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Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Chapter IV
4.0 Introduction
4.0.1 Restriction And Circumstances for Development of Irrigation
4.0.2 General Characteristics of Irrigation Technology
4.1 Irrigation Sources
4.1.1 Left Irrigation Technology Definition of lift Irrigation Technology Historical Background of Lift Irrigation Technology System of Left Irrigation Schemes. Extent of lift Irrigation Schemes of Left Irrigation Intensity of Lift Irrigation Impact Analysis of Lift Irrigation Technology
I) Positive Impact of Left Irrigation Technology
a) Nimsakhar A micro Level Analysis
II) Negative Impact of Lift Irrigation Technology
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a) Development of saline soils Bhandgaon
A micro Level Analysis Measures Adopted to Recover Land
4.1.2 Well Irrigation Pattern of Regional Distribution Intensity of well Irrigation Density of well Irrigation Cost-Benefit Analysis of well and Lift Irrigation
Schemes Cost Benefit Analysis
4.1.3 Canal Irrigation Pattern of regional distribution of Canal Irrigation Intensity of canal Irrigation
4.1.4 Tank Irrigation Distribution of Tank ShetphalHaweli A Micro Level Analysis
4.2 Methods of Irrigation
4.2.1 Introduction
4.2.2 Surface Irrigation Methods
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4.2.3 Technological Irrigation Methods
A) Drip Irrigation
I) Definition of Drip Irrigation Technology
II) Historical Background
III) Components of Drip Irrigation
IV) Distribution of Drip Irrigation
V) Economics of Drip Irrigation
a) Crop wise Economy of Drip Irrigation technology
VI) Advantages of Drip Irrigation Technology
VII) Limitations to the Growth of Drip Irrigation
4.3 Water Storage Technology
4.3.1 Water Storage Agricultural Pond
4.3.2 Water Storage Pits
4.4 Summary

Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Chapter IV
4.0 Introduction
The economic base of the country depends on agriculture. In order to increase the
agriculture yield, one should not depend upon rainfall alone. A proper water supply
would meet the requirement.Water is an important element for increasing the agricultural
production. Natural or artificial application of water to soil for the purpose of moisture
and the timely application of water for the growth and production of plants will depends
largely on the implementation of various irrigation projects .Water is a basic resource on
earth for all living organisms including mankind and for development and survival of
plant community. Environment process of biosphere is also regulated by water.
Normally, groundwater and surface water are used for irrigation and when water
available in these sources is taken away artificially by flowing it for supplying water in
required quantity to crops, it is called irrigation. Irrigation is a primary input for
agricultural production. If an area is facilitated with irrigation water agricultural sector is
positively affected. If there is no proper water supply then the use of fertilizer, seeds,
pesticides etc. will not be useful for the yield.
Irrigation is a lifeline of agriculture especially in the drought prone zone
according to many scholars and planners like singh (1992), Saptarsh (1993), Bhagat
(2002), Kadam (2002), Jadhav and Ajagekar (1993). The Rangarajan committee has been
suggested in the report 2006-07 that agricultural sector should be prominent by attending
irrigation and electricity facilities. Irrigation facility is basic factor and it encourages
other important factors like implementation of modern technology in agriculture use of
chemical fertilizer, pesticides, HYV seeds etc. Thus irrigation is the important basic
factors in the agriculture. Irrigation constitutes one of the most effective technical means
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


of raising agricultural production in the rainfall is both inadequate and unpredictable, it
affects badly on agricultural productivity. The need of irrigation water is always
advocated because deficiencies of climate constrain growth in agricultural sector. It has
been observed that the application of irrigation water helps in stabilizing production
under ceteris paribus condition. As a consequence, it has potentiality to bring
transformation in land use, cropping pattern, techniques of production or productivity and
also in occupational structure. These transformations in agricultural sector may also bring
change in the socio-economic structure of an economy because of direct and spin-off
effects of growth in irrigation (Neel Mani P. Verma, 1993).
Where irrigation by gravity is possible much of the work of installing the facilities
can be carried out by manual labour, though there is an obvious economic advantage,
even in countries with very low wage levels in using in using technical aids in the
constructional and earthmoving work. Where the necessary water cannot be brought to
the land to be irrigated solely by the force of gravity, it is necessary to use pumping
installation. These were in former times and to some extent still are today, driven by
human and animal muscle power. Mechanical sources of power have considerably
increased the efficiency of water pumping and have extended the use of irrigation by
making it possible to use ground water located at considerable depth and with the aid of
sprinkling arrangements, to bring irrigation to areas that could otherwise not have been
brought under cultivation except at uneconomically high cost. There is still a very large
potential field for development by means of this system.
Agricultural development is a complex undertaking because of the numerous
factors involved including those of physical and non physical nature. Lack of irrigation
facility is generally considered to be the obstacle in modernization agriculture and the
areas which continue to lag behind in agricultural production are those where irrigation
potential is the least. It has advantage of assured irrigation in using other modern farm
inputs in the context of increasing agricultural productivity and raising the level of rural
living. (Sangle, G.K. 1984)
Definition of Irrigation -
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1) Artificial water supply in proper ratio and at proper time for agricultural
purposes is called Irrigation.
2) Contor (1967) defined; irrigation as the artificial application of water to the
soil for crop production. It has been therefore, considered as one of the
important technology components of progressive agriculture.
3) Andreae,( 1975) The artificial application of water to land for growing crops
is known by the term irrigation.Artificial watering affects the entire
organization of the farm increasing production. However, the transformation
partly or fully depends on the nature and mode of irrigation. (well, canal, lift
and tank) which depends largely on physiographic and climatic condition of a
4) According to Peter wales Irrigation is an artificial means of watering the
crops or plants or an art of supplying water to the crop.
5) Irrigation is a lucid term popularly defined as the application of water by
either human being or by machines in the process of agricultural production.(
Neel Mani P. Varma, 1993 )
The lift irrigation can be regarded as an important component of improved
technology which has been diffused widely due to rural electrification. The irrigation
sector in Maharashtra is one of the largest in the country. In the state the major and
medium projects are owned by the government in all respects. Small projects are partly
owned by the government and partly viz. percolation tanks and lift irrigations. The lift
and percolation tanks irrigation can be regarded as an important component of improved
technology which has been diffused wiedly due to rural electrification. IndapurTahasil is
one of the progressive Tahasil in Pune district regarding the use of irrigation technology.
Heavy capacity electric pumps ranging from 5 to 10 HP have been used to lift the water
from wells and 20 to more than 500 HP are used to lift the water from river and Back
water of Ujani dam. Well irrigation is carried out especially in the arid parts of the region.
This zone is found in the central and western part of the study area. The Northern,
Southern, Eastern part of the region has always been characterized abundant supply water
from the Back water of Ujani dam, Nira and Bhima River.
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


IndapurTahasil has provided an example of imbalance in the development of
irrigation facilities in its spatio temporal perspective. In the present research work
though emphasis are placed on agricultural technology, it is the task of geographers to
study the spatio temporal aspects of irrigation and its relationship with other attributes. In
view of this, the study of the spatio temporal development of different modes of
irrigation has been considered. The main focus of this chapter is on irrigation technology
which has been developed during the last ten years in order to increase agricultural
productivity in IndapurTahasil. More specifically irrigation technology refers here to the
techniques adopted for lifting the water, its positive and negative impact on agricultural
production, land use changes in cropping pattern, development of degraded lands etc. The
study also incorporates drip technology adopted by the farmers in scarcity zone. Among
the various methods of irrigation, drip irrigation methods has achieved significant place
with this technology water is economically used. Besides this, the efforts made by the
farmers to adopt new devices to store transported water in artificial tanks and its used
during famine situation. In the study a comparative analysis of well irrigated and lift
irrigated areas has been attempted to assess the impact of lift irrigation. Nearly ten per
cent sample villages were selected for primary data. The case studies of co- operative lift
irrigation schemes were undertaken to highlight its impact along with its structural
characteristics has been undertaken. Impact of tank irrigation on agricultural land use and
ground water table has also been analyzed with the help of case study.
However, certain limitations of data have restricted the scope of study. Past
records are not available. So information pertaining, to those aspects has been analyzed at
by using available data.
4.0.1 Restriction And Circumstances for Development of
Irrigation Technology

It is clear fact that irrigation is absolutely necessary for the success of agriculture.
The purpose of irrigation is to counteract drought by making certain that the plants are
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


not deprived of water at any time during their development. (Thronthwaite and Mather,
1955). It is essential to ensure the crops and their yield especially in the dry lands of
possible with 500 mm to 700 mm annual rainfall. The success of agriculture depends to a
large extent on how successfully water requirements of various crops can be met (Arora
1976). Due to irrigation, farmers can make additional investment in farm implements of
more valuable crops like sugarcane and the total employment of farmers and labourers
(Gadgil, 1948). The transformation of agriculture is possible only through irrigation as it
is a primary input on which other input depends. Obviously it increases the land value
and leads to additional use of land.
The study region has accute need of irrigation. The rainfall occurs in the study
region mainly during the monsoon season (end of the June to September) and it is
uncertain and its spatial distribution is unequal. As variability in excess of 2 per cent
implies great risk in farming, the absence of irrigation has been socially identified as the
growing constraint in agriculture.(Williamson, 1925). Moreover, the seasonal
distribution of rainfall is so uneven that ; it creates the need of irrigation except in the
Kharif season. Even in the Kharif season the additional irrigation is needed in the central
rainfall farming area. Mainly the perennial and Rabi crops in the region cannot be raised
proper without irrigation. It may be rationally argued that as the need of food grains grow
due to rise in population. People started thinking towards more and more agricultural
output for this purpose they may have thought towards application of irrigation water to
various crops. In view of the more production, the need of irrigation in the study area is
The overhead statement indicates the need of irrigation in the region. In
IndapurTahasil, there are certain limitations for its developments -
i) The volume of water in the region is to great fluctuation, so that these are trickle
down in the summer months.
Though partly Bhima and Nira are the perennial rivers, their flow is irregular. As
a result, the mean discharge in the canals and supply of water for lift irrigation
very, which is a limiting factor for successful crop production.
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


ii) Water table goes deep in summer and thereby affects the intensity of irrigation
and the cropping pattern the double cropped area.
iii) Some tanks were constructed during the British period, which is completely
filled up with silt.
iv) Lack of proper guidance, low rate of literacy, poverty of the farmers, ignorance
have all affected the development of irrigation.
v) Government policies are not reaching to the less holding farmers.

4.0.2 General characteristics of Irrigation Technology
Irrigation is usually classified as either seasonal or perennial and either
supplementary of primary depending on the role it plays. On seasonal irrigation, one or
rarely two crops are regularly raised in one season, the second is rather impracticable
(Cantor, 1967). This type of irrigation has been practiced in the region where canal and
well irrigation are the means of irrigation respectively. In the study area, it is observed
that along the rivers Bhima and Nira, Government canal and Back water of Ujani dam lift
Irrigation are major sources of irrigation. Use of relatively small quantity of water for a
short period is carry out successfully when crops are suffering from water shortage due to
this rainfall is always in sufficient and crop depend mainly on irrigation is the common
picture of all the Tahasil, exceptions the central arid part of the region.
In fact, no crop can grow without water. Hence the classification relates to the
degree to which the water demand of crop can be satisfied by rainfall. Moreover, seasonal
or perennial irrigation can be converted, depending on the conditions of water resources
and so on, in each of these types irrigation can be either supplementary or primary
(Fukuda, 1976).
In the recent years the large scale failure of the monsoon in the region. The
success of agriculture in a draught year depends on the proper management and
utilization of the available resources and their varieties which suit the available soil
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Inadequate water starves plant and reduces crop yield. We may say that if soil is
the store house of plant nutrients, water is its carrier. Natural supply of water is limited
to about four months. Therefore, the development of irrigation is very important for
Indian economy.
4.1 Irrigation Sources
The region mainly depends on two sources of water for irrigation viz. 1) Surface
water 2) Ground water. However their intensity differs regionally due to diversity in
physical conditions of the region. IndapurTahasil has four sources of irrigation i.e. lift
irrigation, well irrigation, canal irrigation and Tank irrigation.

