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MODULE 2

ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS


ENG 111. ENGLISH COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1
COMPTENCY-BASED LEARNING MODULE ON
LEADING
SMALL TEAMS
By:
RIZZA R. RENOMERON
National Assessor for VG NC III
CA-VGD0313140909003
SHERYL R. MORALES
National Assessor for BKP NC III
CA-BKP0313140911226

MODULE 2











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LEADING SMALL
TEAMS
Information Sheet 1 COMMUNICATION PROCESS
Information Sheet 2 TEAM STRUCTURE
Information Sheet 3 TEAM ROLES
Information Sheet 4 GROUP PLANNING &
DECISION MAKING
ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS
MODULE TITLE LEADING SMALLL TEAMS
DESCRIPTION:
This module covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required
to lead in the dissemination and discussion of ideas, information
and issues in the workplace
Language is the most commonly used medium of self-expresssion
in all spheres of human life - personal, social and professional.
COURSE OBJECTIVE: Students completing this module will be able to: Communicate informaiton
about workplace processes; Identify team structure and team roles;
and Participate in group planning and decision making.
CONTENTS: Information Sheet 1 Communication Process
* Effective communication
* Communication process and key elements
* Barriers in communication
Information Sheet 1.1 Types of Communication
* One-Way communication
* Two-Way communication
* Transaction
* Forms of Oral communication
Information Sheet 2 Team Structures
* Team
* Stages of Team Development
Self-Check 1
Self-Check 1.1
Self-Check 2
Information Sheet 3 Team Roles
* Team Mision and Vision
* Team Operating Process
* Team Task Roles
* Team Building
Self-Check 3
Information Sheet 4 Group Planning and Decision Making
* Group Planning Process
* Planning for Decision Making
* Decision Levels
* Some Techniques for Decision Making
Self-Check 4
ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS









LEARNING GUIDE
Learning Steps Resources


1. Read Information Sheet 1 on
Communication process
2. Answer Self-Check
3. Read Information Sheet 2 on Team
Structures
4. Answer Self-Check
5. Read Information Sheet 3 on Team
Roles
6. Answer Self-Check
7. Read Information Sheet 4 Group
Planning and Decision-making
8. Answer Self-Check



Information Sheet 1

Self-Check 1

Information Sheet 2

Self-Check 2

Information Sheet 3

Self-Check 3

Information Sheet 4

Self-Check 4





MODULE 2
LEAD SMALL TEAMS
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ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS 1
Communication is defined as a process by which we assign and convey
meaning in an attempt to create shared understanding. This process requires a
vast repertoire of skills in intrapersonal and interpersonal processing, listening,
observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, and evaluating. Use of these
processes is developmental and transfers to all areas of life: home, school,
community, work, and beyond. It is through communication that collaboration
and cooperation occur.

Communication maybe verbal or non-verbal, depending on the medium used.
Verbal communication uses either the written or spoken language. Non-verbal
communication makes use of non-linguistic symbols such as sign language,
facial expressions, and body language.
















Effective Communication

A good working definition for effective communication is to share meaning and
understanding between the person sending the message and the person receiving
the message. The key element is understanding. So in order to be an effective
communicator, we must first and foremost be understood in our various
communications.

INFORMATION SHEET 1
COMMUNICATION PROCESS
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COMMUNICATION PROCESS AND KEY ELEMENTS

The communication process is a simple model that demonstrates all the factors that
can affect communication. Communication is effective if the message that is
received is the same one that is sent.












A. Sender The communicator or sender is the person who is sending the
message. There are two factors that will determine how effective the
communicator will be. The first factor is the communicators attitude. It must be
positive. The second factor is the communicators selection of meaningful
symbols, or selecting the right symbols depending on your audience and the right
environment.



B. Message A communication in writing, in speech, or by signals

C. Receiver The receiver is simply the person receiving the message, making
sense of it, or understanding and translating it into meaning. Now think about this
for a moment: the receiver is also a communicator. How can that be? (When
receiver responds, he is then the communicator.) Communication is only
successful when the reaction of the receiver is that which the communicator
intended. Effective communication takes place with shared meaning and
understanding.

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D. Channel It is a medium through which a message is transmitted to its
intended audience, such as print media or broadcast (electronic) media.

If the wrong channel is used for the content and intent of the message they might
get lost. For example, when a supervisor asks one of his employees to come and
see him in his office, the message might not be perceived the same if ommunicated
in person or through a note left on the employees desk.


E. Feedback Feedback can be a verbal or nonverbal reaction or response. It can
be external feedback (something we see) or internal feedback (something we cant
see), like self-examination. Its the feedback that allows the communicator to
adjust his message and be more effective. Without feedback, there would be no
way of knowing if meaning had been shared or if understanding had taken place.

Discuss that communication is a two-way process. The information goes out to a
person on the other end. There is a sender and a receiver. Simply put, effective
communication is getting your message across to the receiver. It is the senders
responsibility to make sure that the receiver gets the message and that the message
received is the one sent.

Communicating is not an isolated series of one skill, it involves several skills. For
example, speaking involves not only getting your message across but also being
able to listen and understand what others are saying (active listening) and
observing the verbal and nonverbal clues in order to monitor the effectiveness of
your message.

BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION

Have you ever been talking to someone and they misunderstand what you were
saying? Why do you think that happens. At any point in the communication
process a barrier can occur. Barriers keep us from understanding others ideas and
thoughts. Barriers can appear at any point of the communication loop. There are
two types of barriersinternal and external.


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Examples of internal barriers are:
Fatigue
poor listening skills
attitude toward the sender or the information
lack of interest in the message
fear
mistrust
past experiences
negative attitude
problems at home
lack of common experiences
emotions.

Examples of external barriers include:
noise
distractions
e-mail not working
bad phone connections
time of day
sender used too many technical words for the audience
environment.

Barriers keep the message from getting through. When communicating, watch out
for barriers. Monitor the actions of the receiver. Watch her body language; check
to make sure the message the receiver received is the one sentask questions and
listen.








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A. Directions: The illustration below represents the process of communication.
Each part is labeled with letters A-H. Following the illustration are seven
statements that give a communication situation. Choose the part from the
illustrated precess that best represents the underlined words in the situation given.
Note: Be sure that your choice matches the underlined portion of the statement
rather than the statement as a whole.










_____ 1. The State of the Union Address by the president is being broadcast on
public television.

_____ 2. Paul cannot quite hear J anas speech because there is a fire truck
wailing outside the window.

_____ 3. Christy is giving a speech on air pollution.

_____ 4. Frank listens intently and seems to understand Sams speech about the
Civil War.

_____ 5. Pam nods her head in agreement as she listens to J enny speak.

_____ 6. J uan tells Bob about the football game he watched on TV last night.

_____ 7. J oe uses the telephone to order the pasta pot after watching an
infomercial on TV

_____ 8. Marys cell phone drops the signal when she is talking to her friend.

SELF-CHECK 1
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B. Multiple Choice

_____ 1. The receivers response to a message is what part of the communication
process?

A. Channel B. Feedback C. Noise

_____ 2. What is something that interferes with a message and is usually
temporary?

A. Intensity B. Noise C. Channel


_____ 3. This keeps the message from getting through. One example is noise.

A. Barrier B. Message C. Channel

_____ 4. A barrier can be external or internal in nature. True or False

A. True B. False

_____ 5. Its the feedback that allows the communicator to adjust his message
and be more effective.

A. True B. False













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ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS 7

Types of Communication


A. Self-Action or One-Way Communication

It is focused on getting the message to the receiver. Self-action treats
communication as a manipulation of others. It is very message centered. There is
no way to know if the meaning is shared between the sender and the receiver.

B. Interaction or Two-Way Communication.

This approach recognizes the role of the receiver as a communicator through
feedback. It is message centered and is a very simplistic view of the
communication process. Feedback allows senders to see if their message got
across.

C. Transaction

This approach focuses on meaning and sharing by accounting for all other factors
in the communication process. It is concerned with the barriers that might affect
the communication. Transaction is best described as effective communication. This
is when the communication process is applied and carried out completely. The
sender gives a message that is passed on to the receiver. In return, the receiver can
give clear feedback that allows the sender to know whether or not the message was
perceived as intended. If the message wasnt received as intended, then the sender
will continue the communication process again in order to ensure effective
communication.


Now that you know all three types of communication, we can reflect and evaluate
our own communication approaches in different roles and situations. Knowing the
three approaches to communication will help us to
be aware of our types, when they occur, and how to improve our communication
and create clear transactions.

INFORMATION SHEET 1.1
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
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FORMS OF ORAL COMMUNICATION

a. Dyadic Communication

Dyadic or two-person communication is the basic form of oral
communication. I t involves the sharing of ideas or information between two
persons who alternate as speaker and listener. Examples of this form are chit-
chat between two friends, and an interview between a job applicant and a personal
officer.

b. Small-Group Communication

Small-group communication is a collaborative and systematic sharing of
ideas and information among three to eight persons in order to reach a consensus
or a common solution to a problem, or to obtain facts. Examples of this form are
committee or board meeting, panel discussion, and symposium.

c. Large-Group Communication

This consists of a speaker who addresses a considerably large audience. It
requires thorough preparation on the part of the speaker.

d. Mass Communication

This form of communication may be done through either printed or oral
medium. If it is oral, it utilizes the airwaves. Through the electronic media such as
radio and television, the message reaches a very large audience (nationwide or
worldwide) instantaneously and simultaneously.








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A. Multiple Choice.

_____ 1. Two friends passing notes during class would be an example of what
kind of communication?
A. Large Group communication
B. Small Group Communication
C. Dyadic Communication

_____ 2. What would the Top 9 at 9 countdown on KGNC radio station be an
example of?
A. Large Group communication
B. Small Group Communication
C. Mass Communication

_____ 3. A candidate making a campaign speech before a large audience in
the community center would be an example of what kind of
communication?
A. Large Group communication
B. Small Group Communication
C. Mass Communication

_____ 4. Small group communication involves three to eight people that share a
common goal.
A. True
B. False

_____ 5. It is focused on getting the message to the receiver. Self-action treats
communication as a manipulation of others. There is no way to know
if the meaning is shared between the sender and the receiver.
A. Self-Action or One-Way Communication
B. Interaction or Two-Way Communication.
C. Transaction



SELF-CHECK 1.1
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Team comprises a group of people or animals linked in a common purpose. Teams
are especially appropriate for conducting tasks that are high in complexity and
have many interdependent subtasks.
A group in itself does not necessarily constitute a team. Teams normally have
members with complementary skills and generate synergy through a coordinated
effort which allows each member to maximize his or her strengths and minimize
his or her weaknesses.

