/
(ethods ,,.01 /ad a//lications =.,,,
-5.< wet.on.dr+ /rocesses =.,1 wet.
on.wet /rocesses ,1.,, /+rol+sis
reaction ,11
8uaternar+ a((oniu( co(/ounds ,5-,
,-:
radiant heaters 0, radiation /+ro(eters 04
radiation technologies ,=4.5 rando(
tu()le /illing tester ,44.5, ,4; ra+on ,1:
reacti2e d+e h+drol+sates ,5;
reacti2e 7i*ation co(/ounds ,5:.=
reacti2e so7teners 4= reci/e
7or(ulation 5
see also co(/ati)ilit+ and co()ina)il.
it+
rec+cling 014 regenerated cellulose <1
relati2e odour inde* @RO$A ,=4
re/ellent 7inishes <5.:;
co(/ati)ilit+ and co()ina)ilit+ :5
7luorocar)on.)ased re/ellents <=.:4,
:;
(echanis(s <; /ara77in re/ellents <-
silicone water re/ellents << stearic
acid.(ela(ine re/ellents << testing
and e2aluation :4, :5 te*tiles treated
<5.; trou)leshooting :5.; roll trans7er
techni8ues see trans7er rolls ru))ing
7astness ,;4.;
secondar+ e77ects o7 7inishes 4
sel7.cleaning ,==
shake )o* ,45, ,4;
shark skin e77ect 015
shock.condensation /rocesses 04, -;
shrink resistance ;0
side e77ects 011
antistatic 7inishes ,0: 7la(e.retardant
7inishes ,,; silicon o*ide network ,=;
silicone so7teners 45.- silicone water
re/ellents << sli/./roo7ing see non.sli/
7inishes slow continuous release /roducts
011., s(art te*tiles 015.; S&O% ,=4
so7tening 7inishes 5, 0=.5, a(/hoteric 44
anionic 0=, 40.4 cationic 0=, 4,.0
co(/arison o7 4-, 4< co(/ati)ilit+ and
co()ina)ilit+ 4-.< dee/er colour
i(/ressions 51., etho*+lated 45
7a)rics treated 4, (echanical so7tening
51 (echanis(s o7 0=.4,
(olecular structure 4, non.
ionic 4,, 44.5 reacti2e 4=
silicone 45.-
testing and e2aluation 4:.=
trou)leshooting 4=.5, 2olatile
co(/onents 51 so7tware /rogra(s 5
soil re/osition testing =- soil.release
7inishes :<.=- car)o*+.)ased =, colour
o7 7a)rics =1 etho*+.)ased =0.4 7a)ric
and +arn construction :=.=1 7a)rics
treated :< 7luorine.)ased =5 h+dro*+.
)ased =,.0 (echanis(s :<.=1 non.
/ol+(er =5 oil+ soils :=
testing and e2aluation =;.-
trou)leshooting =- sol.gel 7inishes
,=5.- solar /rotection 7actor ,;<.
= solar radiation ,;< sols ,,:
s/in 7inishes ,00
s/ra+ test :5
s/ra+ing ,;.,-
stain re/ellenc+ :5.;
static electricit+ see antistatic 7inishes
Static Bolt(eter ,0<
stearic acid.(ela(ine re/ellents <<
sti77ness 54, 55, 5=
strength loss 7actors @S#3A --.<
sul7onates 40
sur7ace (odi7+ing 7inishes ,=4.-
sur7ace resisti2it+ o7 7a)rics ,0-
s+ntans ,5<.:
'BP! ,1:
te(/erature )u77er 015.; testing and
e2aluation !!'CC 'esting &ethod ;=,
-: anti.odour 7inishes ,=4 anti./illing
7inishes ,44.5 anti(icro)ial 7inishes
,<,.0, ,<4 antistatic 7inishes ,0-.< ash
test ,0- )io.7inishes ,:- charge
dissi/ation test ,0< charge generation
test ,0< crocking 7astness ,;5 eas+.