Table 4.1
Area under different sources of Irrigation In IndapurTahasil
Sr. No Source 2001 2011 Per cent
Per cent
1) Well 30323
-0.62 6290 20.74
2) Lift 19600
2.55 6882 35.11
3) Canal 26488
-2.29 3198 14.34
4) Tanks 1944
0.36 803 41.27
Total 78335
+2.91 17772 22.68
N.B. Figures in brackets indicate the percentage of irrigated area under different
sources of irrigation to total.
Source: Tahasil office record, Indapur (2001- 2011).
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Well irrigation covers wider area in the region, owing the non availability of
perennial streams the canal and lift irrigation are not developed in this part. Well
irrigation acquires first position, occupying about 38.08 percent of the total irrigated area
(Table 4.1). The percentage of well irrigation though seem to be high their seasonal
nature has to stop overall cropping pattern and crop productivity too (0.62 percent)
decrease is observed from 2001 to 2011 owing the drought condition in the region seen
last two three years.
The predominance of lift irrigation is confined to northeastern and southern part
of the region. Above 27.55 percent (26481 hectares) of net irrigated area is covered by
this source (Table 4.1) with 2.55 percent increase (6882 hectares) during the period of
investigation. The remarkable growth and significant concentration of lift irrigation is
confined to flood plains of river Bhima and Nira and Back water of Ujani dam.
The canal irrigation is developed along the parts of river Nira and also in medium
irrigation projects like Khadkhwasla dam canal. Canal irrigation contributes about 31.51
percent (30286 hectares) of the total irrigated area in the region, in fact owing to
topographical constraint; canal irrigation has not taken sound footing.
The tank irrigation in the study area is relatively negligible occupying. The tank
irrigation however, helps to recharge the underground water table. So it is indirect
support to the irrigation. Table 3.1 reveals the fact that from all sources of irrigation, the
region has recorded 2.91 per cent (17772.17 hectares) change in irrigation during 2001
2011. However, lift irrigation has remained dominant showing increase of 35.11 followed
by well (20.74 percent) canal (14.34 per cent) and tank (41.27 per cent) during this

4.1.1 Lift Irrigation Technology
Lift Irrigation is a recent form of irrigation, which differs from other traditional
means of irrigation like well, canal and tank. The last five decades have witnessed the
development of lift irrigation causing into deep and far reaching impact on the
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


agricultural economy of the region. Though it requires heavy capital outlay it has been
practiced on co-operative basis along the river banks. Here, the researcher has attempted
to analyze such irrigation technology with reference to its development spatial
characteristics, impact on cropping pattern and productivity based on primary data. In
addition to this, the negative impacts of lift irrigation are also assessed which has invited
attention of scientists recently. Definition of left Irrigation Technology
Lift irrigation is generally defined as lifting of water from perennial sources of
rivers with heavy capacity electric pumps and distributed through pipeline to nearby
fields within its command area in the flood plains of the river.
The installation is mode either on co-operative or individual basis. However, the
capacity of pumps is always high in case of co-operative schemes. Historical Background of Lift Irrigation Technology
Of all the devices of minor irrigation the lifting of surface water for irrigation is
relatively new technology and recent phenomenon. Since this new technology of minor
irrigation has been introduced in the recent past i.e. after 1960s, its progress is rather
slow, compared with traditional methods of irrigation. However, the government of
Maharashtra has given considerable importance to lift irrigation schemes because of its
unique features. It can be adopted even in the region where the topography does not
permit direct flow of irrigation from rivers and streams.
A beginning of organized irrigation in the state was made during the British rule
with the opening of Krishna canal in 1870. The canal takes off from the village khodsi
above Karad, where a weir was built across the river Krishna (Bansode, 1999). With the
advent of planning in the 1951; many attempts were made to tap water for irrigation
through the minor, medium and major irrigation projects. The govt. policies encouraged
farmers to utilize surface groundwater resources by providing financial aids and technical
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


The role of co-operative sector is also noteworthy in regards to the development
of lift irrigation, particularly the sugar factories, established during 1960-1970, have
encouraged the development of lift irrigation by making special efforts in their command
areas in order to gain sugarcane, as a raw material. Such large scale lifts are possible
along the river banks as it requires virtually abundant supply of water stored in the river
course by constructing K.T. weirs (Kolhapur Type weirs). The open weirs consist of
number of small spans closed with horizontal or vertical needles. The needles are taken
out during the flood session so that weirs, at the end of the monsoon season they are
again inserted to store water, which is lifted by electric pumps for irrigation.
The post monsoon and pre-monsoon periods are important regarding water
supply. Main water resources of IndapurTahasil are Bhima and Nira River, Nira left bank
canal, Back water of Ujani dam, khadakhwasla canal etc. The region is also because
agriculture in this area depends upon rainfall, which is low.
IndapurTahasil was badly affected by famine of 1876 1878 during British rule.
Famine riots occurred during this period. In order to stop this riot British Government
started famine works, through construction of Nira left canal. After construction of this
canal in 1882, old Bhatgher Dam was constructed during 1923-1927. Old pick-up weir
was constructed on Nira River near Veer. A few years later, during 1956-1965
Maharashtra Government constructed a new dam in Veer. During this period excavation
of canal of Khadakhwasala dam on Mula River was started Khadakhwasla canal runs
from Northern side and Nira left canal runs from southern side of the study region.
Then the questation arose in the mind of the British Government, about the
peoples disinterest to use canal water. So British Government introduced Block system
for the first time in India on Nira left and right canal. The British Government forced the
farmer to carry on agriculture based on Block system in order to increase agricultural
yield. The British Government introduced six different type of Block system like
sugarcane Blocks, Fruit Blocks, and Garden Blocks, Two seasonal Blocks- kharif and
Rabbi, Three seasonal Blocks, Rabbi, (Khomane, S.L. 2009).
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


In this way the British Government forced farmers to carry on their farming, due
to which increase in agricultural yield was noticed and the life style of the people also
changed, because of their improved economic condition. of Lift Irrigation Schemes
In areas where abundant water in the form of rivers and fertile land exist the
projects aim not only at ensuring continuous supply of water but also aim at increasing
agricultural production and productivity through intensive use of land.
The lift schemes are installed on seasonal /perennial sources of water like rivers,
lakes etc. either by individuals or by groups of farmers in states like Maharashtra, Orrisa
etc.. Separate corporations have been established and the commercial banks provide
finance for the construction of the lift projects and land development work in the
command areas. These corporations encourage farmers to form co-operative societies or
partnership for the purpose of distribution of water, collection of water charge, arranging
supply of input and production, and marketing of produce of the beneficiaries and also
for attending of produce of the beneficiaries and also for attending other day to day work
for ensuring smooth working of lift irrigation schemes.
Lift projects should be based on sound technical and economic feasibility. The
technical aspects pertain to the source of water on which the lifts are constructed and the
designing of the project. It is better to understand these aspects so that commercial bank
will easily grant loans either to the schemes which will benefit individual consumers or
group of farmers. [Narula, R.K. 1984].
Farmers in IndapurTahasil have formed the co-operative Lift irrigation schemes to
enable member cultivators to pool their resources for the purpose of lift irrigation plant
machinery. This helps to bring large areas under irrigation to reduce the cost of irrigation
per hectare. In lift irrigation scheme certain input (input system) are transformed within
organizational structures and processes (Transformation system) and converted into
output (output system). The input system comprises two categories of inputs viz. people
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


who work within the lift Irrigation scheme together from the human resource system of
the scheme. These include primarily the irrigation farmers and members of irrigation
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Human Resource System of Lift Irrigation

Local Experts
Scientific Adviser
Organization Management
Member Permanent Specialist
Member of Farmer with Irrigation
Organization Experience
Farmer without Irrigation
Project Employee
Project Worker

Seasonal Worker
Member Permanent Member of
Organization Fig 4.1 A

Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Material Resource System of Lift Irrigation

Public Authority


Private Capital

Engineering Jack Well
Infrastructure Main pipeline
Material Sump Well
Resource Material Sub Line
System Resources Agricultural Electric Pump Sets
Production Other Technical Equipment

Ownership Private Surplus
Water Public Scarcity

Availability Time Regular

Private Irregular
Natural Ownership
Resources Public Surplus

Land Quantity Scarcity

Availability Long-term leasing
Fig.4.1 B Short-term leasi
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


The management system control the material input and it also influences the structure of
organization. It should be pointed out her, that the management in irrigation schemes is
not necessarily a management appointed by the Government. In many schemes the
management functions are performed at least partially by chosen representative of the
farmers. The object of management activities within the transformation system is to
produce output in, the widest sense. The output system includes two categories of
outputs; Goods and Services. The goods produced in irrigation schemes consist of
primarily of agricultural product.
The technology or material inputs includes all installations and processes that are
needed to bring about the transformation of input into output within lift irrigation scheme.
The technology that is available for lift irrigation scheme i.e. engineering infrastructure
viz. construction of jack- wells, sump wells, main Pipeline, chambers, laying of sub-
line electric pump and capital.
The material input of lift irrigation or design of the lift project will include the
i) Construction of jack well and pump House
The Jack well and the pump house may be combined together and a single structure
may be designed to facilitate the water to be temporarily stored and to create still pool for
pumping. The site for jack well is selected either in the middle or upstream of the
command area so that the command area dividing in to two halves for effective coverage
of all plots and easy flow of water. Construction of a jack well on the river bank is the
best arrangement and is recommended in case of permanent schemes.
The pump house is constructed for the installation of pump; power unit etc. on fixed
floor. The diameter of jack well is designed depending on the discharge capacity and the
number and size of pump sets and the power units to be installed. The item the jack well
is designed depending on the basis of the maximum feed level of the river. The height of
the pump house will be on basis of the working ability of the system and for raising the
suction pipes from the jack well. The pumping units should be protected from flood and
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


the pump house is constructed on the top jack well with thick teak wood base or thick,
wall and foundation requirement are designed depending on the structural maintenance
and mechanical variation of pumps and power units. The pumps and power unit may be
installed and fitted on a fixed RCC foundation block at a suitable location on the bank of
the river. Jack wells are situated along the bank of Bhima and Nira River, Back water of
Ujani dam.
ii) Main pipeline / Rising Main -
It includes a cement pipe, with radius ranging from 0.5 mt to 2 mt depending
on the volume of water to flow into the pipe line. The main pipeline has been
connected to the jack well and sump-well which are situated on the river bank
and command area of the scheme respectively.

iii) Sump well
It is situated in the command area of the scheme. The purpose for constructing
the sump well is to store water, which is lifted from the jack wall and
distribute the water with the help of sub line to the fields.
iv) Laying of sub line / pote line
It includes PVC pipe which is used for the distribution of water in the
command area. The radius ranges from 30 mm to 240 mm.

v) Electric Pumps
The device for lifting the water is an electric pump of heavy capacity. The
capacity of pumps ranges from 30 H.P. to 500 H.P. It depends on the extended
of command area.