Today we find all kinds of teams in society, and they generally fall into one of two
primary groups: permanent teams and temporary teams. Here are some of the
common types:

1. Task Force - a temporary team assembled to investigate a specific issue or
problem.

2. Problem Solving Team - a temporary team assembled to solve a specific
problem. They are typically of 5 to 12 people from the same
field/ department who meet for a few hours each week to
discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency and the work
environment.










3. Product Design Team - a temporary team assembled to design a new product or
service.


INFORMATION SHEET 2
TEAM STRUCTURES
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4. Committee - a temporary or permanent group of people assembled to act upon
some matter.

5. Work Group - a permanent group of workers who receive direction from a
designated leader.

6. Work Team (also called Self-Directed Work Team or Self-Managed Work
Team) - an ongoing group of workers who share a common
mission who collectively manage their own affairs within
predetermined boundaries.

7. Quality Circle (today also under various other names) - a group of workers
from the same functional area who meet regularly to uncover and solve work-
related problems and seek work improvement opportunities.
The name of the group or team type is less important than the purpose for which it
exists. These names simply give us a common language to help us define team
types.

8. Virtual Teams As the way we work changes radically, the evolution of teams is
also undertaking a radical leap. The virtual team is the current reality in the
emergence of new team structures. Such teams are formed where people are no
longer co-located, or necessarily operating in the same time or in a shared process
(i.e. telework, collaborative teams, virtual teams, etc). With the event of the World
Wide Web and emergence more recently of interactive satellite networks, the
virtual team has taken on many shapes. Like conventional teams, this form of team
exists to serve a real purpose.







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The reason for their existence can abound. Some of the core reasons for virtual
teams include:



Global operations make it impossible for team members to meet in a
physical sense;
Teams involve members from multiple organizations as organizations
increasingly work outside their own operational boundaries;
Virtual can be quicker;
Virtual meetings have evolved with the technology and now some advanced
technology and applications operates better in a cyber environment than a
meeting room;
The virtual network is harnessing emerging technology (wireless
applications, high speed two-way satellite connection) to form new ways to
organise work and people;
The right people can be sourced when they are available, wherever they are
available.
Stages of Team Development
Understanding these stages is a good point to begin our journey in understanding
team problems.
1. Orientation (Forming) - This is simply the bringing together of a group of
individuals. At this stage, members are:
moderately eager
have generally positive expectations
have some anxiety about why they are there and what it all means
have some anxiety about other members such as who they are and what they
are like



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During orientation, the work output is generally low as members are focused on
defining the goals and task, how to approach it, and what skills are needed. The
length of this stage will depend on how clearly the task is defined. Groups with
simple tasks will move through orientation quickly, but groups with complex goals
and tasks may spend much longer in this stage.

This is an important stage because it serves to clarify the team's mission and bond
team members. Teams that pay attention to building the relationships as well as
focusing on the task tend to do better than those that skip over relationship
building. Teams, after all, are made up of people who must work cooperatively for
a successful outcome.
2. Dissatisfaction (Storming)

This stage is characterized by:
argument
conflict
a dip in morale

It results from differences between initial expectations and the reality of the
situation as perceived by the members. Members may havevarying opinions of
what the group was to do and how to accomplish it. Members are also beginning to
confront the differences in their personalities and values, a condition that is
present anytime strangers meet. Members may feel anger or frustration with the
task or with other members or may even resent the presence of formal leadership.

Generally, the dissatisfaction stage is relatively short. Some groups, however, may
become stuck in this stage and continue to be both demoralized and relatively
unproductive. In the worst cases, some groups never emerge from this stage and, if
possible, disband in frustration.




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3. Resolution (Norming) - This stage in the group's development involves the:
resolving of issues
setting up group processes
setting of group policies, procedures, and values
increasing production

Members are now resolving differences and clarifying the mission and roles.
Members are less dissatisfied as in the previous stage because they are now
learning more about each other and how they will work together. They are
making progress toward their goals. They are developing tools to help them work
better together such as a problem solving process, a code of conduct, a set of team
values, and measurement indicators.

Member attitudes are characterized by decreasing animosities toward other
members; feelings of cohesion, mutual respect, harmony, and trust; and a
feeling of pleasure in accomplishing tasks. The work is characterized by slowly
increasing production as skills develop. The group is developing into a team.

4. Production (Performing) - The team is accomplishing work effectively.
Production is high and the climate is positive. Member attitudes are
characterized by positive feelings and eagerness to be part of the team. Members
are confident about the outcome, enjoy open communication, exhibit high energy,
and disagreement is welcome and handled without emotional conflict.

Although work is being accomplished through all the stages, this stage reflects the
work being accomplished most effectively.





