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168 Aufrufe10 SeitenDeriving the equation for Wheeled Inverted Pendulum

Oct 03, 2014

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Deriving the equation for Wheeled Inverted Pendulum

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168 Aufrufe

Deriving the equation for Wheeled Inverted Pendulum

© All Rights Reserved

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Pendulum

Munzir Zafar

October 2, 2014

In an earlier report [3] we had derived using Newton-Euler method the equa-

tions of motion of a wheeled inverted pendulum. But this model did not take

into account the spin motion of the robot. Before attempting to derive the

new equations including the spin, we will look at the equations derived in the

existing literature.

1 Using the equation from [1]

The equations derived in [1] for the motion of two-wheeled inverted pendulum

robot are:

3(m

c

+ m

s

) x m

s

dcos

+ m

s

dsin(

2

+

2

) =

3

+

3

R

(1)

_

(3L

2

+ 1/2R

2

)m

c

+ m

s

d

2

sin

2

+ I

2

_

+ m

s

d

2

sincos

=

L

R

(

3

3

)

(2)

m

s

dcos x + (m

s

d

2

I

3

)

+ m

s

d

2

sincos

2

+ m

s

gdsin =

3

+

3

(3)

where,

x is the heading speed of the robot

is the rotation of the C.G. about n

3

-directional

is the heading angle (angle between n

1

and the world frame)

3

is the torque of the left wheel

3

is the torque of the right wheel

m

c

is the mass of the wheel

m

s

is the mass of the body

d is the distance between wheel axis to C.G.

R is the radius of the wheel

L is the half distance between wheels

I

2

is the n

2

-directional rotational inertia of the body

I

3

is the n

3

-directional rotational inertia of the body

n

2

is the unit vector pointing vertically upwards

n

3

is the unit vector pointing from the left wheel to the right wheel

The equations that we had derived in our earlier report [3] did not include

the rotation about the vertical axis of the robot. One of the equations above

represent that motion. We will try to rst match the equations we had derived

1

with the equations listed above as a sanity check. Then we will write down the

thrid equation using the variables that we had used in our earlier report. Then

we will attempt to derive the equation using Newton-Euler method. Equations

from our earlier report are listed here:

[(m + M)r + I

w

/r +

2

I

m

/r] x + (mrlcos

2

I

m

)

= K

f

u

f

+ F

ext

rcos + mrl

2

sin

(4)

(mlcos

2

I

m

/r) x + (ml

2

+ I +

2

I

m

)

= K

f

u +

f

+ F

ext

l + mglsin

(5)

where,

m is the mass of the body

M is the mass of the wheels

r is the radius of the wheel

I

w

is the inertia of the wheel

is the gear ratio of the motor

I

m

is the motor inertia

x is the heading speed

l is the distance between wheel axis and the C.G.

is the rotation of the C.G. about the wheel axis

K

f

is the torque to current ratio of the motor

f

is the frictional torque on the wheels

F

ext

is the external force being applied at the C.G. perpendicular to l

I is the inertia of the robot about the wheel axis

Using the symbols used in equations 4-5, we re-write the equations 1-3:

3(M + m) x mlcos

+ mlsin(

2

+

2

) =

K

f

(u

1

+ u

2

)

r

(6)

_

(3L

2

+ 1/2r

2

)M + ml

2

sin

2

+ I

2

_

+ ml

2

sincos

=

L

r

K

f

(u

1

u

2

) (7)

mlcos x + (ml

2

I)

+ ml

2

sincos

2

+ mglsin = K

f

(u

1

+ u

2

) (8)

where, we have retained the symbols for quantities that do not appear in equa-

tions 4-5 i.e. and I

2

which represent the heading direction and the inertia

about the vertical axis respectively.

