Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9

# 10/6/2014 D.C.

MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
http://lancet.mit.edu/motors/motors3.html#torque 1/9
UnderstandingD.C.MotorCharacteristics

HomeIntroHowTheyWorkCHARACTERISTICSExamples
Thispagehasbeenrequestedtimes.
Contents:
0. Preface
1. BackgroundFromPhysics
2.1Torque
2.2Speed
2.3Power
5. MotorCharacteristics
3.1Torque/SpeedCurves
3.2PowerCurves
*NOTE:Keytermsarehighlitedindarkred.
1.Preface
ThissitedealswithDirectCurrentpermanentmagnetmotorsoperatedataconstant
voltage.Motorcharacteristicsvaryconsiderablyfromtypetotype,andtheirperformance
characteristicscanbealteredbythewayelectricalpowerissupplied.canbequite
differentthanthosecoveredhere.
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
http://lancet.mit.edu/motors/motors3.html#torque 2/9
2.BackgroundFromPhysics
Section2.1:TORQUE
Torque,asdefinedin1998MerriamWebster,Incorporated
MainEntry:torque
Function:noun
Etymology:LatintorquEretotwist
1:aforcethatproducesortendstoproducerotationortorsion(anautomobileengine
deliverstorquetothedriveshaft)
also:ameasureoftheeffectivenessofsuchaforcethatconsistsoftheproductofthe
forceandtheperpendiculardistancefromthelineofactionoftheforcetotheaxisof
rotation
2:aturningortwistingforce
Torque,asdefinedinUniversityPhysics,8thed.1992,byHughD.Young:
Thequantitativemeasureofthetendencyofaforcetocauseorchangerotationalmotion
iscalledtorque.
lightshwitch,drillaholeortightenascreworbolt.
Asshowninthepictureofaratchet,atorqueiscreatedbyaverticalforceappliedatthe
endofthehandle.Theforce,F,appliedtotheratchetasshowncausesatendencyto
component,F
,paralleltotheratchethandlethatdoesnotcontributetothetorque,and
atangentialcomponent,F
tan
,perpendiculartothehandlethatdoescontributetothe
torque.ThedistancefrompointOtothepointofactionofFisdescribedbythedirection
vector,r.Themomentarm,listheperpendiculardistancebetweenpointOandtheline
ofactionofF.
ratchet,themagnitudeofthetorquewoulddecrease,eveniftheforceremainedthesame.
Thus,ifwechangetheeffectivelengthofthehandle,wechangethetorque(seeequation
1).
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
http://lancet.mit.edu/motors/motors3.html#torque 3/9
UNITSofTORQUE
SI English
newtonmeters
{Nm}
inchpounds{inlb}
footpounds{ftlb}
inchounces{inoz}
1Nm=0.738ftlb
1Nm=0.113inlb
1Nm=141.61
inoz
1inlb=0.113Nm
1ftlb=1.356Nm
1inoz=7.062E03
Nm
UptoContents
Section2.2:SPEED
Speed(AngularVelocity),asdefinedin1998MerriamWebster,Incorporated
MainEntry:angularvelocity
Function:noun
orperminute
Motorsaredevicesthatconvertelectricalenergyintomechanicalenergy.TheD.C.
motorsthatwehavebeendealingwithhereconvertelectricalenergyintorotational
energy.Thatrotationalenergyisthenusedtoliftthings,propelthings,turnthings,etc...
Whenwesupplythespecifiedvoltagetoamotor,itrotatestheoutputshaftatsome
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
http://lancet.mit.edu/motors/motors3.html#torque 4/9
speed.Thisrotationalspeedorangularvelocity, istypicallymeasuredin
Whenperformingcalculations,besuretouseconsistentunits.IntheEnglish
calculations.
NOTE:
1revolution=360
Fromtheangularvelocity, ,wecanfindthe
tangentialvelocityofapointanywhereontherotating
bodythroughtheequationtangentialvelocity,v=r*
,whereristhedistancefromtheaxisofrotation.This
