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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Solution of TEST 1
SEMESTER II
SESSION 2013/2014



SUBJECT NAME : INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION
SYSTEM

SUBJECT CODE : BEH20302

COURSE : BEJ

DATE : MARCH 2014

DURATION : 1 HOUR

INSTRUCTION : ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS





THIS PAPER CONSISTS OF 5 PAGES INCLUDING THIS PAGE
Q1 (a) Explain the role of automation and control technologies in a production system.
Answer:




The automation and control technologies plays a critical role in the operation
chart of a production system as illustrated above. Engineers will apply necessary
engineering knowledge to meet the requirements of manufacturing processes and
assembly operations. The knowledge includes designing any automation and
control system to meet the production design, process and operation design. The
automation is an integration of controlled electro-mechanical system that will
provides assistive aids into the production. These aids includes material
transferring, material storage, machining, automatic inspections, assembling etc.
(2 mark)

(b) Distinguish three basic elements for an industrial automated system.
Answer:
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is accomplished
without human assistance
Basic elements of an automated system:
1. Power - to accomplish the process and operate the automated
system
2. Program of instructions to direct the process
3. Control system to actuate the instructions

(4 mark)
(c) Differentiate industrial automation system and non-industrial automation system.
Answer:

Industrial automation system Non-industrial automation system
Specialized and well-trained
personnel
Could be a hobbyist.
Utilize industrial standard devices
such as sensors, actuators, controllers
Devices could be started up from
component level. Any home-made
made by industrial automation
companies (Omron, ABB, Allen
Bradley etc.). Most likely being
verified under the standard of UL,
CE.
devices not certified by industrial
standard (CE, UL).
Devices are available from industrial
automation providers.
Devices could be home-made.
Devices are likely to be reliable and
stable in performance.
Device performance depends on its
inventor.

(any reasonable answers distinguishing between industrial and non-industrial
automations)
(4 mark)

Q2 (a) Illustrate the relationship amongst sensors, actuators and controller in an
industrial automated system.
Answer:
Sensor is a transducer that converts a physical stimulus from one form into a
more useful form to measure the stimulus. Ex: Photo sensor.
Actuator is a hardware device that converts a controller command signal into a
change in a physical parameter. Ex: Pneumatic valve and cylinder
Controller is a microcomputer-based controller that uses a programmable
memory to store instruction and to implement logic, sequencing, timing,
counting, and arithmetic functions through digital or analog modules, for
controlling machines and processes. Ex: Programmable Logic Controller.







Sensors, actuators and controller must be working together to interpret the input
changes and response via its actuators according to the pre-programmed
instructions. The program is written into the controller.

(2 mark)
(b) Sensors provide vital information regarding the physical properties of an
automated system.
(i) Name three types of industrial sensors. Elaborate each type.
Answer:
1. A photo sensor gives a switching signal when an object passes
through it sensing path in the form of light beam. There are
many forms of light beam. For examples, LED light, fibre
optic.
2. A proximity sensor gives a switching signal when objects pass
at a close distance to it or within a rated sensing distance. The
inductive proximity sensor detects metal objects especially
ferrous. The capacitive proximity sensor detects all material in
close distance.
Controller

Sensor
Outputs Inputs

Actuator
3. Ultrasonic sensors utilize high frequency sound energy (above
the audible range - ultrasound) to measure distance or detect
objects. These devices transmit a burst of ultrasound energy,
and then wait for a return echo. By precisely calculating the
time distance can be determined.
(Any reasonable answer on industrial sensing devices.)
(3 mark)
(ii) Distinguish between industrial standard sensors and non-industrial
standard sensors.
Answer:

Industrial standard sensor Non-industrial standard sensors
Being verified under the
standard of UL, CE.
Devices could be started up from
component level. Any home-
made devices not certified by
industrial standard (CE, UL).
Devices are available from
industrial automation providers.
Devices could be home-made.
Devices are likely to be reliable
and stable in performance.
Device performance depends on
its inventor.
(any reasonable answer)
(2 mark)

(c) List three types of actuators commonly used in industries. Elaborate each type.
1. Pneumatic actuator - Use compressed air as the driving force
2. Hydraulic actuator - Use hydraulic fluid to amplify the controller
command signal
3. Electrical actuators motor Use the principle of magnetism to construct
actuation of a moving part using magnetic force. Electric motors, DC
servomotors, AC motors, Stepper motors.
(3 mark)


Q3 An S-type cargo lift is illustrated below. The cargo lift is designed to travel between
two floors vertically. A scissor gate installed at each lifter entrance must be closed
when the lifter is in operation. To use the lifter, a worker at each floor could call the
lifter by pressing a push button. For the safety purposes, the system must stop under
faulty conditions.
(a) Suggest the sensors, pushbuttons and their locations in the layout that match the
description. Justify your answers.
Answer:
1. Lifter positions
Limit switches at stopping positions and over-positions at each floor.
2. Operation box
Momentary pushbuttons at each floor to trigger the instruction
Push and locked emergency pushbuttons at each floor for safety
purpose.
3. Gate Switch
Key-type limit switch installed at the scissor gates at each floor to sense
the gate is fully closed during operation. For safety purpose.
The locations of the input devices are marked on the layout.

(5 mark)

(b) Determine types of actuators suitable for the design. Justify your answers.
Answer:
Hoist and motor system.
A typical cargo lift would apply a hoist and motor to lift up and down the lift.
The size of the hoist and motor must be designed to meet the maximum lifting
capacity.

Indicator and buzzer
The indicators such as coloured pilot lights illustrate the operation mode and the
status of system.
The buzzer provides a vocalized sound to indicate the status of the system.

The locations of the output devices are marked on the layout.

(5 mark)