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Paul D.

Walker
School of Electrical, Mechanical and
Mechatronic Systems,
University of Technology-Sydney,
15 Broadway,
Ultimo, New South Wales 2007, Australia
e-mail: Paul.Walker@uts.edu.au
Nong Zhang
School of Electrical, Mechanical and
Mechatronic Systems,
University of Technology-Sydney,
15 Broadway,
Ultimo, New South Wales 2007, Australia
Transmission of Engine
Harmonics to Synchronizer
Mechanisms in Dual Clutch
Transmissions
Synchronizer mechanisms play an important role in the selection and engagement of
gears in manual, automated manual, and dual clutch transmissions (DCTs). These mech-
anisms rely heavily on the balancing of torque loads in cone clutches, dog gears, and
from losses in the gearbox to ensure repeatable and reliable actuation, with excessive
wear on friction and contact surfaces, leading to degradation of actuation and potential
mechanism failure. DCTs, in particular, provide a unique operating environment for syn-
chronizers, most notably is its actuation with the engine still driving the wheels during
normal driving conditions. Thus, the consideration of increased transmitted vibrations
through the powertrain must be evaluated to study the impact of these vibrations on the
synchronizer. To conduct this investigation, this paper develops a detailed multibody
dynamic model of a typical automotive powertrain equipped with a DCT. This includes
engine models with torque harmonics that capture the instantaneous torque variations
from piston ring in the engine. As the main consideration of this paper is the inuence
of engine harmonics, the semidenite powertrain model is simplied to a xed-free system
and the response of the synchronizer mechanism to harmonic torque inputs is analyzed.
Parametric analysis of the system is conducted to analyze the inuence of variables
including gear ratio, torsional damper, system damping, and engine congurationon
the dynamic response of the mechanism. Results demonstrate the inuence of each of
these variables on synchronizer dynamics in the steady state, with stiffness of torsional
damper having the strongest inuence on forced vibration. Additionally, results vary sig-
nicantly between single and dual lay-shaft transmissions. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4028079]
Keywords: dual clutch transmission, synchronizer, engine harmonics, vibration,
powertrain
Introduction
One of the main sources of wear in any mechanical system is,
of course, vibration. In DCT equipped powertrains, synchronizer
mechanisms now operate in a different environment to conven-
tional manual or automated manual transmissions, with the engine
still driving the wheels during engagement of the mechanism.
Thus, it is plausible to expect the transmission of some forced
vibration to synchronizers during engagement process. The pur-
pose of this paper is to provide a theoretical evaluation of the
transmission of engine torque harmonics to disengaged synchro-
nizer mechanisms in DCT powertrains, providing an initial assess-
ment of the transmission of engine forced vibration in the
mechanism. A typical DCT equipped powertrain is presented in
Fig. 1, showing engine, coupled clutches, gear train, synchron-
izers, and output to differential and wheels.
DCT represents a relatively new automotive transmission with
the higher efciency of manual transmissions through the use of
conventional paired gears and synchronizers for ratio selection.
This is complemented by the automatic control capabilities of
planetary automatic transmissions, using hydraulics to engage
synchronizer mechanisms and precise clutch control during gear
change [13].
There have been extensive investigations into the design and
actuation of synchronizer mechanisms for conventional manual
transmissions, including traditional research from MEwen [4]
and Socin and Walters [5], where mathematical analysis of
designs and general design considerations are developed in detail.
More recent research includes the evaluation of multicone syn-
chronizer designs [6], detailed mechanism investigations by
Hoshino [7], and design optimization by Liu and Tseng [8].
Recent work by Walker et al. has evaluated the mechanism in
DCT equipped powertrains, investigating mechanism engagement
in Ref. [9], combined synchronizer engagement and gear change
in Ref. [10], and design analysis in Ref. [11]. These works, so far,
have yet to study the inuence of engine harmonics on the mecha-
nism in question, partially as a result of isolation of the engine
from the gear train in conventional manual transmissions.
Fig. 1 Typical single lay-shaft DCT powertrain layout
Contributed by the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of ASME for
publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received
January 16, 2014; nal manuscript received May 6, 2014; published online August 8,
2014. Assoc. Editor: Prof. Philippe Velex.
Journal of Vibration and Acoustics OCTOBER 2014, Vol. 136 / 051015-1 Copyright VC
2014 by ASME
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Multibody dynamic models have been used across the automo-
tive industry for a range of applications. Powertrain models have
been applied for the conducting of controller development in DCTs
by Kulkarni et al. [12] and noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH)
analysis by Crowther et al. [13], to name a few popular examples.
The general procedure involves the development of lumped parameter
models to represent the desired number of degrees of freedom of the
powertrain; this can include nonlinearities such as gear backlash or
hysteresis [14]. These models are then used to simulate powertrain
dynamics and analyze outcomes.
The primary issue studied in this paper is the transmission of
engine vibrations through the transmission to open and engaging
synchronizer mechanisms. The remainder of this paper briey
introduces DCTs and describes the design and actuation of syn-
chronizer mechanisms. To evaluate the problem models of single
and dual lay-shaft powertrains are presented along with various
engine congurations that will be used in problem evaluation. The
model is evaluated initially using transient simulations. The
model is then simplied to enable reliable steady state analysis
and frequency domain evaluation. This model is then used to
investigate variation in operating conditions, designs, and congu-
rations parametrically. Finally, conclusions are drawn based
on the provided results and direction for further investigations
identied.
Synchronizer Mechanism Background
The requirement for multiple speed ratios in most vehicles to
maximize the applicability and spread of engine power across the
desired speed range resulted in the development of modern
synchromesh-type mechanisms. However, DCTs, unlike manual
and automated manual transmissions, does not use the primary
clutch to isolate the transmission and engine during gear selection.
Consequently there has been little need to investigate the issues
addressed in the paper until now.
The synchromesh is the most prevalent synchronizer mecha-
nism on the market. It incorporates a cone clutch to match gear
and shaft speed and a set of dog clutches (i.e., chamfered splines)
on both cone ring and gear hub to lock the gear and shaft after
speed matching [5].
The most popular and prevalent synchronizer is known as the
synchromesh owing to high torque capacity, low cost, and simple
and robust design [15]. It utilizes a cone clutch for speed synchro-
nization between gear and its respective shaft, and angled cham-
fers on both cone clutch ring and hub for indexing and
interlocking the mechanism [5].
Figure 2 presents the typical cross section for a synchronizer
mechanism ant is major components, comprising of synchronizer
mechanism, lay-shaft, and freewheeling gear. The main synchro-
nizer components are:

