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Walker

School of Electrical, Mechanical and

Mechatronic Systems,

University of Technology-Sydney,

15 Broadway,

Ultimo, New South Wales 2007, Australia

e-mail: Paul.Walker@uts.edu.au

Nong Zhang

School of Electrical, Mechanical and

Mechatronic Systems,

University of Technology-Sydney,

15 Broadway,

Ultimo, New South Wales 2007, Australia

Transmission of Engine

Harmonics to Synchronizer

Mechanisms in Dual Clutch

Transmissions

Synchronizer mechanisms play an important role in the selection and engagement of

gears in manual, automated manual, and dual clutch transmissions (DCTs). These mech-

anisms rely heavily on the balancing of torque loads in cone clutches, dog gears, and

from losses in the gearbox to ensure repeatable and reliable actuation, with excessive

wear on friction and contact surfaces, leading to degradation of actuation and potential

mechanism failure. DCTs, in particular, provide a unique operating environment for syn-

chronizers, most notably is its actuation with the engine still driving the wheels during

normal driving conditions. Thus, the consideration of increased transmitted vibrations

through the powertrain must be evaluated to study the impact of these vibrations on the

synchronizer. To conduct this investigation, this paper develops a detailed multibody

dynamic model of a typical automotive powertrain equipped with a DCT. This includes

engine models with torque harmonics that capture the instantaneous torque variations

from piston ring in the engine. As the main consideration of this paper is the inuence

of engine harmonics, the semidenite powertrain model is simplied to a xed-free system

and the response of the synchronizer mechanism to harmonic torque inputs is analyzed.

Parametric analysis of the system is conducted to analyze the inuence of variables

including gear ratio, torsional damper, system damping, and engine congurationon

the dynamic response of the mechanism. Results demonstrate the inuence of each of

these variables on synchronizer dynamics in the steady state, with stiffness of torsional

damper having the strongest inuence on forced vibration. Additionally, results vary sig-

nicantly between single and dual lay-shaft transmissions. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4028079]

Keywords: dual clutch transmission, synchronizer, engine harmonics, vibration,

powertrain

Introduction

One of the main sources of wear in any mechanical system is,

of course, vibration. In DCT equipped powertrains, synchronizer

mechanisms now operate in a different environment to conven-

tional manual or automated manual transmissions, with the engine

still driving the wheels during engagement of the mechanism.

Thus, it is plausible to expect the transmission of some forced

vibration to synchronizers during engagement process. The pur-

pose of this paper is to provide a theoretical evaluation of the

transmission of engine torque harmonics to disengaged synchro-

nizer mechanisms in DCT powertrains, providing an initial assess-

ment of the transmission of engine forced vibration in the

mechanism. A typical DCT equipped powertrain is presented in

Fig. 1, showing engine, coupled clutches, gear train, synchron-

izers, and output to differential and wheels.

DCT represents a relatively new automotive transmission with

the higher efciency of manual transmissions through the use of

conventional paired gears and synchronizers for ratio selection.

This is complemented by the automatic control capabilities of

planetary automatic transmissions, using hydraulics to engage

synchronizer mechanisms and precise clutch control during gear

change [13].

There have been extensive investigations into the design and

actuation of synchronizer mechanisms for conventional manual

transmissions, including traditional research from MEwen [4]

and Socin and Walters [5], where mathematical analysis of

designs and general design considerations are developed in detail.

More recent research includes the evaluation of multicone syn-

chronizer designs [6], detailed mechanism investigations by

Hoshino [7], and design optimization by Liu and Tseng [8].

Recent work by Walker et al. has evaluated the mechanism in

DCT equipped powertrains, investigating mechanism engagement

in Ref. [9], combined synchronizer engagement and gear change

in Ref. [10], and design analysis in Ref. [11]. These works, so far,

have yet to study the inuence of engine harmonics on the mecha-

nism in question, partially as a result of isolation of the engine

from the gear train in conventional manual transmissions.

