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# Head = 100.

00 ft
Flow Rate = 200.00 gpm
Specific Gravity = 50.00
HP = 252.78
KW = 187.06
HP = 5.00 HP
Pump Efficiency = 60.00%
Brake Horsepower = 8.33
Brake KW = 6.17
Pressure = 30.48 meters
Flow Rate = 12.60
L
/
S
KW = 3.77
HP = 5.05
User Input
Calculated Result
Head (ft) x Flow Rate (gpm) x (specific gravity)
3956
(9.81) x Head (meters) x Flow Rate (
L
/
S
) x (specific gravity)
1000
Hydraulic Power
Pump Efficiency
Head (ft) x Flow Rate (gpm) x (specific gravity)
3956
Pump Discharge Pressure = 100 ft
Measured Flow Rate = 200 gpm
Sample Horsepower Calculations
Once the hydraulic horsepower is known, the brake horsepower can be determined based on the pump efficiency. A
pump efficiency of 60% can be used as a conservative estimate for a basic calculation to provide a general
approximation.
Many technical references are available that can provide guidance on the use of these equations and the user should
refer to these references.
GEMI Water Sustainability Tool Draft (9/21/05)
Hydraulic HP =
Hydraulic Kilowatts =
Brake Horsepower and Motor Efficiency
Horsepower Calculator
Estimating Pump Hydraulic Horsepower
Hydraulic Horsepower and Kilowatt Equations
Horsepower is the unit of power to define hydraulic or water horsepower. In System International System (SI) it is in
kilowatts (kw).
The hydraulic power is the next energy transferred to the water per unit time. The input power delivered by the motor
to the pump is called bare horsepower (bHp). The difference between the brake horsepower and hydraulic power is
the pump efficiency.
The horsepower of a pump can be determined once basic information is known about the pumping station.
Brake Horsepower =
Question: Determine the estimated pump horsepower based on the 200 gpm flow rate and 100 ft discharge pressure
at the pump.
HP =
Multiply HP by 0.746 to obtain kilowatts
Multiply kilowatts by 1.341 to obtain horsepower
Inputs
Brake Horsepower Calculator
Inputs
SI Calculator
Inputs
Calculate Horsepower
100 ft x 200 gpm x 1.0
3956
HP = 5
5
0.6
= 8.3
Pump Discharge Pressure = 30.48 meter
Measured Flow Rate =
12.6
L
/
S
9.81 x 30.48 m x 12.6
L
/
S
x 1.0
1000
Kilowatts = 3.76

L
/
S
Liters per Second
gpm Gallons per minute
HP Horespower
KW Kilowatt
m/s Meters per Second
m
3
Cubic Meters
m
2
Square Meters
ft
2
Square Feet
ft
3
Cubic Feet
Kilowatts =
HP
SI Units
=
Brake Horsepower =
Legend
Calculate Brake Horsepower
Velocity = 5 ft/sec
Cross Sectional Area = 0.196 ft
2
Flow Rate = 440.02 gpm
Velocity = 1.52 m/sec
Cross Sectional Area = 0.018 m
2
Flow Rate = 27.36
L
/
S
User Input
Calculated Result
Cross Sectional Area
Flow rate (cfs) = Velocity (ft/sec) x Pipe Cross Sectional Area (ft
2
)
Flow rate (cfs) =
5 ft/sec x .196 ft
2
0.98 ft
3
sec
0.98 ft
3
sec
Flow (gpm) = 0.98 x 449
= 440 gpm
Flow M
3
/ S = Velocity (m/s) x Pipe Cross Sectional Area (m
2
)
Flow M
3
/ S = 1.52 m/s x .018 m
2
= .028 m
3
/sec
Multiply 0.028 m
3
/sec by 1000 to get
L
/
S
Flow Rate Calculator
Inputs
SI Units
Flow rate (cfs)
Fluid Flow Fundamentals
Water systems involve the movement of water from one point to another. Examples are transferring water from one process to
another or from one production facility or building to a packaging plant or final product shipping area.
Water usage is typically expressed as a volumetric flow rate (volume/time). If the water flowing though a cylindrical pipe is
represented by the shaded area shown below (perpendicular to flow direction) and the velocity of the water is known, then the
flow rate of the water can be determined through the pipe as gal/min or m
3
/sec.
SI Calculator
Inputs
GEMI Water Sustainability Tool Draft (9/21/05)
By 449 to get gpm
Flow Rate Equations
Flow rate (Q) = Area x velocity
Sample Calculation: Determine the quantity of water flowing through a 6-inch diameter pipe that has a velocity of 5 ft/sec.
=
Multiply
The flow rates of process pipes are very important to know to complete water balances and usage and measuring volumetric
flow rates are easy using common flow meters. See "Types of Flow Meters" tab for various types of flow measurement
devices.
Flow
L
/
S
= 0.028 x 1000
Flow
L
/
S
=
28
L
/
S

