Sie sind auf Seite 1von 17

MORE REVIEWS ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY

EXAMPLE OF BUILDINGS/ STRUCTURES


Prehistoric Period
1. Beehives
!. h"ts
#. c$ves
%. te&ts
'. Sto&ehe&(e E&()$&d
*. i()oos
E(+,ti $&
1. S,hi&-
!. P+r$.ids
#. O/e)is0s
%. M$st$/$ To./s
'. 1re$t Te.,)e
*. A/"2Si./e)
3. Te.,) e o4 5ho&s
A&cie&t 6e$r E$st 7Meso,ot$.i$8
1. 9i(("r$t o4 Ur
!. ,erse,o)is
#. h$)) o4 the h"&dred co)".&s
Pre2Co)"./i$& M$+$ A:tec Me-ico Per"
1. Te.,) e P+r$.id o4 the S"&
!. Cit$de) Teotih"$c$&
#. Te.,) e o4 the 1i$&t ;$("$r
%. 1re$t P)$:$ o4 Te&ochtit )$& M$ch" Picch" Per"
1ree0
1. Acro,o)is
!. P$rthe&o&2te.,)e
#. A(or$
%. O<EIO6 the$tre
'. sto$ 2 $&cie&t covered =$)0=$+ "s"$)) + =ith $ =$)) o& o&e side $&d $ ro= o4
co)".&s $t the other
*. M$"so)e". S$rco,h$("s
3. o,e& hi))side the$tres
Ro.$&
1. P$&theo&
!. >or".s
#. B$si)ic$s
%. Ther.$e
'. A.,hithe$tres
*. Co)osse". Coe.et eri$
3. Tri".,h$) $rch
?. ($te=$+s
@. $A"ed"cts
E$r) + Christi$&
1. B$si)ic$& Ch"rches
!. B$,tisteri es
B+:$&ti&e
1. St. So,hi$ Co&st$&ti&o,) e
!. St. M$r0 Ve&ice
Is)$.ic
1. The (re$t .osA"es
!. <$.$sc"s B Cordo/$
#. 5ios0 C Ist$&/")
%. T$D .$h$) .$"so)e". C A(r$
'. To./ o4 H".$+"& <e)hi
Ro.$&esA"e
1. St 9e&o
!. M$((iore Mo&$ster+
#. Le$&i&( To=er
%. C$thedr$) B B$,tister+ o4 Pis$
'. C$st)es 4orti4ic$tio&s
*. ch$te"s M$&or ho"ses
1othic
1. 6otre <$.e C$thedr$)
!. P$ris C$&ter/"r+ C$thedr$)
#. 5i&(Es Co))e(e
%. C$&ter/"r+ To=& H$))s
'. S0i,,ers ho"se C 1he&t
Re&$iss$&ce
1. P$)$::o Ric$rdi C >)ore&ce
!. St. PeterEs PIA99A
#. C$thedr$) V$tic$&
%. P$)$is d" )o"vre
'. P$ris Ch$te" M$iso&s
*. St P$")Es C$thedr$) Lo&do&
3. 1"i)d Ho"ses C Br"sse)s
Brit$i&
1. West .i&ster 6e= P$)$ce 7Ho"se o4 P$r)i$.e&t8 Lo&do&
!. Cr+st$) P$)$ce Lo&do& FGGGH
#. U&iversit + M"se". O-4ord
%. Red Ho"se 5e&t
'. C$thedr$) C 1"i)d4ord
Co&ti&e&t$) E"ro,e
1. Ei44e) to=er FGGGH
!. 6e= )o"vre
#. P$ris O,er$ Ho"se
%. P$ris B co)o(&e.