In equations 6-8, we make the following observations:

(i) Equations 6 and 8 are the equivalents of the equations 4 and 5 respectively

(ii) The equations 6 and 8 ignore the eects of wheel inertia I

w

, the motor

inertia I

m

, frictional torque

f

at the wheel motor and the external force

F

ext

, all of which were considered in equations 4 and 5

(iii) The terms containing x in equations 4 and 5 appear with opposite signs

in equations 6 and 8

(iv) The term mrlsin

2

of equation 4 appears as mrlsin(

2

+

2

) in equation

6

(v) Equation 4 does not contain the coecient 3 with the x term which ap-

pears in equation 6

2

(vi) Equation 5 does not contain the term ml

2

sincos

2

which appears in

equation 8

Point number (iii) may be explained by assuming that the two derivations

assumed x increases in dierent directions. Point number (iv) may be explained

by the fact that equations 4 and 5 assume constant heading direction i.e.

= 0

But the last two points are not easy to explain. An interesting fact regarding

point regarding (v) is that the paper [1] changes the term from 3(m

c

+ m

s

) in

the original equation that we cited aboce to 3m

c

+ m

s

in the later equations

of the same paper. It appears that the latter expression is more accurate and

basically 3m

c

represents the mass of three wheels of equal mass, one of which

is a supporting wheel. The paper discusses supporting wheels at length, so it

wont be surprise. That solves the mystery of the second last point. What

remains now is to discuss the very last point. Since we see that there is a typo

done in the earlier equation, we can expect this term to have a typo, in that it

is missing a

term. If this was true we will safely assume that the reason this

term isnt present in our earlier analysis (i.e. equations 4 and 5) is because we

assumed constant heading direction i.e.

= 0.

2 Using equations from [2]

In the book [2] following equations of motion are derived:

_

M + 2M

w

+ m + 2

I

w

r

2

_

v + ml cos ml

2

sin =

l

r

+

r

r

+ d

l

+ d

r

(9)

_

I

p

+ 2

_

M

w

+

I

w

r

2

_

d

2

_

= 2d

_

l

r

r

r

+ d

l

d

r

_

(10)

ml vcos +

_

ml

2

+ I

M

_

mglsin = 0 (11)

where,

M is the mass of the platform

M

w

is the mass of one wheel

m is the mass of the robot

I

w

is the inertia of one wheel

r is the radius of one wheel

v is the heading speed of the wheel

l is the distance from C.G. to wheel axis

is the rotation of C.G. about the wheel axis

l

is the torque applied by left wheel motor

r

is the torque applied by right wheem motor

d

l

is the external force acting on the left wheel

d

r

is the external force acting on the right wheel

Now, replacing these variables with the ones we had used in [3], equations, 9-11

become:

3

_

M

p

+ M + m +

I

w

r

2

_

x + ml

cos ml

2

sin =

K

f

u

1

r

+

K

f

u

2

r

+ d

l

+ d

r

(12)

_

I

z

+

_

M +

I

w

r

2

_

L

2

_

= 2L

_

K

f

u

1

r

K

f

u

2

r

+ d

l

d

r

_

(13)

ml xcos +

_

ml

2

+ I

_

mglsin = 0 (14)

Following observation are made:

(i) Equations 12 and 14 are the equivalents of equations 4 and 5 respectively

(ii) Equation 13 represents spin

(iii) There is no dierence between equation 12 and 4 except that (a) equation

4 considers motor inertia I

m

while 12 does not and (b) eq 12 consider

platform as dierent from the pendulum while krang has no such thing as

a platform so the additional mass term M

p

in equation 12 is not there in

4

(iv) There is no dierence between equation 12 and 4 except that (a) equation

4 considers motor inertia I

m

while 12 does not and (b) the eect of counter

torque on the pendulum is not considered in the eq 12 as the pendulum

does not experience the countertorque due to it being on a platform and

not directly attached to the motor so we dont see any term on the right

hand side of eq 12

(v) Equation 13 when compared with eq 7 that represented spin in the pre-

vious section we see that the coecient of

was a funtion of there but

here it is not. The reason is that I

z

term in eq 13 is actually a function

of . That function is written over there but not here.