(constantspeednoacceleration)speedofavehicleif
thelinearspeedofaropeasitiswoundupbyawinch.
UptoContents
Section2.3:POWER
MotivePower,asdefinedin1998MerriamWebster,Incorporated
MainEntry:1power
Pronunciation:'pau(&)r
Function:noun
Usage:oftenattributive
Etymology:MiddleEnglish,fromOldFrenchpoeir,frompoeirtobeable,from
(assumed)VulgarLatinpotEre,alterationofLatinposse
Date:13thcentury
1a:(1):abilitytoactorproduceaneffect
6a:asourceormeansofsupplyingenergyespecially:ELECTRICITY
6b:MOTIVEPOWERc:thetimerateatwhichworkisdoneorenergyemittedor
transferred
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
http://lancet.mit.edu/motors/motors3.html#torque 5/9
PowerinRotationalMotion,asdescribedinUniversityPhysics,8thed.,1992byHugh
D.Young):
Whenyoupedalabicycle,youapplyforcestoarotatingbodyanddoworkonit.Similar
thingshappeninreallifesituations,suchasarotatingmotorshaftdrivingapowertool
oracarenginepropellingthevehicle.Wecanexpressthisworkintermsoftorqueand
anangulardisplacement...
dW/dtistherateofdoingwork,orpowerP.WhenatorqueT(withrespecttotheaxisof
rotation)actsonabodythatrotateswithangularvelocityW,itspower(rateofdoing
work)istheproductofthetorqueandangularvelocity.Thisistheanalogoftherelation
P=Fvforparticlemotion.
Powerinrotationalmotioncanbewrittenas:
UNITSofPOWER
SI English
Watts{W}
newtonmeterspersecond{Nm/s}
1W=1Nm/s
1W=0.738ftlb/s
1W=1.341E03hp
footpoundspersecond{ftlb/s}
horsepower{hp}
1ftlb/s=1.818E03hp
1ftlb/s=1.356W
UptoContents
2.MotorCharacteristics
Section3.1:TORQUE/SPEEDCURVES
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
http://lancet.mit.edu/motors/motors3.html#torque 6/9
InordertoeffectivelydesignwithD.C.motors,itisnecessarytounderstandtheir
characteristiccurves.Foreverymotor,thereisaspecificTorque/SpeedcurveandPower
curve.
Thegraphaboveshowsatorque/speedcurveofatypicalD.C.motor.Notethattorqueis
betweenhowmuchtorqueamotordelivers,andhowfasttheoutputshaftspins.Motor
characteristicsarefrequentlygivenastwopointsonthisgraph:
Thestalltorque, ,representsthepointonthegraphatwhichthetorqueisa
maximum,buttheshaftisnotrotating.
isappliedtotheoutputshaft).
Thecurveisthenapproximatedbyconnectingthesetwopointswithaline,whose
equationcanbewrittenintermsoftorqueorangularvelocityasequations3)and4):
approximation.Thetorque/speedcurvesshownbelowareactual
curvesforthegreenmaxonmotor(picturedatright)usedby
studentsin2.007.Oneisaplotofempiricaldata,andtheotherwas
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
http://lancet.mit.edu/motors/motors3.html#torque 7/9
thecharacteristictorque/speedcurveforthismotorisquitelinear.
Thisisgenerallytrueaslongasthecurverepresentsthedirect
outputofthemotor,orasimplegearreducedoutput.Ifthe
specificationsaregivenastwopoints,itissafetoassumealinear
curve.

Recallthatearlierwedefinedpowerastheproductoftorqueandangularvelocity.This
correspondstotheareaofarectangleunderthetorque/speedcurvewithonecorneratthe
originandanothercorneratapointonthecurve(seefiguresbelow).Duetothelinear
inverserelationshipbetweentorqueandspeed,themaximumpoweroccursatthepoint
where = ,and = .
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
http://lancet.mit.edu/motors/motors3.html#torque 8/9
UptoContents
Section3.2:POWER/TORQUEandPOWER/SPEEDCURVES
Bysubstitutingequations3.and4.(torqueandspeed,section2.1)intoequation2.