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Rocky Mountain Front 2012

by Jonathan E. Foster

Shannon D. Foster
K-12 Spanish Instructor
Stanford, Montana
Master of Educational Technology
Boise State University
November 6, 2014

This paper is part of the culminating portfolio for the EdTech 592 Portfolio course in the Master of
Educational Technology (M.E.T.) program at Boise State University. It exhibits a variety of artifacts
created in the M.E.T. program and represents the extensive growth and development of the M.E.T.
candidate in the field of educational technology.

Table of Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 4
AECT Standards ............................................................................................................................... 5
Standard 1: Design ...................................................................................................................... 5
1.1 Instructional Systems Design (ISD) ................................................................................... 5
1.2 Message Design ................................................................................................................ 6
1.3 Instructional Strategies ..................................................................................................... 7
1.4 Learner Characteristics ..................................................................................................... 8
Standard 2: Development ......................................................................................................... 10
2.1 Print Technologies .......................................................................................................... 10
2.2 Audiovisual Technologies................................................................................................ 10
2.3 Computer-Based Technologies ....................................................................................... 11
2.4 Integrated Technologies ................................................................................................. 11
Standard 3: Utilization .............................................................................................................. 13
3.1 Media Utilization ............................................................................................................. 13
3.2 Diffusion of Innovations .................................................................................................. 13
3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization ........................................................................ 14
3.4 Policies and Regulations ................................................................................................. 14
Standard 4: Management ......................................................................................................... 16
4.1 Project Management ...................................................................................................... 16
4.2 Resource Management ................................................................................................... 16
4.3 Delivery System Management ........................................................................................ 17
4.4 Information Management .............................................................................................. 18
Standard 5: Evaluation .............................................................................................................. 20
5.1 Problem Analysis ............................................................................................................. 20
5.2 Criterion-Referenced Measurement .............................................................................. 20
5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation ............................................................................ 21
5.4 Long-Range Planning....................................................................................................... 21
Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 24
Photo credit .................................................................................................................................. 25
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References .................................................................................................................................... 25

Introduction
My name is Shannon Foster and I live in Central Montana. After teaching Spanish to middle
through high school students for over eighteen and a half years in small Christian K12 schools, I
resigned a full-time teaching position to follow my husband to Central Montana. The
population in this area of Montana is very sparse and few full-time Spanish teaching positions
exist. This change in life allowed me the opportunity to earn a masters degree that I only ever
dreamed about pursuing. With an additional degree, my teaching marketability increases and I
am able to continue influencing another generation of lifelong learners.
While I was teaching, I saw a decline in electives taught by on campus teachers to high school
students in smaller school districts and Christian schools in Montana as finances floundered.
The increase in online schooling options, although limited in Montana, revealed to me the
unending possibilities of online education if only qualified instructors were available. I chose
the Master of Educational Technology degree from Boise State University knowing well that
technology is the way of future education. After completing this masters, I fully agree with
what a former colleague of mine once said, Either get with the *technology+ program in
education or get out of teaching. Its going to happen whether we like it or not, so we might as
well join the process and have a say in how it develops, (J. Selles, personal communication,
December 2010). The Master of Educational Technology degree from Boise State University
gives me the tools and experience needed to develop online courses for these smaller schools,
thus giving students the opportunity to learn and explore a variety of electives in an online
course.
This rationale paper intends to connect my learning and experiences as outlined by the
Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) Standards (AECT Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 2012). My rationale paper also
connects my understanding of theory and practice of technology in education, as well as
presenting my thoughts and insights into how technology can influence my current and future
teaching practices. For the majority of my M.E.T., I did not teach but rather I had access to a
local school to practice activities that needed school support.
This paper addresses the five primary standards of the AECT (2012) and their four substandards: Standard 1: Design, Standard 2: Development, Standard 3: Utilization, Standard 4:
Management, and Standard 5: Evaluation. The overall definition of each standard appears in
italics directly following its number and primary purpose. Each substandard is italicized prior to
the rationale given for each of my included artifacts. Although many of the artifacts
represented in this paper address a variety of AECT standards, I chose specific artifacts to
showcase specific standards.

AECT Standards
AECT Standards are standards for instructional designers, educators, and other professionals
involved with the study, planning, application, and production of communications media for
instruction (2012). Begun in 1923 as the National Education Associations Department of Visual
Instruction, its successors experienced many changes throughout history as new technology
and educational methods and theories developed. Today it is the Association for Educational
Communications and Technology (AECT).