vi) Finance / Capital
The govt. of Maharashtra has given a considerable importance to co-operative
lift irrigation schemes by providing financial and technical knowledge to the
farmers to utilize surface and ground water resources. Govt. of Maharashtra
has made available loan facilities at low interest rate (9 per cent) from banking
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


sources, particularly from co-operative banks. Sugar factories have given
impetus to irrigation by making special efforts in the command areas. Most of
the sugar factories have undertaken the task of big lift irrigation schemes to
their share holders and repayment of loan is made through sugarcane bills
annually. Extent of lift irrigation in the Region
The dominance of lift irrigation is observed all along the river course and back
water of Ujani dam. There is high concentration at three locations i.e. north, south and
East part of the region. There are 108 villages in the region taking the advantage of lift
irrigation. It is above 53 per cent villages have advantage of (above 75 per cent) lift
irrigation of the total irrigated area. There are about 57 villages located in relatively
leveled extensive flood pains and there fore, these are capable of taking advantages of lift
irrigation schemes.
The moderate per cent (40 -60) is observed in the 31 villages and low proportion
(below 40) in remaining 20 village. This is because these villages are located at a
considerable distance and they cannot enjoy the vicinity of river courses as in the case of
above villages. Schemes of Lift irrigation Technology.
There are 5131 private and 13 co-operative lift irrigation schemes including small
and big. The lift irrigation schemes in private and co-operative sector have average
capacity ranging from 3 to 10 H.P and 20 to 700 H.P. respectively. It is observed that out
of total lift irrigation more than 80 per cent are small having an average command area of
4 hectares with average 5 H.P capacity of each. (Table 4.2)
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


It is interesting to note here that the big schemes are located in the command area
of K.T.W (Kolhapur Type weir) and Back water of Ujani dam, due to availability of
water. It is farther observed that K.T. weirs and numbers of lift irrigation schemes and the
Table 4.2
Lift Irrigation Schemes in IndapurTahasil- 2011(Area in hectares )
Type No of Lifts Capacity in
Irrigated land villages
Private 5131 32829 23422.3 99
Co-operative 13 2680 3059.31 9
Total 5144 35509 26481.61 108

Source Nira Left Bank canal office, Baramati.
- Division of Ujani Back water, Bhimanagar.
- Bhima irrigation Branch, Narshinpur, Bhimanagar.
length of pipe line have positive relationship. Today 18 weirs have been completed. The
weirs make water available up to April in their command areas. The Table 4.2 shows that
the region has 13 co-operative lifts of 2680 H.P irrigating 3059.31 hectares of land of 9
villages. Whereas private lifts (5131) have total capacity of 32829 providing water to
23422.3 hectares of in 99 villages. Thus, individual lift irrigations are also playing. More
important role compared to co-operative lift irrigation schemes Intensity of lift irrigation Technology
Along the Back water of Ujani dam and river course, lift irrigation has become
major source of irrigation. During 2000 2001 to 2010 2011, the net area irrigated by
lift increased by 35.11 per cent while the net area irrigated by all the source of irrigation
was about 22.68 per cent. The net area irrigated by lift as percentage of total irrigated
area went up to 27.55 from 25 per cent during the same period.
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The ratio of the irrigated area by lift irrigation to net area sown is high (above 40
per cent) in Revenue circle of Bawda. Bawda Revenue circle has recorded highest
proportion of (46.22 per cent). Because of these Revenue circle has on the river course of
Bhima and Nira.
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Moderate percentage (20 to 40 per cent) is noted in the Revenue circle of
LoniDeokar and Indapur Revenue circle. LoniDeokar and Indapur Revenue circle has
recorded 29.37 per cent and 36.05 per cent lift intensity respectively. It is due to the
development of lift irrigation schemes on the Back water of Ujani dam which could bring
additional land under irrigation. Low percentage ( below 20 per cent ) is observed in
Revenue circle of Bhigwan, Kati, Anturne and Sansar due to unfavorable physiographical
condition and more distances for the River course and Back water of dam.
The changing intensity of lift irrigation over 40 per cent observed in Bawda
Revenue circle is high intensity. Moderate intensity (20 to 40 per cent) is observed in
Indapur and LoniDeokar Revenue circle. Low intensity (below 20 percent) is observed in
Bhigwan, Kati, Sansar and AnturneRevenue circle. NimgaonKetki Revenue circle has no
found the lift irrigation due to the adverse physiographic condition and want of natural
source of water.
Last ten years have witnessed a positive change in the region as a whole as far as
the development of lift irrigation is taken into consideration. Impact Analysis of lift irrigation Technology
Although the concept of lift irrigation technology is the recent in the field of
irrigation it has man folding effects on agricultural landscape. It requires heavy capital
outlay which can be afforded by the banks only. This leads in bringing about the change
in agricultural landscape. The old cropping pattern is replaced by irrigated crop. The
farmer adopts the cropping pattern which is suitable for existing environmental
conditions and which may pay high remuneration to them. The view of this the aim of
present study is to assess the positive as well as well as negative impact of lift irrigation
on overall agricultural landscape in the study region. This has been done with the help of
case studies, which may give the representative picture of the region under study. Two
villages are selected for case study. Two villages are selected for case study; one for the
study of positive impact and another for negative impact of lift irrigation. It is also
important to mansion that the role of private lift irrigations is vital as compare to co-
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


operative lift irrigation schemes in the study region. So the private lift irrigations
schemes are consider for the positive impact.
The data related to cropping pattern is obtained from the Talathi (Revenue office)
of the respective village. The interviews with farmer and other relevant persons were
conducted to generate the data related to irrigation, cropping pattern, yield, etc. The
selection of farmers is done by stratified random sampling technique. As such 100
farmers of each village were selected of which 30 farmers are having more than 4
hectares of land, another 35 farmers having land in between 2 to 4 hectares where as
remaining 35 farmers have less than 2 hectares of land.
Generally, the farmers do no keep an account of his farm management, the
analysis is, therefore, based on the relevant authorities. Thus, the data has been generated
through field interviews with farmers from selected villages. The accuracy regarding
different costs is subject to the limitations of the memory of the farmers. the following
analysis is concerned with the study of two village Nimsakhar and Bhandgaon.
I) Positive impact of lift irrigation:
To understand the positive impact of lift irrigation on agriculture Nimsakher
village has selected, for the micro level analysis.
a) Micro Level Analysis (Nimsakhar village)
Nimsakhar village is located near 6 km East of Walchandnager city in Indapur,
Tahasil. It is situated 2 km north from river Nira. It has 2266.20 hectares of geographical
area associated with two small nala.
1) Water Resource Management
Water management in irrigated area is per-necessary for making agriculture
remunerative and to avoid ill effects of excessive use of water. The lift irrigation in
IndapurTahasil is mainly confined to flood plains, which are covered by deep black soils.
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


The fair growth of sugarcane depends mostly on proper water management. However, the
researcher observed that ignorance and negligence towards such valuable resource have
resulted in to the generation of some problems. This kind of picture is commonly
observed in the lift irrigated track of IndapurTahasil. This has led to the development of
saline lands which is also analyzed in this chapter.
In case of lift irrigation, on private basis, the farmers tend to use rather more
quantity of water leading to excess use. There are various methods of irrigation are
broadly grouped under i.e. surface, subsurface or sub irrigation, overhead or sprinkle
irrigation and Drip irrigation. (MajumdarD.K, 2004).
The surface irrigation refers to irrigating lands by allowing water to flow over the
soil surface from a supply channel at upper reach of the field. Surface irrigation includes
methods such as border, check, contour border, contour check, contour bitch, furrow,
flood, corrugation, basin and ring methods. In Nimsakhar village furrow and flood
methods have been practiced in this village. The information collected for this is based on
schedule for 100 farmers from various categories and field observation in the study
In the lift irrigation scheme there are some problems in providing water to farm
regularly by laying underground pipeline. These problems observed in the study region
are listed below-
i)Fluctuations in the volume of water -
In the river Bhima and Nira and Back water of Ujani Dam the availability
of water supply is always less during summer season. The govt. of
Maharashtra takes the decision to agriculture purpose. The priority is given to
store water for drinking purpose.
i) Fluctuations in the Electricity -
Every day on an average sixteen hours (16 hours) of load shading and on
every Thursday the whole day power cut- off leads to the a problem for
providing the water to the fields.
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


ii) Leakage
Some time, there is a leakage of pipelines creating problem of non
availability of water when it is essential. The skilled labors, which can
solve the leakage problem, are not available in time. This may lead to
much time taken (average 4 days) for solving such problem.
The farmers at farm level, adopt surface irrigation method i.e. furrow irrigation,
by which heavy quantity of water is supplied to sugarcane crop. Generally, water is
supplied to the cane fields throughout the night resulting into overflow. This is common
phenomenon of the region. This indicates that water management has not been properly
practiced by the farmers. This requires the creation of awareness among the farmers for
the economic use of water.
2) Impact Analysis
Irrigation occurrence to be basic input exerting its impact on agriculture
production. If an area is facilitated with irrigation water, agricultural sector is positively
affected. It has manifold phenomena may arise i.e. increase in the gross cropped area,
change in cropping pattern, increase in mechanized farming or technological dualism,
stability in the level of production etc. The concern of agricultural geographer is to
analyze impact of input on agriculture. Therefore, an impact analysis is attempted here by
collecting data at field and adopting 10 per cent random sampling of farmers of different
categories in Nimsakhar village.
Irrigation is one of the inputs, which has dominant impact on cropping pattern,
Irrigation acts as an agent in the process of speedy dynamism in cropping pattern. The
cropping pattern denotes the raising of crop in a particular set of time. It is a dynamic
phenomenon which changes according to the adoption of new technology (Husain, 1979)
In the present study the researcher has attempted to trace the spatial dynamism in
cropping pattern which is a result of irrigation facilities. It is observed that there are more
number of private lifts is increased from 45 to 163 from 2001 to 2011 respectively. It is
proposed to formulate the hypotheses, as irrigation is instrumental in bring about the
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


change in cropping pattern. In order to test this, the analysis for two points of time has
been considered i.e. establishment of privet lift irrigation in 2001 to 2011.

Photo Plate No. 4.1

Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


3) Temporal changes in cropping pattern:
The development of irrigation leads to change in the cropping pattern. Table 4.5
shows the fact that how the temporal changes in cropping pattern are taken due to
introduction lift irrigation.
Table 4.3
Temporal changes in cropping pattern in Nimsakhar village Anthurne Revenue
circle, Tahasil-Indapur.

Sr.No. Crops 2001- 2002 2010- 2011 Change in
Area in
to total
Area in
to total
1 Jowar 1500.20 79.14 693.39 34.61 -44.53
2 Wheat 105.20 5.55 240.00 11.98 6.43
3 Bajara 14.20 0.75 13.00 0.65 -1.20
4 Maize 249.94 13.19 550.00 27.45 14.26
5 Groundnut 0.80 0.04 1.20 0.06 0.02
6 Sugarcane 25.20 1.33 498.70 24.90 23.57
7 Banana -- -- 3.00 0.15 0.15
8 Pomegranate -- -- 4.00 0.20 0.20
1895.54 100 2003.29 100.00
Source- Complied by the Author- 2012
The area under sugarcane in this village is increased by 473.5 hectares which was
25.20 in 2001-2002. The sugarcane has kept its dominance in the irrigation cropping
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


pattern, as it covers above 49 per cent of total irrigation area of the village and 498.70
hectares (24.90 per cent) of the total cultivated land. Jowar was dominant crop in 2000-
2001 occupying 1500.20 hectares area, shown drastic decline (44.53 per cent) in its area
to about 693.41 hectare in 2010-2011. Obviously, it has been replaced by sugarcane due
to the availability of water through lift irrigation. The total area under maize has
increased by 300.06 hectares (27.45 per cent) in year 2010-2011. The crop like wheat,
have also shown remarkable increase during period under investigation i.e. 134.8
hectares. The area under Bajra decreased from 14.20 hectares to 13.00 hectors. The Jowar
and Bajra show negative changes in the region. The area under Banana and pomegranate
are not available in 2000-2001; But due to lift irrigation area under these gropes has 3 and
4 hectares respectively. The total cropped area during the same period has also been
increased from 1895.54 hectares to 2003.29 hectares.
It may be attributed to the fact that the irrigations has played on important role in
the irrigation has played an important role in the horizontal extension of crop land in the
village Nimsakhar.

