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# CHAPTER 8

## MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS

8.1 Matrix
Let n, m be two integers 1.
A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers denoted by:

## a21 a22 a23 a2n

a a a a
31 32 33 3n

a a a a
m1 m2 m3 mn

or written as aij
where aij ' s are real numbers i 1,2,...m and j 1,2,...n . This matrix has m rows and
n columns and is called an m by n matrix or an m x n matrix. Each number aij in the matrix is
called an element of the matrix. We call aij the element in the ith row and jth column or the ijentry of the matrix.
A matrix is said to be of order m x n if it has m rows and n columns. If m n , then a
matrix is said to be a square matrix. The entries a11 , a12 ,..., ann are called the diagonal
components of the square matrix. The main diagonal of the square matrix consists of
a11 , a12 ,..., ann .

For example, a23 is the element in the second row, third column of the matrix.
The matrix

2 1 0

A= 3 2 5

1 0 3

## is a square matrix of order 3 x 3.

Note: We can also denote the above matrix by A3 x 3 with a13 0 , a21 3 , a22 2.
An identity matrix is a matrix consisting of all 1s on its main diagonal and off-main
diagonal entries all zeros. It is usually denoted by In , where n is the order.

1 0 0
0 1 0 is an identity matrix of order 3.

0 0 1
A zero matrix is a matrix consisting entirely of zero entries. It is denoted by O m x n.
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
is a zero matrix of order 4.
0

## 8.2 Operations On Matrices

Equality of Two Matrices
Let A aij and B bij where i 1,2, m and j 1,2, n , be two m x n matrices.
Two matrices A and B are said to be equal if and only if each element of A is equal to
the corresponding element of the B. In symbol;
A=B iff aij bij for i 1,2, m and

Example 1. A = B given

Example 2. C= D given

1 9 3
A
5 4 1

1 0
C
3 2

and

j 1,2, n

1 81 3

and

5 2 i

1 b
D
a 2

if a = 3 and b = 0.

## Sum of Two Matrices

The sum of two m x n matrices A and B is the m x n matrix C obtained by adding the
corresponding elements of A and B. In symbol;
A+B=C, where C cij and cij aij bij for i 1,2, m and j 1,2, n .
2

## Difference of Two Matrices

The difference of two m x n matrices is the m x n matrix obtained by subtracting the
corresponding elements of A and B. In symbol;
A-B=D, where D d ij and d ij aij bij
Note: The sum/difference of two matrices is defined if and only if both matrices are of the same
order.
Scalar Multiplication
The product of a real number k and an m x n
Example.

2 1 3

Given A 3 0 1

2 2 5
Find: a. A B

## matrix A is denoted by kA kaij .

5 2 2

and B 3 4 6

5 1 3
b. A B

c. 5 A

Solution:

a.

2 1 3
5 2 2

+ 3 4 6
A B= 3 0 1

2 2 5
5 1 3
2 5 1 2 2 3

= 3 3 0 4 1 6

2 5 2 1 5 3
3

7 1 5

= 6 4 5

3 3 8

b.

c.

2 1 3 5 2 2

A B 3 0 1 - 3 4 6

2 2 5 5 1 3
2 5 1 (2) 3 (2)

= 3 3 0 (4)
1

6
)

2 5 2 1 5 (3)
3 3 1

= 0 4 7

7 1 2

2 1 3

5A =5 3 0 1

2 2 5

## 5(2) 5(1) 5(3)

= 5(3)

5
(
0
)

5
(
1
)

5(2) 5( 2) 5( 5)
4

10 5 15

= 15 0 5

10 10 25
Product of Two Matrices
The product AB of two matrices is defined if and only if the number of columns in A is
equal to the number of rows in B.
The product ABm x n of the matrices Am x p and B p x n is Cm x n

i.e. ABm x n aik bkj cij where cij aik bkj ai1b1 j ai 2b2 j aip bpj
k 1

that is, we add the products of each element of the ith row by the corresponding element
of the jth row to obtain the element in the ith row and jth element of C
Note: If AB and BA are both defined, they may or may not be equal.

Example.

Given

3 4 1
A
4 1 5

Find: a. AB
Solution:

a.