Standard 1: Design
Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning
by applying principles of instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies,
and learner characteristics.
1.1 Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
Instructional Systems Design (ISD) is an organized procedure that includes the steps of
analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating instruction.
According to Ragan and Smith (Smith & Ragan, 2005) instructional design refers to the
systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans
for instructional materials, activities, information resources, and evaluation. In projects
completed in EdTech 505 and 512, three stood out to me as good examples of my learning and
growth, 505 Evaluation Report, 512 Standards and Problem Analysis, and 512 Concurrent
Design: Putting Design Plans into Development Action.
I selected the 505 Evaluation Report as an example of how a project, even without specific
goals and objectives established by the programs administration, still follows an instructional
systems design. In the text The ABCs of Evaluation (Boulmetis & Dutwin, 2011) the authors
describe the Program Planning Cycle. This planning cycle helps as an instructional designer
logically develops a program by considering the organizations philosophies and goals,
performing a needs analysis, planning the program, implementing the program and conducting
a formative evaluation of the program, and ultimately giving a summative evaluation of the
program (p. 77). Although this sounds linear, the Program Planning Cycle moves back and forth
between each area as needed to develop a program to its highest potential, often cycling back
around as new insights are revealed, until the program reaches its intended goals and
objectives or until these goals and objectives are obsolete or the program is terminated. I
completed my 505 Evaluation Report using this process and found that even though there were
no specific goals and objectives, the implicit goals and objectives could be extrapolated thus
leading to a viable evaluation that the organization can use to improve and develop a more
comprehensive 1:1 iPad program. This project highlights my mastery of the AECT Standard 1.1.
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Upon completion of the evaluation report, the school can use this report to improve the 1:1
iPad initiative and help local students become more productive when using the iPad technology
available to them.
In two of my papers, 512 Standards and Problem Analysis and 512 Concurrent Design: Putting
Design Plans into Development Action, I addressed the many procedural steps for instructional
design as set forth in the AECT Standard 1.1. Beginning with the 512 Standards and Problem
Analysis, I tailored the paper to explain why the creation of Web Based Instruction (WBI)
(Davidson-Shivers & Rasmussen, 2006) benefits students in small and or rural schools in Central
Montana. I identified the instructional goal and the leaning outcomes. I identified the
organization, its infrastructure, the availability of its resources, and support. I gave learner
characteristics and identified the standards that this WBI meets. I then used the information
gleaned from the 512 Standards and Problem Analysis to begin the process of designing,
developing, implementing, and evaluating the materials for my Spanish 1a Web Based
Instruction (WBI) as found in the 512 Concurrent Design: Putting Design Plans into
Development Action. Working with the WBI model, I developed part of a hybrid introductory
course for students learning Spanish. As I worked on the WBI course, I learned that when
creating courses for students, a thorough understanding of where an instructor intends to go
begins at the end, in the evaluation of the course. While creating courses, an instructional
designer goes through the cycle of analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate, revising
any materials at any point in the process, to ensure a course is relevant to its intended learners.
Most models follow a similar pattern to the ADDIE model (Molenda, 2003). I have not had the
opportunity to implement this specific hybrid course, as I would like, however, I have used
some of the materials to teach Spanish to junior and senior high students at the local school. As
I continue to develop my online teaching skills and pursue opportunities for instructional design,
I plan to complete the course and use it in the way I intended when I began to create it.
1.2 Message Design
Message design involves planning for the manipulation of the physical form of the message.
So often in traditional education, the only type of message seen is one that is primarily text.
When creating my 503 Concept Map Activity, the visuals: color, boxes, and connecting arrows,
all form a more appealing form for the message design. In my 503 Concept Map Activity, the
use of specific shapes and colors to represent each of the Instructional Design models gave
visual context to where the models overlapped and where they diverged. I chose this artifact
due to its visual display. Even though there are several models intertwined, each model stands
out because of its own color and shape. Although each model is distinctly different, anyone
looking at the concept map sees how each model compares to the others. By comparing the
four different Instructional Design models, I realized how even though there are several
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different models, successful models are very similar. All of the models, each one unique, follow
the ADDIE model with slight variations. Each one has an analyses stage, a design stage, a
development stage, an implementation stage, and an evaluation stage. This artifact displays my
ability to manipulate a message in a medium other than text and still make it comprehensible.
This message form takes on a three dimensional aspect. A person can follow only one model to
see its stages, he or she can compare models, or choose which components they want to use
from the different models that best represent their desired instructional design. This form of
message display is not one I use. Although the concept map was interesting to develop and I
see its value, I struggle with how to incorporate one into what I teach. I have used web type
visual organizers before, but on a limited basis. To incorporate such a device, I need to include
an activity into my teaching style intentionally and get beyond a primarily text form of
messaging.
1.3 Instructional Strategies
Instructional strategies are specifications for selecting and sequencing events and activities
within a lesson.
As with any lesson an instructor prepares, sequencing the steps from the beginning to end of a
lesson is key to its success. If an instructor creates a sequence of steps, but if that sequence is
confusing and unorganized, students struggle and the activity frustrates them. In order to
design a lesson that flows smoothly from beginning to end, an instructor follows instructional
strategies that prove successful. Three of my projects stand out as examples of proven
instructional strategies. I chose two from my EdTech 502 course: 502 Virtual Tour Bailamos!
and 502 Mobile Learning Quest On the Trail with Lewis and Clark. The third project I chose is my
506 ACE it with PAT.
The two projects from EdTech 502 lead students through a systematic process as they navigate
online activities. The 502 Virtual Tour, Bailamos!, takes students on a tour of dances that are
commonly found in Spanish speaking countries. This activity is a redesign of a project I
completed a few years back when teaching Spanish levels three and four in a previous teaching
assignment. The activity leads learners through specific screens on their tour and they must
answer questions on a Google Form related to each dance they encounter. The 502 Mobile
Learning Quest also gives systematic directions as they experience the history of Lewis and
Clark in Montana. Created to be learning friendly on all types of personal devices, On the Trail
with Lewis and Clark provides leading questions for pre-trip, during-trip, and post-trip
documentation. Reflection and comment components brings learners full circle in their
knowledge seeking as they consider what they learned and move toward higher-order thinking
skills. According to Blooms Taxonomy (Critical and Creative Thinking Blooms Taxonomy,