II) Negative Impact of Lift Irrigation:
The main intention of irrigation is too prominent an increase in agricultural
production from the lands served. The Bhima and Nira River and Back water of Ujani
dam are major sources of irrigation. The lift irrigation is more confined to these river
basins. The monoculture of sugarcane has been practiced without rotation system causing
into considerable reduction in its yield and intensity too. The farmer from the study
region of IndapurTahasil have utilized water by lift scheme directly from these sources
and irrigated their farms. They have been doing it for the last one or two decades. Such
traditional way of irrigation has created degradation of land.
In the proceeding an attempt is made to analyze the cropping pattern in the study
region with special emphasis on irrigated cropping. It is evident that region has a
preponderance of sugarcane cultivation, particularly in the lift irrigated tract of the study
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


region. In the beginning expectedly increased the production of sugarcane and other
crops too. But due to careless use of excess water ignorance of water and land
management. Various problems are emerging in the irrigated tract of the study region.
Farmers are using water for more than the standard requirement of crops,
particularly in the case of sugarcane cultivation. It is almost double than the standard
requirement i.e. 450 cm/ hectare which is higher than the standards need 275 to 325 cm/
hectare, the ignorance of irrigation regarding the water requirement of crops. The need of
water may vary from crop to crop and region to region and season to season. There is a
misconception regarding water use among the farmers i.e. more the higher dose of
irrigation water particularly the higher doses of irrigation water particularly to sugarcane.
However, due to the improper use of water and unsuitable soil management
practices, problem of soil degradation is coming up in irrigated tracts. The problems like
soil sallinization and alkalization particularly in sugarcane tracts are emerging very fastly.

1) Development of Saline Soils
During the last there decade, the proportion of the saline land has been gradually
increased in many villages of the irrigated tract of the study region. the proportion of the
saline land is more in the village near to the river courses and back water of Ujani dam.
In the region there are 119 villages having the problem of the saline land the proportion is
3.73 per cent to the total irrigated area in the region. National Agricultural Development
plan (RashtriyKrushiVikasYojana) has conducted a survey to find out the saline area of
the Tahasil. They tried to increase the soil productivity of saline soil by use the Sub-
surface drainage system. (Government Rule of 16 August 2011). They collect the data
from sugar factories of IndapurTahasil. The report gives the data of saline land from the
sugar factories is 3458.26 hectare saline land are found in the IndapurTahasil up to 2011-
2012. The area under saline land has been increased day by day. This has led to the
damage of inherent qualities of soils consequently; it has affected the production of crop
adversely. To understand the negative impact of the lift irrigation on irrigated crop
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


production and quality of soils. A micro level (Village level) analysis is discussed which
may give the representative picture of the region under study. For that purpose
Bhandgaon Village in Bawada Revenue circle is selected for the case study.

2) Cause of overuse of water for Irrigation:
The extreme use of water is caused mainly due to following reasons.
i) In sufficient facilities of irrigation
The micro level analysis indicates that the irrigation facilities are confined
only to the river valleys. Thus, the areas away from river banks are not provided
with adequate irrigation facilities. The composite effect of all these facts is in the
over utilization of irrigation water whenever and wherever it is made available.

ii) Ignorance of Irrigators regarding water requirements of crops
The quantity of water use to irrigate crops is significant in relation to crop
production and land management. The volume of water required by the crop is
determined by the timing of watering, methods adopted and sources of irrigation
and cultivators perception towards the use of irrigation. However, too much water
may suffocate the plant roots and too little may not be able to sustain the plant.
The need for water varies from crop to crop. Even for individual crops the crop
requirements vary as per its growth stage.

iii) Uncertainty of Irrigation water
It is observed very often during the field work that the co-operative as well as
private lift irrigation schemes provide water to the irrigate three to four times a
month. This frequency reduces further in the month of April and May in summer
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


season. Moreover many time the failure of power rotation system. It leads to
increase the tendency of farmers to use maximum possible water whenever it is
iv) Insufficient Drainage facility
To facilitate the percolation of unwanted water from the soils, drainage system
either natural or artificial is essential.
a) A Case Study of Bhandgaon village ( Micro Level Analysis )
Bhandgaon village is located 9 km East of Bawada Revenue circle. It is situated
on the Bhima River. It has 1334 of total geographical area. There is one lift
irrigation scheme in co-operative sector and 224 has private sector. Co-operative scheme
established in 1976 with an average capacity of 20 hp and land irrigated by this scheme is
24 hectares. Private lift irrigation scheme has average capacity of 930 hp and the land
irrigated under this lift irrigation is 799 hectares. Its show that the privates lifts are plays
an important role in Bhandgaon village.
1) Physical setup of the Bhandgaon village
The area of the village can be divided into three physical divisions.
i) Northern Hilly Region
The hills follow the North East direction it cover about 10 percent to the
total village area.
ii) Foot Hill Zone
The foot hill zone covers 10 per cent of the area of the village which has
moderate slope. The cultivation has been developing on the hill slopes and in the
foot hill region.
iii) Plain Region
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


It is a gently sloping land which favors the development of irrigation
facilities. It covers about 80 per cent of the area of the village.

2) Soil
Following are the main soil groups observed in the village area.

a) Alluvial soils
It covers only 60 per cent village and occupies the flood plain of the river
which is the only fertile and productive land of the village.

b) Medium and Deep Black Soil
It is medium deep black soil and covers some part of village area that forms
guothan where the settlements are located.
c) Coarse Shallow Literate
An extensive tract nearly 10 per cent is covered by this group of soil which is
infertile and mostly devoted to Pastures.
3) Agricultural Profile
The agricultural aspects of the village in the recent past are discussed

i) Land Use
Table 4.4 shows the general land use pattern of Bhandgaon village.

Table 4.4
General land use in Bhandgaon village, Bawda Revenue circle,
Sr. No. Land category Area in
to total Area
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1 Area not available for
40.62 3.03
2 Cultivable wast 39.57 2.96
3 Fallow 12.49 0.78
4 Pastures 09.61 0.72
5 Net area sown 1238.51 92.51
Total 1338.80 100.00
Source: Compiled by researcher based on the field work 2012.
Farming is a major activity of the village. The village area has no forest
land. The proportion of net area sown is high (92.51 per cent). The other
categories of the land use cover 7.49 per cent of the total area (Table 4.4).
ii) Cropping Pattern
The cropping pattern of the village consists mainly of the cultivation of
irrigated crops (Table 4.5).
Table 4.5 indicates that sugarcane is the dominant crop of the village covering
more than 61.20 per cent (756.28 hectares) of the net area sown. The second ranking
crop is Maize which covers 14.94 percent area and together with sugarcane covers
more than 76 percent of net sown area. The third ranking crop is Jowar which covers
11 per cent area.
Table 4.5
Cropping pattern in Bhandgaon village in 2010-2011
Crop Area in
Percentage to
net area sown
1 Sugarcane 756.28 61.20
2 Jowar 136.11 11.00
3 Wheat 75.00 6.09
4 Maize 185.00 14.94
5 Groundnut 55.00 4.44
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6 Banana 10.12 0.82
7 Pomegranate 18.20 1.47
8 Other 2.80 0.22
Total 1238.51 100

Source: The Revenue officer of Bhandgaon 2010-11
The remaining crops all together share 13.04 per cent of the net area sown like Wheat,
Groundnut, Banana, Pomegranate and others.
iii) Sources of Irrigation:
The Bhandgaon has lift and well irrigation and the total irrigated area was
1208.51 hectares in 2010-2011. Out of this 822.5 hectares (68 per cent) is
under lift and 386.01 hectares (32 per cent) under wells. There are 500 wells
in the village which are perennial.

iv) Methods of irrigation :
The field observation has stated the fact that the farmers of Bhandgaon
village supply water to crops regardless of their requirement. The lack of
awareness among the farmers, miss concepts about the use of water is the
reasons for this. The furrow irrigation method is commonly practiced (80 per
cent) in the village water is regulated through furrow to irrigated the crops.
Furrow irrigation is very common because it is adoptable to a great can be
variety of land slopes and soil textures. It can be used with either large or
small streams of irrigated water (cantor, 1967).
Flood irrigation has been practiced at very small scale (15 per cent)
particularly for wheat and vegetables. The modern methods in the form of drip
and sprinkle irrigation are only (5 per cent) where there the region is very far
away from the Natural water sources. It is observed that furrow irrigation
method carries demerits of excessive use of water dealing to the damage of
inherent qualities of soils. Erosion of furrow bed is anticipated of furrows are
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


not properly graded and the method is unsuitable for light irrigation in the

v) Impact of Irrigation :
Farmers of Bhandgaon have sufficient water available from lift irrigation.
Normally using excess water for farming they have been using for many years.
However, due to the improper use of water and unsuitable soil management
practices; the problem of soil degradation is coming up in the black irrigated soils
in Bhandgaon village.
a) Soil degradation :
The soil is a natural medium of plant growth and it is a natural body
developed by natural forces acting on earth- surface. Moreover, it is the medium
from which crop draw water and nutrient. Hence, soils must be carefully
husbanded and conserved. A proper combination of texture, salt and humans
yields good results but some-times due to unsize exploitation, misuse of soils and
excess use of irrigation water and chemical fertilizer result in to soil degradation
(Pathak, R.S, 1997). The village agriculture Extension officer has conducted the
survey of the village and tested the soil quality with the help of PH value and Ec
of the soil on the basis of that he has divided the village into three zones viz. East
zone North zone, west zone.

Table 4.6
Analysis of soil in Bhandgaon village 2011-12
Sr. No. Category East zone North zone West zone
1 PH 8.09 7.50 7.90
2 Ece mm hos/cm 1.15 1.00 0.90
3 CN per cent 0.21 0.78 0.59
4 P2O5 Kg/hectares 4.10 2.93 3.24
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5 K2O Kg/hectares 434.00 384.00 335.00
6 CaCO3 per cent 7.50 7.81 8.82
7 Fe 3.90 4.50 3.69
8 Mm 12.80 13.30 12.90
9 Zn 2.41 2.04 2.51
Sources: Village Agricultural extension officer, Bawada- 2011-2012.
Table 4.6 shows that the soils of East zone are converted onto partly saline soils
i.e. the PH value is 8.09 and the Ec of the soil 1.15, which is unsuitable for the crop
cultivation. In this zone there are some pockets in which saline soils and water logged
areas have been developed. The soil of remaining North and West zones are suitable for
the cultivation but in future there saline land.
b) Lift Irrigation and Agricultural productivity:
In Bhandgaon village two important irrigated crops i.e. sugarcane and
wheat are considered. Sugarcane is the most important cash crop of the region.
Covering more than 61.20 per cent of the irrigated area Bering an annual crop, it
requires adequate supply of water almost throughout the year. Wheat is also
important crop (11.00 per cent) which needs irrigation because the rainfall during
winter is very scanty. The main objective is to examine the temporal change in
crop production. (Table 4.7) shows that now there is decease in the production of
sugarcane and wheat due to improper use of water and unsuitable soil
management practices.
Table 4.7
Crop Production in Bhandgaon village
Sr.No. Zone of village Sugarcane yields Tones
per Hectares
Wheat yields Quintals
per Hectares
2000-2001 2010-2011 2000-2001 2010-2011
1 East 140 95 38 28
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2 North 120 100 32 27
3 West 130 110 34 30
Sources Complied by the Author 2011-2012.
The East zone experiences decrease in the production of sugarcane and wheat
which is 32.14 per cent and 26.32 per cent respectively. The North and west zone also
experiences the decrease in the production of sugarcane and wheat i.e. in the North zone
it is about 16.70 per cent and 15.63 per cent respectively where as in west zone is 15.38
per cent and 11.76 per cent respectively. It is observed that, the East zone is experienced
critical condition for the production of crop as compared those to those in the west and
North zones.
The above discussion reveals the fact that the village marks disparities in
agricultural production and overall declining trend in the production due to the lack of
awareness among the farmers about the lack of awareness among the farmers about the
standard requirements of water for crops and some miss concepts about the use of water
for irrigation purpose. Measures Adopted to recover saline land Recommendations
for reclamation of degraded land -
The process and practice involved in bringing saline and alkaline soils in to
productive condition are known as reclamation measures. The reclamation method
includes three broad measures such as physical measures, chemical measures and
agronomic practices.

