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-De-ice.

In case of severe icing in the engine intakes


Reduce power in one engine put on one engine anti ice then the other

-Whats the most common anti-ice liquid?
AEA Type II/75/16.43 local TLS / 19 Dec 99
AEA Type II: Type of fluid used 75: Percentage of fluid/water
mixtures by volume 75% fluid / 25% water 16.43: Local time of
start of last application 19 Dec 99: Date
ISO Type I/50:50/06.30 UTC/ 19 Dec 99
50:50: 50% fluid / 50 % water 06.30: Time (UTC) of start of
last application
Type 1 de icing Type 2 Anti-ice.



Anti-ice time is counting since??
The begining of the application of anti ice liquid or if theres only one application at
the begining of the first application.

-When is the anti ice/de-ice more effetive?
a) 1 Cycle of anti ice- de ice ********* correcta
b) double cycle anti ice/ de ice
c) Begining of anti- ice
d) End of de-ice


One Step ice removal/anti-icing
Applies a hot de-icing/anti-icing fluid or mixture of fluid and water.
The following variables are considered when making a decision on how hot to
make the fluid and water mixture:
-The ambient temperature
-The weather conditions

Two step ice removal/anti-icing
A two step ice removal/anti-icing process uses the followings steps:
1Aplication of hot water or a hot mixture of de-icing/anti-icing fluid and water to
remove the ice
Inmediately followed with a spray of a de icing/anti icing fluid or a mixture of this
with water for anti-icing.
This step must be done within 3 minutes after first step is started. If it is necessary.
The procedure must be performed area by area.



Study the relation between V1 wet and Vx dry and ASDA
V1 105 % de VMCA
VEF +1 SEGUNDO-V1
VMCG menor o igual a VEF menor o igual a V1
Vlof must not be les tan 110% de Vmu all engines inop 105% Vmu determined at
the thrust to weight ratio corresponding to the one engine-inoperative condition
V2 1.2 Vs

Take off distance:
a)The take off distance on a dry runway is the greater of the following values:

-TODn-1 dry = Distance covered from the brake release to a point at which the
aircraft is a 35 feet above the take off surface, assuming the failure of the critical
engine at Vef and recognized at V1.
-1.15 TOD n dry= 115% of the distance covered from brake release to a point at
which the aircraft is at 35ft above the takeoff surface, assuming all engines
operating.
TODdry= max of (TOD n-1 dry, 1.15 TODn dry)

b) The takeoff distance on a wet runway is the greater of the following values:
-TOD dry= Takeoff distance on a dry runway (see above)
-TOD n-1 wet= Distance covered from brake relase to a point at which the
aircraft is a 15 feet above the takeoff surface, ensuring the V2 speed to be achieved
before the airplane is 35 ft above the takeoff surface, assuming failure of the
critical engine Vef and recognized at V1
TODwet = max of (TODdry, TOD n-1 wet)

Runway with clearway

a)Take of run n a dry runway is the greater of the following values

The clearway doesnt give any performance benefit on a wet runway.

ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE (ASD)

a) the accelerate-stop distance on a dry runway is the greater of the following
values
-ASDn -1 DRY= SUM OF THE DISTANCES NECESSARY TO:
-ACCELERATE THE AIRPLANE WITH ALL ENGINES OPERATING TO vef,
-Accelerate from Vef to V1 assuming the critical engine fails at Vef and the
pilot takes the first action to reject the takeoff at V1
come to a full stop
Plus a distance equivalent to 2 Second at constat V1 speed
ASD n dry= Sum of the distances necessary to
Accelerate the airplane with all engines operating to V1 assuming the pilot
takes the first action to reject the take off at V1
With all engines still operating come to a full stop
Plus a distance equivalent to 2 seconds at constant V1 speed


-TORA TODA ASDA CLEAR WAY
TORA= Takeoff runway available
TODA= Takeoff distance available
ASDA= Acceleration stop distance available
CLEAR WAY= 500 pies de anchura obstculo mas alto no mas de un 25% o
1.25
STOP WAY= mista anchura de la pista capaz de soportar el peso del avin