Fig. 1 Typical single lay-shaft DCT powertrain layout

Contributed by the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound of ASME for

publication in the JOURNAL OF VIBRATION AND ACOUSTICS. Manuscript received

January 16, 2014; nal manuscript received May 6, 2014; published online August 8,

2014. Assoc. Editor: Prof. Philippe Velex.

Journal of Vibration and Acoustics OCTOBER 2014, Vol. 136 / 051015-1 Copyright VC

2014 by ASME

Downloaded From: http://vibrationacoustics.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/ on 08/28/2014 Terms of Use: http://asme.org/terms

Multibody dynamic models have been used across the automo-

tive industry for a range of applications. Powertrain models have

been applied for the conducting of controller development in DCTs

by Kulkarni et al. [12] and noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH)

analysis by Crowther et al. [13], to name a few popular examples.

The general procedure involves the development of lumped parameter

models to represent the desired number of degrees of freedom of the

powertrain; this can include nonlinearities such as gear backlash or

hysteresis [14]. These models are then used to simulate powertrain

dynamics and analyze outcomes.

The primary issue studied in this paper is the transmission of

engine vibrations through the transmission to open and engaging

synchronizer mechanisms. The remainder of this paper briey

introduces DCTs and describes the design and actuation of syn-

chronizer mechanisms. To evaluate the problem models of single

and dual lay-shaft powertrains are presented along with various

engine congurations that will be used in problem evaluation. The

model is evaluated initially using transient simulations. The

model is then simplied to enable reliable steady state analysis

and frequency domain evaluation. This model is then used to

investigate variation in operating conditions, designs, and congu-

rations parametrically. Finally, conclusions are drawn based

on the provided results and direction for further investigations

identied.

Synchronizer Mechanism Background

The requirement for multiple speed ratios in most vehicles to

maximize the applicability and spread of engine power across the

desired speed range resulted in the development of modern

synchromesh-type mechanisms. However, DCTs, unlike manual

and automated manual transmissions, does not use the primary

clutch to isolate the transmission and engine during gear selection.

Consequently there has been little need to investigate the issues

addressed in the paper until now.

The synchromesh is the most prevalent synchronizer mecha-

nism on the market. It incorporates a cone clutch to match gear

and shaft speed and a set of dog clutches (i.e., chamfered splines)

on both cone ring and gear hub to lock the gear and shaft after

speed matching [5].

The most popular and prevalent synchronizer is known as the

synchromesh owing to high torque capacity, low cost, and simple

and robust design [15]. It utilizes a cone clutch for speed synchro-

nization between gear and its respective shaft, and angled cham-

fers on both cone clutch ring and hub for indexing and

interlocking the mechanism [5].

Figure 2 presents the typical cross section for a synchronizer

mechanism ant is major components, comprising of synchronizer

mechanism, lay-shaft, and freewheeling gear. The main synchro-

nizer components are:

components of the synchronizer, such as sleeve, thrust piece

and detent. It is externally splined to mate with the sleeve

and recesses provide locations for the thrust piece.

splines mate with the sleeve and spline ends are chamfered to

engage ring and gear hub.

sleeve in the neutral position and resists initial engagement.

The thrust piece pushes the ring forward during the initial dis-

placement period before it engages the cone.

ing chamfered splines for engaging the sleeve. The torque

balance on this component is critical to engagement success.

clutch to engage the ring during synchronization, and the

nal set of chamfered splines that match up with the sleeve

during indexing. Overlap in these splines positively engages

the gear to the sleeve and therefore shaft.

The process of synchronization has many phases, depending on

anything from 5 to 11 [15,16], with different research foci of each

author resulting in the application of different number of phases

for engagement. For the purpose of this thesis, it will be broken

down into the two primary phases and then again into additional

subphases. The rst phase is where the actual synchronization

occurs; it is generally called speed synchronization or synchroni-

zation depending on the literature. Here, the cone clutch is

engaged by the axial translation of the sleeve and load is applied

onto the ring to energize the cone clutch. The frictional engage-

ment causes speed matching of the two halves so that the engine

side of the synchronizer matches speed with the vehicle side. This

is followed by the lockup of the two halves of the synchronizer,

called indexing. Where the meshing of sleeve splines with ring

chamfers and the hub chamfers occurs, allowing positive locking

of the gear to the sleeve and hence lay-shaft, nalizing the pro-

cess, and enabling torque transfer. These two stages are divided

into a total of six steps, with each step discussed below in greater

detail; this is based on Refs. [8,15, and 16]:

