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All my previous articles in this website describe stress

analysis methodology using Caesar II based on ASME B


31.3. But I received requests from few pipeline engineers
to describe the methodology based on ASME B 31.4. So I
am trying to explain few guidelines for performing stress
analysis based on ASME B 31.4. Hope it will be helpful for
you.
ASME B31.4 covers piping systems transporting liquids.
The stress analysis of a pipeline is quite different from
that of plant piping. The most fundamental difference
between pipeline and plant piping is the very long length
of the pipeline. A pipeline with kilometres in length has
the potential of producing a very large amount of expansion. A reasonable estimate of the movement and its
interaction with the end resistance force afforded by connecting piping and equipment are very important
aspects in designing a pipeline. The salient points for stress analysis I feel are as follows:
B 31.4 code addresses analysis of lines within temperature range starting from -20 degree centigrade till
120 degree centigrade.
There are no Sh values similar to B 31.3. A pipeline normally runs for several kilometres without any
fittings attached. Because of such simplicity, the stress in the majority portion of a pipeline is quite
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professionals around the world.
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23rd July 201 4 want2learn ANSI B 31 .3 0 Comments
Few Important points for Stress Analysis
based on ASME B 31.4
38 2
predictable. Taking advantage of this characteristic, the codes allowable stress for a pipeline is greatly
increased, as compared to that for plant piping. All allowable values are linked with Sy (Specified
Minimum Yield Strength) as the allowable stress of a pipeline is mainly to protect the pipe from gross
deformation. Whenever you select B 31.4 in Caesar II all Sh value fields become grey.
The following equations are used to calculate various stress allowable:
o Expansion Allowable=(0.7 2) (Sy)
o Sustained Allowable=(0.7 5) (0.7 2) (Sy)
o Occasional Allowable=(0.8) (Sy)
o Operating Allowable=(0.9) (Sy)
Pressure elongation of pipe line is also important along with expansion elongation and need to be taken
care. Caesar II automatically does this whenever you select B 31.4 code.
There is nothing like liberal stress in B 31.4
The modelling procedure is similar. Whenever material is selected the Sy value automatically filled from
Caesar database. However you have to input the Design multiplication factor (Fac) value additionally.
Fac value indicates whether the pipe is restrained, such as long or buried, or unrestrained. Fac should be
1.0, 0.0, or 0.001.
o This value should be one for pipe under complete axial restraint. This value should be one when the pipe
is fully restrained, such as buried for a long distance.
o The default value for Fac is 0.0.
o When Fac is 0.001, this indicates to CAESAR II that the pipe is buried but that the soil supports have
been modelled. This causes the hoop stress component, rather than the longitudinal stress, to be added to
the operating stresses if the axial stress is compressive.
Some parts of the lines are buried or underground and some parts are aboveground. So you need to
understand the soil pipe interaction for buried parts. Soil properties need to be taken from
Civil/Geotechnical team while performing stress analysis of underground piping.
For underground piping there should be some minimum depth of cover as per B 31.4 depending on
location of pipeline.
Related Posts:
1. 11 most important questions & answers from ASME B 31.3 which a Piping stress engineer
must know
Subsea Pipeline Isolation
tdwilliamson.com
Isolate Multiple Sections of Pipeline Anywhere in the System.
2. Major Stress related differences in Between 2012 edition and 2010 edition of ASME B 31.3
3. Codes and Standards extensively used in piping industry
4. Stress Analysis of Column piping system using Caesar II
5. Consideration of Flanged Bend while modeling in Caesar II
6. Must have Load cases for stress analysis of a typical piping system using Caesar II
7 . Stress Analysis of Centrifugal Compressor Connected Piping Systems using Caesar II:
Part 1
More In ANSI B 31.3
11 most important questions & answers from ASME B 31.3
which a Piping stress engineer must know
ASME B 31.3 is the bible of process piping engineering and every piping engineer
should frequently use this code for his knowledge enhancement. But
toread more
Routing Of Flare And Relief Valve Piping: An article-Part 1
The purpose of this article is to provide a brief idea of Flare and Relief Valve
piping highlighting the important points. Due to long lengthread more
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Subsea Pipeline Isolation


tdwilliamson.com
Isolate Multiple Sections of Pipeline Anywhere in the System.