n.d.), students who evaluate what they learn by comparing and explaining, engage in these
higher-order thinking skills, thus increasing their critical thinking and problem solving abilities.
I believe that the AECT Standard 1.3 of selecting and sequencing events and activities (2012)
is intended for more than just the steps a student follows when accomplishing an assignment, it
also is helpful for instructors designing instruction and the visual aids for that instruction. In
EdTech 506, we studied the ACE (analyze, create, and evaluate) design model (Lohr, 2008).
My 506 ACE it with PAT project used this design model to help me design visual aids for lessons
based on the PAT (principles, action, and tools) concept for a first grade Spanish unit on
numbers. By following this model, I created visual aids that were attractive and interesting to
first grade students. I analyzed my audience, their task, and the overall instructional objectives
for the visual (p. 75). I created the visual components of my lessons using PAT concepts (pp.
76-86), and finally I evaluated my visual creation based on its effectiveness, efficiency, and
appeal (p. 87), and feedback from the intended audience, first graders. After completing the
project, I used the lesson plans and visuals with my sons first grade class. The children enjoyed
the lessons and the visual aids used in the unit.
The 502 Virtual Tour, the 502 Mobile Learning Quest, and the 506 ACE it with PAT projects
demonstrate my understanding and mastery of the AECT Standard 1.3. The instructional
strategies I used not only specify the sequence for students to follow in an online activity, but
they also apply to the procedures I used, based on the ACE model and PAT concepts, when
designing visual resources for unit lessons.
1.4 Learner Characteristics
Learner characteristics are those facets of the learners experiential background that impact
the effectiveness of a learning process.
From Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism (Ertmer & Newby, 1993) to Connectivism
(Siemens, 2004), learning theories describe how information is absorbed, processed, and
retained during learning (Learning theory (education), 2013). When an instructional designer
begins to create new curriculum or programs, consideration must be given to who the learner is,
what they have done, and what kind of hands on learning (Clark, Threeton, & Ewing, 2010)
they will experience. I chose my 504 Final Synthesis Paper, as an illustration of my mastery of
understanding of the AECT Standard 1.4. In this paper, I discuss the Experiential Learning
Theory as written by David A. Kolb (1984). Based on Deweys three stages in theory of
experience, Kolb and Fry (as cited in A. Y. Kolb & Kolb, 2005) expanded these three stages into
four stages. As I researched Kolbs Experiential Learning Theory, I learned that a learner sees
their present learning activities through former experiences. Within Experiential Learning, the
more authentic the experience a learner has and does, the more they retain of their learning
experiences. The use of this artifact proper was for my learning purposes. However, as I create
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lessons for learners, keeping the elements of the Experiential Learning Theory in mind, I can
create activities with an emphasis on hand-on learning. It is more enjoyable for both the
learner and the instructor.

Standard 2: Development
Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional
materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated
technologies.
2.1 Print Technologies
Print technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials, such as books and static visual
materials, primarily through mechanical or photographic printing processes.
In my 506 Final Project Spanish for Children, I created several pieces of print materials for
teachers and parents to use with their children to help them learn Spanish, specifically the
numbers 0-20. I chose this artifact as a demonstration of my ability to produce static materials
for use in teaching. Teachers/parents can copy the materials to give to their students/children
as they teach numbers 0-20. My learning curve during this project was steep in two main areas.
First, I created all the images using Adobe CS6 Photo Shop. The variety of assignments moved
from basic to simple to more complex. After finishing EdTech 506, 511, and 512, I know I can
now recreate the whole project to be more interactive using Flash CS6. The other area with a
steep learning curve was the area of message design and development. Based on the text
Creating Graphics for Learning and Performance (Lohr, 2008), I considered and then
implemented the twelve different components of visual literacy (p. 5): type, shape, depth,
scape, color, contrast, proximity, repetition, alignment, organization, selection, and integration.
Although I have not implemented the whole program with a full class of students, I taught a
similar lesson to my sons first grade class in the winter of 2014. I would like to recreate this
lesson and several others so there is an interactive element for students who want to learn
Spanish in a more interactive or online approach.
2.2 Audiovisual Technologies
Audiovisual technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials by using mechanical
devices or electronic machines to present auditory and visual messages.
Audiovisual technologies are vital when creating materials for online learners. In my 523 Final
Project: Introduction to Online Learning, I incorporated several of these audiovisual
technologies. As I created this course, I used Voki avatars, Audacity recordings, YouTube videos,
WordPress blogs, and Google applications, among others. These audiovisual applications make
my 523 Final Project: Introduction to Online Learning an excellent example of audiovisual
technologies. The learning curve for using these applications was quite easy for me as I
incorporated them into my project. By applying the instructional design methods from previous
courses at Boise State and new strategies from our texts Learning in Real Time (Finkelstein,
2006) and Building Online Learning Communities (Palloff & Pratt, 2007), I built in both
asynchronous and synchronous activities for online learners. Using my text books from EdTech
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512, Web-Based Learning: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation (Davidson-Shivers &