cess is initiated, axial load builds on the sleeve as pressure

increases in the hydraulic piston, the sleeve pushes against

the detent which is forced down and breakthrough is

achieved. The thrust piece via the ball pin is pushed onto the

ring, and translation of the proceeds ahead of the sleeve. Vis-

cous friction and initial contact in the cone clutch friction tor-

que yields relative angular displacement in the ring, aligning

chamfers with those on the sleeve such that the ring blocks

sleeve motion.

now energized and freewheeling component speed is

synchronized to the lay-shaft speed. With ring in the blocking

position, the sleeve load is transferred directly to the cone

clutch in its entirety, and the thrust piece and ball pin move

back to initial positions through the use of a compression

spring. Once the cone clutch completes synchronization tor-

que is reduced in the mechanism and ring unblocking begins.

the sleeve can now move over the ring chamfers as a result of

the chamfer torque exceeding drag torque on the target gear

rotating the ring to the neutral position.

has rotated the ring into the neutral position, and sleeve

moves forward unimpeded until it comes in contact with the

hub chamfers. During this stage, the capacity for the cone to

Fig. 2 Cross section of a typical synchronizer [2]

051015-2 / Vol. 136, OCTOBER 2014 Transactions of the ASME

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maintain synchronization must be considered, with failure

resulting in the regeneration of relative speed between sleeve

and hub chamfers.

with contact between sleeve and hub chamfers. Initial align-

ment is entirely random, resulting from the inuence of many

uncontrolled variables. A similar chamfer torque to the

blocking torque is generated in the hub and target gear is

aligned such that sleeve splines interlock with the hub splines

to complete the engagement process.

meshed with the gear dog, positive locking occurs between

the two sets of mesh teeth through deliberate undercutting of

the two sets of teeth [15].

The most signicant change to the synchronizer mechanism as

transposed from single clutch transmissions to DCTs is the pro-

cess of actuation; in a conventional single clutch transmission, the

engine is isolated from the transmission by releasing the clutch.

This removes load from the synchronizer before engaging a new

gear and isolates it from engine vibration. However, in a DCT, a

synchronizer mechanism engages and a new gear while there is

load transmitted to the wheels via the currently engaged gear.

Thus, there are distinctly different loading conditions transmitted

to the mechanism during engagement.

Consequently, this paper studies the inuence of engine forced

vibrations from piston ring on the synchronizer mechanism dur-

ing the period when the synchronizer ring is energized and

increased vibration will have a greater inuence on the mecha-

nism engagement. The particular focus of this research considers

the transmission of engine harmonics through the powertrains to

the synchronizer mechanism, and the impact of these vibrations

on the speed synchronization phase of engagement, considered

the critical period of mechanism actuation, as premature release

of the ring can lead to clash or partial clash failures, resulting

in damage to dog gear.

DCT Powertrain Models

The two most common DCT arrangements are single and dou-

ble lay-shaft forms. These two arrangements are presented in

Fig. 1. It is noted that the single lay-shaft arrangement will result

in direct transmission of any vibration, whereas the dual lay-shaft

format requires transmission via the nal drive or differential.

Subsequently, both transmission types will be evaluated.

The primary components of the powertrain are: (1) engine, (2)

ywheel, torsional damper and clutch, (3) engaged gear pair, (4)

open synchronizer, (5) nal drive, and (6) wheels and vehicle iner-

tia. Compact modeling of a DCT requires several simplications.

Fig. 3 Cross section of a typical synchronizer [2]

Journal of Vibration and Acoustics OCTOBER 2014, Vol. 136 / 051015-3

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The single lay-shaft conguration presented in Fig. 4 is repre-

sented mathematically through its equations of motion; see Eqs.

