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Chapter Three Theory

Chapter Three
Theory
3.1 Theory of Thermal Conduction Measurement
3.1.1 The Steady-State Method [12].
The thermal conductivity of insulation material is usually determined by the
conventional guarded-hot plate method. This method assumes unidirectional
heat flow through two test sample, placed on opposite sides of a heating plate,
each of which conducts heat to a water-cold plate. From the experimental
measured quantities, rate of flow, cross-sectional area, and length of test
sample, the thermal conductivity can be calculated from the Fourier law of
heat transfer

). / L T kA Q
t
=
(3-
1)
!here
" /
g m t
A A A + =
(3-2)
" / E Q =
(3-3)
!here
IV E =
(3-
4)
Therefore
T A
IVL
k
t

=
"
(3-
)
##
Chapter Three Theory
The accuracy of the determination depends on how well unidirectional heat
flow is maintained in the sample$ i.e., it depends on the relative amount of
heat lost to the guarded-ring section. The departure from unidirectional heat
flow arises from the heat lost by convection at the edge of the sample.
3.1.2 The Transitory Method [1!].
%onsider slab of solid material whose thic&ness is ') and of infinite area,
initially at constant temperature as in figure #-").(f a constant heat input is
applied at one face while the other face is &ept at a constant temperature, the
temperature rises at the heated surface is given by )*+,
L
x n
e
n k
qL
k
qx
T
L t n
n
n
t
"
) , "
sin
) , "
) , - " " "
. / ) , "
/
" " )


+
+

=
+

(3-")
0ubstitute x by ' and the above equation become,
+
) , "
) , -
, )
" " "
. / ) , "
/
" " )
L t n
n
n
t
e
n k
qL
T

=
(3-#)
The series in above equation can be expanded as follow1
......
2
- -
, )
" " " "
. / 2
"
. /
" )
+ =
L t L t
t
e e
k
qL
T


(3-$)
#.
Chapter Three Theory
The ratio of the third to the second term of equation #-#,) is given by,

" "
" "
. /
"
. / 2
"
-
2
-
L t
L t
ratio
e
e
R

=
(3-%)
To reduces the effect of the third term and so$ give 3
ratio
equal to /./,, Then
the equation #-#") become,
" "
/ "
2
,
/, . /
L t
e

=
(3-1!)

"
,"" . /
L
t =
(3-11)
For time less than equation #-#.) only the ,
st
, "
nd
terms can be considered.
4owever

+
-
, )
,
" )
t n
t
e
k
qL
T

=

(3-12)
+
-
, )
,
"
" ) "
t n
t
e
k
qL
T

=

(3-13)
#5
Chapter Three Theory
!here
"
"
,
.L
n

=
(3-
14)
Therefore
)
-
-
, "
" "
)
) "
,
,
t n f
e
e
T
T
t n
t n
t
t
=

(3-
1)
The ratio of temperature in time "t) to the temperature in time t) is a
function of n
,
t), the relation between n
,
t) and f n
,
t) is shown in figure #-#).
6nd a relation between n
,
t) and F n
,
t) is shown in figure #-.) where
F n
,
t) is
t n
e t n F
,
" ,
-
, )

=

(3-
1")
4ence &nowing q, ' 7 6, and referring to equation #-#5) can determine
the thermal conductivity by1
)
"
,
)
t n F
AT
qL
k
t
=
(3-1#)
#8
Chapter Three Theory
3.2 Sound &nsulation 'ressure method [1]
0ound reduction index, 03(, or sound transmission loss, 0T', is the most
usual product-related acoustical quantity determined in laboratory or field
conditions after noise emission measurements of machinery. The first
theoretical formulation to determine the sound transmission loss of a partition
between two rooms was presented in the ,2"/9s by :avis and ;uc&ingham.
The first 60T< standard was based on 'ondon9s proposal in ,25,. The
principle of this method has remained the same over the years.
The sound reduction index, 03(, is defined by1
"
,
log ,/
,
log ,/
W
W
R = =

(3-1$)
where is the transmission coefficient, and !
,
and !
"
!) are the
incident and transmitted sound powers, respectively. The source room is
supposed to create a diffuse sound field. Thus, the incident sound power can
be determined by the average sound pressure, p
,
, =a) of the source room in
the steady-state situation as follows
S
c
p
W

.
"
,
,
=
(3-1%)
where 0 m
"
) is the area of the test specimen,
o
&g/m
#
) is the density of
air and c
o
m/s) is the speed of sound in air. The transmitted sound power is
#*
Chapter Three Theory
determined, accordingly, in the steady-state situation, when the sound power
radiated by the specimen equals the absorbed sound power in the receiving
room1
"
"
"
"
.
A
c
p
W

=
(3-2!)
" " "
/ ,8 . / I V A
(3-21)
!here p
"
is the average sound pressure in the receiving room, and 6
"
m
"
)
is the room absorption area of the receiving room. (t is approximated by the
0abine equation, where >
"
and (
"
are the volume and reverberation time of the
receiving room, respectively.
Thus, the 03(, using the pressure method, is determined by
"
" ,
log ,/
A
S
L L R
p p
+ =
(3-22)
!here '
p,
and '
p"
are the average sound pressure levels in the source and
receiving room, respectively, that is, the 03( is determined indirectly from the
average sound levels of the ad?acent test rooms.
The sound reduction index is usually determined in third-octave frequency
bands at least in the range ,//...#,5/ 4@ from which the single-number
presentation.
#-
Chapter Three Theory
3.3 ()aluation of re)er*eration time
The reverberation time in a room is the time required before a certain sound
intensity falls to ,/
-8
of its initial value, i.e. the time for the sound to decay to
8/ d;. 6ccording to 3ef )#,+ this can be evaluated from the following
formula, for frequencies between ,"5 and ../// 4@1
) , log # . "
.2 . /
,/

=
s
R
A
V
I
(3.23)
where ( is the reverberation time of the room in sec), >
3
the volume of the
room in m
#
), 6
s
the total surface area of the room in m
"
), and A the
absorption coefficient of the walls of the room witch is defined as the fraction
of the total sound energy absorbed by the wall. The absorption coefficients of
materials vary considerably with the frequency of the incident sound vibration
as can be seen from the Table #-,))8+.
#2
Chapter Three Theory
Figure (3-2) Schematic diagram of The Transitory Method
./
T
(t)
Constant heat in+ut
Constant tem+erature
,
Chapter Three Theory
Figure (3-3) graphic relation between (n
1
t) f (n
1
t)
.,
Chapter Three Theory
Figure (3-!) graphic relation between (n
1
t) F (n
1
t)
."
Chapter Three Theory
Material
Fre"uency(#$)
12% 2%& %&& 1&&& 2&&& !&&&
,/,mm 3oc&wood !"# !$$ !%& !%" !%$ !%'
%arpet !(( !(" !# !&& !)# !*#
:raped curtains cotton) !% !&( !"' !*( !$$ !)"
!allpaper !# !" !%
!indow glass !&) !#) !(* !(# !% !"
%oncrete !" !) !$ !* !()
!ater !( !( !( !# !# !&
'oose cotton wool ,**mm deep) !$# !*' !'$ !'% !'&
#mm plywood on 5/mm battens !# !#* !#$ !' !(# !((
8.#5mm linoleum on concrete !( !(# !() !(* !#$ !#$
Table (3-1) 'bsorption coefficients for different materials at (arious
fre"uency)
.#