Rasmussen, 2006), I incorporated diverse methods in order to address the diverse needs and
learning styles found in online learners. By incorporating the various programs and applications
into my 523 Final Project: Introduction to Online Learning, I demonstrated my mastery of
audiovisual technologies for producing and delivering course materials to learners. As of yet, I
have not implemented my course. However, upon completion of my M.E.T., one of the local
schools is interested in implementing my course, with a few tweaks to make it applicable to
their student population. While designing and developing my 523 Final Project: Introduction to
Online Learning, I realized there is a great deal of work involved in creating Web-Based
Instruction.
2.3 Computer-Based Technologies
Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using
microprocessor-based resources.
I chose the 521 Synchronous Meeting lesson to demonstrate the use of a personal computer for
production of a lesson in conjunction with the Internet and online capabilities for delivery of
produced materials. I created a presentation to deliver a kindergarten Spanish lesson involving
the use of computer-based technologies. During the preparation of the lesson, I refined my
skills using PowerPoint and began to develop skills using Adobe Presenter. I developed lesson
slides for use in a synchronous lesson, I transformed a childrens book I wrote in 2012 into a
digital storybook and I linked it to my lesson slides, and I then closed the lesson with a point
and click quiz. After preparing the lesson and linked materials, I uploaded the presentation to
Adobe Connect to use as a synchronous lesson. The use of a variety of multimedia materials,
such as video recording, PowerPoint slides, Adobe Presenter, and Adobe Connect, makes an
authentic experience for learners in online courses. I exhibit my mastery of AECT Standard 2.3
by using the computer, the Internet, and online programs and applications to produce and
deliver materials to online learners in my 521 Synchronous Meeting lesson. Although I still feel
like a novice in using Adobe Connect, I have used other online applications for teaching in my
classroom this year in both synchronous and asynchronous situations, specifically with Google
applications.
Besides my 521 Synchronous Meeting, any of my other projects throughout my tenure in the
M.E.T program at Boise State are examples of mastery of this AECT Standard.
2.4 Integrated Technologies
Integrated technologies are ways to produce and deliver materials, which encompass
several forms of media under the control of a computer.

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There is a variety of ways to deliver materials to students via computer and the internet. Audio,
video, written, and interactive activities are just a few. When I began the M.E.T. program at
Boise State, I thought I knew a great deal regarding the delivery of materials for students via
the computer, but as I progressed through my program, I began to see a lack of skills in myself.
One project that stands out to me as a representation of my growth during the M.E.T. program
is my opening project, the 501 Introduction Video.
My 501 Introduction Video is the very first project I created in the fall of 2014. Before this, I had
never recorded anything to upload to the Internet. I used and viewed YouTube videos in my
classes as I taught students, but I did not understand the effects the use of multimedia could
have on learning. This video was a first for me in many technology skills: it was the first video I
created, it was the first time I uploaded music, it was the first time I used Window Movie Maker
to create a multimedia presentation, and it was the first time I delivered a project via YouTube.
My 501 Introduction Video was my initial introduction into the world of online learning. By
using a variety of media to create a final project, I demonstrated how the utilization of
multimedia creates dynamic presentations that capture an audiences attention.

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Standard 3: Utilization
Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources
for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation,
and policy-making.
3.1 Media Utilization
Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning.
I chose my 512 Final Project Moodle Course for the AECT Standard 3.1 because it utilized a
variety of media and resources. The systematic use of audiovisual, print materials, discussion
forums, online resources, and other types of resources throughout the course keeps the learner
engaged and moving forward throughout the course. Because it is systematic, once the learner
understands how to navigate and use the different features of the learning management
system, they are free to work on the required course content. Creating this first course in
Moodle Sandbox was difficult. Not only was I learning to develop an online course, I was also
learning how to use and navigate Moodle Sandbox as the application with which to distribute
the course and its materials. My 512 Final Project Moodle Course meets the AECT Standard
3.1 of Media Utilization due to the systematic use of Moodle to distribute an online course with
all the components necessary to facilitate learners in the course. This project is a good start to
how I plan to develop courses for rural or small Christian schools. Knowing how to utilize a
variety of multimedia resources to enhance learning and understanding in students, and
creating a course in a learning management system such as Moodle will help me as I continue
to develop courses for different learner populations.
3.2 Diffusion of Innovations
Diffusion of innovations is the process of communicating through planned strategies for the
purpose of gaining adoption.
The ability to create lesson plans that use new technology can be a daunting task, especially if
the administration of an institution does not allow the use of these innovations. I chose to use
my 501 Tech Trends Assignment as an example of how restricted technology can enhance
learning when intentionally included in a lesson plan. With an example available for the
administration to see innovative technology as a valid option for education and learning, this
project demonstrated the effectiveness a students personal device, in this case a cell phone,
can have on creating knowledge. While creating the lesson plan, I adapted my traditional
approach to teaching vocabulary of using flashcards by incorporating the use of a cell phone for
students to create their own flashcards. Thinking outside the box when developing a lesson
plan to be used in an online capacity took some getting used to. By creating activities of active
learning, which Jonathan Finkelstein defines in his book Learning in Real Time (2006) as,
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learner-centered approaches in which students are actively engaged in the process of