(1)(6). Element 1 accepts torque input in the form of a mean

engine torque with harmonics that results from piston-by-piston

ring. Load is transmitted to element 2 representing a torsional

damper, such as a dual mass ywheel, to the engaged reduction

gear, element 3. This represents the lay-shaft with a disengaged

synchronizer mechanism, element 4. Via this element, load is

transmitted to the nal drive, element 5, and thence the wheel and

drive the vehicle. Element 6 is resisted by the driving loads,

including drag, rolling resistance, and any incline load.

J

1

h

1

K

1

h

2

h

1

C

1

_

h

2

_

h

1

T

E

(1)

J

2

h

2

K

1

h

2

h

1

C

1

_

h

2

_

h

1

K

2

i

1

h

3B

h

2

0 (2)

J

3B

i

2

1

J

3A

h

3B

i

1

K

2

i

1

h

3B

h

2

K

3

h

3B

h

4

0 (3)

J

4

h

4

K

3

h

3B

h

4

K

4

i

2

h

5B

h

4

0 (4)

J

5B

i

2

2

J

5A

h

5B

i

2

K

4

i

2

h

5B

h

4

K

5

h

5B

h

6

C

5

_

h

5B

_

h

6

0 (5)

J

6

h

6

K

5

h

5B

h

6

C

2

_

h

5B

_

h

6

T

V

(6)

The signicant difference between single and dual lay-shaft

arrangements is treatment of the synchronizer mechanism, see

Fig. 5. For the synchronizer mechanism in this arrangement, load

is transmitted to the output shaft of the transmission rst and

motion at the output must backtrack to the disengaged synchro-

nizer mechanism. This results in a different arrangement of the

system equations of motion.

J

1

h

1

K

1

h

2

h

1

C

1

_

h

2

_

h

1

T

E

(7)

J

2

h

2

K

2

i

1

h

3B

h

2

K

1

h

2

h

1

C

1

_

h

2

_

h

1

0 (8)

J

3B

i

2

1

J

3A

h

3B

i

1

K

2

i

1

h

3B

h

2

K

3

i

2

h

5B

h

3B

0 (9)

J

4

h

4

K

4

i

3

h

5B

h

4

0 (10)

J

5B

i

2

2

J

5A

i

2

3

J

5c

h

5B

i

2

K

3

i

2

h

5B

h

3B

i

3

K

4

i

3

h

5B

h

4

K

5

h

5B

h

6

C

5

_

h

5B

_

h

6

0 (11)

J

6

h

6

K

5

h

5B

h

6

C

2

_

h

5B

_

h

6

T

V

(12)

The signicant difference in each of these two models is the

treatment of the synchronizer mechanism, denoted as element 4.

In the single lay-shaft arrangement, it is clearly demonstrated that

transmitted loads must feed through this element in the model, but

in the dual lay-shaft, it is circumvented and only excited via the

motion of the output shaft.

Vehicle torque dened as the combination of rolling resistance,

aerodynamic drag, and incline loads on the vehicle, multiplied by

the wheel radius, see the following equation:

T

v

C

R

m

V

g cos / m

V

g sin / 0:5C

D

qA

V

_

h

2

6

r

2

T

r

T

(13)

For practicality, the equations of motion are arranged in matrix

form according to Eq. (14). Free vibration analysis is conducted to

determine system natural frequencies, damping ratios, and mode

shapes.

J

h C

_

h Kh T (14)

Engine Model and Harmonics

Various methods are available for modeling the engine torque.

However, typical mean torque methods such as empirical models

[1] and look-up tables [12] do not provide an instantaneous output

torque from the engine, as is required for investigating the impact of

engine harmonics on the synchronizer mechanism. Conversely, Tay-

lor [17] provides an analytical model of the torque generated through

piston ring in an internal combustion engine. This considers the

engine torque pulse from ignition in individual cylinders and the var-

iation in mass moment of inertia of the reciprocating piston head and

connecting rods. As an alternative, there are examples of represent-

ing the harmonics generated during piston ring with sinusoidal

wave form [10,13,14]. This type of model reduction is particularly

effective for analyzing the response under output torque variation.