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5. Termination - In the case of temporary teams such as task forces, design teams,
and problem solving teams, a fifth stage reflects the ending of the process.
Depending on the team's success in accomplishing its task and how strongly the
members have bonded, this stage may reflect either a sense of loss or relief.
When a team ends, time should be spent addressing how it should be done to
properly recognize the team's accomplishments.


















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1. This team is temporary assembled for a specific issue or problem
A. Task force
B. Problem-solving team
C. Product design team

2. This team is also called Work Team where an on-going group of workers who
share a common mission who collectively manage their own affairs within
predetermined boundaries
A. Self-Directed work team
B. Problem-solving team
C. Virtual Team

3. Arrange the following stages of team development by putting numbers 1 to 5 in
the space provided.

__________Production (Performing)
__________Orientation (Forming)
__________ Termination
__________ Dissatisfaction (Storming)
__________ Resolution (Norming)

4. Understanding stages of team development is a good point to begin our journey
in understanding team problems. True or False

a. true
b. False

5. A ________normally have members with complementary skills and generate
synergy through a coordinated effort which allows each member to
maximize his or her strengths and minimize his or her weaknesses.

a. group
b. team
c. organization
SELF-CHECK 2
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Almost all team activity falls under two main topics: task accomplishment and
team building. Task accomplishment is any activity that accomplishes work and
moves the team toward its mission. Team building is any activity that builds and
strengthens the team as a team. The experts agree that teams that focus on both sets
of activities tend to be stronger and more successful over time.

Team Mission and Vision

The driving force behind every team is a clear mission and vision. A mission is the
task at handwhat the team doesits purpose for existing. A vision is a mental
image of a possible and desirable future state for the team that is better than what
now exists.

The best teams have members who share a common understanding of the mission
and vision, and have great clarity of how their mission and vision support those of
the larger organization. Teams that perform poorly are frequently found to lack this
common understanding.

Team Operating Processes

To accomplish tasks effectively and efficiently, good teams develop operating
processes. These are agreed-upon ways, such as sequential steps, to perform work,
communicate, meet, arrive at decisions, problem-solve, resolve differences,
apportion work, schedule activities, and more. For clarity, and to aid
understanding, a team operating process is usually written or displayed.
One example of a team operating process might be a step-by-step method for
solving problems as shown below:
Define
Problem

Collect
Data

Analyze
Problem

Develop
Solutions

Trial
Implementation

Full
Implementation
INFORMATION SHEET 3
TEAM ROLES
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14 Team Task Roles

Team task roles are those roles that members assume, either consciously or
unconsciously, that move the team forward in accomplishing its tasks and mission.
These roles are of vital importance in good team functioning.


1. Initiator - suggests new ideas to the group
2. formation Seeker - seeks clarification of issues in terms of their factual
adequacy
3. Opinion Seeker - seeks clarification of the values pertinent to the issue,
rather than facts
4. Information Giver - offers facts or other "authoritative" information
5. Opinion Giver - offers beliefs or other value-based ideas
6. Elaborator - spells out suggestions in terms of examples or developed
meanings
7. Summarizer - pulls together ideas, concepts, and group decisions to
help the group identify where it is in its thinking
8. Coordinator-Integrator - clarifies and integrates relationships between
various ideas, suggestions, and people
9. Orienter - defines the position of the group with respect to its goals
10. Disagreer - takes a different point of view, argues against, and implies
error in fact or reasoning



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11. Evaluator-Critic - subjects the accomplishment of the group to some
set of standards. Questions the "practicality," the "logic,"
the "facts," or the "procedure"
12. Energizer - prods the group to action
13. Procedural Technician - performs routine tasks related to group
functioning
14. Recorder - keeps a written record of the groups work

TEAM BUILDING

Team building is any activity that builds and strengthens the team as a team. For
teams to function optimally over the long term, building team spirit, enthusiasm,
cohesiveness, and camaraderie are vitally important. Unfortunately, these
activities have been deemed less significant to their sister activities of task
accomplishment, so little emphasis has been placed on team building.

Team Values
Our values are those beliefs that we possess that help us to make decisions such as
right from wrong, good from bad, or normal from not normal. These values come
into play each time we interact with others, and are the source of rich discussions
or significant conflict.

Our values reflect our teachings from our family, friends, schools, mentors, and
media. When we form teams, we must understand that each team member brings a
unique value system to the table. These learned insights on life add important
information to team discussions, but their differences are frequently the source of
conflict. So understanding how values affect team member relationships is a
critical piece of the team building puzzle.

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Team Operating Principles

As opposed to operating processes that deal with task accomplishment, team
operating principles are standards of behavior that build and strengthen the team.
Team members discuss how they will behave with each other, then formalize
their results in a set of standards or a Code of Conduct.

For example, one team's Code of Conduct included the following:
Respect the opinions of others
Allow equal participation in discussions
Take responsibility for what is going on in the team, and take action when
needed
Teams will inevitably experience difficulties and conflict, but having a basis for
dealing with the interpersonal issues will help to protect the team and allow it to
grow.