A.eri c$s
1. the White Ho"se
!. W$shi&(to& <. C. U.S. C$,ito)
#. Bosto& E.,ire St$te B"i)di&(
%. E&()ish Co"&tr+ Ho"ses
'. B"&($)o=s
Moder&I I&ter&$tio&$)
1. S$)(i&$to/e) Brid(e
!. Ei&stei& To=er Eirch Me&de)soh&
#. Ch$,e) o4 6otre <$.e Le Cor/"sier
%. ;oh&so& W$- B"i)di&( >r$&0 L)o+d Wri(ht
'. >$))i&( W$ter >r$&0 L)o+d Wri(ht
*. <"))es I&ter&$tio&$) Air,ort Eero s$$ri&e&
3. 1"((e&hei. M"se". >r$&0 L)o+d =ri(ht
?. S+d&e+ o,er$ Ho"se ;or& Ut:o&
@. 1eodesic do.e B"c0.i&ster >"))er
ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERS OF COUNTRY
1IEHA<CB>
Pre2historic Period
1. Te.,or$r+ she)ter 4ro. ,erish$/)e .$teri$)s
!. C$ves
#. Roc0s o& to, o4 e$ch other
%. H$rd2,$c0ed s&o= /)oc0s
'. $&i .$) s0i&s
E(+,ti $&
1. B$ttered or s)o,i&( o"tside =$))s
!. Co)".&s B C$,it$)s 4ro. ve(et$/)e ori(i&s
#. P$,+r"s B"ds Lot"s >)o=er =$))s o4 ."d /ric0 thic0 B @M hi(h
%. U&/ro0e& .$ssive =$))s $dor&ed =ith hiero() +,hi cs
A&cie&t 6e$r E$st 7Meso,ot$.i$8
1. A/"&d$&ce o4 c)$+2 ,rovided /ric0s
!. Roo4s 4)$t o"tside
#. Architect"re =$s $rc"$ted =i&(ed deit + $&d =i&(ed h".$& he$ded )io& "sed $s
dJcor
%. Ho"ses o4 o&e roo. e&tered /+ $ si&()e door B =itho"t =i&do=s
Pre2Co)"./i$& A.eric$ FM$+$2A:tec2Me-ico2Per"H
1. Te.,) e ,+r$.ids $re $,,ro$ched /+ $ si&()e stee, 4)i(ht o4 ste,s.
!. Sto&e F4i&e)+ dressed c$rved or )$id $s ro"(h)+ dressed r"//)eH =$s e.,)o+ed 4or
$)) i.,ort$&t /"i)di&(s
1ree0
1. Co)".&$r B tr$/e$ted 7h$ve hori:o&t$) /e$.s r$ther th$& $rchs8
!. Woode& roo4s =ere "&tr"ssed
#. Cei)i&(s so.et i.es o.itted
%. o,tic$) i))"sio&s =ere corrected i& 1ree0 Te.,) es
'. <oric Io&ic Cori&thi$& Forders o4 co)".&sH
Ro.$&
1. The $rch B the v$")t =$s deve)o,ed
!. T=o orders o4 $rchitect"re $dded FT"sc$& B Co.,ositeH
#. Co&crete is &o= "sed Fco.,osit io& o4 )i .e s$&d ,o::o)$&$ B /ro0e& /ric0s or
s.$) ) sto&es.
E$r) + Christi$&
1. Wide) + S,$ced Co)".&s c$rr+i &( se.i2circ")$r $rches
!. B$si)ic$& Ch"rches h$ve # to ' $is)es covered /+ $ si.,) e ti ./er roo4
#. Mos$ic decor$tio& $dded i&ter&$) ) +
%. se,$r$te /"i)di&(s "sed 4or /$,tis. or /$,tisteries
B+:$&ti&e
1. 6ove) deve)o,.e&t o4 the <o.e to cover ,o) +(o&$) $&d sA"$re ,)$&s o4 ch"rches
!. To./ B /$,tisteries /+ .e$&s o4 K,e&de&tivesL
#. M>rescoL decor$tio& "si&( .$r/)e B .os$i c
Is)$.ic
1. B")/o"s or o&io& do.e
!. Mi&$rets
#. st$)$ct ite .o")di&(
%. cresti&( N decor$tive roo4 rid(eN $& or&$.e&t$) rid(e o& $ roo4
'. ,$i&ted $rch
C > 1 E B A <
Ro.$&esA"e
1. Ri//ed B ,$&e) cross v$")tsO
!. ,)$ster stri,s $rc$des rose =i&do=s
#. So/er 7serio"sI &ot 4$&ci4")8B di(&i4ied st+)e
%. >or.$) .$ssi&( de,e&ds o& the (ro",i&( o4 to=ers $&d the ,roD ectio& o4 tr$&se,ts B
choir.