Saddlerigidly connected to the shaft it seats the moving


components of the synchronizer, such as sleeve, thrust piece
and detent. It is externally splined to mate with the sleeve
and recesses provide locations for the thrust piece.

Sleevethis is the driven component for actuation. Internal


splines mate with the sleeve and spline ends are chamfered to
engage ring and gear hub.

Detent and thrust piecethe detent provides location for the


sleeve in the neutral position and resists initial engagement.
The thrust piece pushes the ring forward during the initial dis-
placement period before it engages the cone.

Ringcontains the external half of a cone clutch and match-


ing chamfered splines for engaging the sleeve. The torque
balance on this component is critical to engagement success.

Gear hubcontains the matching internal half of the cone


clutch to engage the ring during synchronization, and the
nal set of chamfered splines that match up with the sleeve
during indexing. Overlap in these splines positively engages
the gear to the sleeve and therefore shaft.
The process of synchronization has many phases, depending on
anything from 5 to 11 [15,16], with different research foci of each
author resulting in the application of different number of phases
for engagement. For the purpose of this thesis, it will be broken
down into the two primary phases and then again into additional
subphases. The rst phase is where the actual synchronization
occurs; it is generally called speed synchronization or synchroni-
zation depending on the literature. Here, the cone clutch is
engaged by the axial translation of the sleeve and load is applied
onto the ring to energize the cone clutch. The frictional engage-
ment causes speed matching of the two halves so that the engine
side of the synchronizer matches speed with the vehicle side. This
is followed by the lockup of the two halves of the synchronizer,
called indexing. Where the meshing of sleeve splines with ring
chamfers and the hub chamfers occurs, allowing positive locking
of the gear to the sleeve and hence lay-shaft, nalizing the pro-
cess, and enabling torque transfer. These two stages are divided
into a total of six steps, with each step discussed below in greater
detail; this is based on Refs. [8,15, and 16]:

Step 1: Initial displacement (Fig. 3(a))the engagement pro-


cess is initiated, axial load builds on the sleeve as pressure
increases in the hydraulic piston, the sleeve pushes against
the detent which is forced down and breakthrough is
achieved. The thrust piece via the ball pin is pushed onto the
ring, and translation of the proceeds ahead of the sleeve. Vis-
cous friction and initial contact in the cone clutch friction tor-
que yields relative angular displacement in the ring, aligning
chamfers with those on the sleeve such that the ring blocks
sleeve motion.

