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ENME405/605 Energy Engineering Assignment #4

Distributed Generation Renewable Energy Pre-Feasibility Analysis

This assignment is an engineering pre-feasibility analysis, which means you need to eplore a range
of possible technologies and systems! "ou do #$T need to write up a formal report to the
owner%operator! This is an engineering pre-feasibility analysis for decision support!
Assignment &earning $b'ecti(es)
learn to use the industry standard, freely a(ailable modelling pac*age, +$,ER, to eplore
design decisions about remote power systems
learn the basic approach to model a domestic solar hot water system, using freely a(ailable
-A,, and learn to use free software P. /atts to understand factors affecting solar P.
learn how to present feasibility analysis for decision support for comple energy issues
Turn in) Description of the analysis you did for each energy option, mainly the assumptions and
specifications used, then the feasibility measures of merit)
0$E 12%*/h3
Renewable Fraction 143
0apacity -hortage 143
,atch with load, good use of resources 5good, neutral, bad6
Probability of success 5high, med, low6
Future position 5ad(antage, neutral, disad(antage6

Client: UC ENSOC House Student Co-o http)%%en!wi*ipedia!org%wi*i%-tudent7housing7cooperati(e
"our client is the Facilities ,anagement, owner of a student co-op residential facility at 8ni(ersity
of 0anterbury! The E#-$0 +ouse 0o-op pro(ides housing for 9: engineering students, and summer
accommodation for conference attendees! The E#-$0 +ouse has ;< bedrooms on = floors with
some singles, and the rest shares, shared toilet and shower rooms, large commercial style *itchen,
dining and wor* area and a lounge area with log-burner! The coo*ing is pro(ided by &#G, and an >:
*/ coal boiler supplies the hot water and radiator heating! The E#-$0 +ouse was built in ?@A9
and is not handicap accessible! Facilities ,anagement is in a Buandary! $ne of the staff members
wants to ma*e the E#-$0 +ouse an eemplar for re-de(elopment of Cpast the used by dateD
properties by replacing with modern facilities 5Assignment :6! Another staff member wants to ma*e
E#-$0 +ouse sustainable by pro(iding the electricity and hot water with renewables! "ou are as*ed
to gi(e a recommendation on the feasibility of pursuing the distributed generation renewables option!
"ou ha(e completed an energy audit of the facility 5use your full occupancy data from Assignment
;6 so you ha(e a good idea of the loads! There are resource data files for the region, but the site has
large trees which will shade a(ailable roof space by about ;:4 in summer! The E#-$0 +ouse is in
a suburban en(ironment with buildings and mature trees! There is a stream nearby!

!"rt # $ HOME% http)%%www!homerenergy!com%+$,ER7legacy!html
&#' PR$E&E, DEFF#FTF$#) /rite a problem description and de(elop the DG schematic diagrams
5as in &ecture ??6 for the systems listed below! The Buestion you are trying to answer) C/hat
*ind of on-site renewable energy de(elopment is feasible and practicalGD Facilities
,anagement want sustainable energy, so you will in(estigate)
&"' /ind turbine, solar P., without battery energy storage 5EE-6 and co-gen
&(' $ff Grid operation with battery energy storage EE- and generator
&)' ,$DE&&F#G) 8se +$,ER to simulate renewable power generation systems! Put all of the
systems into your model, then clic* optimisation results tab and tic* Co(erallD and you will be
able to see all of the different combinations! Remember to sa(e to your own dis*, not bac* to ,)
E#ERG" -8PP&" -"-TE,
/ind) < and 9 -/ /hisper :<<
-olar P.) <, : and ?: */ of solar P.
+ydro) < and : */
EE-) Tro'an &?HP batteries >, ?H and ;9
Diesel Generator) ?: */ generator with co-generation
&*' DE-FG#) Eplore the different combinations of renewables on and off grid! Report the general
findings of the eploration! "ou can down-load the +$,ER results and discuss them!