i) Physical Measures :
The physical measures include leaching and draining away of salts with help of
rain, lift irrigation water and providing artificial drainage to affected area. In the
study region there is a need for artificial drainage system particularly in sugarcane
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


tracts along the river banks. Drainage of waterlogged, salt affected soils can be
accomplished by one of the two or a combination of the two methods of drainage.
These are a) Surface Drainage b) sub-surface drainage sub surface drainage
system has been further sub divided into three sub groups set such as 1)
Horizontal drainage 2) vertical drainage 3) Bio- drainage.
The areas under water logging salt affected salinity and alkalinity are
steadily increasing in the region. Prevention is better than cure is old proverb and
it is useful to act upon it. These measures include lining of distributaries and field,
water courses, advocating proper crop rotations and finally the efficient water
management technology.

ii) Chemical Measures :
The chemical measures include the treatment of gypsum; sulphur and
molasses to affected soils in order to replace sodium in the clay complex by
calcium of all the calcium compounds, Gypsum is supposed to be the best which
helps to reduce soil PH and improves the physical condition of the soil. Sulphur is
also spread on the soil to reduce the alkalinity of the soil. The rich farmers of the
affected areas have used gypsum at many villages but it is not accepted widely in
the region. In sugar factory areas, farmers are using molasses to reclaim alkaline
soils. The press mud (waste products in sugar industry) also helps in reducing
exchangeable sodium and need be used which is locally available from sugar

iii) Agronomic Practices :
The agronomic practices consist of green manuring of dhaincha, heavy
application of organic manuring and use of rotation system of crops. Some plants
like eucalyptus could be planted along the channels and distributaries to absorb
seepages and leakages water to keep the area free from drainage and water
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


logging problems. Taking high salt tolerant crops like kulathi, onion, wheat fruits
and vegetables, sunflowers etc. along with sugarcane is one of the useful
measures which need to be practiced in the affected areas.
Kipping in view the increasing demand for modes tic, industrial and
export purpose from agricultural sector, the management of both soil and water
resources is most essential particularly in heavy irrigated tracts of the country. In
this regards, the present study would provide sufficient background for
formulating the plan for such affected agricultural areas. This would definitely
help to provide the increasing needs of the time.

4.2.2 Well Irrigation
After examining Lift irrigation technology, its having real merit to study
other sources of irrigation is an important indigenous methods of irrigation as old
as agriculture. In case of well irrigation schemes it is important to estimate the
availability of ground water potential of the area. This may be obtained by the
bank from the central ground water directorate. The depth of water table,
thickness, aerial extent of underground aquifer may be determined by test drilling
and the factors such topography, rainfall and its distribution type of the soil
should be taken into account while estimating the annual recharge to the ground
water reservoir from the rainfall. The groundwater availability of the area may be
assessed from the existing wells and tub wells and their successful working in
their neighborhood. Also, it is important to make sure that the construction of the
proposed well or tube well scheme will not deplete the available water in the
existing wells in that area. The wells used for irrigation are generally circular with
a diameter of 3 to 4 m and depth of 6 to 12 m. It is dug in the ground to tap the
groundwater especially, where the surface water is scanty. Oil engines and
electric motors are also set up to lift the water for irrigation the fields. As there is
no steady water table, the tube well is neither successful nor economically
feasible in the state.( Government of Maharashtra,1973)
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology

44 Pattern of regional Distribution
Well irrigation accounts for about 38.08 per cent of total irrigated area in the
region. However, its distribution varies from Revenue circle to Revenue circle. High
percentages (over 60 per cent) of area under well irrigation are confirmed mainly in the
Sansar Revenue circle due to the available of ground water. The moderate proportion
nearly 30 to 60 per cent is observed in Indapur, Bhigwan, LoniDeokar, NimgaonKetki,
Anturne and Kati Revenue circle. In fact in these Revenue circle most of the part has
limited space for the lift irrigation and some part has more underground water are
available for irrigation. Low per cent (below 30 per cent) has recorded in Bawda Revenue
circle, because the more important given to the lift irrigation and higher
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


fluctuation of water table have retarded in the central part of the Revenue circle for the
development of this source. Intensity of well Irrigation
High intensity of well irrigation (over 40 per cent) is observed in Sansar
Revenue circles due to the available ground water. Moderate intensity (20 to 40
percent) is observed in Indapur, Nimgaon-Ketki, LonideokarAnturne and Bawda
Revenue circle. It is due to the high density of wells so that cultivator brings
additional land under well irrigation. Low intensity (below 20 per cent) is
observed in the Bhigwan and Kati Revenue circles. It may be due to the adverse
physiographic conditions. (Fig. 4.5 A)
The last 10 years have witnessed the positive change in the region as the whole.
However, its spatial distribution differs largely. The increase over 30 and 15 to 30 per
cent confined to the Sansar, NimgaonKetki and Anturne where the density of well is
more (Fig 4.5B). In significant i.e. below 15 per cent is observed in the rest of the Tahasil
which is due to the rapid increase in the net area sown as compared to the increase of
irrigated area by this source. Density of wells Irrigation
There are about 26828 wells in the region however, the distribution of
wells give uneven picture of well irrigation as it ranges from 2165 wells in
Bhigwan Revenue circle to 4744 wells in Anturne Revenue circle. The density of
wells per 1000 hectares of cultivated land may therefore, give a more realistic
picture (Pawar and Shinde, 1979).
Relatively large concentration of wells (over 300 per 1000 hectares) is
observed in Kati and Sansar Revenue circle due to more number of well in
relation to cultivated area and available ground water etc., whereas moderate
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Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology



Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


concentration of well (150-300) is observed in Anthurne, NimgaonKetki, Bawda
and Lonideokar Revenue circle due to the very less proportion of other source of
irrigation. The low density of wells (below 150) is mainly observed in Bhigwan
and Indapur Revenue circle due to the less number of well in relation to the
cultivated area and other sources of irrigation i.e. Lift and canal irrigation. (Fig.
There is a plenty of scope for digging additional wells in the region. The
technical and financial aid should be provided to the farmers in a cheaper but
carful manner so that there will not be agencies should provide the information
regarding the water table and geological structure at the location well, so that the
farmer could manage the time and cost of construction. Cost benefit analysis of wells and lift irrigation Schemes:
Irrigation is a very significance in put to increase the agriculture
production. It is the key factor responsible for the development of agriculture.
It is clear that, more investment is attempted in the farm activity expecting more
earnings. This clearly, will lead to transformation of irrigation of agriculture
which is profit oriented. Unfortunately in India, the farmers do not keep any
records and accounts which are very important in the process of modernization of
farm practices.
The cost of output per hectare differs in irrigated crops in different source
of irrigation, i.e. well and lifts irrigation. Hence the benefits of well irrigation
differ from the benefits obtained from the lift irrigation. Not only this but also the
cost benefit of different irrigated crops differs spatially within well and lift
irrigations. Keeping in this view, the present work highlight the spatial variation
in the economics of cost benefit of sugarcane and wheat raised under different
source in the study region. The cost benefit analysis means, the difference
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


between per hectare costincurred for producing irrigated crop and the per hectare
outputin terms of money value obtained.An attempt is made here to assessthe
spatial variations in the economy of well and lift irrigation
The present work is purely based on the data obtained through intensive
field work. The author has attempted to assess the comparative. The sugarcane is
a perennial crop and wheat is a seasonal crop, which is grown in Rabbi Season
and it depends mainly on irrigation. Two representative villages, located in the
Bhima and Nira river Basin were selected which are having the
simultaneousavailability of both lift and well irrigation facilities. The average if
different items of cost benefit in a village are considered to analyze the net returns
per hectare are obtained by employing following formula.
Where NR - Net returns per hectares.
AI Annual income per hectares.
CP Cost of Production per hectares.
The cost compromises the human and animal labour cost, material cost,
energy charges, maintenance and repair charges, government taxes and other cost. Cost Benefit Analysis:
A remarkable difference in cost benefit is observed between the well
irrigation and lift irrigation schemes in Bhandgaon and NimsakherVillage.Table
4.8 shows the equal labour cost but per hectare use of fertilizers is higher in lift
irrigation (i.e. Rs. 25750 and 28750 respectively) than the well irrigation and the
water is inadequate leading to the low consumption of chemical fertilizers. The
energy charges, however are also considerably high (i.e. Rs. 9000 and 9752
respectively) in the area irrigated by lift irrigation which is mainly devoted to
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


sugarcane. Beside this sugarcane farms of the members of lift irrigation are
scattered which, therefore leads to the wastage of water. This infect, also invites
the operation of electric motor frequently. The maintenance and repair charges of
well irrigation are also high in both the villages (i.e. 1000 and 1100 respectively).
The output per hectare of sugarcane and wheat is considerably low from
well irrigation (Average Rs. 1, 86,750 and 60,000 respectively)as against the lift
irrigation(average Rs.1, 95,750 and 62,500) respectively. In lift irrigation the
farmer pays full attention to each and every farm operation. Therefore, the net
benefit per hectare is higher in case of sugarcane.

4.2.3 Canal Irrigation
The canal irrigation, in which water is utilized by gravity flow, requires almost
plain topography, having less degree of slop gradient. The study area is having
undulating topography which is largely unsuitable for flow irrigation except valley
bottom areas. The North West part of region is hilly and undulating having less
possibility of flow irrigation. The central part of region is always prone to scarcity and
due to absence of perennial streams the development of canal irrigation is retarded.
In the study region irrigation projects are developed and the canals are taken out
to irrigate down streams areas of these irrigation projects. In IndapurTahasilNira left
Bank canal and Khadhakwasla canal was constructed since 1882 and 1978-79
respectively. The length of the Nira left canal is 30 Km. and Khadhakwasla canal is 42
Km. Pattern of regional distribution
During the period under investigation, through the area under canal irrigation is
26488 hectors in 2000-2001 from 30286 hectors in 2010-2011.The canal irrigation share
31.51 per cent (30286 hectares) of the total irrigated area.Canal irrigation share to the
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Cropwiseper Hectare cost benefit of well and Lift Irrigation
village Source Crops Labour
on cost


Manure Fertilizer Energy
Other Total Output

Ni!sa"har #ell S$cane

22000 18250 15000 15000 24000 7500 1000 500 103250 184500 81250

14000 9000 4900 8000 7500 3000 500 500 47400 55000 7600
Lit S$cane

22000 18250 15000 18000 25750 9000 1000 500 109500 189000 79500

14000 9000 4900 10000 8000 3000 500 500 49900 60000 10100
&handgaon #ell S$cane

22500 18250 15000 20000 28750 9752 1000 500 115752 202500 86748

14500 9500 5000 10000 7500 3000 500 500 50500 70000 19500
Lit S$cane

22500 18250 15000 15000 25000 7000 1100 500 104350 189000 84650

14500 9500 5000 8000 6500 3000 500 500 47500 65000 18000

Source: Compiled by the researcher (ased o! "ield #or$%& 2012'
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


total irrigated area,as compared to other source hasdecreased by about (2.29 per cent).
The canal irrigation is confined to the central part ofIndapurTahasil with higher
proportion as above 30 per cent of the irrigated area by canal. This high percentage
mainly found in NimgaonKetki, Lonidevkar and Anturne Revenue circle. Moderate
percentage between 15-30 per cent is recorded in Bhigwan, Kati and Bawda Revenue
circle. Low percentage i.e. below 15 percent is observed in Indapur and Sansar Revenue
circle. The regional pattern of canal irrigation is mainly link with the physiographic
structure of the region. (Fig 4.7) of canal Irrigation
The spatial distribution of the intensity of canal irrigation indicates the importance
of this source, in the central, North West and South East part of the region where 15 to 30
and above percent of the net area sown in irrigated by canal. These are found in
NimgaonKetki, Lonidevkar, Kati, Bawda and Anturne Revenue circle due to the
favorable physiographical condition for the construction of canal. The intensity less than
15 percent is confined to the Revenue circle of Indapur and Sansar due to short length of
canals and development of other source of irrigation i.e. lift and well irrigation
respectively in Indapur and Sansar Revenue circle.