Step 2: Speed synchronization (Fig. 3(b))the cone clutch is


now energized and freewheeling component speed is
synchronized to the lay-shaft speed. With ring in the blocking
position, the sleeve load is transferred directly to the cone
clutch in its entirety, and the thrust piece and ball pin move
back to initial positions through the use of a compression
spring. Once the cone clutch completes synchronization tor-
que is reduced in the mechanism and ring unblocking begins.

Step 3: Ring unblocking (Fig. 3(b))the internal splines on


the sleeve can now move over the ring chamfers as a result of
the chamfer torque exceeding drag torque on the target gear
rotating the ring to the neutral position.

Step 4: Second displacement (Fig. 3(c))the blocking torque


has rotated the ring into the neutral position, and sleeve
moves forward unimpeded until it comes in contact with the
hub chamfers. During this stage, the capacity for the cone to
Fig. 2 Cross section of a typical synchronizer [2]
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maintain synchronization must be considered, with failure
resulting in the regeneration of relative speed between sleeve
and hub chamfers.

Step 5: Hub indexing (Fig. 3(c))hub indexing phase begins


with contact between sleeve and hub chamfers. Initial align-
ment is entirely random, resulting from the inuence of many
uncontrolled variables. A similar chamfer torque to the
blocking torque is generated in the hub and target gear is
aligned such that sleeve splines interlock with the hub splines
to complete the engagement process.

Step 6: Completion (Fig. 3(d))with the splines fully


meshed with the gear dog, positive locking occurs between
the two sets of mesh teeth through deliberate undercutting of
the two sets of teeth [15].
The most signicant change to the synchronizer mechanism as
transposed from single clutch transmissions to DCTs is the pro-
cess of actuation; in a conventional single clutch transmission, the
engine is isolated from the transmission by releasing the clutch.
This removes load from the synchronizer before engaging a new
gear and isolates it from engine vibration. However, in a DCT, a
synchronizer mechanism engages and a new gear while there is
load transmitted to the wheels via the currently engaged gear.
Thus, there are distinctly different loading conditions transmitted
to the mechanism during engagement.
Consequently, this paper studies the inuence of engine forced
vibrations from piston ring on the synchronizer mechanism dur-
ing the period when the synchronizer ring is energized and
increased vibration will have a greater inuence on the mecha-
nism engagement. The particular focus of this research considers
the transmission of engine harmonics through the powertrains to
the synchronizer mechanism, and the impact of these vibrations
on the speed synchronization phase of engagement, considered
the critical period of mechanism actuation, as premature release
of the ring can lead to clash or partial clash failures, resulting
in damage to dog gear.
DCT Powertrain Models
The two most common DCT arrangements are single and dou-
ble lay-shaft forms. These two arrangements are presented in
Fig. 1. It is noted that the single lay-shaft arrangement will result
in direct transmission of any vibration, whereas the dual lay-shaft
format requires transmission via the nal drive or differential.
Subsequently, both transmission types will be evaluated.
The primary components of the powertrain are: (1) engine, (2)
ywheel, torsional damper and clutch, (3) engaged gear pair, (4)
open synchronizer, (5) nal drive, and (6) wheels and vehicle iner-
tia. Compact modeling of a DCT requires several simplications.
Fig. 3 Cross section of a typical synchronizer [2]
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The single lay-shaft conguration presented in Fig. 4 is repre-
sented mathematically through its equations of motion; see Eqs.
(1)(6). Element 1 accepts torque input in the form of a mean
engine torque with harmonics that results from piston-by-piston
ring. Load is transmitted to element 2 representing a torsional
damper, such as a dual mass ywheel, to the engaged reduction
gear, element 3. This represents the lay-shaft with a disengaged
synchronizer mechanism, element 4. Via this element, load is
transmitted to the nal drive, element 5, and thence the wheel and
drive the vehicle. Element 6 is resisted by the driving loads,
including drag, rolling resistance, and any incline load.
J
1