1 2 6

and B 2 3 5

3 4 2
b. BA

1 2 6

3 4 1
AB 2 3 5
4 1 5 3 4 2
5

=

b.

14 14 36
21 9 19

BA

1 2 6
2 3 5 3

3 4 2 4

4 1

1 5

## 8.3 Properties of Matrix Operations

The following properties hold true if A,B,C,I ( identity matrix), O( zero matrix) are
matrices all have defined sums and products with c and k as scalar numbers.
1. A B B A
2. A ( B C ) ( A B) C
A( BC ) ( AB)C
3. (ck ) A c(kA)
A(kB) k ( AB)

4. A O O A A
5. AI A
6. k ( A B ) kA kB
7. (c k ) A cA kA
8. ( A B )C AC BC
9. C ( A B) CA CB
10. 1A A

## Commutative Property of Addition

Associative Property of Addition
Associative Property of Multiplication
Associative Property of Scalar Multiplication
Identity Property of Addition
Identity Property of Multiplication
Distributive Property
Distributive Property
Right Distributive
Left Distributive
Scalar Identity

Transpose of A Matrix

## The transpose of a matrix A , denoted by AT is the matrix obtained by interchanging

the corresponding rows and columns of A , that is;
T
T
If A aij , then A ai a ji
Trace of a Square Matrix

## Let A is a square matrix. The trace of A, denoted by Tr ( A) , is obtained by taking the

sum of the elements on the main diagonal of A.
Example 1. Find the transpose of each of the following matrices.

2
5
b. B
8

0

3 2

a. A 8 3

2 1
Solution:

a.

3 8 2
A
2 3 1
T

b. B 2 5 8 0

5 2 2

a. C 6 3 4

3 1 5

b.

2a b
D
a 3b

Solution:
a.

Tr (C ) 5 3 5

b. Tr ( D) 2a 3b

= 13
DETERMINANT

## A determinant is a square array of nxn elements arranged in m rows and n columns

and enclosed in 2 vertical lines.
a11
a 21
a 31
A

a12

a13

a1n

det A

.
.
.
a m1

am2

a m3

a mn

## 8.4 Properties Of Determinants

Let A be a square matrix of order 3. We can easily prove the following:
1. The determinants of matrix A and its transpose AT are equal, that is, the value of the
determinant is unchanged if corresponding rows and columns are interchanged.

2 1 0 2 5 3
Example:

5 2 1 = 1 2 6
3 6 4 0 1 4

## 2. If a square matrix A of order 3 has a row/column of zeros, then

=0.

0 2 1
0 5 2 0
0 6 3
3. If a square matrix A of order 3 has two identical rows/columns, then

=0.

4 1 4
0 1 0 0
2 3 2
4. If a square matrix A of order 3 has zero above or below the diagonal, then
product of the elements on the main diagonal, that is,

is equal to the

## A a11 a22 a33 ann

1 0 0
0 3 0 3
4 2 1
5. If the entries of a row(column) of a square matrix of order 3 are multiplied by k,then the
value of its determinant equals k times the original determinant.

## 1 3 2 3(1) 3(3) 3(2) 1 3 2

0 2 1 , 0 2 1 = 3 0 2 1
1 4 5 1 4

1 4 5

6. A common factor in all entries of a row(column) can be factored out of the determinants.

2 10 15 1 5 3
1 2 3 =2 1 2 3
6 2 1 6 2 1
7. If any two rows(columns) of a square matrix of order 3 are interchanged, then the value of
the determinant equals the negative of the original determinant.
9

1 2 6 1 4 3
3 5 1 3 5 1
1 4 3 1 2 6
8. The value of the determinant is not changed if each element of a row(column) of a square
matrix of order 3 is multiplied by a number k and added to the corresponding elements of any
other row(column).

1 2 6 1

2
6
3 5 1 3 2(1) 5 2(2) 1 2(6)
1 4 3 1 4
3
9. If the entries of any two rows(columns) of a of a square matrix of order 3 are proportional,
then the value of its determinant is zero.