O++ ,%-.: Discuss the possible renewable energy systems, including coo*ing and boiler fuel
resources, costs and emissions of operation off-grid! 8se the Generator with co-gen, and EE-
,%-.-CONNEC/E. .,: Propose a grid connected renewable energy 5RE6 system to achie(e
high renewable penetration! "our design can ha(e as many or any combination of the wind,
solar, hydro! Describe the system, 'ustifying your design 5how this will meet the load and result
in high RE penetration6 and draw a schematic diagram! #o generator, no EE-
$rganise the best of your feasibility analysis into an opportunity space table as shown below! This
table is used as a tal*ing point for the decision ma*ers!
Hot 0"ter S"1e He"t Ele1tri1ity
Diesel 5Eiodiesel6
/ood Pellets
-olar P.
-olar +ot /ater
/ind Turbine
Eattery -torage
Fn the table you report the numbers for RE Fraction I 0$E, and a color 5red-amber-green6 to
designate the relati(e merits of the system!
!"rt ) $ SAM https)%%sam!nrel!go(%content%downloads
Register, then download your own (ersion of -A,! -tart your own pro'ect!
#ote that -R00 is the -olar Rating and 0ertification 0orporation and the specifications in -A, are
from their certification test data!
8se the current (ersion of -A, to see if you can satisfy the thermal demand at the facility! "ou can
see from the +$,ER thermal demand profile that the a(erage daily demand is ?H> */h! "ou can
also see from the +$,ER analysis that we are using around A,==? & of diesel to pro(ide that annual
thermal load! This is what we are trying to bring down with solar hot water! /hat was the hot water
usage you estimated for our hostel eperience at 0assG Engineering tool bo puts it at @< &%day!
That is pretty close to this figure if we are heating each litre about :<
The measures of merit for a -+/ system are )
-olar Fraction
&0$E #ominal
Paybac* 5years6
0ost position year ?: J calculate the cost of ser(ice with and without solar in year ?:
The design parameters for -+/ are the collector plate area and the storage capacity!
-elect -olar /ater +eating and Residential for the financing option
&$0ATF$# I RE-$8R0E)
-A, is currently only eBuipped to model solar hot water for weather data in the 8-A! 8se the
weather for Eugene, $regon! "ou can compare the weather data with 0+0+ and it is not too bad of
a fit J but 'ust remember the #orthern summer is our winter!
-/+ -"-TE,)
Tic* Cscale draw profile to a(erage daily usage, then enter in the 9<:< *g!
SAM/S%CC Colle1tors/2ei3ing Sund" Sol"r Energy /e14nology Co5 6td SUN.A SE-.O #-#6
Eplore the effect of different number of collectors
Energy -a(ed
&0$E #om
#P. 526 Paybac*
0ost "r ?:
: <!;
?< <!;
?: <!;
?: ?
?: ;
DonLt change this
-/+ -"-TE, 0$-T-) These are supplied for the collector, so donLt ad'ust them, but do loo* at
them, this is in 8-D and it is (ery low on the installation costs and balance of system and storage!
FF#A#0F#G) Kust use the supplied (alues, but do loo* at them!
F#0E#TF.E-) There are none, but you could loo* at what different they might ma*e to the #P.
8TF&FT" RATE) 8se 2<!;;%*/h for current cost of energy but lea(e the rest alone, it is more for
+it the big Green button at the bottom left and you are awayM
!"rt * $ !7 0"tts http)%%p(watts!nrel!go(%
P. /atts is pretty useful if you *now how to specify a solar P. panel and how to interpret the
Fn this part you will eamine the P. systems you had in the +$,ER model!
RE-$8R0E DATA) 0hristchurch, #ew Nealand
-"-TE, F#F$) 8se the default (alues, but loo* at them and ma*e sure you *now what they are
5clic* on the CiD6
RE-8&T-) &oo* at the monthly results, and download the Ecel file with the hourly data!
Plot of the solar data J Eeam, Diffuse and Fncident for Kanuary ;? and Kune ;?