h
1
K
1
h
2
h
1
C
1
_
h
2

_
h
1

T
E
(1)
J
2

h
2
K
1
h
2
h
1
C
1
_
h
2

_
h
1

K
2
i
1
h
3B
h
2
0 (2)
J
3B
i
2
1
J
3A

h
3B
i
1
K
2
i
1
h
3B
h
2
K
3
h
3B
h
4
0 (3)
J
4

h
4
K
3
h
3B
h
4
K
4
i
2
h
5B
h
4
0 (4)
J
5B
i
2
2
J
5A

h
5B
i
2
K
4
i
2
h
5B
h
4
K
5
h
5B
h
6

C
5
_
h
5B

_
h
6

0 (5)
J
6

h
6
K
5
h
5B
h
6
C
2
_
h
5B

_
h
6

T
V
(6)
The signicant difference between single and dual lay-shaft
arrangements is treatment of the synchronizer mechanism, see
Fig. 5. For the synchronizer mechanism in this arrangement, load
is transmitted to the output shaft of the transmission rst and
motion at the output must backtrack to the disengaged synchro-
nizer mechanism. This results in a different arrangement of the
system equations of motion.
J
1

h
1
K
1
h
2
h
1
C
1
_
h
2

_
h
1

T
E
(7)
J
2

h
2
K
2
i
1
h
3B
h
2
K
1
h
2
h
1
C
1
_
h
2

_
h
1

0 (8)
J
3B
i
2
1
J
3A

h
3B
i
1
K
2
i
1
h
3B
h
2
K
3
i
2
h
5B
h
3B
0 (9)
J
4

h
4
K
4
i
3
h
5B
h
4
0 (10)
J
5B
i
2
2
J
5A
i
2
3
J
5c

h
5B
i
2
K
3
i
2
h
5B
h
3B
i
3
K
4
i
3
h
5B
h
4

K
5
h
5B
h
6
C
5
_
h
5B

_
h
6

0 (11)
J
6

h
6
K
5
h
5B
h
6
C
2
_
h
5B

_
h
6

T
V
(12)
The signicant difference in each of these two models is the
treatment of the synchronizer mechanism, denoted as element 4.
In the single lay-shaft arrangement, it is clearly demonstrated that
transmitted loads must feed through this element in the model, but
in the dual lay-shaft, it is circumvented and only excited via the
motion of the output shaft.
Vehicle torque dened as the combination of rolling resistance,
aerodynamic drag, and incline loads on the vehicle, multiplied by
the wheel radius, see the following equation:
T
v
C
R
m
V
g cos / m
V
g sin / 0:5C
D
qA
V
_
h
2
6
r
2
T

r
T
(13)
For practicality, the equations of motion are arranged in matrix
form according to Eq. (14). Free vibration analysis is conducted to
determine system natural frequencies, damping ratios, and mode
shapes.
J

h C
_
h Kh T (14)
Engine Model and Harmonics
Various methods are available for modeling the engine torque.
However, typical mean torque methods such as empirical models
[1] and look-up tables [12] do not provide an instantaneous output
torque from the engine, as is required for investigating the impact of
engine harmonics on the synchronizer mechanism. Conversely, Tay-
lor [17] provides an analytical model of the torque generated through
piston ring in an internal combustion engine. This considers the
engine torque pulse from ignition in individual cylinders and the var-
iation in mass moment of inertia of the reciprocating piston head and
connecting rods. As an alternative, there are examples of represent-
ing the harmonics generated during piston ring with sinusoidal
wave form [10,13,14]. This type of model reduction is particularly
effective for analyzing the response under output torque variation.
For simulations, the output torque is thus modeled
T
E
T
E0
A
1
T
E0
sin n
1
_
h
1
t