2 10 3
1 5 10 0 since the 1 & 2
st

nd

## columns are proportional

2
1
6

10 5 30

6 30 2
or

223
2
1
6

10
5
30

3
10
2

5 1 1 10 5( )0 0
6 6 2

since using property numbers 3 and 6, entries in the 1st and 2nd columns are the same.

10

10. The determinant of the product of two matrices is equal to the product of the determinants of
the matrices, that is, AB A B

3 1 2 2 3 1
4 2 1 1 2 2

2 3 1 0 4 0

3 1 2 2 3 1
=

4 2 1 1 2 2
2 3 1 0 4 0

7 1 1
6 12 8 =

3
4
2

1
2
3

2 2
1 1
1 0

3
2
4

1
2
0

1 16 8
Note: The above properties can be extended to a square matrix of order n.

## 8.5 Evaluation of Determinants of Order 2 and 3 and Order n

Determinant of Order 2

11

a1 a12
b21 b22

a1 a12
A
b21 b2

is defined by:

= a11b22 a12b21

## Example 1. Evaluate each of the following determinants of order 2.

25
a.

1 3

b.

0 3
10 1

c.

2 3
27 1

Solution:

25
a.

1 3

= ( 2)(3) (1)(5)

b.

10 1

= (2)(1) (

27 )( 3 )

27 1
= 65
= 11

0 3

c.

2 3

= 2 (3
= 2 9
= 11

3 )( 3 )

= (0)(1) ( 10)(3) 0 30 30

Determinant of Order 3

12

21 22 23
c31 c32 c33
a11 a12 a13
A b21 b22 b23
c31 c32 c33
=

## b22 b23 b21 b23 b21 b22

a11 a12 a13
c32 c33 c31 c33 c31 c32

## = a11 (b22c33 c32b23 ) a12 (b21c33 c31b23 ) a13 (b21c32 c31b22 )

= a11b22c33 a11b23c32 a12b21c33 a12b23c31 a13b31c32 a13b22c31 )
Alternative Method:
An alternative way to evaluate determinant of order 3 is to augment two more columns
and copy the entries in the first two columns of the original determinant and then get the
difference of the sum of the diagonal products going down and the sum of the diagonal products
going up, that is:

## a11 a12 a13 a11 a12

b21 b22 b23 b21 b22

## c31 c32 c33 c31 c32

( a11b22 c33 a12b23c31 a13b21c32 ) ( a13b22 c31 a11b23c32 a12b21c33 )

13

## Example 2. Evaluate each of the following determinants of order 3.

1 4 0
a.

2 3 5
1 1 2

3 2 8
b.

7 1 2

2 0 8
c.

0 1 0
0 3 5

5 0 4

Solution:

1 4 0
a.

2 3 5
1 1 2

3 5 25 2 3
1 (4) 0
1 2 1 2 1 1

= 1(6 5) 4( 4 5) 0
= 1 36
= 37
alternative solution:

1 4 0 1 4
2 3 5 2 3
1 1 2 1 1

= (6 20) (5 16)

= 26 ( 11)
= 37

b.

3 2 8 1
7 1 2 =3
5 0 4

2 72 7 1
2 8
1 4 5 4 5 1

## = 3(4 2) 2(28 10) 8(7 5)

= 3(6) 2(18) 8(12)
= 18 36 96
= 150
14

alternative solution:

3 2 8 3 2
7 1 2 7 1 = (12 20 56) (40 6 56)
5 0 4 5 0
= 48 102
= 150

208
0 1 0 (2)(1)(5) 10

c.

0 3 5
Evaluation of Determinant of Order n

a11

a12

a13

a1n

a 21
a 31

.
.

a11

a12

a11

a13

a 21
a11

a 22
a12

a 21
a11

a 23
a13

a31
a11

a 32
a12

a 31
a11

a 33
a13

a 42

a 41

a 43

1
a
( a11 ) n 2 41

.
.

.
a m1

am2

a m3

a mn

a11

a m1

a12

a11

am2

a m1

. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .

a11

a1n

a 21
a11

a2n
a1n

a31
a11

a 3n
a1n

a 41

a 4 n ...

. . .
a13
am3

. . .
. . .

.
.

a11
a m1

a1n
a mn

1.

