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EDMATECH
Trends in UAV
Propulsion
Liban Emanuel

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EDMATECH
Trends in UAV Propulsion
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EDMATECH
UAV Propulsion Requirements
Reliability
High power to weight ratio
High efficiency in the flight envelope
Low emission of IR ,Radar and Noise signatures
High Electrical Output for the UAV function and payloads
Low LCC
Complaince to Civil Aviation Regulation

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EDMATECH
Domain of usage of different
propulsion technologies
Turbo- Fan
0.1
1
10
100
0.1 1 10 100 1000
Payload (Kg)
E
n
d
u
r
a
n
c
e

(
H
r
)

Hybrid Solar
Electrical
(Batteries)
Hybrid Solar
Internal
Combustion
Engines
Hybrid
( IC& Electrical)
Hybrid (Battery
& Electrical)
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EDMATECH

Relative efficiencies of
engines different

Load [%]
10
20
30
40
50
20 40 60 80 100 0
0
Otto
Diesel
Turbo-Fan
T
h
e
r
m
a
l

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

[
%
]

Turbo Jet
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EDMATECH
Benchmarking Engines IC
Simple

Instalation Weight
Power to
weight
Ratio
Fuel
consump
tion
Life MTBF Noise LCC Feature
++++
) 5 (
++++
) 5 (
++++
) 5 (
++++ + ++ ++ ++ ++
Two
Stroke
(2)
++ +++ ++ ++ +++ +++ +++ ++++ +++
Four
Stroke
++ +++ +++ ++++ ++ + + + +
Wankel
(1)
+ ++ + + ++++ ++++ ++++ +++
+++

Diesel
(3)

1. Expensive and unique parts Legend: ++++ The best
2. Simple and cheap
3. Expensive ,Exellent SFC &LCC,Heavy
4. Advantage for low HP and Air- Cooling.
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EDMATECH
Four Stroke Engine
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EDMATECH
Two (2) stroke engine
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EDMATECH
Engine WANKEL
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EDMATECH
Volkswagen TSI engine
IC Turbo - charging

BMW- Tri Turbo
Diesel engine
VanDyne- Turbo
compound
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EDMATECH
Direct Fuel Injection
Very-High pressure
fuel system


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EDMATECH
Valves control (Semi -Atkinson Cycle)
Active valve opening
control (Atkinson cycle)
Adaptation of thermo
cycle to loads and
power needs.
5-15%Efficiency gain
FIAT Multiair
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EDMATECH
Starter - Alternator
Efficient
High Power and Moment
Built In structure
Reliable
Enables Hybrid Propulsion
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EDMATECH
Electric Wheel Drive
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EDMATECH
IC UAV Systems

EFI/ DFI
Heat
Exchangers
Scoops
Transmission
Exhaust
System
Fuel And
Oil
Systems
Intake
system
Turbo-Charger
Shock Mounts
Starter
Alternator
Kwh = 1 L.fuel
Propellor
(Noise &
Efficiency)
Health Monitoring
Systems
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EDMATECH
G
TR
TR
Battery
Charger
TR
MotorControls
Battery
KV 400
=56%
=0.98%
=0.97%
3000V
220v
-
=0.95%
AC\DC =0.8%
Battery Supply
& Disposal
Battery
manufacture
Weight
Total well to wheel efficiency 26 %
Thermal efficiency of electrical propulsion
TR
=0.98%
=0.98%
=0.95% =0.9% =0.8%
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EDMATECH
Power Generation Capacity (KW)
Electrical propulsion Trends
Efficient high -torque electrical motors with power to weight ratio of 8+
Increased demand for a/c electrical consumption for payloads.
"Intelligent control of power sources and usage
High voltage systems
Batteries / Fuel cells with power to weigh ratio 300 --- 600 Watts/Kg
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040
Entry Into Service
Direct Energy
Weapon
Laser
Weapons
B-767
A-340
A-380
B-787
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EDMATECH
Energy Density - Elec. Drive Vs. IC Engine
Fuel Tank
Battery
The ratio between Energy density of IC/ Fuel and
Elec. Battery/Motor is 2030 to 1 !!
Fuel Energy Density - 12 kwh/kg
Efficiency: Otto= 0.3
Efficiency: Diesel= 0.4
Energy output:
Otto - 12x0.3 = 3.6 kwh/kg
Diesel - 12x0.4 = 4.8 kwh/kg
Electrical Propulsion
Battery Energy density 0.2 kwh/kg
Controller Eff. = 0.9
Motor eff. = 0.9
Energy Output:
0.2x0.9x0.9 = 0.16 kwh/kg
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EDMATECH
UAV IC / Electrical hybrid
Data link to\from A\C command
Power Control
Controller
Propellor