A
2
T
E0
sin n
2
_
h
1
t

(15)
The engine torque model in Eq. (15) represents speed depend-
ent harmonic excitation of the powertrain, where the excitation
frequency is a function of the engine speed at a given harmonics,
n
1
, n
2
. The amplitude of excitation is also important to the system
response, dened as A
1
, A
2
.
Fig. 4 Single lay-shaft format of the DCT powertrain
Fig. 5 Dual lay-shaft format of the DCT powertrain
Table 1 Natural frequencies and corresponding damping
ratios for both models
Single lay-shaft Dual lay-shaft
f
n
(Hz) f (%) f
n
(Hz) f (%)
1 0 0 0
2 2 12.9 2 11.9
3 33 11.3 33 11.4
4 77 3.0 84 2.5
5 266 0.3 383 0.2
6 561 0.1 524 0.1
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There are numerous engine congurations available for consid-
eration, resulting in a diverse range of amplitudes and harmonics
for excitation, with further variations resulting from engine size
and power. Data presented for engine torque are comparable to
published data [1719]. Typical engine response data are demon-
strated in Fig. 6 for each of the engine congurations detailed in
Table 2.
Simplifying the Powertrain Model
The rst step in analyzing the inuence of engine harmonics on
the synchronizer mechanism is to simplify the dynamic problem
to a more manageable problem for considering harmonic
excitation.
Equation (15) shows a constant torque (i.e., mean engine torque
T
E0
) driving the system with harmonics overlaying this input.
Thus, if it is assumed that the mean engine torque is equal to the
vehicle acceleration and resistance load, then the vehicle inertia,
J
6
, acts effectively as a grounded element, and the model can be
reduced to a grounded system. Therefore,

h
6

_
h
6
h
6
0 (16)
For the single lay-shaft system, Eq. (6) is eliminated from the
model and Eq. (5) reduces to
J
5B
i
2
2
J
5A

h
5B
i
2
K
4
i
2
h
5B
h
4
K
5
h
5B
C
5
_
h
5B
0 (17)
Similarly, in the dual lay-shaft system, Eq. (12) is eliminated
from the model and Eq. (11) reduces to
J
5B
i
2
2
J
5A
i
2
3
J
5c

h
5B
i
2
K
3
i
2
h
5B
h
3B
i
3
K
4
i
3
h
5B
h
4

K
5
h
6
C
5
_
h
6
0 (18)
These simplications reduce the powertrain model from a
freefree semidenite system to a free-xed system, providing a
more convenient model for frequency domain analysis.
For evaluating the transmissibility for engine forced vibration
to the open synchronizer mechanism, the model is re-evaluated by
only considering the frequency dependent engine torque compo-
nents, thus
T
E
A
1
T
E0
sin n
1
_
h
1
t