0
(1) 4 2
6

(1)( 2) (0)(3)

(1)(6) (( 2)(3)

(1)( 4) ( 1)(3)

(1)( 4) (0)(5)

(1)(3) ( 2)(5)

(1)(0) ( 1)(5)

(1)(2) (0)( 2)

(1)( 5) ( 2)(2)

(1)(6) ( 1)( 2)

15

2
4
2

0
7
9

7
2
5 4
8
2

0
7
9

7
5
8

2
4
2

0
7
9

## (2)(7)(8) (0)(5)(2) (7)(4)(9) ( 2)(7)(7) ( 9)(5)(2) (8)(4)(0)

112 0 253 98 90 0
141 8

133

C#____Name:________________________________Date:_____________Score:__________
Section:_______________________________Professor_______________________________

## Practice Exercise 8.1

Concept of a Matrix
I. Give the order of the following matrices.
1. 12

______

2 3
8 5

2. 10 1

6
3

1 5
______

______

7.

## 0.2 0.5 1.2

3.1 4.2 0.5

______

16

3.

1 2 0 6 5 12
1 8 3 0 5 4

1 1 1

8. 2 2 2

3 3 3

______

4.

______

0

9. 1

1

1 3
2 5

______

4 3

5. 2 5

6 2

0
10
1

______

______

1 0 3 4 8
2 1 1 1 10

2 3 4 2 4

5 3 6 3 12
16 4 10 5 16

10.

12 5 8 6 2
9 6 1 4 8

______

II. Find the values of a,b,c,and d so that the equality holds true.

17

1.

3 5
1 a

2.

2 c 3
b 1 4

3.

a 1 8
a b 5

b
d

a 6 d
0 1 5

16 8
14 5

c 3 2d 8 0 6

4. a 1 2c 5 = 3

2b 3 4b 3b 4 28
18

2
6

5. 4

6
3

0 4
2a 3 12
5 2c 1 =

2
3
3(1 b) 3

2 0 4
6 9 4d
c 5 7

6 2 3
3 6b ab

C#____Name:________________________________Date:_____________Score:__________
Section:_______________________________Professor_______________________________

## Practice Exercise 8.2

Operations on Matrices
I. Find the indicated sum / difference of each of the following.

1.

2
4

5
6

19

2.

1
12

4 7 10
9 4 12

3.

2.6 1.4 6.2

1.4 0 4.1
2

## 2.1 8.2 3.8

1 0 3 4 2 10 18 28 4 6
1

4. 2 1 2 2 0 5 +
4
24
18
12
14

1 6 2 1 4 16 34 10 8 30

1 3 4 6 1
3 2 0 2 2 4 =
2 1 0 5 2

20

5.

1 6 4 5 10 1
2 4 3 1 8 0

6 5 9 2 8 + 0

1 2 4 3 0 0
2 8 1 9 2 0

0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

## II. Find the indicated product of each of the following:

1.

2 4 1 2
3 6 3 0

2. 1 2

4 6 1

5 2 2 =

2 9 0

21

3.

4.

5 6 2 0 1
4 1 1 2 0

3 2 4 3 1

1 2
4 1

1
2
5.
3
4

1
3
1
6

1
1

0 1 3 4
3
1 0 2 1
5
2 2 1 2

1 2 3
6 5 4

1 5
0
10 8

4 12 20 30 36
6 18 12 0 12

12 0 36 6 0

10 40 50 100 0

8 24 40 32 16

22

C#____Name:________________________________Date:_____________Score:__________
Section:_______________________________Professor_______________________________

## Practice Exercise 8.3

Operations on Matrices and Properties
I. Given:

A=

3 1
4 0

, B=

2 4 0
1 5 3

and

C= 3

0
1
4

1. 3 A

4. AT BT

2. 2 B A

5. ( A B)C T

3. BT 2 AT

6. (2 A 5 B )T

23

7. ( AC) B

9. ( ABT )T

8. (CB) AT

10. ( AC )T A B

24

## II. Solve for matrix X.

1. X +

5 4 1
2 0 6

2.

1 4
2 3

3.