The Six Team Building Roles

Team building roles are those carried out by members, either consciously or
unconsciously, that tend to build the team's interpersonal relationships,
cohesiveness, and spirit. They are vitally needed roles that play a large part in
maintaining team performance over the long term. These roles include:

1. Encourager - praises other members' contributions to the team
2. Harmonizer - mediates differences between other members



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3. Compromiser - offers a compromise during disagreement or conflict by
yielding position or admitting error
4. Gatekeeper -regulates the flow of communication, particularly in meetings, by
encouraging the participation of those less inclined to participate and quieting
those who are overly talkative
5. Standard Setter - expresses standards for the team regarding its operation
6. Group Observer - observes and reports back to the team on its group dynamics



























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______1. His role is to suggests new ideas to the group
______2. He seeks clarification of the values pertinent to
the issue, rather than facts.
______3. He keeps a written record of the groups work
______4. he takes a different point of view, argues
against, and implies error in fact or reasoning
______5. His role is to clarifies and integrates
relationships between various ideas,
suggestions, and people



a. Initiator
b. Information Seeker
c. Opinion Seeker
d. Information Giver
e. Opinion Giver
f. Elaborator
g. Summarizer
h. Coordinator-Integrator
Disagreer
i. Recorder


A. MATCHING TYPE. Team roles













SELF-CHECK 3
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B. TRUE OR FALSE. Write true if the statement is correct and false if the
statement is not correct.
_______1. Team building roles are those carried out by members, either
consciously or unconsciously, that tend to build the team's interpersonal
relationships, cohesiveness, and spirit.
_______2. Teams will not experience difficulties and conflict, but having a basis
for dealing with the interpersonal issues will help to protect the team and allow it
to grow.
_______3. Team accomplishment is any activity that builds and strengthens the
team as a team.
_______4. The driving force behind every team is a clear mission and vision
_______5. To accomplish tasks effectively and efficiently, good teams need not to
develop operating processes.










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GROUP PLANNING Process - Details

1. PREPARATION

a. Select the planning team which typically consists of the leader, direct
reports and a number of other key employees.

b. Determine data requirements and analyze information.

c. Determine the leader's expectations for the meeting and process.


2. INTERVIEWS

a. Strategic planning facilitator conducts one-on-one interviews with the Team
Planning participants in order to understand the culture, organization, issues
and opportunities.

b. B. Hold interviews 2-4 weeks prior to the planning meeting by telephone or
on-site.

3. QUESTIONNAIRE

a. Prepare a questionnaire covering a variety of subjects appropriate to
strategic planning for the organization. Questions could revolve around:
growth opportunities, growth impediments, markets, product roadmaps,
culture, core competencies, time-to-market, strategic weaknesses and issues,
financial forecasts, etc.

b. Each participant to complete the questionnaire with personal responses. This
homework assignment will require 1-2 hours and will prepare each person to
participate from the first moment of the planning meeting.

INFORMATION SHEET 4
GROUP PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING
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c. Receive questionnaires about one week prior to the planning meeting.
Summarize the key points for use and discussion during the session.

4. OFF-SITE PLANNING MEETING

a. Facilitate a detailed, open and candid discussion of the present situation of
the organization. This will bring all participants to the same level of
understanding of the business situation from which a plan for the future can
be developed. The discussions will be wide ranging, covering the
questionnaire materials and additional subjects.

b. Develop conclusions and assumptions about the future environment your
organization will face. The discussions will cover anticipated directions for
your industry, competition, buyers, suppliers, new entrants, technologies,
etc.

c. With an understanding of the present situation and where your environment
is headed; determine where you are going and want to go as an organization
by engaging in Strategic Thinking and the creation of a vision, grand
strategy statement, key success factors and 2-4 major strategic objectives.

d. Establish how you will achieve your desired objectives through the
development of business area and cross-functional strategies and action
plans.

e. Assign action parties, action dates and accountabilities to provide the steps
for subsequent implementation and follow-up.

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5. FOLLOW-UP

a. Facilitate follow-up meetings at the client's option.
b. Determine progress on objectives, strategies and commitments.
c. Make adjustments to plans if dictated by changes in the environment and
continue the Strategic Thinking.
d. Change planning from a one-time event to a continuing process.



Planning for Decision Making

While decision making without planning is fairly common, it is often not pretty.
The terms used to describe it--crisis management, putting out fires, seat-of-the-
pants governing--all reveal the inelegance and awkwardness of this way of life.
Planning allows decisions to be made in a much more comfortable and intelligent
way. Planning even makes decisions easier by providing guidelines and goals for
the decision. We might even say that planning is a type of decision simplification
technique (see the discussion of these techniques below).

Decision makers will find four major benefits to planning:
1. Planning allows the establishment of independent goals. The vision which
will shape the decisions is set apart from surrounding events. Decisions are not
made only as reactions to external stimuli. "Management by firefighting" is
replaced by a conscious and directed series of choices. Managers now steer the
organization, individuals now steer their lives, rather than being steered by external
forces. Sometimes the difference between planning and not planning is described
as "proactive" (taking control of the situation) versus "reactive" (responding to
stimuli).


