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10/6/2014 D.C.

MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
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UnderstandingD.C.MotorCharacteristics

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Contents:
0. Preface
1. BackgroundFromPhysics
2.1Torque
2.2Speed
2.3Power
5. MotorCharacteristics
3.1Torque/SpeedCurves
3.2PowerCurves
*NOTE:Keytermsarehighlitedindarkred.
1.Preface
ThissitedealswithDirectCurrentpermanentmagnetmotorsoperatedataconstant
voltage.Motorcharacteristicsvaryconsiderablyfromtypetotype,andtheirperformance
characteristicscanbealteredbythewayelectricalpowerissupplied.canbequite
differentthanthosecoveredhere.
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
http://lancet.mit.edu/motors/motors3.html#torque 2/9
2.BackgroundFromPhysics
Section2.1:TORQUE
Torque,asdefinedin1998MerriamWebster,Incorporated
MainEntry:torque
Function:noun
Etymology:LatintorquEretotwist
1:aforcethatproducesortendstoproducerotationortorsion(anautomobileengine
deliverstorquetothedriveshaft)
also:ameasureoftheeffectivenessofsuchaforcethatconsistsoftheproductofthe
forceandtheperpendiculardistancefromthelineofactionoftheforcetotheaxisof
rotation
2:aturningortwistingforce
Torque,asdefinedinUniversityPhysics,8thed.1992,byHughD.Young:
Thequantitativemeasureofthetendencyofaforcetocauseorchangerotationalmotion
iscalledtorque.
Torque(alsocalledamoment)isthetermweusewhenwetalkaboutforcesthatactina
rotationalmanner.Youapplyatorqueormomentwhenyouturnadial,flipa
lightshwitch,drillaholeortightenascreworbolt.
Asshowninthepictureofaratchet,atorqueiscreatedbyaverticalforceappliedatthe
endofthehandle.Theforce,F,appliedtotheratchetasshowncausesatendencyto
rotateaboutpointO.Theforcecanbebrokendownintotwocomponents:aradial
component,F
rad
,paralleltotheratchethandlethatdoesnotcontributetothetorque,and
atangentialcomponent,F
tan
,perpendiculartothehandlethatdoescontributetothe
torque.ThedistancefrompointOtothepointofactionofFisdescribedbythedirection
vector,r.Themomentarm,listheperpendiculardistancebetweenpointOandtheline
ofactionofF.
Ifweweretoshortenthemomentarmbyapplyingtheforceclosertotheheadofthe
ratchet,themagnitudeofthetorquewoulddecrease,eveniftheforceremainedthesame.
Thus,ifwechangetheeffectivelengthofthehandle,wechangethetorque(seeequation
1).
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
http://lancet.mit.edu/motors/motors3.html#torque 3/9
UNITSofTORQUE
SI English
newtonmeters
{Nm}
inchpounds{inlb}
footpounds{ftlb}
inchounces{inoz}
1Nm=0.738ftlb
1Nm=0.113inlb
1Nm=141.61
inoz
1inlb=0.113Nm
1ftlb=1.356Nm
1inoz=7.062E03
Nm
UptoContents
Section2.2:SPEED
Speed(AngularVelocity),asdefinedin1998MerriamWebster,Incorporated
MainEntry:angularvelocity
Function:noun
herateofrotationaroundanaxisusuallyexpressedinradiansorrevolutionspersecond
orperminute
Motorsaredevicesthatconvertelectricalenergyintomechanicalenergy.TheD.C.
motorsthatwehavebeendealingwithhereconvertelectricalenergyintorotational
energy.Thatrotationalenergyisthenusedtoliftthings,propelthings,turnthings,etc...
Whenwesupplythespecifiedvoltagetoamotor,itrotatestheoutputshaftatsome
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
http://lancet.mit.edu/motors/motors3.html#torque 4/9
speed.Thisrotationalspeedorangularvelocity, istypicallymeasuredin
radians/second{rad/s},revolutions/second{rps},orrevolutions/minute{rpm}.
Whenperformingcalculations,besuretouseconsistentunits.IntheEnglish
system,calculationsshouldbedoneindegrees/second,andradians/secforSI
calculations.
NOTE:
1revolution=360
1revolution=(2*p)radians
1radian=(180/p)
1=(p/180)radians
Fromtheangularvelocity, ,wecanfindthe
tangentialvelocityofapointanywhereontherotating
bodythroughtheequationtangentialvelocity,v=r*
,whereristhedistancefromtheaxisofrotation.This
relationcanbeusedtocomputethesteadystate
(constantspeednoacceleration)speedofavehicleif
theradiusandangularvelocityofawheelisknown,or