1othic
1. Poi&ted $rch
!. /"ttress 4)+i&( /"ttress
#. ($r(o+) es decor$ted v$")ti&(
%. rose B )$&cet =i&do=s ,)o"(hsh$re t=ist
'. v$riet + o4 o,e& roo4s 7tr"ssed tie2/e$. co))$r8
Re&$iss$&ce
1. R"stic$ted .$so&r+ 7ro"(h .$so&r+8
!. P"oi&s B$)"sters
#. do.es or r$ised dr".s
%. ,edi .e&ts o&e =ithi& the other
'. rococo
*. /$roA"e st+)e
3. .$&s$rd roo4
?. s$)o&
Brit$i&
1. Pict"resA"e v$)"es
!. Re4)ected i& the ,redi)ectio& 7)i0i&(8 4or hi(h) + te-t"red co)or4") .$teri$)s
$s+..etr+ B i&4or.$)it +.
#. ,$)$::o st+)e =$s $ tri".,h o4 &$tio&$) ecc)esi$sticis.
%. 6e= 4"&ctio&s B tech&iA"es ,rod"ced &e= 4or.s
'. T$))er /"i)di&(s =ere desi(&ed d"e to co&crete B c$st iro& 4r$.es .
*. 6e= .$t eri$)s =ere "sed d"e to the e44ect o4 c$&$)s
3. R$i)ro$d s+ste.s ce&tr$) he$ti&( B e)ev$tor or )i4t
Co&ti&e&t$) E"ro,e
1. Re,etit io& o4 st$&d$rd /$+s /oth ,)$& B e)ev$tio& $& $44i&it + 7si.i )$ri t +8 =ith /$+
s+st e. ,ro(r$..$t ic$)) + $do,ted =ith the i&trod"ctio& o4 iro& co&str"ctio&
A.eri c$s
1. 6eo2c)$ssic B 1ree0 reviv$) =$s 4o))o=ed
!. B$)oo& 4r$.e =$s i&trod"ced
#. The s0+scr$,er =$s co&tri/"ted re)$ted to .et$) 4r$.e co&str"ctio&
%. The &o&2)o$d2/e$ri&( c"rt$i& =$)) B the e)ev$tor
Moder&I I&ter&$tio&$)
1. >ree2st$&di&( ()$ss she$th s"s,e&ded o& $ 4r$.e=or0 $cross the 4$ce o4 the /"i)di&(
or c"rt$i& =$)).
!. Art 6ove$" $&d B$"h$"s =$s deve)o,ed
#. E&or.o"s S,$&s "&o/str"cted =ere $t )e&(th $chieved =ith co&crete.
%. Stee) is "sed i& s,$ce24r$.e
< > 1 A C E B
I&di$I P$0ist$&
1. Hi&d" =orshi, is $& i&divid"$) $ct
!. B"ddhist re)i(io"s /"i)di&(s or shri&es too0 the 4or. o4 STUPAS 7B"ddhist shri&e
or ,$(od$8 $&d $re desi(&ed 4or co&(re($tio&$) "se.
#. Mo")di&(s h$ve BULBOUS ch$r$cter
%. The TORUS .o")di&( is "sed
'. V$rio"s BAS re)ie4s de,icti&( sce&es o4 d$i) + )i4e $&d stor+ o4 B"ddh$
*. The 4e.$) e 4or. i& its vo)",t"o"s 7se&s"$)8 4or. is o4te& "sed
Sri L$&0$
1. Roc0 Te.,)es =ith sA"$re or oct$(o&$) ,i))$rs
!. A circ")$r re)ic ho"se 7=$t$2d$(e8 /"i)t i& sto&e B /ric0 is $& o"tst$&di&(
$rchitect"r$) cre$tio&.
#. Architect"re o4 =ood =ith hi(h ,itched roo4s =ith =ide e$ves s)i(ht) + c"rved
4i&ished =ith s.$) ) 4)$t shi&()es $&d terr$ cott$ ti)es.
%. Wi&do=s =ith )$cA"ered =ood /$rs c$rved ti./er door=$+s or&$.e&t$) .et $)=or0
door 4"r&it"re ,$i&ted =$))s.