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ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS 27
2. Planning provides a standard of measurement. A plan provides something to
measure against, so that you can discover whether or not you are achieving or
heading toward your goals. As the proverb says, If you don't know where you're
going, it doesn't matter which way you go.
3. Planning converts values to action. When you are faced with a decision, you
can consult your plan and determine which decision will help advance your plan
best. Decisions made under the guidance of planning can work together in a
coherent way to advance company or individual goals.
Planning is useful in emergency situations, too. When a crisis arises, a little
thought about the overall plan will help determine which decision to make that will
not only help resolve the crisis but will also help advance the overall plan. Without
a plan, crises are dealt with haphazardly and decisions are made which may
ultimately be in conflict with each other.
4. Planning allows limited resources to be committed in an orderly way.
Budgets, time, effort, manpower--all are limited. Their best use can be made when
a plan governs their use.

DECISION LEVELS

We all recognize that some decisions are more important than others, whether in
their immediate impact or long term significance. As a means of understanding the
significance of a decision so that we can know how much time and resources to
spend on it, three levels of decision have been identified:

1. Strategic. Strategic decisions are the highest level. Here a decision concerns
general direction, long term goals, philosophies and values. These decisions are the
least structured and most imaginative; they are the most risky and of the most
uncertain outcome, partly because they reach so far into the future and partly
because they are of such importance.

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2. Tactical. Tactical decisions support strategic decisions. They tend to be medium
range, medium significance, with moderate consequences.

3. Operational. These are every day decisions, used to support tactical decisions.
They are often made with little thought and are structured. Their impact is
immediate, short term, short range, and usually low cost. The consequences of a
bad operational decision will be minimal, although a series of bad or sloppy
operational decisions can cause harm. Operational decisions can be
preprogrammed, pre-made, or set out clearly in policy manuals.
An important comment should be made here. Issues should be examined and
decisions should be made at all of these levels. If you discover that nearly all of
your thinking and decision making is taking place at the operational level, then you
are probably not doing enough strategic thinking and planning. As a result you will
lead a reactive life, responding only to the forces around you and never getting
control of your life, your direction or your goals.

SOME TECHNIQUES FOR DECISION MAKING

This is a list of easy, practical techniques that can be applied to simple or complex
decisions. They share the assumption that circumspect analysis is the key to
making good decisions. Many decisions are made with too little information and
too little thought, in a non-deliberate way. Think about it for a moment: how many
people do you know who commonly spend even five minutes structuring and
analyzing a decision?
Note how these techniques provide a visible, structured, orderly set of factors
involved in a decision, so that the decision maker can consider them in a thoughtful
and coherent way.


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ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS 29
The first three techniques are especially for whether-type decisions, those
involving yes/no, either/or, or two-possibility decisions.
1. T-Chart. A T-Chart is an orderly, graphic representation of alternative features
or points involved in a decision. In one form, it can be a list of positive and
negative attributes surrounding a particular choice. Drawing up such a chart
insures that both the positive and negative aspects of each direction or decision will
be taken into account.
For example, what are the pros and cons of deciding to buy a sport utility vehicle?

PRO CON
better visibility higher insurance
safer structure poorer gas mileage
can take off road more expensive maintenance

In another form, two possible choices are listed, with the good points or arguments
or effects listed for each. Suppose your company is trying to decide whether to
create its own advertising or hire an agency.

Use Outside Agency Write Ads In-House
professional work faster product
expertise of ideas better knowledge of product
media connections use same ad in flyers


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To fill out this latter form, more than two choices can be included, and a list of
negatives for each choice can be added as well.


2. PMI. Edward de Bono refines the T-Chart idea into a three part structure, which
he calls PMI for plus, minus, and interesting. Here you first list all the plus or good
points of the idea, then all the minus or bad points, and finally all the interesting
points--consequences, areas of curiosity or uncertainty, or attributes that you
simply don't care to view as either good or bad at this point (consequences that
some people might view as good and others might view as bad, for example). The
"interesting" category also allows exploration of the idea or choice outside the
context of judgment--you don't have to evaluate the attribute into a positive or
negative category.
Decision Simplification Techniques

This is a list of techniques used to simplify decision making. You will notice that
many of them work by reducing the number of alternatives considered. Others
work by using premanufactured decisions, and still others use miscellaneous
methods. Depending on the nature and importance of a given decision, some
techniques will be preferable to others. Some techniques, while popularly used for
many decisions, are suboptimal or even harmful in many circumstances.
1. Criteria Filter. Establish a fixed set of criteria which all alternatives must
meet. Potential alternatives which fail to meet even a single criterion are
excluded from the pool of alternatives. For example, in buying a car, certain
criteria might be established before considering any particular vehicle. Only
vehicles meeting all those criteria would be considered in the decision
process.