L
/
S
Liters per Second
gpm Gallons per minute
HP Horespower
KW Kilowatt
m/s Meters per Second
m
3
Cubic Meters
m
2
Square Meters
ft
2
Square Feet
ft
3
Cubic Feet
Legend
Pipe Length = 1000.00 ft
Pipe Diameter = 0.33 ft
Cross Sectional Area = 0.09 ft
2
Flow Rate = 300 gpm
Pipe Velocity = 7.02 ft/sec
Friction Factor = 0.02
Friction Loss = 46.36
User Input
Calculated Result
L
V
2
d 2g
h
f =
f = Friction Loss Factor
L = d = Pipe Diameter (ft)
v =
g = (acceleration of gravity factor)
Cross-sectional areas = x (pipe radius)
2
Where = 3.14
Pipe diameter = 4-inch = .33 ft
Pipe radius = 2-inch = .16 ft
Cross-sectional area = 3.14 x (.16) = .08 ft
300 gpm x .002 =
0.60 ft
3
/sec
Calculate pipe velocity
0.60
0.08
Velocity ft/sec = 7.5 ft/sec
L
V
2
d 2g
Pipe velocity (V) =
Determine the friction loss of water pumped through 1,000 ft. of 4-inch diameter pipe at a 300 gpm flow rate.
Flowrate can be determined using a flowmeter or the drum and stop watch method.
The first step is to determine the velocity based on the pipes cross-sectional area.
Velocity ft/sec =
Friction Loss (h
f
)
Multiply the 300 gpm flow rate by .002 to convert to ft
3
/sec
Using a .02 friction factor calculate the friction loss
lb f - sec
2
GEMI Water Sustainability Tool Draft (9/21/05)
Friction Loss Calculator
Inputs
= f
Friction loss (ft)
Pipe length (ft)
Pipe velocity (ft/sec)
32.2 lb m - ft
The second step is to determine the pipe velocity
= f x
Flow rate
Cross sectional area
Friction Loss/Flow Calculations
Several methods are available to determine the friction losses and estimated water flow rates in pipes. In this
section one of the most widely used formulas for friction loss, the Darcy-Weisback equation will be presented so
the user can have an understanding of the use of these formulas and the information they can provide.
A simple method to estimate flowrate is the drum and stop watch method. Place a drum or container of
sufficient size (30 to 50 gallons) at the end of the pipe and estimate the time to fill the container with a stop
watch. This will provide a good method to determine the flowrate that can be used in these calculations if a
flowmeter is not available.
x
Sample Calculation
Friction Loss (h
f
)
The Darcy-Weisback formula is:
.02 x 1000 ft (7.5 ft/sec)
.33 ft 64.4
Velocity ft/sec = 52.9 ft

L
/
S
Liters per Second
gpm Gallons per minute
HP Horespower
KW Kilowatt
m/s Meters per Second
m
3
Cubic Meters
m
2
Square Meters
ft
2
Square Feet
ft
3
Cubic Feet
Friction loss (ft) = x
Legend
Flowmeter Application Service
Drum and Stop Watch Closed pipe or open channel Simple and inexpensive. Clean or dirty water
Weir Open channel v-notch, rectangular
or cipolletti weirs
Simple and inexpensive. Clean or dirty water
Flume Open channel, Parshall, Palmer-
Bowlus Flumes
Frequently used in sewers and wastewater treatment plants
dirty water
Orifice Closed pipe, round flat metal disc
plate with specific hole size
Clean and dirty water
Venture Closed pipe. Section of pipe with
tampered entrance straight throat
and tampered exit
Can be used with most liquids. Clean and dirty water. No
moving parts
Positive Displacement Closed pipe. Piston gear rotary or
disk type meters
Clean water applications. Good for low flow measurement
Turbine Closed pipe. Flow passes a
shedder bar creating vortices
Clean and dirty water
Magnetic Closed pipe. Magnetic field is
created to measure conductive
liquid
Difficult and corrosive liquids, slurries and sludges
Ultrasonic Closed pipe. Doppler and time of
travel meters
Clean and dirty water
Mass Closed pipe. Coriolis principal
meter
Clean and dirty water. Mass related processes. Chemical
reactions, heat transfer applications
Pitot Tube Closed pipe. Pressure sensing
taps measure differential pressure
Clean water. Low cost. Susceptible to plugging
GEMI Water Sustainability Tool Draft (9/21/05)
Flowmeter Reference Guide
Selecting a Flowmeter
Types of Flowmeters for Flow Measurement
There are many types of flowmeters available for flow measurement applications. This section provides the user with an
overview of the types of uses.
Flowmeter selection is based on location, (open pipe versus closed pipe), service (dirty water versus clean water) and
accuracy of the flow measurement. The following table summarizes the most common flowmeters on the market today.
Is the water conductive?
What are the operating temperatures?
Does the existing piping accommodate the flowmeter installation requirements?
It is important to understand the capabilities of the flowmeter you are selecting because each one has different advantage
and disadvantages. The flowmeter performance will vary and it may not be necessary to install an expensive flowmeter if
only a simple flow measure is needed with little concern for high accuracy. Most suppliers can assist with the right flowmeter
for a specific application.
The first step in selecting a flow meter is to determine exactly what the meter is supposed to do. The following lists several
questions that the user should ask when selecting a meter:
How accurate of flow measurement is needed?
Is local or remote indication necessary because the flowmeter will be difficult to access?
Is the water dirty, viscous or corrosive?
GEMI Water Sustainability Tool Draft (9/21/05)