care and dura)le /ress 7inishes -<.=
elasto(eric 7inishes ,5,.0 electrical
resisti2it+ o7 7a)rics ,0- 7la(e.retardant
7inishes ,,0.,5 7ragrance 7inishes ,=4
hand )uilding 7inishes 5:.;1 insect
resist 7inishes ,<: light 7astness ,;0.4
(oisture trans/ort testing =- non.sli/
7inishes ,,= oil+ soil.release testing =-
re/ellent 7inishes :4, :5 ru))ing 7astness
,;5 so7tening 7inishes 4:.= soil
re/osition testing =- soil.release 7inishes
=;.- s/ra+ test :5
sur7ace resisti2it+ o7 7a)rics ,0- "B
/rotection 7inishes ,-0.4 water dro/
test :5 wet 7astness ,5= '>PR'O 5
ther(osetting /ol+(ers 5< 'HP.)ased
7inishes ,1;.- to*icit+ ,,; trans7er
rolls ,4.,; 'riate* &! (achine ,5.,;
tri)oelectri7ication ,0, triclosan ,-:
'ris /roducts ,1= trou)leshooting
anti./illing 7inishes ,45.- anti(icro)ial
7inishes ,<0.5 antistatic 7inishes ,0<.:
)io.7inishes ,:-.< crocking 7astness
,;5.; eas+.care and dura)le /ress
7inishes
-=.<0 elasto(eric 7inishes ,50
7la(e.retardant 7inishes ,,;.,-
hand )uilding 7inishes ;1 insect
resist 7inishes ,<:.= light 7astness
,;4 non.sli/ 7inishes ,01
re/ellent 7inishes :5.;
ru))ing 7astness ,;5.;
so7tening 7inishes 4=.5,
soil.release 7inishes =-
"B /rotection 7inishes
,-4 wet 7astness ,5=
u()rella 7a)rics ,,< urea.7or(aldeh+de
@"F3A /roducts ;;.<, -5
"B /rotection 7inishes ,;<.-4, ,=5
che(istr+ ,-1.0 co()ina)ilit+ ,-4
7a)rics treated ,;: (echanis( ,;:.-1
solar /rotection 7actor ,;<.= testing and
e2aluation ,-0.4 trou)leshooting ,-4
"B radiation skin da(age ,;< see also
light 7astness
2acuu( e*traction s+ste(s ,0.,4 2at
d+estu77s ,;4
2in+l acetate.containing /ol+(ers 5-
2olatile co(/onents 51
washing /er(anence 01, water
dro/ test :5 water use ,0
water/roo7ing see re/ellent 7inishes
wellness 7inishes ,=-, ,=: wet 7astness
,55.= wet 7inishing ,.0, < wet /icku/ =.,1
low wet /icku/ (ethods ,,.01 wet.
on.dr+ /rocesses =.,1 wet.on.wet
/rocesses ,1.,, wetting agents ,0: wool
electrical discharge ,0,.0 7la(e.
retardant 7inishes ,1: wrinkle
resistance ;0.4
+arns 05, :=.=1 +ellowing 51
Circoniu( co(/ounds ,1: _ir/o /rocess
,1:
0 &echanical work leading to9
H H+drod+na(ic 7low carr+ing awa+ the re(o2ed soil
H 3i)re 7le*ing to 7orce soil 7ro( )etween 7i)res
H Sur7ace a)rasion to re(o2e soil /h+sicall+
H Swelling o7 7inish to reduce inter.7i)re s/acing.
O7 these (echanis(s, solu)ilisation and e(ulsi7ication o7 soils are controlled
)+ detergent co(/osition, h+drod+na(ic 7low is controlled )+ washing
(achine design and 7i)re 7le*ing is controlled )+ 7a)ric construction. 'he
te*tile che(ist can onl+ in7luence the (echanis(s that in2ol2e the 7i)re
sur7ace, i.e. rollu/ o7 oil+ soil, /enetration o7 soil.7i)re inter7ace, sur7ace
a)rasion and 7inish swelling. 3inishes ha2e )een de2elo/ed that /ro2ide soil
release /er7or(ance )+ taking ad2antage o7 all o7 these (echanis(s.
Particulate soil is re(o2ed 7ro( 7i)res )+ a two.ste/ /rocess.
,
3irst, a thin
la+er o7 wash li8uid /enetrates )etween the /article and the 7i)re sur7ace,
ena)ling sur7actants to adsor) onto the /article sur7ace @3ig. <.,A. 'hen, the
/article )eco(es sol2ated and is trans/orted awa+ 7ro( the 7i)re and into the
)ulk o7 the wash li8uid )+ (echanical action. 3inishes that are h+dro/hilic
@enhancing /enetration o7 the 7i)re.soil inter7aceA with low adhesion to soil
under washing conditions should i(/ro2e /articulate soil release. !)lati2e or
sacri7icial 7inishes
/er7or(ance re8uire(ents and go2ern(ent regulations ha2e led to the de2elo/.
(ent o7 nu(erous test (ethods 7or e2aluating the 7la(e retardanc+ o7 te*tiles.
,<
!ccording to the great 2ariet+ o7 te*tile usage there are nu(erous test (ethods
with 2ertical, horiContal or diagonal arrange(ent o7 the sa(/les, (ethods with and
without air 2entilation, and (an+ s/ecial tests, 7or e*a(/le 7or car/ets and 7ire
/rotection clothing. So(e o7 the (ore co((onl+ encountered tests are gi2en in
'a)le :.5. $n the case o7 (ilitar+ 7a)rics, each 7a)ric will ha2e to 7ul7il the
re8uire(ents and /rocedures listed in the &$# s/eci7ication.