For simulations, the output torque is thus modeled

T

E

T

E0

A

1

T

E0

sin n

1

_

h

1

t

A

2

T

E0

sin n

2

_

h

1

t

(15)

The engine torque model in Eq. (15) represents speed depend-

ent harmonic excitation of the powertrain, where the excitation

frequency is a function of the engine speed at a given harmonics,

n

1

, n

2

. The amplitude of excitation is also important to the system

response, dened as A

1

, A

2

.

Fig. 4 Single lay-shaft format of the DCT powertrain

Fig. 5 Dual lay-shaft format of the DCT powertrain

Table 1 Natural frequencies and corresponding damping

ratios for both models

Single lay-shaft Dual lay-shaft

f

n

(Hz) f (%) f

n

(Hz) f (%)

1 0 0 0

2 2 12.9 2 11.9

3 33 11.3 33 11.4

4 77 3.0 84 2.5

5 266 0.3 383 0.2

6 561 0.1 524 0.1

051015-4 / Vol. 136, OCTOBER 2014 Transactions of the ASME

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There are numerous engine congurations available for consid-

eration, resulting in a diverse range of amplitudes and harmonics

for excitation, with further variations resulting from engine size

and power. Data presented for engine torque are comparable to

published data [1719]. Typical engine response data are demon-

strated in Fig. 6 for each of the engine congurations detailed in

Table 2.

Simplifying the Powertrain Model

The rst step in analyzing the inuence of engine harmonics on

the synchronizer mechanism is to simplify the dynamic problem

to a more manageable problem for considering harmonic

excitation.

Equation (15) shows a constant torque (i.e., mean engine torque

T

E0

) driving the system with harmonics overlaying this input.

Thus, if it is assumed that the mean engine torque is equal to the

vehicle acceleration and resistance load, then the vehicle inertia,

J

6

, acts effectively as a grounded element, and the model can be

reduced to a grounded system. Therefore,

h

6

_

h

6

h

6

0 (16)

For the single lay-shaft system, Eq. (6) is eliminated from the

model and Eq. (5) reduces to

J

5B

i

2

2

J

5A

h

5B

i

2

K

4

i

2

h

5B

h

4

K

5

h

5B

C

5

_

h

5B

0 (17)

Similarly, in the dual lay-shaft system, Eq. (12) is eliminated

from the model and Eq. (11) reduces to

J

5B

i

2

2

J

5A

i

2

3

J

5c

h

5B

i

2

K

3

i

2

h

5B

h

3B

i

3

K

4

i

3

h

5B

h

4

K

5

h

6

C

5

_

h

6

0 (18)

These simplications reduce the powertrain model from a

freefree semidenite system to a free-xed system, providing a

more convenient model for frequency domain analysis.

For evaluating the transmissibility for engine forced vibration

to the open synchronizer mechanism, the model is re-evaluated by

only considering the frequency dependent engine torque compo-

nents, thus

T

E

A

1

T

E0

sin n

1

_

h

1

t

A

2

T

E0

sin n

2

_

h

1

t

(19)

To compare the response of our original system with the simpli-

ed system (see Table 1), free vibration analysis is again per-

formed on the damped powertrain system using state space

methods (Table 3).

Response With Different Engine Models

The rst series of results considered is through the application

of different engine congurations. As all results are dependent of

the forcing conditions, it is expected that the four cylinder appli-

cation will produce the higher amplitude; however, the eight cyl-

inders should produce the highest frequency response. Figures

7(a) and 7(b) demonstrate the forced vibration results from four

and six cylinder engines, respectively; presenting substantial vari-

ation in steady state vibration in Fig. 7(a) only. The largest varia-

tion in results is shown in Fig. 7(c); these results are for an even

ring eight cylinder engine; peak-to-peak vibrations are reduced

to be approximately half. This is the clearest indication that the

two congurations will produce signicantly different results. As

the main difference between the two transmissions is the synchro-

nizer location, the transmission conguration is demonstrated to

inuence the overall response of the synchronizer. From these

results, it is clear that the four cylinder engine has the most signi-

cant inuence on transient response for both transmission congu-

rations; thus, it is used for the remainder of these analyses.