-Relation with TODA y MTOW

-Relation stopway V1 wet and V1 dry.
a) The accelerate-stop distance on a dry runway is the greater of the
following values;
- ASD n-1 dry = Sum of the distances necessary to:
-Accelerate the airplane with all engines operating to Vef,
Accelerate from Vef to V1 assuming the critical engine fails at Vef and the
pilot takes the first acction to rejet the take off at V1
Come to full stop
Plus a distance equivalent to 2 seconds at constant V1 speed.
-ASD n dry= Sum of the distances necessary to:
Accelerate the airplane with all engine operating to V1, aassuming the pilot
takes the first action to rejet the ataqueoff at V1
With all engines operating to full stop
Plus a distance equivalent to 2 seconds at constat V1 speed

ASD dry= max of (ASD N-1, ASDn dry)
b)The accelerate-stop distance on a wet runway is the greater of the
following values:
ASDdry
ASDn-1 wet= Same definition as ASDn-2 dry except the runway is wet
ASDnwet= same definition as ASDn dry except the runway is wet.

Influence of V1 on ACCELERATE-GO/STOP DISTANCES
For a given take off weight, any increase in V1 leads to a reduction in both
TODn-1 and TORn-1. The reason is that the all engine acceleration phase is
longer with a higher V1 speed and consequently in case of an engine failure
occurring at Vef , the same V2 speed can be achieved at 35ft at a shorter
distance.
On the other hand, TODn and TOR n are independent of V1 as there is no
engine failure and thus no consequence on the acceleration phase and the
necessary distance to reach 35 ft.
On the contrary for a given takeoff weight, any increase in V1 leads to an
acceleration segment from brake release to V1 is longer, the deceleration
segment from V1 to the complete stop is longer, and the 2 second segment
at constant V1 speed is longer.
As a result the following graph providing the takeoff/rejected takeoff
distances is achieved at a particular V1 speed. This speed is called balanced
V1 and the corresponding distance is called balanced field.

-When V1 has to be reduced because of a wet runway the one engine
out obstacle clearance/climb perfomance
Decreases/remain constant

-If the aircraft take off at the wet V1 instead of the dry V1, What is the effect
on TODR and climb perfomance?
Increases, degrades

-Mach 0.8 when is the TAS/IAS faster?
FL 370

-Factors affecting to MACH
TAS/LSS = MACH
M crit CP moves backwards


Temperature, less temperature Mach number decreases
DA mach number decrease
Subsonico menor 0,7
Transonico 0,7 a 1,2
Supersonico 1.2 a 5
Hipersonico mayor que 5

-When climbing descending at constant M number is IAS/TAS affected?
CLIMB TAS/ IAS disminuyen
Descenso a mach constante, TAS aumenta, y IAS
-When descending when should you selecet engine anti ice?

When descending and temperatura is higher tan -40 clouds etc..

-Flaps Slat maintaining altitude
Slats keep angle of attack and flaps decreases angle of attack

-Spoilers are used for
Spoilers reduces lift with a Little increase in drag,

The speed brake increase in drag without decreasing in lift

They are used for roll control

-Holding Speed Above 140 below 200
up to 14000ft 230Kt//turbulence 280Kt
between 14000-20000 240Kt// Turbulence 280Kt
between 20000-34000 inclusive 265Kt turbulence 280 .80 whichever is less
Above 34000 .83

-How do you see right PAPI, from left to right.
Two red two whites

-Difference betwen ATOW and AZFW

ATOW lleva incluido el combustible y AZFW tiene el pay load pero no hay
combustible para el vuelo

-How is the MRC compared with lrc
LRC is 99% of the MRC

-Aft centre of gravity
will reduce stall speed.


-Best glide speed
Max L/D ratio es el mnimo angulo

-Relation CG position VS Mach number

-Winglets
Reduce induced drag, fuel consumption improve perfomance
-When wing tip vortex are bigger?
Take off Rotacion

-Fuel to destination when is a remote destination
2 hours MLR n-1

-Alternate Aerodrome for take off
1 hour n-1 if three or more engines 2 hours n-1 30 minutos 1500 holding
speed over alternate (Aprox 1200kg fuel depending airline)

-Alternate Aerodrome for destination
1500 ft 30 minutos holding speed (Buscar mas informacin)
mas menos una hora y una categora inferior
-Absolute ceeling service celing
Absolute celing roc=0
Service celing roc=100ft/min

-FAF, FAP
FAP final approach point for precisin approach
FAF final Aprroach fix for non precisin approach

-RVSM pag 510
2 Altimeters, Altitude deviation warning, Autopilot (maintain altitude) SSR
transponder the altimeters must indicate a difference lower than 200ft
Maximum deviation allowed 150ft
290-410
In case of being unable to maintain RVSM report unable to maintain RVSM