constructing their own knowledge (p. 21), students engage in constructing their own
knowledge. By including the use of a cell phone, Google applications, and a video conferencing
tool for the lesson, students use a diverse group of technology innovations to interact with new
course materials and with peers. As of yet, I have not had the opportunity to implement this
type of lesson with all of its components. When I began teaching again this year, I chose to use
Google applications as the method by which students submit work. I find, students like using
Google Drive with all of its applications to complete and submit their work. As the year
progresses, I know we will find ample activities to use diverse technology, thus helping students
construct their own knowledge.
3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization
Implementation is using instructional materials or strategies in real (not simulated) settings.
Institutionalization is the continuing, routine use of the instructional innovation in the
structure and culture of an organization.
After creating my 521 Asynchronous Lesson Keyboard Transformation, I implemented it in a
different course and assigned students to use the asynchronous lesson to transform their
English keyboard into a Spanish keyboard so they can use the additional punctuation and
letters that are required for spelling in the Spanish language. As I continue to develop and teach
my Spanish language classes, each group of students needs to know how to convert a keyboard
or use ALT + commands to type and spell in Spanish. As students become more familiar with
the Spanish keyboard configuration, as they move forward in their language development, and
as they use a computer to write more, their use of a Spanish keyboard is imperative. By creating
an asynchronous lesson accessible at any time, the institutionalization of such a lesson becomes
a fundamental tool for students learning to speak, write, and read in Spanish. By implementing
and institutionalizing my 521 Asynchronous Lesson Keyboard Transformation lesson, with my
students, either in the traditional classroom or in an online environment, I demonstrate my
understanding and mastery of the AECT Standard 3.1. While creating the asynchronous lesson, I
continued to develop my skills using Adobe Presenter in conjunction with a Microsoft
PowerPoint. I also learned how to upload the presentation into Adobe Connect and make the
lesson accessible to anyone who has the lesson URL.
3.4 Policies and Regulations
Policies and regulations are the rules and actions of society (or its surrogates) that affect
the diffusion and use of Instructional Technology.
In my 523 Week 7 discussion facilitator activity, I had the opportunity to work with a course
mate to lead a discussion with a topic of Time Management and Organization. We divided the
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class into two sections. One section focused on high school and the other group focused on
elementary /middle school and adult learners. I lead the discussion and document with the two
high school groups. There are several documents related to the high school discussion: the
initial direction for the whole class, the individual group documents for high school group 1,
high school group 2, the high school group discussion, and the final high school document.
Although these discussions are not policies and regulations per say according to AECT
Standard 3.4, the goal was to create guidelines instructors could use with different learning
groups. The foundation of this exercise was to collaborate with peers to develop a take away
document that would be beneficial to each group member. We divided the class into smaller
groups based on Palloff and Pratts (Palloff & Pratt, 2007) recommendation that smaller
groups are necessary if papers are to be written collaboratively or if online presentations are to
be prepared (p. 82). When preparing for the discussion and guidelines writing, I learned that
participating members could misunderstand even the best directions. A thorough description is
vital to the success of an online activity. This exercise helped me understand firsthand the
importance of guiding a discussion, asking pertinent questions to keep the discussion going, and
communicating individually with participants to ensure all are participating and to help those
who may be struggling with the topic or the technology. At a previous teaching assignment, I
used a similar activity with a group of middle school students in a Study Skills course. We began
the semester discussing time management, organization, and participation, and then created a
document all the students could use to manage their school and homework load and other
extra-curricular activities better. I enjoyed leading the group and the end product pleased me
greatly.

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Standard 4: Management
Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to plan, organize, coordinate, and
supervise instructional technology by applying principles of project, resource, delivery system,
and information management.
4.1 Project Management
Project management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling instructional design and
development projects.
When managing an instructional design project, the expected sequence for implementation
helps to plan, monitor, and control the who, what, where, why, when, etc. issues before the
project launches. In my 512 Implementation Plan, I addressed the personnel, the time and
budget allocations for the WBI Spanish 1A, the preparation tasks for implementation, the
strategies for effective facilitation, and strategies for staff and learners to manage day-to-day
activities. Prior planning of all these components helps the instructional designer and
associated personnel manage the project better because they know the program expectations
before the implementation begins. If the personnel involved in the implementation knows what
to expect during implementation, they can monitor how the instructional design is going and
control any surprises that might occur as implementation begins. By creating the 512
Implementation Plan for my project before engaging in the development of the course, I was
able to envision the details needed to create a successful online course. It laid out the steps to
take that cover every aspect of the program. My planning gave me the criteria I needed so that
as I monitored the roll out of the program, I knew what to expect at different times and it
allowed me to tweak the program if necessary. The implementation plan also gives me, as the
instructional designer, the control over the development of the project. This idea of an
implementation plan was new to me. I created lessons and projects, but often times they did
not turn out as I expected. My only recourse was to tweak the project for the next year and
hope that it would turn out better.
4.2 Resource Management
Resource management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling resource support
systems and services.
Organizing information in a cohesive and comprehensible manner is no accident. Organization
involves specific planning and a concerted effort to create an organizational structure that any
person at any time will understand. Resource management needs to be plain and
straightforward. My 502 EdTech home page: default.html and 505 Evaluation Request for
Proposal represent two projects that display an understanding of appropriate resource
management.