A4(h$&ist$& 6e,$) Ti/et
1. C",o)$ Roo4s 7do.e sh$,ed roo4 or do.e o& roo48 s,$&&i&( =ith $rched sA"i&ches
the sA"$re ch$./er $&()es )$&ter& roo4 $&d co44ered do.e $& e)$/or$t e s+st e. o4
he-$(o& e$ch co&t$i&i&( the st$t"e o4 B"ddh$
!. The KSI5HARAL B KPA1O<AL te.,)es s"rvive.
#. A .o&".e&t$) ,i))$r (e&er$)) + s",,orti&( $ .et$) s",erstr"ct"re $dor&ed =ith
.+st ic s+./o)s (ro",s o4 divi&ities $&d ,ortr$its st$t"$r+ o4 ro+$)t ies.
%. Wi&do=s h$ve i&tric$te )$ttice scree&s $&d roo4 h$ve red c"rved ti)es .et$) ("tters
$&d ,roD ecti&( cor&ice $&d 4$&ci4")) + decor$ted =ith c$rvi&( e./ossi&( ti&0)i&(
/e))s $&d h$&(i&( )$.,s.
'. The .o&$ster+ is 4ortress2)i0e sited o& hi)) to,s.
*. Pi))$rs $&d /e$.s $re ,$i&ted K+e)) o= or redL $&d K,$i&ted si)0sL h$&( 4ro. the
roo4.
B"r.$ C$./odi $ Th$i)$&d I&do&esi$
1. Ste,,ed Te.,)e P+r$.i d terr$ced o& $ hi))
!. Usi&( sto&e =itho"t .ort$r 4itted ,er4ect) + $&d &".ero"s co)oss$) to=ers
#. Re)i(io"s /"i)di&(s over)$id =ith or&$.e&t$tio& o4 Chi&ese ch$r$cters s"r4$ces
o4te& 4i&ished =ith ,orce)$i& ti)e
%. W$))s $re =hite st"cco 7=$)) ,)$ster8
'. .") ti2)eve)ed over)$,,i&( ti ./er roo4s
*. 1$/)es $&d /$r(e/o$rd decor$ted =ith Hi&d" ico&o(r$,h+ .
3. <oors $&d =i&do= sh"tters $re o4 c$rved =ood )$cA"ered i& /)$c0 $&d (o)d .
Chi&$
1. Roo4 rid(es $re )$de& =ith e)$/or$te or&$.e&t$) cresti&( $&d the ",2ti)ted $&()es $re
$dor&ed =ith 4$&t$stic dr$(o&s $&d (rotesA"e or&$.e&t. 7distorted /i:$rre8
!. Roo4s o&e o& to, o4 the other "si&( S2sh$,e e&$.e)ed ti)es.
#. Roo4 4r$.i&( i& Krect$&()eL $&d &ot tri$&()e .
%. Use o4 /ri(ht co)ors
'. Co)".& /r$c0ets $re decor$ted =ith /irds 4)o=ers $&d dr$(o&s.
;$,$&
1. Li(ht $&d de)ic$te ti./er co&str"ctio& is re4i&ed /+ $ .i&"te c$rvi&( B decor$tio&
!. <o.i&$&t roo4s ch$r$cteri :ed /+ their e-A"isite 7/e$"ti4") Is",er/8 c"rv$t"re
s",,orted /+ $ s"ccessio& o4 /r$c0ets
#. U,,er ,$rt o4 the roo4 is ter.i&$ted /+ $ ($/)e ,)$ced vertic$)) + $/ove the e&d =$))s
%. Roo.s $re re(")$ted /+ $ K5E6L T$t$.i .$ts .
'. Love o4 &$t"reN "si&( sto&e )$&ter& B /o&s$i.
Phi)i,,i&es
1. Use o4 i&di(e&o"s 7&$t"r$)8 .$teri$)s 4or ho"ses )i0e /$./oo ,$) . )e$ves st"rd+
=oode& ,osts c$rved =oode& sidi&(s co(o& (r$ss roo4.
!. S,$&ish2st +) e hi(h2,itched roo4s
#. C$,i: she)) =i&do=s /$r$&di)) $s /$)co&ies
%. Coco&"t she)) B =ood desi(&.