(vi) Also there is a

term in equation 7 that is not there in eq 13. It seems

like equation 7 makes more sense as a non-zero

will introduce a corriolis

force in the system that is apparently not taken into account by equation

13

3 Comparing [1] and [2]

It appears that the analysis done by [1] is more correct with regards to under-

standing of the dynamics, only that it seems to have introduced some typos

and thus cant be trusted blindly. The analysis in [2] on the other hand is very

cleanly explained and does not contain typos, it is weak in representation of all

dynamic eects in the system. The way we will move forward is by using the

expressions for velocities that are more completely derived in [1] and use the

detailed procedures explained in [2] to come up with expressions of dynamics

that are useful for our purposes.

4

Figure 1: Frames of references on the robot

4 Deriving the Dynamic Model for our robot

4.1 Kinetic and Potential Energy of the Body

0

V

0

=

_

x 0 0

T

0

0

=

_

0

0

T

0

g =

_

0 g 0

T

0

T

1

=

_

0

A

1

0

P

1

0 0 0 1

_

=

_

0

x

1

0

y

1

0

z

1

0

P

1

0 0 0 1

_

=

_

_

cos sin 0 0

sin cos 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

_

_

1

e

1

=

_

0 0 1

T

q

1

=

(15)

1

1

=

1

A

0

0

0

+

1

e

1

q

1

1

V

1

=

1

A

0

0

_

0

V

0

+

0

0

0

P

1

_ (16)

E

1

=

1

2

_

T

1

J

G1

1

+ M

1

V

T

1

V

1

+ 2MS

T

1

(V

1

1

)

_

U

1

=

_

0

g

T

0

0

T

1

_

MS

1

M

1

_

(17)

4.2 Kinetic and Potential Energy of the Wheels

L

L

=

_

0

1

R

x +

L

2R

T

L

V

L

=

_

x

L

2

0 0

T

E

L

=

1

2

_

T

L

J

Gw

L

+ M

w

V

T

L

V

L

+ 2MS

T

w

(V

L

L

)

_

(18)

5

R

R

=

_

0

1

R

x

L

2R

T

R

V

R

=

_

x +

L

2

0 0

T

E

R

=

1

2

_

T

R

J

Gw

R

+ M

w

V

T

R

V

R

+ 2MS

T

w

(V

R

R

)

_

(19)

4.3 Applying Lagrange Method to nd matrices A, C and

Q

The Lagrange formulation describes the behavior of a dynamic system in terms

of work and energy stored in the system. The Lagrange equations are commonly

written in the form:

i

=

d

dt

L

q

i

L

q

i

for i F (20)

where L is the Lagrangian of the robot dened as the dierence berween the

kinetic energy E and potential energy U of the system:

L = E U

4.3.1 General Form of the Dynamic Equations

The kinetic energy of the system is a quadratic function in the joint velocities

such that:

E =

1

2

q

T

A q (21)

where A is the n n symmetric and positive denite inertia matrix of the

robot. Its elements are functions of the joint positions. The (i, j) element of A

is denoted A

ij

. Since the potential energy is a function of the joint positions,

equation 20 leads to:

= A(q) q +C(q, q) q +Q(q) (22)

where:

C(q, q) q is the n1 vector of Coriolis and centrifugal torques, such that:

C q =

A q

E

q

Q =

_

Q

1

Q

2

Q

3

Q

4l

... Q

10l

Q

4r

... Q

10r

T

is the vector of

gravity torques

So the dynamic model of a tree-structured robot is described by n coupled and

nonlinear second order dierential equations. The elements of A, C and Q are

functions of geometric and inertial parameters of the robot.

4.3.2 Computation of the elements of A, C and Q

To compute the elements of A, C and Q, we begin by symbollically computing

the expressions of the kinetic and potential energies of all the links of the robot.