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In EdTech 502, one of my initial projects was to develop a home page that would organize and
display the various courses I would take during my Master of Educational Technology (M.E.T)
program. My 502 EdTech home page: default.html is the online portal to all of the courses I
completed at Boise State University for the M.E.T and all the course artifacts I created during
my program. My mastery of the use of html coding and resource management is apparent as I
plan, monitor, and control resource support systems and services (AECT Standard 4.2, 2012).
The development of my 502 EdTech home page: default.html and the use of html coding
stretched my abilities as I learned how to create html pages that are accurate, logical, and well
organized. It gave me the ability to control what I presented and how I presented it, and
monitor any feedback I received. Although, I have never used this project for teaching, I intend
to use a blog such as WordPress or Blogger for students to develop a learning log or portfolio
for their classes.
I prepared my 505 Evaluation Request for Proposal project in response to a Request for
Proposal (RFP) from Far West Laboratory (FWL) as given to us by our professor, Dr. Thompson.
The RFP gave me the opportunity to understand what a person needs to do in order to develop
a career as an evaluator. According to Boulmetis and Dutwin (2011),determin*ing+ what your
time, expertise, and work are worth (pp. 218-219) is probably the most difficult part of being
an evaluator. Managing these personal resources is paramount in this profession if one wishes
to make a career of evaluating programs and organizations. I chose the 505 Evaluation Request
for Proposal as a representation of my work by addressing specific questions and information
given in the RFP document. Two of the main sections that I created and organized were the
proposed project timeline and the project budget, which not only manage personal resources
effectively and efficiently, but also created a transparent relationship between the evaluator
and the hiring organization, in this case, FWL. I formatted my response clearly and concisely,
and created a well-planned and thoroughly researched option for the RFP. In an authentic
situation, both of these areas need sensitive yet experienced management. An adequate
timeline and a realistic budget help organizations make informed decisions and feel confident
they will receive the services requested at a price with which they are comfortable. This project
gave me a better understanding of my personal strengths and weaknesses, and a realistic value
and timeline management when offering services for developing a curriculum or coordinating a
program.
4.3 Delivery System Management
Delivery system management involves planning, monitoring and controlling 'the method by
which distribution of instructional materials is organized' . . . [It is] a combination of
medium and method of usage that is employed to present instructional information to a
learner.

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My 512 Final Project Moodle Course Beginning Spanish 1a brings together a number of
components needed for web-based instruction. I chose this artifact to demonstrate my ability
to organize materials in a course for optimal delivery to the learner. It includes a variety of
methods and media to deliver materials to learners for learning. Much planning occurred prior
to the development of the actual course. Planning included the development of a design
document, several types of analyses, concurrent design strategies and activities,
implementation strategies, and formative and summative evaluations as described in the text
Web-Based Learning (Davidson-Shivers & Rasmussen, 2006). These documents are on my
EdTech 512: Online Course Design website. The use of Moodle Sandbox as the learning
management system helps me monitor and control the method by which distribution of
instructional materials is organized (AECT Standard 4.3, 2012). My 512 Final Project Moodle
Course Beginning Spanish 1a combines text-based instruction, audiovisual elements,
discussions, directed lessons, and online applications that help learners navigate and
participate in the course. I have not used this course in an authentic situation, however, I plan
to continue to develop the course and offer it to schools in Central Montana as a creditable
course for students who wish to learn Spanish.
4.4 Information Management
Information management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling the storage,
transfer, or processing of information in order to provide resources for learning.
Managing information is important in any work or school environment. With continuous
advances in technology and the Internet, managing vast amount of information is critical for
students. As students collect resources for learning, their ability to retrieve that information
becomes paramount to their success. Organizational methods that are logical to students must
be accessible and reasonable. The 501 Zotero Library Assignment and the 511 Project Design
Proposal are two such information management tools that come to mind.
From the very beginning of my course work in the M.E.T. program, storing, organizing, and
retrieving materials found on the Internet or assigned by professors was crucial for successful
assignments. I found the 501 Zotero Library Assignment to be the most helpful for storing,
organizing, and retrieving articles, as well as creating accurate citations and bibliographies
throughout my course work. The Zotero add-in to my MS Word program made, and continues
to make, writing and citing sources easy and accurate.
Not only have I used Zotero extensively in my M.E.T. course work, I introduced several other
colleagues to the application this year. Although the M.E.T. program requires the use of APA
style writing, the school where I teach uses MLA. The ability to change writing styles from APA
to MLA is a bonus and is useful for all writing regardless of discipline. This feature exposes
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students to different writing styles where they can compare one with the other. The use of
Zotero allows me and my students to manage the information stored in the application and
provides resources for learning (AECT Association for Educational Communications and
Technology, 2012) in a format that is logical and efficient.
My 511 Project Design Proposal demonstrates my ability to plan, monitor, and control the
storage and transfer of information to learners and provide age appropriate resources for
learning, as determined by the AECT Standard 4.4. This project brought together several steps
in the planning stage of an interactive online lesson that I previously used in EdTech 512, but
did not quite understand their importance. When I created the flowchart, I understood what
the shapes and symbols stood for concerning the start and end of a lesson (circles), the
descriptions of activities (rectangles), the directional flow of the lesson (arrows), and the
decision points (diamonds) (Alessi, 2001). The template I followed for the storyboards gave me
specific instructions as to what I needed to include in the storyboard in order for it to be
useable as an actual project. It also gave me insights into what information other instructors
might need in order to make it successful for learners who use the interactive lesson. At the
time of this writing, I have not actually created the interactive lesson, but I look forward to its
creation. After its creation, I hope to use it in my current teaching assignment for Grade 2
Spanish. If successful, I plan to use it as a template for other topics in my elementary program.