4.2.4 Tank Irrigation
Tank irrigation is a technique where by rain and spring water from a catchment
area led into a tank. When stored in the tank, water can be used to wash clothes, to water
animals, etc. but the main purpose is to lead the water through sluices to a lower- lying
command area where the fields are irrigated. Tanks are often connected in a long chain
where surplus water from one tank is led to the next in a large drainage system. Tank
irrigation is important by providing many farmers with the possibility of growing two
crops a year, by reducing damages from floods, by evening out erratic rainfalls and by
increasing the ground water level. (Dikshit, G.S. and
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology





Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Tank irrigation as a indirect methods of irrigation. The irrigation methods types of
irrigation based on source of water are also largely affected by the physical features uiz.
Topography, geology, soil and presence of ground water etc. these factors are favorable
for the construction of percolation tanks. The tank irrigation is widespread mainly in
peninsular India where agriculture depends on tanks and shallow wells. (Pawar, C.T.
1981). Water percolation tank is one of the best alternative to solve scarcity problem and
by increasing the possibilities of sustainable agriculture.
Water percolation tank refers to an artificial tank mainly developed to store the
water for irrigation and to enrich water table in downstream areas. The device of tapping
rain water has been emerged during the many decodes in famine affected area. Although
the concept of water percolation tank is more popular in the field of irrigation, it has main
folding effect on agriculture landscape.

Indirect Method of Irrigation
Indirect method of irrigating lands is adopted by constructing the mud- wells
across the small streams for recharging the ground water. This helps in increasing the
water table in command area of the tank. As a result, the water table in the wells in the
common area increases considerably, which has been utilized for irrigation purposes
through dug wells. This is helpful in bringing about the changes in agricultural landscape.
In view of the above, the present investigation aims to analysis the impact of
water percolation tank on number of wells, water table and use of land under different
crops with the help of case study which may give the representative picture of the region
under study. The data related to cropping pattern is obtained from the Talathi (revenue
officer) of the village. The data related to the water table of the well is generated through
intensive field work of generated through intensive field work of the village. It is
important the data pertaining to before construction period of tank was not available. So
last ten year data has be use for the analysis.

Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology

58 of Tanks:
During the period under investigation through the area under tank irrigation is
1944 hectares in 2000-2001 to 2747 hectares in 2010-2011. It shares to the total irrigated
area; as compared to other sources has about 2 percent. There are 13 tanks in
IndapurTahasil. It distribution various from Revenue circle to Revenue circle out of
which 3 tank are observed in Bhigwan Revenue circle, 6 are in Lonidevkar Revenue
circle,2 are in Kati Revenue circle each 1 in Anthurne and Indapur Revenue circle. Level Analysis ( Shetphal Haveli Village ) -
A case study of Shetphal Haveli water percolation tank is undertaken here to
analysis the impact of tank on water table and cropping pattern.
i) Location
Shetphal Haveli is situated 14 Km. South of Indapur city in IndapurTahasil. It
has 1621.05 hectares of geographical area associated with two small Nala.

ii) Physical Setting :
Physiographical Shetphal Haveli is can be divided into three divisions.

a) Hilly region :-
The small hills located North West part of the villages covers about 15 to
per cent of the total area of the village.

b) Foot hill zone :-
It covers 35 per cent of the area which is moderately steep.

c) Plain region :-
It is a gently sloping land which covers 50 percent area of the village.

Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


iii) Soils :

a) Medium and Deep Black soil :
It covers 70 percent of the village area and is distributed in southern part
of the village.

b) Coarse shallow Soil :
The considerable percentage i.e. 30 per cent area of the village is covered
by this group which is fertile.

iv) Impact of water Tank :
There are three major impacts of tanks such as impact on number of
wells, underground water table and impact of cropping pattern.

Tank and underground water table:
Shetphal Haveli village is located in the arid region in IndapurTahasil. So
wells play a significant role in agricultural activities of farmers ofShetphal Haveli
village. The distribution of wells in the Shetphal Haveli is uneven and the number
of wells has tremendously increased in the investigation period. At present there
are nearly 371 wells which are distributed unevenly. The wells are densely
observed in central part of the village mainly due to lack of the other irrigation
facilities. Formerly the distribution of wells was very scattered.
It is notices that the map of two periods i.e. 2000 and 2011s showing the
distribution of wells. There is a tremendous change in the pattern of wells and
their numbers. During the last ten years 278 new wells have come up, especially
in the North West and South west and central part of the village. This increase in
the number of wells can be attributed to the water table mainly due to the water
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Variation in water table:
Wells and their water table have played an important role in the
agricultural activity of the farmers. The distribution of wells was influenced by
the contribution of water tank. Similarly, their water level is also indirectly
influenced by water tank. In the present study with the help of intensive field
work, an attempt is made to locate the present number of well and with figures of
water table on a map. Similar map showing distribution of wells and their water
table (Fig.4.8) was prepared by using the data and the information collected from
the farmers. The map not only shows the distribution of well but also their water
table, based on water table figures the isolines were drawn connecting with equal
water table places. It is fact that water table is high in central, south west and
North West part of the village because of nearness of water Tank. It was also
observing (4 Mts.) that the water table is near surface in the vicinity areas of
reservoir.Whereas it is low (12 Mts.) in the Eastern part of the village.
Tank and cropping pattern:
The construction of tank leads change in cropping pattern. The increase in
irrigated crops has replaced most of the traditional crops i.e. Jawar, Bjara. Table 4.9
reveals the temporal change in cropping pattern.
Table 4.9 shows the area under Banana is increased from 0.36 in 200-01 to 5.98 percent
this mainly due to water availability from tank. There is also positive increase in the area
under pomegranate from 0.09 percent in 2000-01 to 1.11 percent in 2010-2011. The
slightly changes observer in vegetables the area under vegetables increased from 2.08
percent in 2000-01 to 2.40 percent in 2010-11. There is also positive increase in the area
under (26.50 percent) the crops like sugarcane shows positive change with 23.33 percent
increase (Table 4.9). The proportion of rest of the crops shows negative change in the

Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Table 4.9
Cropping Pattern in Shetphal Haveli Village
(2000-2001 to 2010-2011)
Sr. Crops 2000- 2001 2010- 2011 Area
No. Area in
Area in
change in
1 Jowar 438 39.70 360 30.77 -8.93
2 Bajra 197 17.84 102 8.72 -9.12
3 Wheat 148 13.41 110 9.40 -4.01
4 Maize 145 13.13 118 10.10 -3.03
5 Pulses 60 5.34 42 3.59 -1.75
6 Vegetable 23 2.08 28 2.40 +0.32
7 Banana 4 0.36 70 5.98 +5.62
8 Pomegranate 1 0.09 14 1.20 +1.11
9 Sugarcane 35 3.17 310 26.50 +23.33
10 Other 53 4.80 16 1.37 -3.43
Total 1104 100 1170 100
Source Complied by the author 2011-2012
From the forgoing analysis, it is evident that water tank has favorable impact on
number of wells, underground water table and consequent changes in cropping pattern of
the village. There is an increase of water table in the command area. It has directly
influenced the agricultural land use. The proportion of traditional crops has decreased and
cash crops have come up recently.
4.2 Methods of Irrigation
4.2.1 Introduction
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


The methods by which irrigation is applied to the land depend on an ideal
conditions, on individual land features such as the slope of land, the crop to be raised, the
nature of the water supply and ability to soil to absorb and hold water(cantor, 1967 ).
Irrigation methods therefore, are most important for optimum utilization of water.
The irrigation methods used in this region differ largely according to the terrain,
soil type and climate condition (PawarT.C, 1981). The surface irrigation has basic
method, sub- irrigation (underground) and overhead irrigation. In surface method water is
spread over land by flood, border or strip, furrow and corrugation methods.
Comparatively this method is less economic, where water loses through evaporation and
leaching are more. Moreover, if water is misused the danger of soil being spoiled by
salinity and ground water increase through capillary action are likely sub-irrigation has
some advantages over surface irrigation. It carries the water directly to the root area of
the plants and thus excludes any water losses through evaporation and harm the mellow
soil ready for tillage (Andreae, 1975).
This method is very expensive, however the drawback has compared with surface
irrigation that the installation can become more difficult to maintain and replace and the
irrigation process is more difficult to check. The technologic irrigation methods includes
drop. It can be used in any kind of terrain and are very economical with water, compared
to the surface irrigation methods. Thus, where irrigation water is scarce and expensive
and a high marginal productivity of water therefore has to be aimed at, sprinkler
irrigation is preferred on the other hand, where ample, cheap water is available, surface
irrigation with a lower water productivity can be used ( Andreae, 1975). Mention may
also be made that technological irrigation is a capital intensive irrigation method, while
surface irrigation is a comparatively labour intensive irrigation method.
The irrigation methods used in the region differ largely according to the terrain,
soil types and climatic conditions. The information collected for this is through the
questionnaire for sample villages and also it is supplemented by frequent field visits and
analysis follow irrigation method.
4.2.2 Surface Irrigation Methods
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Especially surface methods of irrigation are in practice, which include flood
irrigation, border, furrow and corrugation methods. However, their application is
governed by the slop of the land type of the soil and the cropping pattern. The
predominance of flood and border irrigation is observed in the central eastern part of the
Tahasil Revenue circle of NimgaonKetki, Kati some part of LoniDeokar. This method is
usually found in areas with coarser soil where crops like Jowar, Bajra, and Wheat are
The furrow irrigation in which water is run in furrow, normally made by
cultivating between two crop towns is used in the western and southern parts of the
region where as slopes are moderate to sleep and soil are lateritic.
It includes the western Revenue circles viz. Anthurne and Sansar. By these
methods water is applied to the crops like sugarcane, Maize, onion and some of the
vegetables. Furrow irrigation is very common because it is adaptable to a great variety of
land slope and soil textures and can be used with either larger or small streams of
irrigation water (Cantor, 1967).
The corrugation irrigation a modification of furrow irrigation, where in water is
applied to the ground in rills, corrugations or small shallow furrow, from which it soaks
laterally through the soils, wetting the area between the corrugations. Such method in the
region is practiced in the river valley and Back water of Ujani dam; in the Revenue circle
namely Indapur, Bawda some part of Bhigwan and LoniDeokar. The crops raised with
this method include sugarcane.
4.2.3 Technological Irrigation Methods
Technological irrigation methods i.e. Sprinkler and Drip irrigation method is of
recent technique in the field of irrigation is about 4 percent of the total irrigated area of
the Tahasil. Out of this sprinkler irrigation play a very small role in the Tahasil. The main
them of the study is related with a new methods adopted by the various farmers in the
Tahasil. Here, an attempt has been made to examine the spatial distribution of the drip
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