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ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS 31
2. Best of 3. A more accurate name for this would be "best of few" because
it involves limiting the number of alternatives to three or four or five or six.
This is a common technique used when the decision is under time pressure
and many of the alternatives are somewhat similar. If, for example, you must
buy a new toaster or popcorn popper or stereo this week, you might use the
best of 3 technique. Rather than attempt to investigate every possible toaster,
popper, or stereo, you choose just three or four and pick from among them.
3. Cursory Exclusion. This alternative-reducing technique is often used in
conjunction with other decision-making techniques. Here, a potential
alternative is rejected on the basis of a single flaw. Rather than looking at
potential alternatives with a mind to choosing them, they are looked at with
an eye toward rejecting them. Employment officers (and sometimes popular
people hunting for spouses!) often use this technique. When a prospect
comes in, the manager asks, "What reason might I find for rejecting this
person?" The more who are rejected after a cursory (brief and superficial)
examination, the fewer the manager has to think about in his decision
making. (Thus the importance of making a good impression at such
interviews.) Cursory exclusion can be suboptimal or even harmful in some
situations where a really excellent choice is rejected because of some
superficial flaw or atypical presentation.
4. Routinization. Many decisions are made along the lines of previous
decisions. "When this happens, do that." Standardized policies for handling
recurring events or choices help to make life more efficient. Procedure
manuals are essentially catalogs of previously solved problems. The manuals
tell how to respond when the same or similar problem arises. Thus, they
might be called books of programmed decisions.
Habitual behaviors might be seen as forms of decision simplification, also.
For example, some people have a standard or favorite area to park at the
shopping mall or grocery store they visit most frequently. By using such a
standard parking spot, a new parking decision need not be made each trip
and the mind can run on automatic when the shopper approaches the mall or
store. A potential problem with routinization, the "use what worked before"
approach, is that new problems tend to be pressed into the mold of problems
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ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS 32
that will fit the standard procedures. Remember, then, that new problems
may need new solutions.
Routinization might be broken down into rules and guidelines. A rule is a
specific requirement that must be followed, while a guideline is a principle
of operation. To use examples from the Bible (which has many guidelines
and some rules), we could say that a rule might be "Do not steal," while a
guideline would be, "Do to others as you would have them do to you."
A subcategory here might be rules of thumb. These are guidelines based on
past experience or on the experience of others in the field.

Many times such rules do not result in the best decision, because individual
cases vary so much. Rules of thumb do have the advantage of leading to a
decision in a short time.
5. Satisficing. As we mentioned in the previous chapter, in this technique,
the first satisfactory alternative is chosen rather than the best alternative.
When you want to write a note, you just grab the first suitable piece of paper
rather than looking all over to find the very best one in your room or office.
Looking for the very best would be the optimizing strategy, which is
decision complicating rather than decision simplifying. Satisficing is
preferred for decisions of small significance, when you're in a hurry, or
where most of the alternatives are essentially similar.
6. Delegation. Perhaps this technique is only apparently simplifying, since
the person given the decision to make may have complexity enough. But for
the person doing the delegating, it is a very good simplification technique.
Let someone else do the research, consider the alternatives, and make the
decision.



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ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS 33
7. Parameter Delegation. One of the most common decision simplification
techniques, this method involves delegating to others the research and
development of alternatives from which the decision maker will then choose.
We use this method in our everyday lives by walking into a store, where the
managers have chosen to carry 10 of the scores of washing machine
available, by ordering from the mail order catalog listing six of the dozens of
word processing programs available and so on. We assume that these people
have used some method of useful decision making to select the group of
alternatives presented to us. We hope the criteria included quality,
performance, value, and so on, rather than profit margin, but we are
sometimes deceived.
In a company, an executive may delegate to a committee or a subordinate
the basic research into a decision and ask to be presented with three or four
alternatives from which to choose.
Another example of parameter delegation is the reliance on
recommendations from others. When we buy something or go see a movie
based on a favorable review, we are exercising this method of decision
simplification. The newest term for this version of parameter delegation is
collaborative filtering.

8. Random Choice. Here, just any alternative is chosen. The choice may be
the first alternative available or simply one picked without analysis or
ordering. When you need to use a towel, or put clean sheets on the bed, or
choose some fruit to eat, you might decide that any will do. "J ust grab one"
might be another name for this technique. It certainly makes the decision
easy and simple. Analysis requires a lot of mental effort, and some people,
especially those who spend much of their working lives performing
complicated analyses, want to reduce the level of analysis in the rest of their
lives. You will sometimes see them walk into a stationery store and rather
nonchalantly grab a notebook or pad to use. Random choice can produce a
fun adventure in restaurants, too.

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ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS 34
9. Conformity. Follow the crowd; do what others do; go with the flow. In
this technique you attach yourself to a preexisting decision stream and
accept the decisions that most other people have made. When most other
people in your subgroup have put on acid-washed jeans, you do too. We like
to think of ourselves as rugged and independent individualists, but in reality
we adopt many pre-made decisions through social conformity.

10. Reaction. Rebel; do the opposite of the majority; go against the flow.
This technique is used by those who want to appear to be making decisions.
It is easy and automatic, just like conformity.

11. Feelings. Follow your heart; go with your emotions; use your intuition;
trust that gut feeling. Choices presented by your feelings are ready and
apparent. Once again, this is a way of avoiding the hard mental work of
analysis. And, of course, there is some evidence that some preferences of the
feelings may actually be subconsciously performed analyses. Other
preferences of the feelings are simply irrational lusts.

12. Idleness. Do nothing. Let others decide for you, or let circumstances
dictate the choice. You must face the consequences of making no decision,
however. Someone has said that making no decision is really a decision. If
you do not decide whether to vacation in France or England, you will in
effect be deciding to stay home.