Then we proceed as follows:

6

the elements A

ij

is equal to the coecient of

_

q

2

i

2

_

in the expression of

the kinetic energy, while A

ij

, for i = j, is equal to the coecient of q

i

q

j

for calculating the elements of C, there exist several forms of the vector

C(q, q) q. Using the Christoell symbols c

i,jk

, the (i, j) elements of the

matrix C can be written as:

_

_

C

ij

=

n

k=1

c

i,jk

q

k

c

i,jk

=

1

2

_

A

ij

q

k

+

A

ik

q

j

A

jk

q

i

_ (23)

The Q

i

element of the vector Q is calculated according to:

Q

i

=

U

q

i

(24)

4.3.3 Resulting Matrices

A =

_

_

M1 + 2Mw + 2

ZZw

R

2 MZ1 2

YZw

R

MY1cos MX1sin

MZ1 2

YZw

R

XX1 + 2YYw + 2MwL

2

(XX1 +YY1)cos

2

+XY1sin(2) +

2L

2

ZZw

R

2 YZ1cos +XZ1sin

MY1cos MX1sin YZ1cos +XZ1sin ZZ1

_

_

C =

_

_

0 0

(MX1cos MY1sin)

0

2

(2XY1cos(2) + (XX1 YY1)sin(2))

(XY1cos(2) + (XX1 YY1)cossin)

(YZ1sin XZ1cos)

0

2

(2XY1cos(2) + (XX1 YY1)sin(2)) 0

_

_

Q =

_

_

0

0

MX1gcos MY1gsin

_

_

(25)

4.3.4 Comparing to our previous Work [3]

As a sanity check lets compare this result to our earlier work in [3] i.e. equations

4-5. To do so, we are going to make

=

= 0. This reduces the LHS of our

new equations to:

A q +C q +Q =

_

M1 + 2Mw + 2

ZZw

R

2 MY1cos MX1sin

MY1cos MX1sin ZZ1

_ _

x

_

+

_

0

(MX1cos MY1sin)

0 0

_ _

x

_

+

_

0

MX1gcos MY1gsin

_

(26)

Observations:

(i) The two equations are equivalent to the LHS of equations 4-5 except for

the rotor inertia term I

m

that is missing in our new equations. That is

only because we did not consider the eect of rotor inertia in our current

analysis

(ii) To see the equivalence more clearly, the following substitution will be

helpful:

M

1

= m, 2M

w

= M, 2ZZ

w

= I

w

, = ,

=

,

=

that

have to with the denition of the variables in the two analyses

MY

1

= ml and MX

1

= 0 since the center of mass of the pendulum

in the earlier analysis was at (0, l, 0) if placed in the frame R

1

in the

current analysis

7

ZZ

1

= ml

2

+I as the inertia of body I was dened about the wheel

axis in our earlier analysis but it is dened around the center of

mass in this analysis. Parallel axis theorem on inertia gives us this

relationship.

This reduces the equation 26 to:

A q +C q +Q

=

_

m + M +

Iw

R

2 mlcos

mlcos ml

2

+ I

_ _

x

_

+

_

0

mlsin

0 0

_ _

x

_

+

_

0

mlgsin

_

=

__

m + M +

Iw

R

2

_

x + mlcos

mlcos x (ml

2

+ I)

_

+

_

mlsin

2

0

_

+

_

0

mlgsin

_

=

__

m + M +

Iw

R

2

_

x + mlcos

mlsin

2

mlcos x (ml

2

+ I)

+ mlgsin

_

(27)

This expression for LHS matches exactly with the LHS of equations 4-5.