-Anex 14, 10.
1 Personnel licensing
2 Rules of the air
3 Meteorological Services for International Air navigation
4 Aeronautical caharts
5 Unit messuarement to be used in Air and Ground Operation
6 Operational of aircraft
Part I International Commercial Air Transport- Aeroplanes
Part II International General Aviation Aeroplanes
7 Aircraft nationality and registration marks
8 Airworthiness of Aircraft
9 Facilitation
10 Aeronautical comunication
11 Air traffic services- Air traffic control service, Flight information service
and alerting service
12 Search and resscue
13 Aircraft accident and incident investigation
14 Aerodromes
15 AIS (Aeronautical Information Service)
16 Enviromental protection
17 Security: Safeguarding International Civil Aviation against Acts of
unlawful interference
18 Safe transport of dangerous godos by air
19 SMS

-Resolution Advisory against ATC orders
Follow RA

-Oxigen pag 630
Se debe de garantizar el oxigeno cuando la altitud de cabina exceda de
10000 pies durante un periodo superior a 30 minutos siempre que la
altitud de cabina exceda de 13000ft.

*100% of passengers (infants included--- 10 minutes or the entire flight
time (the greater when pressure altitude excedes 15000ft)
*30% of passengers ( Infants included)--- entire flight time when the cabin
pressure altitude excedes 14000 ft but does not exceed 15000ft.
*10% of passeners ( Infants included)--- Entire flight time when the cabin
pressure altitude excedes 10000ft but does not exceed 14000ft after the
first 30 minutes at these altitude.

(mirar en JAR)
-MSA
25NM 1000ft 2000 mountanous rea (considered montanous rea above
5000ft elevation)

-What kind of entry for this holding 350 heading and radial 060.
Offset

-In case of an engine fired on ground
Captain will report cabine crew
First officer will perform QRH
Captain wil report to ATC
ALL PREVIOUS CORRECT*****

- We can consider to delay the descend if we have
Head wind, High Speed, Low weight

- Is the range affected by the head wind
Yes
50% en cara 150% en cola
-Low cost index
Increase range decrease fuel consumption, cheaper flight.

-Fuel flow decrease
If Altitude increases

-In case of descend and altimeter static port blocked
Altimeter read same altitude

Pitot tube


Partially blocked static vent from actual experience . .1/ Take off roll -
normal indications

2/ Climb - airspeed steadily reducing with height gained, past stall, past
zero, to minus 140 kts. VSI close to zero, Altimeter indicating the altitude
corresponding the height of the blockage (with a partial blockage it very
slowly climbs at a lesser rate than the aircraft.

3/ Cruise - Everything slowly comes back to normal as the pressure
equalises to the correct outside pressure.

4/ Descent - The exact opposite to climb, the airspeed indication increased
past VNE and right on past zero again. In the circuit 180 kts on final,
touched down 140 kts and turned into the taxiway indicating 80 kts (Piper
Comanche)

-What does PMR mean?
Person mobility reduced
Must not ocpate emergency exist and the number of PMR should not overpass the
number of persons capable to assist them in an emergency evacuation.

-In IMC you will reasume flight plan 7 minutes after?
-last heading received
last flight level received
since 7600 selected
whichever comes last

7 MINUTOS, 7600 VOLVER AL PLAN DE VUELO, ULTIMO RUMBO O NIVEL
ASIGNADO O MSA LO QUE SEA MAS ALTO, LLEGAR ENCIMA DEL IAF Y EMPEZAR
LA APROXIMACION A LA LTIMA HORA DE APROXIMACIN RECIBIDA Y
COLACCIONADA O SI NO SE HA RECIBIDO A LA HORA ESTIMADA DE
APROXIMACIN EN EL PLAN DE VUELO PARA ATERRIZAR DENTRO DE LOS 30
MINUTOS SIGUIENTES LA HORA DE APROXIMACIN.

-In case of any emergency whats the first action?
Fly the plane

-In case of any fire signal on the ground the captain have to
Ask the cabin crew
Inform the cabin crew
Ask ATC
All above

-Check MEL and kind of deffect by category
EMPIEZAN A LAS 0000 DEL DA SIGUIENTE AL QUE SE HA ANOTADO EL
DEFECTO

A Deben de ser reparados dentro del lapso de tiempo especificado en el articulo
correspondiente
B 3 DIAS
C 10 DAS
D 120 DIAS
-Who is autorized to change any tem in the MEL
Engineering dept.