A
2
T
E0
sin n
2
_
h
1
t

(19)
To compare the response of our original system with the simpli-
ed system (see Table 1), free vibration analysis is again per-
formed on the damped powertrain system using state space
methods (Table 3).
Response With Different Engine Models
The rst series of results considered is through the application
of different engine congurations. As all results are dependent of
the forcing conditions, it is expected that the four cylinder appli-
cation will produce the higher amplitude; however, the eight cyl-
inders should produce the highest frequency response. Figures
7(a) and 7(b) demonstrate the forced vibration results from four
and six cylinder engines, respectively; presenting substantial vari-
ation in steady state vibration in Fig. 7(a) only. The largest varia-
tion in results is shown in Fig. 7(c); these results are for an even
ring eight cylinder engine; peak-to-peak vibrations are reduced
to be approximately half. This is the clearest indication that the
two congurations will produce signicantly different results. As
the main difference between the two transmissions is the synchro-
nizer location, the transmission conguration is demonstrated to
inuence the overall response of the synchronizer. From these
results, it is clear that the four cylinder engine has the most signi-
cant inuence on transient response for both transmission congu-
rations; thus, it is used for the remainder of these analyses.
Fig. 6 Instantaneous engine torque as a percent of mean
torque
Table 2 Engine congurations and harmonics
Engine Harmonics (n
k
) Amplitude (C
k
)
Inline 4 2,4 1.8,0.7
Inline 6 3,6,9 1.2,0.5,0.2
V8 4,8,16 0.9,0.15,0.03
Table 3 Natural frequencies and corresponding damping
ratios for simplied models
Single lay-shaft Dual lay-shaft
f
n
(Hz) f (%) f
n
(Hz) f (%)
1 1 10.7 1 10.6
2 33 11.3 33 11.4
3 107 2.9 90 2.5
4 258 0.3 364 0.2
5 555 0.1 524 0.1
Fig. 7 Steady state response of element 4 with (a) four cylinder
engine harmonics, (b) six cylinder engine harmonics, and (c)
eight cylinder engine harmonics
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Gear Ratio Variation
Obviously in any transmission the selection of gear ratio will
inuence the torque transmitted through the powertrain independ-
ently of the engine. Furthermore the selected gear ratio will signif-
icantly inuence the natural frequencies of the system. Figure 8
presents the natural frequencies of the powertrain model, (a) and
(b) presents the lower and higher natural frequencies of the single
lay-shaft powertrain, while (c) and (d) are for the dual lay-shaft
transmission. While all frequencies vary signicantly for the sin-
gle lay-shaft model, results are fairly stable for the fth natural
frequency in the dual lay-shaft.
Steady state simulation results for the simplied powertrain
model under different gear ratios are presented in Fig. 9 for both
transmission congurations. Simulations are conducted using a
constant engine mean torque of 100 Nm and a speed of 100 rad/s,
using an inline four engine.
Results show a saw-tooth response for Figures 9(a)9(c), with
results for Fig. 9(d), for fourth gear, where a phase change in har-
monics is shown. Results also show an inversion of the phase in
Figs. 9(e) and 9(f). Amplitude of response is also strongly inu-
enced by the gear ratio, as the ratio decreases amplitude increases.
Finally, note that the comparison between single and dual lay-
shaft congurations is strongly inuenced by the third gear ratio,
i
3
, of the separate lay-shaft.
Torsional Damper Stiffness and Damping
The primary purpose of torsional dampers is to reduce the trans-
mission of higher frequency vibrations from the engine through to
the transmission. This is achieved through two methods. First,
reducing the stiffness of the of the output shaft from the engine
using arc springs. However, damping is also known to inuence
the transmitted torque to the transmission [14]. Simulations are
conducted using a constant engine mean torque of 100 Nm and a
speed of 100 rad/s, using an inline four engine conguration, with
fourth gear selected.
The major change in the system realized by using different tor-
sional dampers in the powertrain is the variation in stiffness of the
damper isolating the transmission from the engine, according to
the model stiffness element K
1
. Results of these simulations are
presented in Fig. 10 for the variation in stiffness coefcient, (a)
and (b) present a soft spring, similar to a dual mass ywheel
(DMFW), while (c) is more consistent with a torsional damper,
and (d) more similar to direct feed through. Results vary
accordingly, with the soft spring both harmonics are noticeable.
However, as stiffness increases a more saw-tooth response is
arrived at, suggesting that the K
1
stiffness strongly inuences the
phase of harmonic transmission. Results also indicate that the soft
spring is very successful in isolating larger amplitude vibrations
from the transmission, note particularly Fig. 10(d).
The second consideration in evaluating different damper appli-
cations is the inuence of damping in the equivalent element, C
1
,
Fig. 8 Natural frequency of simplied single lay-shaft model in
(a) and (b), and dual lay-shaft model in (c) and (d)
Fig. 9 Steady state response of element 4 with different gear
ratios (a) rst gear, (b) second gear, (c) third gear, (d) fourth
gear, (e) fth gear, and (f) sixth gear
Fig. 10 Steady state response of element 4 with stiffness (a)
K15500Nm/rad, (b) K151000Nm/rad, (c) K1510,000Nm/rad,
and (d) K1550,000Nm/rad
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as a comparison. The results demonstrated in Fig. 11 show that
both phase and amplitude of response is inuenced. As damping
increases there is a strong reduction in maximum peak, with
increased negative amplitude response to harmonics changes.
However, this does not reduce the overall peak-to-peak amplitude,
as this is a forced response problem; the increased damping pro-
vides another avenue for the transmission of forces in the system,
further increasing the peak-to-peak amplitudes. As with previous
results, the dual lay-shaft format in much more shows a lower
overall response than is the case with the single lay-shaft format.
Nonlinear Torsional Damper Modeling
One of the main simplications utilized so far in this study is
the application of a linear model for the clutch damper model.
The nonlinear behavior of these dampers is studied in
Refs. [2022]. There are several considerations required for these
investigations including: (1) nonlinear spring stiffness, (2) hyster-
esis in spring travel, and (3) transition between different charac-
teristic regions in multistage torsional dampers. This work is most
comprehensively studied in Ref. [22], where the nonlinearities
present in multistage clutch dampers is studied. Noting that with
the variation in mean engine torque, which is excluded using the
simplied model, the operating region of the damper will change,
and investigation the nonlinear behavior of the damper is con-
ducted using four alternative cases, by assuming the nonlinearities
occur around the neutral displacement region. Shown in Fig. 12
these include: (1) nonlinear spring stiffness, (2) symmetric hyster-
esis, (3) asymmetric hysteresis, and (4) nonlinear spring stiffness
with asymmetric hysteresis.
The nonlinear spring stiffness model is dened as
K
1