'. M"ch "se o4 ($)v$&i:ed iro& sheet 4or roo4i&(
DEFINITIONS
< E 1 > C A H B
1. SPHI6Q R M+thic$) .o&sters e$ch =ith the /od+ o4 $ )io& $&d $ he$d o4 $ .$&
h$=0 r$. or =o.$& ,ossessed.
!. MASTABA R A& $&cie&t E(+,ti $& rect$&(")$r 4)$t2to,,ed 4"&er$r+ .o"&d =ith
/$ttered 7s)o,i&(8 sides coveri&( $ /"ri$) ch$./er /)o= (ro"&d
#. OBELIS5 R H"(e .o&o)i ths sA"$re o& ,)$& $&d t$,eri&( to $& e)ectr".2c$,,ed
7$))o+ o4 si)ver B (o)d8 K,+r$2.idio& L $t the s"..i t =hich =$s the s$cred ,$rt.
The 4o"r sides $re c"t =ith hiero() +,hics.
%. PYRAMI< R A .$ssive 4"&er$r+ str"ct"re o4 sto&e or /ric0 =ith $ sA"$re /$se $&d
4o"r s)o,i&( tri$&(")$r sides .eeti&( $t the $,e-.
'. BATTER R I&=$rd i&c)i&$tio& or s)o,e o4 $& o"t=$rd =$))
*. STO6EHE61E R Co&sists o4 $ co.,)e- o4 Ks$rse&L 7$&+ o4 the .$&+ )$r(e
sedi.e&t$r+ roc0s th$t h$ve /ee& /ro0e& i&to /)oc0s /+ 4rost $ctio& $&d $re 4o"&d
sc$ttered $cross the ch$)0 do=&s o4 so"ther& E&()$&d 8sto&es $&d s.$))er /)"e
sto&es set i& $ circ)e $&d co&&ected /+ )i&te)s
3. 9I11URAT R Arti4ici$) Mo"&t$i&s .$de ", o4 tiered 7)$+ered8 rect$&(")$r st$(es
=hich rose i& &"./er 4ro. o&e to seve&
?. HIERO1LYPHICS R Pictori$) re,rese&t$t io& o4 re)i(io"s rit"$) historic eve&ts $&d
d$i) + ,"rs"its
H ; I 1 5 C L E A > < B
1. <OLME6 R A& $&cie&t str"ct"re "s"$))+ re($rded $s $ to./ co&sisti&( o4 t=o or
.ore )$r(e ",ri(ht sto&es set =ith $ s,$ce /et=ee& $&d c$,,ed /+ $ hori:o&t$) sto&e
!. VOUSSOIRS R A&+ o4 the ,ieces i& the sh$,e o4 $ tr"&c$ted =ed(e =hich 4or. $&
$rch or $ v$")t. A =ed(e2sh$,ed sto&eN $ =ed(e2sh$,ed /ric0 or sto&e "sed to 4or.
the c"rved ,$rts o4 $& $rch or v$")t
#. EQE<RA 2 I& $&cie&t 1reeceI Ro.e $ roo. or covered $re$ or o,e& o& o&e side
"sed $s $ .eet i&( ,)$ce O $rchitect"re histor+ co&vers$tio& roo.N $ roo. 4or
re)$-$t io& or co&vers$tio& es,eci$)) + $ se.icirc") $r recess i& $ )$r(er h$)) =ith $
co&ti&"o"s /e&ch $)o&( the =$))O 4"r&it"re )o&( c"rved o"tdoor /e&chN $ )o&( c"rved
or se.i circ")$r o"tdoor /e&ch "s"$)) + =ith $ hi(h /$c0O $rchitect"re recessN $&+
0i&d o4 recess or &iche 7tech&ic$)8
%. CELLA R The s$&ct"$r+ o4 $ c)$ssic$) te.,)e co&t$i&i&( the c")t st$t"e o4 the (od
'. STUPA R <o.ic$) .o"&ds =hich (ro",ed =ith their r$i)s ($te=$+s ,ro4essio&$)
,$ths $&d cro=&i&( "./re) )$ c$.e to /e 0&o=& $s s+./o)s o4 the "&iverseO $
B"ddhist shri&e te.,)e or ,$(od$ th$t ho"ses $ re)ic or .$r0s the )oc$tio& o4 $&
$"s,icio"s eve&t.