Analysis of whether a : */ or ?: */ system would be best for the E#-$0 +ouse -tudent 0o-
0hange the location to Auc*land, comment on the results for the : */ system!
+$,ER 0omponent ,odelling -pecifications
2"tteries: Use t4ree si8es o9 ("ttery ("n: &;< #6<)4'
8se the Tro'an &?HP battery
0apital cost O 2H<< P
Replacement cost O 2H<< P 0ost is er ("ttery 5enter into chart for ?6
$I, cost O 2:<%yr P
#umber of batteries per string 5that is) number of batteries in series6 O 9 for ;9.
#umber of -trings under QsiRes to considerL O ;, 9, H
Sol"r: Use 5 "nd #5 :0 %"ted !7
0hoose CFmport time series data fileD -olar7data!sol
&&oo* for the Samchat*a time Rone which includes #N 6
Approimate costs at 2=%/
Power $utput per m
O ?<</%m
Replacement cost O 2=%/
$I, cost O 2A<%yr
D0 output
&ifetime O ;< years
Derating factor O ><4
-lope O 9=!: degrees
ARimuth 5degrees / of -6 O ?>< degrees
Ground reflectance O ;<4
#o Trac*ing -ystem
&at) 9=T =?L -
&on) ?A;T =>L E
0ind: Use 0 "nd 4 0/,=s
0hoose CFmport time series data fileD /ind7data!wnd
0lic* C.ariation with +eightD the surface roughness is set at ?!: m for suburbs
0ind tur(ine %"ted Hu(
C"it"l %el"1ement O>M
-/ /hisper :<< =*/ ;?m 2?;,:<< 2?<,<<< 2:<<%yr
&ifetime O ?:yrs
+ub +eight O ;?<m
Altitude 5m abo(e sea le(el6 O <m
&oo* at DetailsU!+ow much impact does the surface roughness factor ha(eG
Hydro: Nomin"l 5 :0
0hoose CFmport time series data fileD +ydro7data!hyd
A0 generator output
0apital cost O 2?<,<<< Replacement cost O 2@,<<<
$I, cost O 2:<<%yr
&ifetime O =< years
A(ailable head O ;<m
Design flow rate O =9 &%s
,inimum flow ratio O :<4 ,aimum flow ratio O ?:<4
Efficiency O A:4
-imulate systems both with and without hydro turbine
Pipe +ead &oss) 8se ?m pipe of H< mm diameter O ??!A4 head loss 5but loo* at how sensiti(e the
head loss is to pipe length and diameter6
!rim"ry 6o"d #
0hoose CFmport time series data fileD Test70ase7&oad7profile!dmd
Con?erter &,rid 1onne1ted in?erter' Alibaba!com
?:*/V 0apital cost O 2;,A<<
Replacement cost O 0apital cost
$I, cost O 2?<<%yr
&ifetime O ;< years
Efficiency O @<4
Do not change rectifier inputs
,ener"tor #5 :0 AG&?:
0apital cost O 2H,:<<
$I, cost O 2<!<:%hr
Fuel Tab O Diesel) Fntercept coeff 5&%hr%*/ rated6 O <!?;
-lope 5&%hr%*/ output6 O <!;
+eat Reco(ery Ratio O A:4
Diesel Price O 2;%&
Fuel O Diesel
Efficiency O >:4
,rid Ele1tri1ity Cost
0ost O 2<!;;%*/h
-ellbac* rate O 2<!<:%*/h
Annual real interest rate O H4
Pro'ect &ife O ;: years
0apacity shortage penalty O <
System Control
-imulation time step O H< min
Tic* load following
Allow multiple generators, simultaneous operation, capacity less than pea*
$ther J do not use more than one type of wind turbine
Allow ecess electricity to be used for thermal load
Grid power price O 2<!;;%*/h
-ell-Eac* O 2<!<:%*/h
,aimum annual capacity shortage O @@4
,inimum Renewable fraction O <4
$perating Reser(e +ourly &oad O ?<4, Annual Pea* &oad O ;4
-olar power output O <4, /ind power output O <4