k
1a
h
1
h
2
0
k
1b
h
1
h
2
< 0
(
(20)
The hysteresis model is derived utilizing the method presented
in Ref. [22], as follows:
T
H

H
2
2
tanh
_
h
2

_
h
1

H
2
4

H
1
4

tanh
_
h
2

_
h
1

/
1

1 tanh
_
h
2

_
h
1

H
2
4

H
1
4

tanh
_
h
2

_
h
1

/
2

1 tanh
_
h
2

_
h
1

(21)
where H
1
and H
2
are hysteresis torque coefcients, and /
1
and /
2
are phase coefcients for the positive and negative regions,
respectively. These can be modied to create asymmetry in the
hysteresis model (i.e., alternative 3) and is also combined with
Eq. (20) for the fourth alternative. Each of these nonlinear tor-
sional damper models are shown in Fig. 12. Alternative 1 presents
the nonlinear spring stiffness model, Alternative 2 is the standard
hysteresis model, Alternative 3 is the asymmetric hysteresis
model, and Alternative 4 is the combined nonlinear spring stiff-
ness and asymmetric hysteresis.
Fig. 11 Steady state response of element 4 with damping (a)
C1 50 Nms/rad, (b) C151 Nms/rad, (c) C152Nms/rad, (d)
C1 55 Nms/rad, and (e) C1510Nms/rad
Fig. 12 Nonlinear torsional damper models
Fig. 13 Steady state response of element 4 torsional damper
models: (a) alternative 1, (b) alternative 2, (c) alternative 3, and
(d) alternative 4
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The simulation results with the application of several alterna-
tive torsional damper models (as shown in Fig. 12) are presented
in Fig. 13. These results are used to evaluate the transmission of
engine harmonics under several different possible variants of non-
linear multistage torsional dampers. The results demonstrate a
strong variation in the simulation results across the variation of
nonlinear damping conditions. As with previous results, there is a
consistent tendency for the double lay-shaft format to provide
lower transmission of these harmonics through the powertrain.
Conclusions
The primary aim of this paper was to study the inuence of sev-
eral variables on the steady state response of synchronizer mecha-
nisms in DCTs. It is initially identied that the normal operation
of such mechanisms in manual transmissions results in isolation
of the synchronizer from the engine during engagement. As a
result, it is necessary to further evaluate the dynamics of this com-
mon transmission component under forced response. Through
detailed discussion of synchronizer mechanism design and actua-
tion, the main issues with increased vibration in the mechanism
are identied, notably possibility of increased wear on contact
surfaces in the dog gear during speed synchronization and ring
unblocking.
To conduct this study, a single and dual lay-shaft powertrain
models with engine harmonic torque models are developed and
simplied so as to study the inuence of harmonics on the system
only. Steady state response to forced vibrations in the system was
then evaluated considering variables including engine type, gear
ratio, and characteristics of torsional vibration absorbers. Results
show that under the given conditions there is a strong dependence
on these variables for generating forced response in the mecha-
nism. This suggests that further evaluation of long term wear
using appropriate methods should be conducted, particularly with
the evaluation of different lubrication regimes on the mechanism.
Nomenclature
A
n
harmonic amplitude coefcient
A
V
vehicle frontal area
C
D
drag coefcient
C
n
damping coefcient
C
R
rolling resistance coefcient
H
1
positive hysteresis torque coefcient
H
2
negative hysteresis torque coefcient
i gear ratio
J
n
inertia coefcient
K
n
stiffness coefcient
m
V
vehicle mass
n
n
harmonic frequency coefcient
r
T
tire radius
T
E
engine torque
T
E0
engine mean torque
T
V
vehicle torque
h rotational degree of freedom
q air density
/
1
positive phase coefcient
/
2
negative phase coefcient
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