Battery pack /control
Fuel Cell

dry-fuel cartridges
Hydrides


lIquid H 2
Compressed H2
H2
Generator

I.CEn
gine

=13%, =27%, =37%
Elecrtical
Motor

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EDMATECH
Electrical Propulsion

Elec. Motors
Weight to power ratio 1:8 Hp/Kg
Efficiency (0.95)
Axial Flux/ Halbach

Laser-- Radiated Energy ,HF
Very low efficiency ) 3.5% (
At starting point

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EDMATECH
System Consideration
Motor /Propellor optimisation
Max. Efficiency @ Design point
Optimal Useage and Control of Energy Sources
Efficiency
Noise
Power
Flight /
Energy Control
Battery A
Battery B
Fuel
Cell
Energy
Control
ECU El. Motor
Prop.
Power
(Max-Nominal)
Efficiency
Heat
removal
Power Control
Residual Energy
Routing of energy Sources
Energy Consumption optimisation
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EDMATECH
Fuel Cells for UAV s

Advantages
Higher Energy Density than
battery
Fuel Tank Concept


Shortcomings
Complexity
Price.
Technology not yet mature
Trends
Hydrogen storage improvements
Onboard Hyrogen generation
Use of Methanol
Closed loop water system
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EDMATECH
UAV - Airborne Fuel Cell
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EDMATECH
Fuel Cells Application

Technologies
PEM
Hydrides/PEM
Methanol DMFC
Propane /SOFC

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EDMATECH
Photovoltaic hybrid propulsion
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EDMATECH
Hybrid Propulsion
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EDMATECH
High Altitude Application
Unlimited Time on station
Technology of PV cells and batteries are not yet mature
for this application

PV Propulsion
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EDMATECH
Bio Propulsion
Golden Plover UAV
Consumption - 70 gr. of Fat = Fuel
Flight of 4000 km non- stop 88 hrs / 250,000 Wing Flaps
Take-off
weight
200 gr
Landing
weight
130 gr.
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EDMATECH
Future Trends
Albatros
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EDMATECH
We try to understand and learn?
Propulsion - Bio
Low Reynolds Aerodynamics
Airfoils
Materials
Smart structures
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EDMATECH
Summary of trends IC Engines
I.C Engines will continue to dominate UAV
Propulsion due to the high energy density/content
of the HydrocarbonFuel.
UAV Engines benefit from the developments in
Automotive Industries.
More and more UAVS will require Heavy Fuel
capability.

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EDMATECH
Summary of trends Electrical
Propulsion
Break Through in Energy capacity and power to
weight ratio of batteries is needed .
The portable I.T. devices as well as automotive
applications are taking the lead.
Usage for small UAVS with limited flight duration.
Important achievements in Electrical Motors and
Generators.

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EDMATECH
Summary of trends Fuel Cells
Promising technology with higher energy density than
batteries
(600 wh/kg. and up)
Bottled high pressure hydrogen with PM are practical
solution for small longrange UAVS.
Cryogene-hydrogen systems can increase range and
payload.
Other Fuel- Cell systems are complex and require
considerable effort to mature and to reach reliability.
In next year or two we shall see Automotive Fuel cells on
the market and maybe these technologies can be used in
UAV propulsion.
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EDMATECH
Summary of trends -Photovoltaic
Propulsion
Need further advances in:
Lighter structures.
Lighter and higher efficiency of P.V cells.
Batteries or Fuel- Cells back-up need much higher
power density.
Flexible wing flight controls.
Efficient Low-speed Propellers.

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EDMATECH
Summary of trends Hybrid
Systems (I.C and Electrical)
Important load fluctuations.
Big difference between the requirement for
duration of High- Power (T.O) and the cruise
power.
The A/C design and structure dictates
distributed electrical propulsion.
Automotive Industry is leading.
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EDMATECH
The dream
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EDMATECH
Summary
We still have a lot to learn

Thank You