Fig. 6 Instantaneous engine torque as a percent of mean

torque

Table 2 Engine congurations and harmonics

Engine Harmonics (n

k

) Amplitude (C

k

)

Inline 4 2,4 1.8,0.7

Inline 6 3,6,9 1.2,0.5,0.2

V8 4,8,16 0.9,0.15,0.03

Table 3 Natural frequencies and corresponding damping

ratios for simplied models

Single lay-shaft Dual lay-shaft

f

n

(Hz) f (%) f

n

(Hz) f (%)

1 1 10.7 1 10.6

2 33 11.3 33 11.4

3 107 2.9 90 2.5

4 258 0.3 364 0.2

5 555 0.1 524 0.1

Fig. 7 Steady state response of element 4 with (a) four cylinder

engine harmonics, (b) six cylinder engine harmonics, and (c)

eight cylinder engine harmonics

Journal of Vibration and Acoustics OCTOBER 2014, Vol. 136 / 051015-5

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Gear Ratio Variation

Obviously in any transmission the selection of gear ratio will

inuence the torque transmitted through the powertrain independ-

ently of the engine. Furthermore the selected gear ratio will signif-

icantly inuence the natural frequencies of the system. Figure 8

presents the natural frequencies of the powertrain model, (a) and

(b) presents the lower and higher natural frequencies of the single

lay-shaft powertrain, while (c) and (d) are for the dual lay-shaft

transmission. While all frequencies vary signicantly for the sin-

gle lay-shaft model, results are fairly stable for the fth natural

frequency in the dual lay-shaft.

Steady state simulation results for the simplied powertrain

model under different gear ratios are presented in Fig. 9 for both

transmission congurations. Simulations are conducted using a

constant engine mean torque of 100 Nm and a speed of 100 rad/s,

using an inline four engine.

Results show a saw-tooth response for Figures 9(a)9(c), with

results for Fig. 9(d), for fourth gear, where a phase change in har-

monics is shown. Results also show an inversion of the phase in

Figs. 9(e) and 9(f). Amplitude of response is also strongly inu-

enced by the gear ratio, as the ratio decreases amplitude increases.

Finally, note that the comparison between single and dual lay-

shaft congurations is strongly inuenced by the third gear ratio,

i

3

, of the separate lay-shaft.

Torsional Damper Stiffness and Damping

The primary purpose of torsional dampers is to reduce the trans-

mission of higher frequency vibrations from the engine through to

the transmission. This is achieved through two methods. First,

reducing the stiffness of the of the output shaft from the engine

using arc springs. However, damping is also known to inuence

the transmitted torque to the transmission [14]. Simulations are

conducted using a constant engine mean torque of 100 Nm and a

speed of 100 rad/s, using an inline four engine conguration, with

fourth gear selected.

The major change in the system realized by using different tor-

sional dampers in the powertrain is the variation in stiffness of the

damper isolating the transmission from the engine, according to

the model stiffness element K

1

. Results of these simulations are

presented in Fig. 10 for the variation in stiffness coefcient, (a)

and (b) present a soft spring, similar to a dual mass ywheel

(DMFW), while (c) is more consistent with a torsional damper,

and (d) more similar to direct feed through. Results vary

accordingly, with the soft spring both harmonics are noticeable.

However, as stiffness increases a more saw-tooth response is

arrived at, suggesting that the K

1

stiffness strongly inuences the

phase of harmonic transmission. Results also indicate that the soft

spring is very successful in isolating larger amplitude vibrations

from the transmission, note particularly Fig. 10(d).

The second consideration in evaluating different damper appli-

cations is the inuence of damping in the equivalent element, C

1

,

Fig. 8 Natural frequency of simplied single lay-shaft model in

(a) and (b), and dual lay-shaft model in (c) and (d)

Fig. 9 Steady state response of element 4 with different gear

ratios (a) rst gear, (b) second gear, (c) third gear, (d) fourth

gear, (e) fth gear, and (f) sixth gear

Fig. 10 Steady state response of element 4 with stiffness (a)

K15500Nm/rad, (b) K151000Nm/rad, (c) K1510,000Nm/rad,

and (d) K1550,000Nm/rad

051015-6 / Vol. 136, OCTOBER 2014 Transactions of the ASME

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as a comparison. The results demonstrated in Fig. 11 show that

both phase and amplitude of response is inuenced. As damping

increases there is a strong reduction in maximum peak, with

increased negative amplitude response to harmonics changes.

