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EE 330 Analog Electronics Laboratory

Fall 2012
Instructor- Fei Wang

Experiment #7 Design of a Common-Emitter Biasing
Circuit

Date Performed: 11/12/2012
Date Submitted: 11/30/2012

By
James Fitzgerald
Larry Harmon
Vinh Kim

Objective
The purpose of experiment #7 is to learn how to design a common emitter amplifier
circuit by selecting the right resistors values and supply voltage.
List of Instruments
1) Breadboard
2) 4 Resistors: 1.66M , 5M , 4.7k , and 2k .
3) Alligator Clips
4) Jumper wires
5) Power supply
6) 2N2222
7) 10 F
8) Oscilloscope

PreLab
A. Using the circuit below we calculated a resistance for Rl that would give a gain greater
than 2.
V
i
10F
V
cc
R
B1
R
B2
R
L
R
E
V
O
4.7 k
2N2222

Figure 1 Common Emitter Amplifier
Using these design considerations, select values and V
CC
so that the amplifier meets the
following specifications:
1. The circuit must provide an output voltage swing V
o
of 10 volts peak to peak with no
distortion of the V
o
waveshape. Distortion is defined as limiting of V
o
due to the amplifier
operating the transistor near cutoff or saturation regions.

2. It must provide this distortion-free amplification over the temperature range from 25C to
100C, and for any value beta from beta
min
to beta
max
for the 2N2222.

3. It must provide a gain, V
o
/V
i
, of at least 2.
R
L
/R
E
= 4.7 k / 1.68 k = 2.78
4. The required V
CC
is 20 volts or less.
Are V
CC
= 15V
5. R
L
= 4.68 k P
L
= 6.32 mW I = 1.162mA
R
E
= 1.69 k P
E
= 2.325 mW I = 1.173 mA
R
B1
= 103.2k P
B1
= 1.389 mW I = .116 mA
R
B2
= 24.4 k P
B2
= .269 mW I = .105 mA
V
CC
= 15 volts

What peak-to-peak value of V
i
is needed to provide 10 volts p-p output?
V
ip-p
= 3.8 volts
Set-up
1. Set up the circuit of Figure 1 using your 2N2222 with your values of resistors and V
CC
.

2. Set the input voltage, V
i
, to the peak to peak value necessary to yield 10 V
p-p
at V
o
.
3) Connect the oscilloscope to view V
o
and V
i
simultaneously. If you do not observe an
undistorted V
o
, it will be necessary to tweak the values of resistance in order to yield a
distortionless output.

In order to maximize our output results we set the output and get distortion to give a
better idea the area where our max input should be.
4) Record V
BE
, I
C
, V
CE
, gain, and the waveshapes of V
o
and V
i
on the same time axis.
Label the V
o
and V
i
waveshapes with their maxima and minima values. Place your
results in Table 1.






Results
Complete Table 1 below.
Source BETA V
BE
(V) V
CE
(V) I
C
(mA) GAIN
Calculated
Using Specified
Beta (Use beta
in datasheet)
B
min

35

0.7 V

7.49 V

1.164

2.78
Calculated Using
Measured Beta
(Use your results
from Lab 6)
249 0.7 V 7.503V 1.173 2.78
Measurements 100 0.7 V 7.56V 1.162 2.625


Questions
1. What are possible causes of differences between the calculated and experimental values of
V
CE
and I
C
?


2. What change in I
CO
(I
CBO
) did you anticipate over the temperature range of 25C to 100C?


3. Calculate the theoretical quiescent collector power dissipation of your transistor with beta =
beta
min
.

.
4. How would the voltage gain of your amplifier be affected by reducing the 10 microfarad
capacitor? Explain.
Conclusion