-Mirar METAR TAF
-What kind of fire extinguisher are there in the cockpit?
BCF gas alon bromoclorodifluorometano.
Clases de fuego
CLASS A combustible slido (madera, papel, basura, alfombras)
ClASS B combustibles liquidos o semilquidos (queroseno, grasa, gasolina, aceite)
CLASS C gases en estado natural ( hidrgeno, butano, propano, O2
CLASS D metales combustibles (aluminio, zinc, titanio)
CLASS E Elctricos

Cantidad de extintores BCF obligatorio en un avin
De 7-30 asientos 1
De 31-60 asientos 2
De 61-200 asientos 3
De 201-300 asientos 4
De 301 a 400 asientos 5
De 401 a 500 asientos 6
De 501 a 600 asientos 7
De 601 o mas asientos 8

-Microburst
1-5 km de 1 a 5 minutos
It has 1000 ft per minute donwards up to 6000 ft/min and 50Kt horizontally. The
windshear headwind to tailwind may be between 50 and 90 Kt. They are largely
caused by descending rain drops which cool the surrounding air by evaporation
thehigher density accelerating the down draught still further



-Windshear time and where
The most critical phases are approach and initial climb
Is a change in wind velocity with height. Its mesuared in knots per 100ft.
Thunderstorm
Front passing
Low level currents breezes
Orographic obstacles
-In cas of received taxi clearance
-Minor is a kid
bebe 2 nios12 aos adultos mas de 12
-Reduced take off
will increase the engine life
ISA CALCULATION
Altimetria

-Sintomas de cenizas volcnicas
smell like electrical fire
engine malfunction
engine flame out

-Procedure in case of volcanic ashes
Reduce power and 180 turn

Notas:
-No se continuar una aproximacin mas all de la outer marker o 1000pies sobre
el aeropuerto si se reporta una visibilidad inferior a la requerida para la
aproximacin.
-Por cada 10 grados de temperatura por debajo de la isa la altitud se
incrementar un 10%

-Un avin puede continuar al aeropuerto de destino cuando se compruebe que
quedar una cantidad de combustible en el destino menor que la VSR siempre que:

-----Si no se conoce por anticipado el retraso mximo y no se ha recibido la ETA,
adems del destino es posible alcanzar un aeropuerto alternativo donde el
aterrizaje puede ser asegurado con una cantidad de combustible no inferior a la
reserva final antes de tomar tierra.
------Se conoce por anticipado el retraso mximo o se ha recibido la ETA: El vuelo
puede continuar hacia el destino o esperar hasta que el aterrizaje en el destino est
asegurado y sea posible alcanzar un aeropuerto alternativo con una cantidad de
combustible no inferior a la reserva final al tomar tierra.
-----Dos o mas pistas paralelas, el vuelo puede continuar hacia el destino o esperar
hasta que el aterrizaje en el destino est asegurado y es posible alcanzar el destino
con una cantidad de combustible no inferior a la reserva final.

El combustible estimado a bordo al aterrizar ser menor que la reserva final mas
400Kg y puede ser menor que la reserva final.

El combustible estimado a bordo al aterrizar SER menor que la reserva final o si
el combustible real a bordo es menor que la reserva final.

Condiciones atmosficas peligrosas

-Se debe de chequear la meteorologa a intervalos no superiores a 60 min.
-Evitar CB al menos 20Nm, evitar volar debajo
-Eleccin de aerdromos alternativos
Alternativo de despegue, cuando las condiciones no permitan volver al aerdromo
de salida.
Destino alternativo:
Condiciones meteorolgicas buenas +- una hora de la llegada minimo 2000 pies de
techo, + 500 pies si es ua altura mayor y la visibilidad en tierra ser de 5 Km como
minimo.
El destino quede aislado

Son necesarios dos aerdromos alternativos aceptables cuando:
1)El pronostico o informes meteorolcgicos del destino, en cualquier combinacin,
indique que durante un peridod que comienza desde 1 hora antes de la hora
estimada de llegada y finaliza una hora despus de la hora estimada de llegada, las
condiciones meteorolgicas estarnpor debajo de los mnimos de planificacin
aplicables, o
2) no haya disponible informacin meteorolgica.

Cuando un vuelo se realice sin un aerdromo de destino alternativo, el combustibl
adicional ser la cantidad necesaria para mantenerse en espera durante 15
minutos a 1500 ft sobre la elevacin del campo.