However, this does not reduce the overall peak-to-peak amplitude,

as this is a forced response problem; the increased damping pro-

vides another avenue for the transmission of forces in the system,

further increasing the peak-to-peak amplitudes. As with previous

results, the dual lay-shaft format in much more shows a lower

overall response than is the case with the single lay-shaft format.

Nonlinear Torsional Damper Modeling

One of the main simplications utilized so far in this study is

the application of a linear model for the clutch damper model.

The nonlinear behavior of these dampers is studied in

Refs. [2022]. There are several considerations required for these

investigations including: (1) nonlinear spring stiffness, (2) hyster-

esis in spring travel, and (3) transition between different charac-

teristic regions in multistage torsional dampers. This work is most

comprehensively studied in Ref. [22], where the nonlinearities

present in multistage clutch dampers is studied. Noting that with

the variation in mean engine torque, which is excluded using the

simplied model, the operating region of the damper will change,

and investigation the nonlinear behavior of the damper is con-

ducted using four alternative cases, by assuming the nonlinearities

occur around the neutral displacement region. Shown in Fig. 12

these include: (1) nonlinear spring stiffness, (2) symmetric hyster-

esis, (3) asymmetric hysteresis, and (4) nonlinear spring stiffness

with asymmetric hysteresis.

The nonlinear spring stiffness model is dened as

K

1

k

1a

h

1

h

2

0

k

1b

h

1

h

2

< 0

(

(20)

The hysteresis model is derived utilizing the method presented

in Ref. [22], as follows:

T

H

H

2

2

tanh

_

h

2

_

h

1

H

2

4

H

1

4

tanh

_

h

2

_

h

1

/

1

1 tanh

_

h

2

_

h

1

H

2

4

H

1

4

tanh

_

h

2

_

h

1

/

2

1 tanh

_

h

2

_

h

1

(21)

where H

1

and H

2

are hysteresis torque coefcients, and /

1

and /

2

are phase coefcients for the positive and negative regions,

respectively. These can be modied to create asymmetry in the

hysteresis model (i.e., alternative 3) and is also combined with

Eq. (20) for the fourth alternative. Each of these nonlinear tor-

sional damper models are shown in Fig. 12. Alternative 1 presents

the nonlinear spring stiffness model, Alternative 2 is the standard

hysteresis model, Alternative 3 is the asymmetric hysteresis

model, and Alternative 4 is the combined nonlinear spring stiff-

ness and asymmetric hysteresis.

Fig. 11 Steady state response of element 4 with damping (a)

C1 50 Nms/rad, (b) C151 Nms/rad, (c) C152Nms/rad, (d)

C1 55 Nms/rad, and (e) C1510Nms/rad

Fig. 12 Nonlinear torsional damper models

Fig. 13 Steady state response of element 4 torsional damper

models: (a) alternative 1, (b) alternative 2, (c) alternative 3, and

(d) alternative 4

Journal of Vibration and Acoustics OCTOBER 2014, Vol. 136 / 051015-7

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The simulation results with the application of several alterna-

tive torsional damper models (as shown in Fig. 12) are presented

in Fig. 13. These results are used to evaluate the transmission of

engine harmonics under several different possible variants of non-

linear multistage torsional dampers. The results demonstrate a

strong variation in the simulation results across the variation of

nonlinear damping conditions. As with previous results, there is a

consistent tendency for the double lay-shaft format to provide

lower transmission of these harmonics through the powertrain.

Conclusions

The primary aim of this paper was to study the inuence of sev-

eral variables on the steady state response of synchronizer mecha-

nisms in DCTs. It is initially identied that the normal operation

of such mechanisms in manual transmissions results in isolation

of the synchronizer from the engine during engagement. As a

result, it is necessary to further evaluate the dynamics of this com-

mon transmission component under forced response. Through

detailed discussion of synchronizer mechanism design and actua-

tion, the main issues with increased vibration in the mechanism

are identied, notably possibility of increased wear on contact

surfaces in the dog gear during speed synchronization and ring

unblocking.