4.3.5 Comparing the spin motion equations to those in [1]

First look at the added terms due to spin in the two equations we discussed

in the last section. The rst equation contains the additional term:

_

MZ

1

2

YZ

w

R

_

0

Y

0

plane (which was assumed

true in our [1]) then MZ

1

will be zero. As for the YZ

w

it is zero if the

wheel is symmetrical about its Y Z plane parallel to the Y

0

Z

0

plane passing

through its center. And wheels indeed have this characteristic. So this

term reduces to zero. And so it is no surprise that such a term doesnt

appear in equation 1. Though we have a term in equation one which is:

m

s

dsin

2

and we have no such term in our equation. The only way we could have a

2

in our results would be if C

12

was non-zero. Now using equations 23,

we have:

C

12

= c

1,21

x + c

1,22

+ c

1,23

c

1,21

=

1

2

_

A

12

x

+

A

11

A

21

x

_

c

1,22

=

1

2

_

A

12

+

A

12

A

22

x

_

c

1,23

=

1

2

_

A

12

+

A

13

A

23

x

_

(28)

Since

A

ij

x

=

A

ij

on x or the expression for C

12

reduces to:

C

12

=

1

2

A

12

12

would be if A

12

was a function

of . As we can see the A matrix, that is not the case. And hence there

is no way using our method to have this term in our equations.

8

As for the additional terms in the third equation, we have:

(YZ

1

cos +XZ

1

sin)

assumptions on symmetry of the body that makes the product inertia

terms equal to zero (although thats not entirely possible to achieve for

XZ

1

). We also have:

2

2

(2XY

1

cos(2) + (XX

1

YY

1

)sin(2))

We have a term with

2

in equation 3. And that seems to be just the result

of a typo. As their coecient also contains a sin(2) term (although it is

expressed as sincos which is equivalent).

Now we proceed to compare the third equation introduced due to spin.

Let us write down the two equations and then we will make comparisons.

Equation from [1] has LHS =:

_

(3L

2

+ 1/2R

2

)m

c

+ m

s

d

2

sin

2

+ I

2

_

+ m

s

d

2

sincos

_

MZ

1

2

YZ

w

R

_

x +

_

XX

1

+ 2YY

w

+ 2M

w

L

2

(XX

1

+YY

1

)cos

2

+XY

1

sin(2) +

2L

2

ZZ

w

R

2

_

+(YZ

1

cos +XZ

1

sin)

+

_

2

(2XY

1

cos(2) + (XX

1

YY

1

)sin(2))

_

+

_

(XY

1

cos(2) + (XX

1

YY

1

)cossin)

(YZ

1

sin +XZ

1

cos)

_

(29)

We can see the equivalence of these expression by noticing that under

the assumptions of symmetry a number of terms were ommited from the

expression in [1]. This includes MZ

1

= YZ

w

= XY

1

= XZ

1

= YZ

1

= 0

that makes the rst and third terms = 0 in our expression. Also the last

two can be added together. The resulting simplied expression looks like:

_

2M

w

L

2

+

2L

2

ZZ

w

R

2

+XX

1

sin

2

YY

1

cos

2

+ 2YY

w

_

+ (XX

1

YY

1

)cossin

(30)

5 Appendix

F

r

=

3

i=1

v

P

i

r

R

i

(r = 1, 2, 3) (31)

F

1

= ( v

C

1

1

R

C

1

) + ( v

C

2

1

R

C

2

) + ( v

S

1

R

S

) (r = 1, 2, 3) (32)

9

References

[1] Yeonhoon Kim, Soo Hyun Kim, and Yoon Keun Kwak. Dynamic analysis of

a nonholonomic two-wheeled inverted pendulum robot. Journal of Intelligent

and Robotic Systems, 44(1):2546, 2005.

[2] Z. Li, C. Yang, and L. Fan. Advanced Control of Wheeled Inverted Pendulum

Systems. SpringerLink : B ucher. Springer, 2012.

[3] Munzir Zafar, Can Erdogan, and Mike Stilman. Towards stable balancing.

Technical report, Georgia Institute of Technology. Center for Robotics and

Intelligent Machines, 2013.

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