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# University of California at Riverside, Department of Mechanical Engineering

## ME 121, Spring 2014, Elisa Franco

Matlab Homework Assignment
Homework objectives:
Learn how to use Matlab Linear Systems Toolbox and Simulink
Design a compensator for an active car suspension system
Based on the system description, the parameters provided earlier, and on the weekly assignments throughout
the quarter, here is an outline of what your report should look like.
Be thorough and clear, but brief and to the point.
Please keep the writeup in a weekly progress format, as below.
1. Weeks 1-2:
(a) Find the state space, ordinary differential equation model for the system.
(b) Find the equlibria of the active suspension system, when F and w are zero.
(c) Rewrite the system in perturbation form around the equilibrium, so that you will be only analyzing
variations of position and speed relative to the equilibrium. (Your new states should be dened as
the difference of the previous state and the equilibrium, e.g. x
1
= r
1
r
1
)
(d) Is the system stable, unstable or marginally stable? You can answer either analytically or using
Matlab.
2. Week 3:
(a) Take as the system output the difference between the two positions. E.g. y = x
1
x
2
, where x
1
is
the position of the vehicle and x
2
is the position of the tire.
(b) Calculate the two transfer functions:
Between the active suspensor input F and the output y: G
1
(s) =
X
1
(s) X
2
(s)
F(s)
, taking w = 0
Between the disturbance input w and the output y: G
2
(s) =
X
1
(s) X
2
(s)
W(s)
, taking F = 0
You can proceed how you prefer, either by applying Laplace directly to the differential equations
expressing Newtons laws (resultant forces), or to the system in state space form. In either case,
your variables have to be the displacements relative to the equilibrium positions.
3. Week 4:
Suppose we have a reference signal r, the desired x
1
x
2
. Suppose we can measure y = (x
1
x
2
).
We now add a negative feedback controller to track the reference r. Draw a block diagram representing
the system. Remember there is an additional input to the system, given by the disturbance w.
Elisa Franco 2
4. Week 5:
For both transfer functions (input to output, and noise to output), draw the Bode plots using Matlab.
5. Week 6:
NA (skip)
6. Week 7:
NA (skip)
7. Week 8:
(a) Using Matlab, plot the root locus for the input-to-output transfer function.
(b) You will notice that two poles are dominant, i.e. are closer to the imaginary axis. (Indeed, m
2
<<
m
1
. In practice, the mass of the car is so large for our choice of the parameters that we can consider
it still.) The presence of complex poles very close to the origin means the system oscillates for a
very long time when stimulated. Plot the step response of G
1
to verify this fact.
(c) Specications: we want a maximum overshoot of 5% and a 1 seconds settling time within 1% of the
nal value. Find the corresponding sector in the complex domain where the poles should be placed.
Apply the formulas used for a second order system. They are not exact for this case, but they will
work reasonably well since there are dominant poles.
8. Week 9: Compensator design using SISOTOOL.
(a) Select the correct system architecture, with the external noise input, and import the correct transfer
functions in the Sisotool GUI. Leave the controller as just a unitary gain:
Plot the step response of the output to a step in reference (r in the Matlab architecture)
Plot the step response of the output to a step in noise (dy in the Matlab architecture).
(b) G
1
has two dominant poles near the imaginary axis; let us assume they inuence the output re-
sponse the most (see Week 8 assignment). Reasoning in terms of root locus, add the minimum
number of poles and zeros for which we can bring the dominant poles of the loop function inside the
sector considered in Week 8 and achieve:
Settling time within 1% of the nal value, T
s
< 1.
Overshoot M
p
<5%
Phase margin of at least 45

## and gain margin of at least 10dB

Plot the resulting CL step I/O response and the root locus of the OLTF (which includes your
controller).
9. Project is due on Wed, June 6, AT THE BEGINNING OF CLASS.