Aerdromo alternativo en ruta (ERA)
Aerdromo adecuado a lo largo de la ruta

Aerdromo 3% ERA
Aquel como alternativo seleccionado con el popsito de reducir combustible de
congingencia.

-El aerdromo de alternativo en despegue debe de estar a una hora de vuelo a
velocidad de crucero con un motor inoperativo.
El pronostico tiene que estar mas menos una hora antes de la llegada en
condiciones meteorolgicas iguales o superiores a los mnimos de aterrizaje.

-Mnimos de planificacin para aerdromo alternativo de destino.
Las condiciones deben de ser mas menos una hora de la hora estimada de llegada
las condiciones debern ser iguales o superiores a los mnimos de planificacin.
RVR visibilidad espefcificada de acuerdo con el manual de ruta, y para realizar una
aproximacin de no precisin o aproximacin en circuito, el lmite debe ser igual o
superior a la altura mnima de descenso o se seleccionan dos aerdromos de
destino alternativos.

Se podr realizar un vuelo sin alternativo si la duracin del vuelo no excede de
horas y hay dos pistas separadas disponibles la meteorologa deber de ser 2000ft
o circling height +500ft el que sea mayor y la visibilidad mayor de 5Km.
O el destino est tan aislado que no hay posibilidad de proceder a un alternativo

Sern necesarios dos aerdromos alternativos en el caso en que en destino no se
pueda garantizar una hora antes y despus el aerdromo va a estar en buenas
condiciones meteorolgicas.

Mnimos de planificacin para aerdromo alternativo en ruta
Si se preveen que las condiciones van a ser mas menos una hora iguales o
superiores a los mnimos.

Mnimos de despegue
NIL (Day only)500
Runway edge lighting and or centreline marking (at least at runway edge and
runway end light requiered.250m
Runway edge and centre lighting ..200m
Runway edge centre and RVR150m


Combustible
Contingencia ser el 5% del Trip fuel y no menos del 3% la reserva final

Hold 5 minutos sobre el aeropuerto de destino a 1500ft

Para alternativo:
Frustrada en destino, ascenso a crucero volar a velocidad de crucero, descenso
aproximacin y aterrizaje. Reserva final 1500ft 30 min.

Si hay dos aerdromos alternativos, se utilizar para calculo aquel que requiera
mayor consumo de combustible.

Si se vuela a un aerdromo aislado hay que tener combustible suficiente para volar
dos horas a consumo normal de vuelo sobre el aerdromo incluyendo el
combustible de reserva final

PESOS
BEM: Peso en vaco mas elementos standard, equipo y los lquidos del sistema que
nse consideran como parte integral de una aeronave, aceite combustible no
utilizable etc..
BM: Peso bsico mas el equipo suelto y de versin.
DOW peso operativo seco: peso total de la aeronave lista para un tipo especfico
de operacin excluyndo todo el combusible utilizable y trafico.
El DOW consta de:
Tripulacin y equipaje
Equipo de catering y ventanas a bordo
Agua potable y productos qumicos
DOI: Dry operating index: Indice aplicable correspondiente al DOW especfico
que indica la posicin del centro de gravedad en unidades de ndice.
MZFW: El peso mximo permisible de una aeronave sin combustible utilizable
MTW M taxi weight: El peso mximo permisible de una aeronave en la rampa
MTOW: Maximum take of weight
MOTOW: Maximum operational take off weight: el peso mximo permisible de una
aeronave al inicio de la carrera de despegue, obtenido a partir del Manual de
perfomances PM para un aeropuerto especfico.
MLW: Maximum landing weight.
MOLOW: Maximum operating landing weight.
PL: Pay load
TL: Traffic load La suma de la carga de pago mas la carga que no genera ingresos
piezs repuestos etc.

Pesos standard
Hombre 88kg mujer 70kg todos lso adultos 84Kg
Nios 35
Tripulacin de vuelo 85Kg
Tripulacin de cabina 75Kg
El peso mximo permisible de ltima hora son 1000Kg

First aid kid
0-99.1
100-199.2
200-299..3
300 o mas.4
azafatas una cada 50 asientos















Cosas por mirar
Categora de aproximaiones
Procedimientos anti ruido
Clculos de isa
Clculos de carga y centrado, carga de palets etc
Calculo de velocidad de acuaplaning
Errores de ADF
PET, PNR