To conduct this study, a single and dual lay-shaft powertrain

models with engine harmonic torque models are developed and

simplied so as to study the inuence of harmonics on the system

only. Steady state response to forced vibrations in the system was

then evaluated considering variables including engine type, gear

ratio, and characteristics of torsional vibration absorbers. Results

show that under the given conditions there is a strong dependence

on these variables for generating forced response in the mecha-

nism. This suggests that further evaluation of long term wear

using appropriate methods should be conducted, particularly with

the evaluation of different lubrication regimes on the mechanism.

Nomenclature

A

n

harmonic amplitude coefcient

A

V

vehicle frontal area

C

D

drag coefcient

C

n

damping coefcient

C

R

rolling resistance coefcient

H

1

positive hysteresis torque coefcient

H

2

negative hysteresis torque coefcient

i gear ratio

J

n

inertia coefcient

K

n

stiffness coefcient

m

V

vehicle mass

n

n

harmonic frequency coefcient

r

T

tire radius

T

E

engine torque

T

E0

engine mean torque

T

V

vehicle torque

h rotational degree of freedom

q air density

/

1

positive phase coefcient

/

2

negative phase coefcient

References

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[2] Walker, P. D., Zhang, N., and Tamba, R., 2011, Control of Gear Shifts in

Dual Clutch Transmission Powertrains, Mech. Syst. Sig. Process., 26(6),

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[3] Liu, Y., Qin, D., Jiang, H., and Zhang, Y., 2009, A Systematic Model for

Dynamics and Control of Dual Clutch Transmissions, ASME J. Mech. Des.,

131(6), p. 061012.

[4] MEwen, E., 1948, The Theory of Gear-Changing, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.,

3(1), pp. 3040.

[5] Socin, R. J., and Walters, L. K., 1968, Manual Transmission Synchronizers,

SAE Technical Paper No. 680008.

[6] Abdel-Halim, N., Barton, D., Crolla, D., and Selim, A., 2000, Performance of

Multicone Synchronizers for Manual Transmissions, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.

Part D: J. Automob. Eng., 214(1), pp. 5565.

[7] Hoshino, H., 1999, Analysis on Synchronisation Mechanism of Transmission,

SAE Technical Paper No. 1999-01-0734.

[8] Liu, Y., and Tseng, C., 2007, Simulation and Analysis of Synchronisation

and Engagement on Manual Transmission Gearbox, Int. J. Veh. Des., 43(1),

pp. 200220.

[9] Walker, P. D., and Zhang, N., 2012, Investigation of Synchroniser Engage-

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331(6), pp. 13981412.

[10] Walker, P. D., Zhang, N, Zhan, W. Z., and Zhu, B., 2013, Modelling and Sim-

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[11] Walker, P. D., and Zhang, N., 2011, Parameter Study of Synchroniser Mecha-

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[12] Kulkarni, M., Shim, T., and Zhang, Y., 2007, Shift Dynamics and Control of

Dual-Clutch Transmissions, Mech. Mach. Theory, 42(2), pp. 168182.

[13] Crowther, A. R., Singh, R., Zhang, N., and Chapman, C., 2007, Impulsive

Response of an Automated Transmission System With Multiple Clearances:

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[14] Gaillard, C. L., and Singh, R., 2000, Dynamic Analysis of Automotive Clutch

Dampers, Appl. Acoust., 60(4), pp. 399424.

[15] Lechner, G., and Naunheimer, H., 1999, Automotive Transmissions: Fundamen-

tals, Selection, Design and Application, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

[16] Lovas, L., Play, D., Marialigeti, J., and Rigal, J., 2006, Mechanical Behavior

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Eng. Part D: J. Automob. Eng., 220(7), pp. 919945.

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051015-8 / Vol. 136, OCTOBER 2014 Transactions of the ASME

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