13. Adoption of a short-range view. Choices are simplified if the
consequences are considered only insofar as they involve today. This
strategy leads to quick decisions, but it can also be very dangerous.


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ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS 35
1. You are planning to buy a house or a car. Rather than having to decide between
buying the item right now with all cash or never having it, you can plan to buy
it over several years by making payments. Or, you might combine this plan with
the plan to buy a smaller house and add rooms later as they could be afforded.
By planning you can thus accomplish things that might otherwise look
impossible. What does planning gives you in this situation
a. it provides a standard of measurement..
b. it allows limited resources to be committed in an orderly way.
c. Planning converts values to action

2. An engineer notices a fine white powder covers everything in a room that has a
laminating press. She asks the operator how long he has been working in this
room. He replies that he has been working there for over ten years. The engineer
is concerned that the health of this operator may be at risk from inhaling this
powder for so long. What should she do?

a. Do nothing. After all, it is not a part of her job description.
b. Go to the nearest television station and talk with a reporter about this
deplorable situation.
c. Check into OSHA regulations concerning this powder. Should the
regulations warrant it, notify OSHA of the problem. Then, through
appropriate company channels notify the operator and make sure that he
receives a thorough medical examination to determine if any harm has
occurred. Then check to make sure that appropriate follow-up examinations
are carried out.
d. Your own solution









SELF-CHECK 4
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ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS 36
3. Marta Malasobras has been coming to work late for the several weeks now. She
works in a small group and the other members have come to you to complain that
her tardiness reduces the effectiveness of the entire group. When you confront her
with this problem, she breaks down and cries: she has to drop her son off to school
but the school gates do not open soon enough for her to get to work on time. She
has been unable to find anyone to take her son to school. What should you do?

a. Fire her. Chronic lateness to work is a serious offense and cannot be
tolerated in any way.
b. Discuss her problem with the rest of her work team. See if any temporary
arrangement can be made to give her time to find someone to take her son
to school.
c. Delegate the problem to the work team. After all, empowering them with
decision-making authority also makes them more accountable. Its their
problem, not yours.
d. Your solution

4. Your company has decided to accept your recommendation to purchase a UV
curing oven to increase productivity. When the oven has been delivered and
readied for use, your supervisor asks you to begin using it even though the
appropriate Environmental Quality Board permits have not yet been issued. He
argues that such permission is pro forma anyway so why wait and lose valuable
production time. What should you do?
a. Do what your supervisor asks. The permits should arrive in a couple of
weeks and nobody is going to find out that during that time you have been
operating the oven without permits.
b. Refuse to do it. Nobody has the right to ask you to do something illegal.
c. Tell him that he can do so but only on his own authority. Then write a
memo to him, his supervisor, and a coworker explaining that you
disapprove of this decision.
d. First, try to reason with him. Explain that even though you will probably
not get caught, the severity of the fine and loss of reputation are not worth
the risk. Add that as an engineer, you have a special obligation to
safeguard the environment which includes strictly conforming to
government environmental regulations.
e. Your solution
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ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS 37

5. A skilled machine operator under your supervision has recently returned from
maternity leave. She works a ten-hour shift two days a week; company policy is
that workers are entitled to a ten-minute break every two hours and a half hour for
lunch in the middle of the shift. She has asked you for permission to return home
every two hours to nurse her baby. Since she lives ten minutes away from work,
this would require her to violate company policy. What should you do?


a. Tell her that she can either start bottle-feeding her baby or look for
another job. You cannot get involved in the personal affairs of your
employees
b. Suggest that her husband bring the baby to work. She could then nurse the
baby in the companys medical room during her regular, authorized
breaks.
c. Honor her request but set a time limit of, say, three weeks.
d. Your solution



















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ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS 38
B. Using the T-Chart list the possible PROs and CONs in the situation below


Your company has recently entered into a cooperative venture with a J apanese
firm. A team of J apanese engineers has come to your plant to teach your engineers
a new manufacturing process. However, the senior member of this team, a
J apanese engineer with very traditional cultural views, refuses to work with a
female member of your team despite the fact that she is a highly qualified engineer.
Your initial decision is to reassign the woman engineer. What do you think will be
the possible effects? What will be your final decision?


PRO CON






Module 2. Lead small teams
ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS 39
Module 2 - Leading Small Teams
Recording Sheet For Oral Questioning / Interview
Student name:
Module Title/o:
Quali!ication:
Oral/interview "uestions Satis!actor# res$onse
%es o
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The student's underpinning knowledge was:
Satisfactory Not satisfactory
Student&s Signature: 'ate
Trainor&s signature: 'ate:
(cce$ta)le answers are:
Trainor&s signature: 'ate:
ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS

Rating Sheet
Module 2 - Leading Small Teams
Performance
Feedback
Remarks
S NS C NYC
1. Self-Check 1
2. Self-Check 1.1
3. Self-Check 2
4. Self-Check 3
5. Self-Check 4
S - Satisfactory
NS Not Satisfactory
C - Completed
NYC Not Yet Completed
odule is
!o"pleted Not #et !o"pleted
$e"arks:
Student&s Signature 'ate
Trainor&s signature: 'ate:
ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AND COMPUTERS