methods of irrigation and to assess the impact of drip irrigation on quality of various
crops in the Tahasil.
A] Drip Irrigation Technique
The research on drip irrigation has been in progress in India since 1970 onwards.
However, it was only after 1980 they may experiments were made on drip technique.
Different technique of irrigation are available in an economy e.g. flood, basin, furrow,
sprinkler, But drip irrigation system is a relatively new method of irrigation. Drip
irrigation also called trickle irrigation, refers to the application of water at a slow rate
drop by drop through perforations in pipes or through nozzles, attached a limited area
around the plant. It achievers wetting of even smaller surface area than in case of furrow
irrigation in which drip irrigation Water and other nutrients are delivered directly to the
root zone according to the plant needs. The drip irrigation system is said to be 50 percent
more effective than the conventional irrigation systems. It has been estimated that water
loss in conventional irrigation methods is 30-40 percent where as it is hardly 1 or 2
percent in drip system. (SaksenaR.S 1992). The scope of the study is confined to
IndapurTahasil covering all eight Revenue circles. Two villages have been selected from
each Revenue circle where there is maximum use of drip irrigation. Further, the sample
respondents were selected who have adopted drip irrigation and those without drip in
these villages selected. Individual farmers are selected for conduction this study. The
reference period is 6 years that is from 2005 to 2010. In IndapurTahasil the drip irrigation
system has been popularized since 2003 04 and use of it is further intensified during the
last years.
i) Definition:
Drip irrigation is defined by various scholars some of the important definition are
given here
1) Drip irrigation involves the slow application of water, drop by drop as name
signifies, to the root zone of a crop.( Shankar V. 1961)
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


2) Drip irrigation, refers to the application of water at a slow rate drop by drop
through perforations in popes or through nozzles attached to tubes spread over the
soil to irrigate a limited area around the plant. ( MujumdarD.K. 2004)
3) Drip irrigation is an efficient method of application of water in which water is
applied at a low rate over a long period of time at frequent intervals with low
pressure delivery system. ( ChauhanH.S and ShuklaK.N. 1990 )
4) under drip irrigation system the emitters are placed directly on the soil surface
and the infiltration of water takes place in an area which is small compared to the
total area of the field. (Govt. of India, 1990).
Thus, the above definitions of Drip irrigation system are concerned mainly with the
application of water. It is related with the use of water directly to the root system of crop.
The application of water is made a slow rare a over period of time. In drip irrigation
method, every drop of water is fully utilized and soils around root system are kept wet for
longer duration promoting fair growth of garden drop.
ii) Historical Background of Drip Irrigation
Drip irrigation, as a mercantile product began in 1962. In Israel, there is high scarcity
of water. There was no other way than to use water carefully and efficiently. Israel
developed new techniques in order to provide water to crops in such a way that there will
be no wastage of water and there will be a high percentage of yields. This popular
technique is known as drip and sprinkle irrigation. AruvaDeseart of Israel was the
Motherland of drip irrigation (Jambure, H.B. 1999).
The invention in drip irrigation has been in progress in India from 1970 onwards but
from 1980, many trials were made on the experimental drip farm at vandular, near
Chennai on the basis of field experiences many improvements to the system and
components were incorporated (Parthsarth, M. 1990). Based on the research findings the
benefit of the system and the interest of the farmers, two national seminars on drip
irrigation were conducted at the T.N.A.U. Coimbatore Development center was
established to collect assemble and co-ordinate all research and field based information.
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


iii) Components of Drip Irrigation System:-
Drip irrigation is a system for supplying filtered water directly into the soil. Water is
carried through an extensive pipe network to each plant. Drip irrigation consists of three
components, i) Head ii) Heart iii) Tail.
The Head part comprises the pumping set with its prime mover, a fertilizer tank with
its regulators and a venture unit to lead fertilizer solutions and irrigation water to the
heart components. The outlet device that emits water into the soil called an Emitter.
A filter is attached for cleaning the suspended materials from water to avoid clogging
of nozzles, which is regarded as the heart of the system. The main types of filters are
Gravel filter, Hydro cyclone filter and screen filter. Gravel filter, is required to remove
organic matter when water source is from pond, open well, canal etc. Hydro cyclone type
of filter is required to remove the sand. It is also known as a vertex-sand-separator. The
screen filter is fitted in series with the gravel filter in order to further remove the solid
impurities like fine sand, dust, etc. The type, size and numbers of filters required depend
upon the quality of water and the discharge in the control head.
The tail components include the main feeder pipe, mains and sub mains and laterals
fitted with drip nozzles and spread on the field in rows. Laterals or drip lines are made of
flexible P.V.C tubes of 1 to 1.25 cm diameter. The laterals can be adjusted in the field for
variable spacing. Laterals may be up to 50 m. Long. The main feeder line may be placed
along the central line of the field and laterals on both sides of the main line.
A drip nozzle trickles water at a very low rate depending on its size and shape and the
pressure head. Pressure regulator controls pressure in one way i.e. high to low pressure
regulators are required on large scale design for normal small system a simple by pass
valve can be used to control pressure in the system. This is the heart of the drip system
from which the water drips at a constant low discharge
iv) Distribution of drip irrigation As already mentioned that the
reference period of the study has 6 years i.e. 2005 2011. Table 4.10 explains
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


that during 6 years the land under drip has been increased from 351.39
hectares in 2005 to 4214.38 hectares in 2011.
The Revenue circle of Bawda has recorded maximum area under drip irrigation i.e.
1180.46hectare.(4.10). this can be attributed to the recent growth in sugarcane cultivation.
The Revenue circle of Kati, NimgaonKetki and AnturneRevenue circle have recorded
moderate area (between 400 to 800 hectares) under drip irrigation. In these Revenue
circles irrigation sources are less than otherRevenue circles and more area under
Horticultural crops having in this Revenue circles, due to this reason farmers attitude
toward drip irrigation. This is partly due to the poor economic conditions of thesome
farmers of this zone and they are unable to invest heavy capital required for drip
irrigation. The remaining Revenue circle of Bhigwan, Indapur and Sansar has recorded
low proportion (less than 400 hectares) of area under drip due to per rental sources
ofirrigation. The farmers of this zone furrow irrigation methods are used maximum
levelTherefore the drip irrigations have recorded in low proportion.
Table 4.10
Revenue circle wise Area under Drip Irrigation in IndapurTahasil
(Area in Hectares)
Sr. No. Revenue circle 2005 2011 Change
1 Bhigwan 7.86 206.74 198.88
2 Indapur 6.30 240.02 233.72
3 LoniDeokar 22.95 377.08 354.13
4 NimgaonKetki

104.93 696.64 591.71
5 Bawda

43.19 1180.46 1137.27
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


6 Kati

44.51 773.95 729.44
7 Anturne

98.32 573.14 474.82
8 Sansar 23.33 166.35 143.02
351.39 4214.38 3862.99
Source Agricultural office, Indapur 2010 -2011
The temporal variations are also observed in the Tahasil. There is a successive of
Bhigwan (206.74), Indapur (240.02) have recorded the considerable increase in drip
irrigation. The remaining Revenue circles of Lonideokar ( 377.08 hectare),
NimgaonKetki (696.64 hectare ), Bawda ( 1180.46 hectares) Kati ( 773.95 hectare),
Anturne ( 573.14 hectare ) , Sansar ( 166.35 hectare ) have recorded high
concentration of drip irrigation area ( Table 4.10).
v) Economics of Drip Irrigation System
The economics of drip irrigation includes expenditure incurred as a variable cost
i.e. cost related to wages of the workers, cultivation cost, seeds, fertilizer, pesticides,
electricity, maintenance, interest and other expenditure. An attempt is made here to
compare the cost of drip irrigation system with traditional or conventional method of
irrigation. The drip irrigation has been used for the specific crops. In drip irrigation
system Banana, grapevine, pomegranate and sugarcane are the most important cash
crops. About 80 percent farmers used these systems for the above crops. Nearly 40
percent farmers have used drip system for the sugarcane cultivation. Remaining 40
percent are share with Banana, grapevine, and pomegranate cultivation. For comparative
analysis two crops have been selected to understand the economics of drip irrigation i.e.
sugarcane and Banana. The data have been collected through the questionnaire and
interviews of the farmers selected random.
A) Crop wise Economy of Drip Irrigation

Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


1) Banana - Generally, wages, rate of interest, electrical charges are common for
both the crops in the region. Electrical changes mostly depend upon horse power
consumption basis as farmers use electric motors with different capacity in H.P.
this to variation in the cost. In the drip irrigation system drip set requires zero
pressure, therefore the 3H.P. motors is enough for all size of group holdings and
also all crops.
The observation of field survey revealed the fact that some part of the Tahasil
has endure from scarcity of water. Even drip irrigation are not use sufficiently in
NimgaonKetki Kati and eastern part of Bhigwan and Southern part of Lonideokar
circles due to less amount of availability of water. The farmers are use water
tankers for their crops for operating the drip set specifically during the water
shortage period like summer season.The farmers utilize the chemical fertilizers
for Banana with drip sets. Due to this resonthe cost of expenditure

Table No. 4.11

Economy of Drip irrigation in Banana and Sugarcane
Particulars Banana Sugarcane
With Drip Rs.
Per Hectare
Traditional method
Rs. Per Hectare
With Drip Rs.
Per Hectare
Traditional method
Rs. Per Hectare
1 Wages 20000 7500 12500 20000
2 Cultivation 20000 20000 15000 15000
3 Seeds 43750 12500 15000 22000
4 Fertilizer 75000 80000 43750 55000
5 Pesticides 30000 30000 12500 12500
6 Electricity 5000 5000 7500 8750
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


7 Maintenance 12500 12500 1000 900
8 Interest 1250 -- 10000 --
9 Other 2500 2500 1500 1500
Total input 210000 170000 118750 135650
Total output 700000 525000 357500 302500
Net profit 490000 355000 238750 166850
Source Complied by researcher based on field work 2011 2012.


Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology



Photo Plate No.4.2
on wages has been reduced. The production taken by these farmers is always higher (i.e.
about 27 percent) than the traditional cultivation because the quality of Banana is always
good as compared to quality of Banana in traditional irrigation Methods.
2) Sugarcane
Based on the field observation the average output in terms of yield per hector of
sugarcane is essentially high i.e. 162 metric tons in drip irrigation. Because the water,
fertilizers and spry of pesticides on sugarcane deceased are provided time to time as per it
requirement. It is observed that the growth of sugarcane is more (30 percent) i.e. it arrives
to early maturity stage as compared to the traditional method of sugarcane farming.
(Table No. 4.11) Sugarcane growers in drip irrigation area can earn extra income by
taking inter cropping system of some like Maize, Groundnut, Wheat, Vegetables etc.
vi) Advantages of drip irrigation Method:
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


The drip irrigation has to give a great value to dry areas in the region. The method
has various advantages some of the advantages of this method are summarized here as
1) The method can be adopted in sloping land and irregular topography without any
erosion hazard.
2) Physical conditions of soils are maintained in congenial form of plants by
maintaining optimum soil water, air balance around plant bases. It results is
increase in the quality of fruits or crops. So the farmers received satisfactory
income of their produce.
3) Weeds and pest problems are at minimum level because there is no wet area in
between two drippers. Land is irrigated only to the root zone.
4) The crops irrigated by drip are free from pests and diseases as soils never become
excessively wet. This leads to reduction of cost pesticide and insecticides.
5) The drip irrigation method considerable saving of water ( 50-80 percent ). It can
be irrigated there times more area than the traditional system with the same
amount of water. The traditional irrigation system and the drip irrigation system
6) Localized application of fertilizers is made with irrigation water. Due to which 33
percent cost of fertilizers can be saved.
7) Zero percent pressure requirement for drip set only 3 H.P. or 5 H.P. electric motor
pumps are sufficient. So electricity charges are reduced.
8) Loss of water through evaporation and seepage is reduced.
9) There is also an improvement in fertility of soils because the salt is thrown away
continuously by wet root zone.
10) Labour cost is minimized because there is no need of more labour when land is
brought under drip irrigation.

vii) Limitation to growth of drip Irrigation :
There are some limitations to the growth of drip irrigation in the region
1) Initial cost of installation of the system is high.
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


2) Govt. subsidy is not sufficient and interviews with farmers have revealed that
subsidy amounts are not reached to farmers in proper time.
3) Farmers have faced the problem of clogging of drip set. The dust particles are
mixed useful for drip the river water by which such water is not well water also
contains some chemical organs and salts. Thus, laterals, micro tubes are clogged.
4) Dealers, manufacturers and any authority in respect of this technology have not
provided any kind of training or extended help to the farmers.
5) Farmers do not receive services sale from the dealers.
6) Life of drip set is reduced due to the continuous use of saline water.
7) Quiet drip sets are not suitable for the use of undiluted or solid fertilizers.
8) Rats chew the dippers and laterals for the purpose of seeking the water which
leads the damage.
Actually Drip irrigation is water saving technology and is essential for agricultural
sector. In view of present scarcity conditions the success of this technology depends upon
active participation of farmers and there Economic condition. Therefore, there is need to
organize the conferences demonstrations and exhibitions on drip system. Besides, the
provision of training and repairing at central places is required which could be facility by
govt. agencies.

4.3 Water storage Technology
This is one more form of technology developed by farmers to store transported water
based their experience. This has been practiced by few horticulture growers in the central
famine affected parts of IndapurTahasil and it requires heavy capital investment. To
transportation of water from any sources i.e. rivers, well and tub wells during summer
season when there is acute storage of water, has become usual picture in this horticultural
4.3.1 Nature of Agriculture pond
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Storage tank also called as Agriculture ponds. Agricultural ponds are new devices to
storage of water. The Agricultural ponds are constructing in the vicinity of horticulture,
gardens, on the land reserved and where truck or tractor tankers can easily approach. The
size of storage tank ranges from 1683 Mts. To 33164 Mts. (212 Cu. Mts.) or more
than this as per the requirement determined by the area under fruits garden. Such efforts
have been mode in individual level. The farmers have to invest for the purchase of truck
tanker and construction of water storage tanks.
The tanks are commonly constructed in cement. In the bare rock layers, as per
requirement, tanks are prepared and the bottom and vertical sides are covered entire by
thick polithin papers to stop water to be percolated underneath layer. Usually one tanker
with capacity of 10000 Lts. is used to transport water from various sources. The cost of
transportation increases with the increase in distance.
Generally a one tank cost about Rs. 5 lacks which can be afforded by rich
Horticulturist. Presently, this has been practiced largely by the Revenue circle of
Anthurne and NimgaonKetki due to access to Nira Left canal and Back water of Ujani
dam. In many cases small size holder of fruits cultivators purchase water store in small
sized storage tanks prepared. In order to minimize evaporation from this storage tanks
some edible oil is mixed so as to cover surface layer of water stored water is lifted by
pumps and supplied to drip system.

4.3.2 Water storage pits
In something additional to the above recently at Bori and nearby villages in Anthurne
Revenue circle, some Horticulturist has device new technology to store transported water.
In this technology, small pits with 331 Mts. Dug manually by skilled labour or by jcb
machine and transported water stored with covering bottom and all sides with the polithin
paper but recently these pits are constructed with cement. The number of pits depends on
the requirement of water. Besides this, pits are located close to gardens from which water
is lifted by pumps and channelized further through drip irrigation system. The cost of
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


construction for these pits is less than the large sized agricultural ponds. Therefore the
small fruits growers can afford themselves.
When water is badly needed from May onward up to June end such activities are
undertaken by the farmers. This is the period during which the generation food in the
stems of fruit trees is taking place and future productions depend on the water availability
during only summer season. The above irrigation technology suggests that how farmers
have become aware about the economic use of water to maximum agricultural
Irrigation is played a very significant role for development of agriculture. The study
deals with spatiotemporal distribution of means of irrigation technology and its impact on
the cropping pattern and the yield of crop. IndapurTahasil is agriculturally developing
part of the district of Pune, where natural flow of rivers has been tapped by constructing
small Kolhapur type weirs across the river course. This could be the new technique in the
field of irrigation. However the fertile flood plain offers favorable environmental
conditions of for irrigation development.
The region has different sources of irrigation. The lift irrigation is mainly confined
region to the Northern, Southern, Eastern and North West of the lift irrigation accounts
27.55 percent of the total irrigated area. Rural electrification, heavy electricity subsidies,
institutional financing for pump sets and constructions of K.T. weirs on rivers have
played an important role in promoting the development of lift irrigation. The concept of
lift irrigation technology is the recent in the field of irrigation. It has main folding effects
on agricultural landscape. This leads to bringing about the change in agricultural
landscape. The traditional cropping pattern is replaced by the irrigated crops. Such study
at micro level indicates that there is a positive impact on cropping pattern and crop
The studies of lift irrigation reveal that there is also negative impact on agricultural
land leading to the development of saline lands. A micro level study reveals that there is
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


improper use of water and soil resources, which have reduced the inherent qualities of
soil and yields of crop. At present in the Tahasil has 6617.44 hectares of saline affected
area. Recently National Agricultural Development plan (RashtriyaKrushivikasyojana )
tried to increase the soil productivity of saline soil by use the sub-surface drainage
The preceding analysis reveals that the well irrigation is mainly confined to the
central north and western parts of the Tahasil. Well irrigation accounts for about 38.08
per cent of the total irrigated area of the region. Well irrigation seems to be suitable
source of irrigation in the famine affected region in the Tahasil. The crop wise, Village
wise and sources wise analysis clearly indicate the regional variations in the economics
of irrigation. The study indicates that the lift irrigation technologies have shown high
output than the well and hence the farmer receives more benefits.
It is observed that the canal irrigation has received significant importance in the
Tahasil. Canal irrigation account for about 31.51 percent of total irrigated area in the
The forgoing analysis reveals that the water tank is one of the best alternatives to
solve the scarcity problem and thereby increasing possibility to enrich water table in
downstream areas. More tanks is observed in Northwest, central and central south part of
the Tahasil. A micro level study of water tanks, Reveals that there is an average increase
no. of wells water table nearby water tank. The study also reveals the temporal change in
cropping pattern; the irrigated crops have replaced the traditional crops.
The irrigation methods used in the region differ largely according to the terrain, soil
types and climatic conditions. Mostly surface methods of irrigation are in practices which
include flood, boarder, furrow, corrugation irrigation. The subsurface and over head
irrigation i.e. drip and sprinkler irrigation methods are the recent technique in the field of
irrigation. They have little significance in the region. The study of drip irrigation schemes
reveals that during last 6 years the land under drip irrigation has increased by 3862
hectare. The Revenue circles of Bawda, NimgaonKetki, Kati and Anthurne have recorded
high and moderate area under drip. The crop wise economy of drip irrigation reveals that
Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


there is an increase in term of quality and quantity of crops. The farmer receives high
returns. There is needed to make the farmers aware about the facilities provided by the
government regarding loons and subsidies for drip sets. Recently many Horticulturist in
central part of the region of the Tahasil have devised water is stored technology. The
transport water is stored in artificially constructed tanks nearby fruits garden and then
supplied by the pumps through drip irrigation system during scarcity season. This could
be solution to scarcity condition. Beside, small pits have been prepared near fruits garden
mostly in grapes garden to store water by which the problem of evaporation is
minimized. However such technology requires heavy capital and also needs. Close
vicinity of perennial source of water.


Andrease.B (1975): The Types of Irrigation Farming, Applied Scince and
Development, Vol.6. Pp- 77-93.

Arora,R.C. (1976): Development of Agriculture and Applied Sectors, S. chand
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BansodeR.B. (1997): Lift Irrigation and Problem associated with it in karveerTahasil. A
geographical Analysis, M.Phil. Dissertation submitted to the Shivaji
University, Kolohapur. Pp-90-110

Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Cantor Leonard, M. (1967): World Geography of Irrigation. Olive and Boy, London, Pp-

Ibid -------P-28,

Chauhan, H.S. and ShuklaK.N. (1990s): Tenth International Conference of the use of
plastic in Agriculture, oxford and IBH publishing co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

Dikshit, G.S., KuppuswamyG.R. and Mohan S.K. (1993): Tank Irrigation In Karnataka:
A Historical survey, Bangalor, Gandhi sahityasangha. Danesh Institute for
intrernal studies, Denmark, ISBN: 978-87-7605-448-9. P- 7

Fukuda Hitoshi (1976):Irrigation in the world compreshensive development, University
of Tikyo Press, Pp- 44

Government of India (1990): Third International seminar on Drip Irrigation system. P-

Government of Maharashtra (1973): Report of finding committee for survey of scarcity
Areas, Maharashtra state, Vol. 1p-4.

Government of Maharashtra (2011): Government Rule of Saline soil development
2010/letter No. 234/1. P-20

Jambure, H.B. (1999): Economics and Impact of Drip Irrigation A case study of
Sangli District, P.hd. Thesis submitted to the Shivaji University, Kolhapur.

Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Khomane,S.L. (2009):A case Study of water conservation in BaramatiTahasil; Pune
District, M.Phill Thesis submitted to the Tilak Maharashtra Vidypeeth,
Pune. Pp-61-64.

Majumdar,D.K (2004):Irrigation water management, Principles and Practice, A Book
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More, J.C. (2008): A strategy for sustainable Agricultural Development in KarmalaTahsil
of Solapur District (Maharashtra), A Thesis submitted to the University of

Narula,R.K. (1984):Agricultural and Rural Advances by commercial Banks, Udh
Publishers, Delhi-11006, Pp- 126-128.

Nell Mani P. Verma (1963): Irrigation in India Themes on Development, Planning,
Performanc and Mangement, M.D. Publication Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi,
ISBN: 81-85880-14-X,Pp-1.

Parthsarthi M. (1989): Report International Seminar on Drip Irrigation, Pp- 97-98.

Pawar,C.T. (1981): Irrigation and its impact on agricultural land use in upper Krishna
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UniversityKolhapur,Pp- 111-119.

Ibid: ---------- Pp- 213-215.

Patil, P.V. (2000): Geographical Analysis of Agricultural Technology in Sangli District,
Ph.D. Thesis Submitted to ShivajiUnivercity, Kolhapur, Pp-74-75.

Chapter Iv Irrigation Technology


Sangle,G.K. (1984):Technological Growth and Rural change, B.v. Gupta, managing
Director, Metropolitan Book co. (P) Ltd. 1, NetajiSubhashMarg New
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Shankar V. (1961): Handbook of Agriculture Indian Council of Agricultural Research
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Sharma, D.P. (1984): Agricultural and Rural Advances by commercial Bank, UDH
Publishers, NaiSarak, Delhi Pp-106.

Shind, T.P. (2002): Changing Agricultural Technology In Satara District: A Geographical
Perspectiv, A Ph.D Thesis submitted to the Shivaji University, Kolohapur.