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Standard 5: Evaluation
Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to evaluate the adequacy of
instruction and learning by applying principles of problem analysis, criterion-referenced
measurement, formative and summative evaluation, and long-range planning.
5.1 Problem Analysis
Problem analysis involves determining the nature and parameters of the problem by using
information-gathering and decision-making strategies.
In my 503 ID Case Analysis, I performed a case study based on a reading by Suzanne Garner,
Allocating Resources to Meet Multiple Needs (Ertmer, 2007). After reading the case study, I
gave information based on the given scenario at Spring Wells High School. I described the range
of critical needs facing Spring Wells High School at this time. I identified the available resources
and existing constraints that apply to this case. I described a plan for meeting the needs at
Spring Wells High School. I specified the steps required for implementing my plan and I
discussed the ethical issues related to the use of funding. This exercise gave me an authentic
experience as I analyzed the schools situation. As I analyzed the information in the scenario, I
had to keep in mind all of the parts and pieces of the puzzle in this school. This assignment
helped me understand that even though there may be different instructional design practices,
each case is unique and consideration must be given to the characteristics defined by the
problem analysis.
5.2 Criterion-Referenced Measurement
Criterion-referenced measurement involves techniques for determining learner mastery of
pre-specified content.
The choice to demonstrate my mastery of Criterion-Referenced Measurement, as defined in
AECT Standard 5.2, is through the use of my 501 School Evaluation Summary. This artifact is
based on the Technology Use Plan Primer by Peter H.R. Sibley and Chip Kimball (Sibley &
Kimball, 1998). I evaluated a school in Central Montana to determine its technology maturity.
This artifact evaluated five specific maturity model benchmarks: administrative, curricular,
support, connectivity, and innovations. Each benchmark had various categories that identified
the maturity of each primary benchmark. These categories used specific criteria to determine if
the school was emergent, island, integrated, or intelligent in their use of technology. As defined
by The Glossary of Education Reform (2014) Criterion-referenced tests and assessments are
designed to measure student performance against a fixed set of predetermined criteria or
learning standards. Although this report did not measure student performance, it intended to
measure the schools performance against a fixed set of predetermined criteria By creating
a survey for school staff to respond to and then interviewing three staff members from
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different areas of the school, the 501 School Evaluation Summary helped to determine the
technology maturity of the school. After the staff completed the survey and interviews, I
generated a report, which I gave to the school, so they could use the information gleaned to
direct their school toward improved technology maturity.
5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation
Formative evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this
information as a basis for further development. Summative evaluation involves gathering
information on adequacy and using this information to make decisions about utilization.
In preparing my 512 Formative and Summative Project for my final project, I gathered
preliminary information before creating the formative and summative evaluations. This
information came from questions that addressed the effectiveness, appeal, and efficiency of
the course by setting goals, and considering the content, technology, and message design of the
course. I developed the questions based on the intended audience. I identified the stakeholders
and determined the evaluation criteria, again addressing the effectiveness, appeal, and
efficiency of the course. I set a schedule for formative evaluations and determined who would
receive invitations regarding feedback of the course. This constituted the formative evaluation
and helped decide if further development was feasible. In the summative evaluation, I again
developed questions regarding effectiveness, appeal, and efficiency of the course, as well as
developing the instruments needed to gather the information and identifying those who would
participate in the summative evaluation. The summative evaluation intends to determine if the
course met all of the goals and objectives and if it should continue. During the development of
the formative and summative evaluation questions, I learned that repetition is the key to
developing an effective, appealing, and efficient online course. When using the Backward
Design model (Davidson-Shivers & Rasmussen, 2006), starting at the end allows the
instructional designer feedback on the course development by means of formative evaluation
along the way. These formative evaluations direct the steps of the instructional designer as he
or she continues developing the course. By creating and successfully receiving feedback from
stakeholders, the formative and summative evaluations meet the criteria of the AECT Standard
5.3. I have not used this artifact in an authentic situation other than receiving feedback from
my professor and peers in EdTech 512. I did show it to the counselor at the local school to
solicit feedback from her and received positive remarks regarding the intent of the course and
its design.
5.4 Long-Range Planning
Long-range planning that focuses on the organization as a whole is strategic planning.
Long-range is usually defined as a future period of about three to five years or longer.
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During strategic planning, managers are trying to decide in the present what must be done
to ensure organizational success in the future.
As technology use continues to grow in the K12 environment, educational institutions want to
find the technology that will meet the needs of their institutions today and be available and