thelinearspeedofaropeasitiswoundupbyawinch.
UptoContents
Section2.3:POWER
MotivePower,asdefinedin1998MerriamWebster,Incorporated
MainEntry:1power
Pronunciation:'pau(&)r
Function:noun
Usage:oftenattributive
Etymology:MiddleEnglish,fromOldFrenchpoeir,frompoeirtobeable,from
(assumed)VulgarLatinpotEre,alterationofLatinposse
Date:13thcentury
1a:(1):abilitytoactorproduceaneffect
6a:asourceormeansofsupplyingenergyespecially:ELECTRICITY
6b:MOTIVEPOWERc:thetimerateatwhichworkisdoneorenergyemittedor
transferred
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
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PowerinRotationalMotion,asdescribedinUniversityPhysics,8thed.,1992byHugh
D.Young):
Whenyoupedalabicycle,youapplyforcestoarotatingbodyanddoworkonit.Similar
thingshappeninreallifesituations,suchasarotatingmotorshaftdrivingapowertool
oracarenginepropellingthevehicle.Wecanexpressthisworkintermsoftorqueand
anangulardisplacement...
Whataboutthepowerassociatedwithworkdonebyatorqueactingonarotatingbody?
dW/dtistherateofdoingwork,orpowerP.WhenatorqueT(withrespecttotheaxisof
rotation)actsonabodythatrotateswithangularvelocityW,itspower(rateofdoing
work)istheproductofthetorqueandangularvelocity.Thisistheanalogoftherelation
P=Fvforparticlemotion.
Powerinrotationalmotioncanbewrittenas:
UNITSofPOWER
SI English
Watts{W}
newtonmeterspersecond{Nm/s}
1W=1Nm/s
1W=0.738ftlb/s
1W=1.341E03hp
footpoundspersecond{ftlb/s}
horsepower{hp}
1ftlb/s=1.818E03hp
1ftlb/s=1.356W
UptoContents
2.MotorCharacteristics
Section3.1:TORQUE/SPEEDCURVES
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
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InordertoeffectivelydesignwithD.C.motors,itisnecessarytounderstandtheir
characteristiccurves.Foreverymotor,thereisaspecificTorque/SpeedcurveandPower
curve.
Thegraphaboveshowsatorque/speedcurveofatypicalD.C.motor.Notethattorqueis
inverselyproportioaltothespeedoftheoutputshaft.Inotherwords,thereisatradeoff
betweenhowmuchtorqueamotordelivers,andhowfasttheoutputshaftspins.Motor
characteristicsarefrequentlygivenastwopointsonthisgraph:
Thestalltorque, ,representsthepointonthegraphatwhichthetorqueisa
maximum,buttheshaftisnotrotating.
Thenoloadspeed, ,isthemaximumoutputspeedofthemotor(whennotorque
isappliedtotheoutputshaft).
Thecurveisthenapproximatedbyconnectingthesetwopointswithaline,whose
equationcanbewrittenintermsoftorqueorangularvelocityasequations3)and4):
ThelinearmodelofaD.C.motortorque/speedcurveisaverygood
approximation.Thetorque/speedcurvesshownbelowareactual
curvesforthegreenmaxonmotor(picturedatright)usedby
studentsin2.007.Oneisaplotofempiricaldata,andtheotherwas
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
http://lancet.mit.edu/motors/motors3.html#torque 7/9
plottedmechanicallyusingadevicedevelopedatMIT.Notethat
thecharacteristictorque/speedcurveforthismotorisquitelinear.
Thisisgenerallytrueaslongasthecurverepresentsthedirect
outputofthemotor,orasimplegearreducedoutput.Ifthe
specificationsaregivenastwopoints,itissafetoassumealinear
curve.

Recallthatearlierwedefinedpowerastheproductoftorqueandangularvelocity.This
correspondstotheareaofarectangleunderthetorque/speedcurvewithonecorneratthe
originandanothercorneratapointonthecurve(seefiguresbelow).Duetothelinear
inverserelationshipbetweentorqueandspeed,themaximumpoweroccursatthepoint
where = ,and = .
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
http://lancet.mit.edu/motors/motors3.html#torque 8/9
UptoContents
Section3.2:POWER/TORQUEandPOWER/SPEEDCURVES
Bysubstitutingequations3.and4.(torqueandspeed,section2.1)intoequation2.
(power,section1.3),weseethatthepowercurvesforaD.C.motorwithrespecttoboth
10/6/2014 D.C.MotorTorque/SpeedCurveTutorial:::UnderstandingMotorCharacteristics
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speedandtorquearequadratics,asshowninequations5.and6.
Fromtheseequations,weagainfindthatmaximumoutputpoweroccursat = ,and
= repectively.
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