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# I have taken up this topic to explain the fatigue analysis

methodology using caesar II with an example problem of
a typical piping system. To perform fatigue analysis we
need to calculate the thermal and pressure fluctuations
the piping system will undergo in its design life. We have
to calculate the worst possible cycles from preliminary
data provided by process/operation department. Lets
assume we received the following data from process for a
typical piping system.
Operating cycle from ambient (40C) to 425C
(400,000 cycles anticipated)
Shutdown external temperature variation from ambient (40C) to -20C (300,000 cycles anticipated)
Pressurization to 5.5 Bars (400,000 cycles anticipated)
Pressure fluctuations of plus/minus 1.5 Bars from the 5.5 Bars (1,000,000 cycles anticipated)
Now, in order to do a proper fatigue analysis, these should be grouped in sets of load pairs which represent
the worst-case combination of stress ranges between extreme states which we can do in the following way
(Refer Attached Figure, Fig.1 for proper understanding):
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25th Nov ember 201 3 Anup Caesar II 3 Comments
Case Study for Fatigue Analysis in Caesar II for
a typical piping system
1
Fig. 1: Explanation of worst case cycle combination for fatigue analysis
From -20C, 0 Bars to 425C, 7 Bars. 300,000 Cycles
From 40C, 0 Bars to 425C, 7 Bars.: 100,000 Cycles
From 425C, 4 Bars to 425C, 7 Bars: 600,000 Cycles
From 425C, 4 Bars to 425C, 5.5 Bars: 400,000 Cycles
So in Caesar II we can define the above data as follows (Refer Fig. 2):
T1= 425C; T2= -20C
P1= 5.5 Bar; P2= 4 Bar and P3= 7 Bar
Fig.2: Caesar II spreadsheet explaining the input requirement
Now go to the load case editor and define load cases as shown in Fig.3 for fatigue analysis.
Click on load cycles button to input the number of cycles calculated above.
Fig.3: Load cases for Fatigue Analysis
Dont forget that all load cases with stress type FAT (for fatigue) must have their expected number of Load
Cycles specified.
After load cases are prepared run the analysis and find out the results from output processor. Part of the
output results are provided in the below attached figures for your reference (Fig. 4 and Fig. 5)
The fatigue stress range (Maximum Stress Intensity as calculated in Expansion stress case) may be checked
against the fatigue curve allowable for each fatigue load case as shown in Fig 4.
Fig 4: Output Screen showing stress range
However, this is not a true evaluation of the situation, because it is not a case of either-or. The piping
system is subjected to all of these load cases throughout its expected design life, not just one of them.
Therefore, we must review the Cumulative Usage report, which shows the total effect of all fatigue load cases
(or any combination selected by the user) on the design life of the system. Refer Fig 5 for example.
Fig. 5: Output Screen showing Cumulative usage factor
This report lists for each load case the expected number of cycles, the allowable number of cycles (based
upon the calculated stress), and the Usage Ratio (actual cycles divided by allowable cycles). The Usage
Ratios are then summed for all selected load cases; if this sum exceeds 1.0, the system has exceeded its
fatigue capabilities.
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superdry
Thursday 19 December 2013, 6:21 am
Terrific article! That is the typpe of information that are meant to
be shared across the internet.
PANKAJ TRIPATHI
Friday 10 January 2014, 2:35 pm
Dear sir
as per your example pressure variation you have taken From 425C, 4 Bars to 425C, 7 Bars: 600,000
Cycles
i think you it should be 1000,000 and other pressure case need not to be take care.
David Diehl
Monday 17 March 2014, 7:12 pm
Your Figure 5 is not a Cumulative Usage Report.
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