useful into the future. With the availability of a vast number of individual devices, software, and
cloud based options, many K12 institutions have adopted individual devices such as iPads,
tablets, and laptops, and invested a great deal of time and finances into storage and retrieval
programs. Both my 504 Final Synthesis Paper and 505 Evaluation Report projects showcase the
importance of long-range planning and how decisions made today will affect their technological
needs and usage in the future.
I chose my 504 Final Synthesis Paper as a representation of how near-term and mid-term
emerging technologies (NMC Publications | The New Media Consortium, 2013) will affect
education in the future. This paper explored D.A. Kolbs Experiential Learning Theory (Kolb,
1984). Although Kolb developed his experiential learning theory in the early 1980s, it has
existed since before the time of Aristotle. It is a forward-looking theory that new- and mid-term
emerging technologies enhance. The idea of hands-on learning fits well with these emerging
technologies. As new technology emerges, organizations adopt it and their stakeholders benefit
from it. By keeping abreast of these emerging technologies, organizations can plan better for
their futures. By adopting technology as it becomes available, an organization will ensure their
current and future success. While researching Kolbs Experiential Learning Theory, I began to
realize that this theory reflects how children learn naturally. How, when the technology is
available to students, they become fully involved in experiential learning. By understanding
new- and mid-term emerging technologies, and how it will bolster student engagement and
learning, as it becomes available, I can enter into an organizations discussions as they
strategically plan for the future regarding emerging technology. I recently discussed the need
for newer and more effective technology tools and training for teachers at our local school; this
discussion lead to a realization that teachers need dependable equipment, access to, and
training with the same technology that students use in order to succeed in teaching their
classes. Currently, as students continue to engage in learning with the technology provided by
the school, teachers fall further behind their students due to outdated equipment or limited
resources. The future success of the schools educational status and its students depends on
the adoption of these new- and mid-term emerging technologies and the teaching staffs ability
to incorporate them in classroom activities and learning experiences.
In 2013, the local school implemented a 1:1 iPad initiative in their middle school and has plans
to expand a 1:1 device program down into the elementary and up into the high school over the
next few years. This process began over six years ago, but with the implementation of Common
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Core Standards and the SBAC testing (Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium, 2012), the
school moved ahead with a 1:1 iPad initiative without a thorough understanding of the
implications of such a program and how it should be developed. After completing my 505
Evaluation Report, the results helped identify the needs of the students and teaching staff and
gave the school administration a better understanding of which direction they should go for
future implementation of 1:1 devices. As Boulmeis and Dutwin ascribe to in their book The
ABCs of Evaluation (2011), I used a variety of sources to glean the information for my report:
surveys, interviews, and personal conversations. Due to the small number of overall
stakeholders (less than 100) sampling was not a reasonable option (p.175). I wrote and
conducted two surveys, a staff survey and a student survey. I then compiled and evaluated the
information received from the surveys and wrote a report outlining the combined findings. This
process helped me experience firsthand how the use of multimedia can dramatically improve
the evaluation process and validate its credibility (p. 64). My 505 Evaluation Report answered
questions not established by their original goals and objectives regarding the directions the
school should take as it moves forward into the future with 1:1 devices. It also gives the
administration of the local school a better understanding of what they need to consider and
pursue as they continue to implement a 1:1 device program throughout their K12 institution.

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Conclusion
Technology has always been a part of life. It is just that in recent years, technology has grown
exponentially and I found that I struggled to keep up with it. As an educator, I saw the
introduction of new technology and the corporate world embracing it, but the reluctance of the
current educational system to change from the old ways of education to the new ways of
educating, thus leaving students unprepared for their futures. When I chose to begin the M.E.T.
program at Boise State University, I had no idea what I was getting into. However, throughout
the last two and a half years, the experiences I had have given me the confidence I need to use
technology with students in ways that do prepare them for their futures. As much as I thought I
knew about the use of technology in education, I find woefully lacking in comparison to what I
have learned. I also know there is so much more that I can learn and will learn as I continue to
develop as an educational technologist. One of my primary goals for being part of the M.E.T.
program was to learn how to develop online courses to use in the K-12 environment. After
completing my program, I am even more convinced that for dwindling rural schools with limited
funding and for Christian schools with limited resources, making available online courses for
their K-12 students will grant them the same opportunities as larger K-12 schools or districts.
These students can be, and will be, prepared for their futures.

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Photo credit
Foster, Jonathan E. (2012). Rocky Mountain Front [digital photograph] Retrieved September 14,
2014 from https://sdfostereportfolio.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/100_1238.jpg

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