3 4
5
1 2

X=

21
22

1 0 1
3
1 2 1

where X=

3X =

a
b

7 8
5 6

25

4.

1 4 8
2 10 2

1
X=
3

16 12
9 8

5. 2 1 3 5

10 X= 20 where X =

a
6
a 1

0
3a

a 5

C#____Name:________________________________Date:_____________Score:__________
Section:_______________________________Professor_______________________________

## Practice Exercise 8.4

Concept of Determinant
Determine the order of each of the following determinants.

26

32
1.

_____

4 5
xyz

2.

uvw

_____

rs t
1 3 2 6 2
2 2 1 5 5
3.

3 5 4 2 6

_____

4 6 3 1 3
1 1 8 0 8

4.

0
2
3
5

1
4
8
7

4 0
3 6
1 11
5 10

_____

27

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5.

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

_____

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

C#____Name:________________________________Date:_____________Score:__________
Section:_______________________________Professor_______________________________

## Practice Exercise 8.5

Properties of Determinant
Using the properties of determinants, tell whether the given equality holds true or not.

1.

2 3 5 1

1 5 3 2
=

__________

210
2.

0 3 0 =6

__________

001
28

3.

4.

3 6 1 2
3
1 7 1 7
=

__________

2x y z y z 2x

z w z 3 z 3 z w
=

__________

1 2 3
5.

6 10 5 =0

__________

1 2 3

6.

a
e
i
m

b
f
j
n

c
g
k
o

d
h
=
l
p

a
e
i
m

b 3d
f 3h
j 3l
n 3p

c
g
k
o

d
h
l
p

__________

29

7.

1 2 4 5 1 6 3 2
6 0 1 3 2 0 1 6
=
3 1 5 8 4 1 5 11

___________

2 6 11 9 5 3 8 9

8.

2a 6b 8c
a 3b 4c =0

___________

5a 2b 7c

9.

1 2 3 7 11

1 2 6 10 14

1 2 4 8 12

1 2 4 8 12

1 2 5 9 13 = 1 2 5 9 13
1 2 6 10 14

1 2 3 7 11

1 2 7 11 15

1 2 7 11 15

___________

30

3 1 3 0 2(3) 3 1 3(0)
1 2 0 2 2(1) 0 2 3(2)
10.
=6
___________
5 5 8 4 2(5) 8 5 3(4)
0 7 1 3 2(0) 1 0 3(3)

C#____Name:________________________________Date:_____________Score:__________
Section:_______________________________Professor_______________________________

## Practice Exercise 8.6

Evaluation of Determinant of Order 2 and 3
I. Evaluate each of the following determinants of order 2.

43
1.

21

22
=

6.

44

31

5 3

1 0
2.

3 1

3.

1 0
0 1

4.

2x 3y
3y 2x

t 5t

7t 7t

5.

7.

4 1

8.

3 3
3 3

9.

a 4a
4a 16a

10.

1
2
4
3

7
2=
5
3
32

2 5 3

47 8
1.

2.

3.

6 2 4

7.

1 0 5=

3 1 2

3 7 4

4 0 2

3 1 5

7 1 3 =

8.

9 3 15

3 8 5

5 12 21

2 0 0

4 3m m

0 1 0=
2 0 8

9.

1 2m 3m =
2 5m m

33

2 y 3y 1
4.

y 2y 3 =

10.

4y 5y 4

1 12 6
5.

3
0

25 13 20 =

11.

16 11 15

1
3

1
1

2
4

1
2

1 1 4
6.

1 2 1
1 1 1

1.

3 1
x 2

2x 4x

3x 2 x

= -2

6.

= 256

34

2.

3.

4.

2a 4
35

x 0 0
=18

3 1 0 = 2(7 x)
0 0 5

4x 4
12 3

3 x
1x

7.

2 x 3x 5
= 48( x 1)

8.

7 x 5x 0

= ( x 1) 2

4x 6x 10

2
=

6(x3)

x 2 x3 x4
9.

2 x 2 3x3 5x 4

=x

2 x 2 3x3 5 x 4

35

3x 7 x
5.

25 3( x) 2

x 4 x2

= -19

10.

1 3(6x) 5
25 3(x) 2

= x5

36