*. ECCLECTIC R A& $dD ective "sed to descri/e $& $rtist =ho se)ects 4or.s $&d ide$s
4ro. di44ere&t ,eriods or co"&tries $&d co./i&es the. to ,rod"ce $ h$r.o&io"s
=ho)e.
3. SO>>IT 7GGG8R The e-,osed "&ders"r4$ce o4 $&+ overhe$d co.,o&e&t o4 $ /"i)di&(
s"ch $s $& $rch /$)co&+ /e$. cor&ice )i&te) or v$")t. /otto. s"r4$ceN the
"&derside o4 $ str"ct"r$) co.,o&e&t o4 $ /"i)di&( 4or e-$.,)e the "&derside o4 $
roo4 overh$&( or the i&&er c"rve o4 $& $rch
?. >ORTRESS R $ )$r(e 4orti4ied 7$r.ed8 ,)$ceO $ 4ort o4te& i&c)"di&( $ to=&O $&+
,)$ce o4 sec"rit +.
@. PE6<E6TIVER the ter. $,,)ied to the tri$&(")$r c"rved overh$&(i&( s"r4$ce /+
.e$&s o4 =hich $ circ")$r do.e is s",,orted over $ sA"$re or ,o) +(o&$)
co.,$rt.e&t. $ s)o,i&( tri$&(")$r ,iece o4 v$")ti&( /et=ee& the $rches th$t s",,ort
$ do.e $&d its ri.
1S. MAYA6 TEMPLE PYRAMI< R Pre2Co)"./i$& edi4ice dedic$ted to the
service or =orshi, o4 their (od =hich is .$de o4 sto&es e&tered /+ $ si&()e door to $
ver+ stee, si&()e 4)i(ht o4 ste,s $/ove it rises $ hi(h sto&e roo4.
11. PICTURESPUE6ESS R Ter. i& $ s,eci$)i:ed se&se to descri/e o&e o4 the $ttit"des
o4 t$ste to=$rds $rchitect"re $&d )$&dsc$,e ($rde&i&( i& the )$te 1?
t h


$&d e$r)+ 1@
t h

ce&t"r+O ver+ $ttr$ctiveN vis"$)) + ,)e$si&( e&o"(h to /e the s"/D ect o4 $ ,$i&ti&( or
,hoto(r$,h
1!. >RESCO R A ter. ori(i&$)) + $,,)ied ,$i&ti&( o& $ =$)) =hi)e the ,)$ster is
=et $&d is &ot i& oi) co)ors. ,$i&ti&( do&e o& 4resh ,)$sterN $ ,$i&ti&( o& $ =$)) or
cei)i&( .$de /+ /r"shi&( =$terco)ors o&to 4resh d$., ,)$ster or o&to ,$rt)+ dr+
,)$ster
L ; I H C 5 > B < A E 1
1. STOA R A )o&( co)o&&$ded /"i)di&( served .$&+ ,"r,oses "sed $ro"&d ,"/)ic
,)$ces $&d $s she)ter $t re)i(io"s shri&esO $& $&cie&t covered =$)0=$+N i& $&cie&t
1reece $ covered =$)0=$+ "s"$)) + =ith $ ro= o4 co)".&s o& o&e side $&d $ =$)) o&
the other
!. ATLA6TES R C$rved .$)e 4i("res servi&( $s ,i))$rs $)so c$))ed TELAMO6ES O
$rchitect"re 4i("re o4 .$& "sed $s s",,ortN $ 4i("re o4 $ .$& either st$&di&( or
0&ee)i&( "sed $s $ s",,ort 4or the ",,er ,$rt o4 $ c)$ssic$) /"i)di&(
#. ABACUS 2 A s)$/ 4or.i&( the cro=&i&( .e./er o4 $ co)".&O
%. E6TASIS R A s=e))i&( or c"rvi&( o"t=$rds $)o&( the o"t)i&e o4 $ co)".& sh$4t
desi(&ed to co"&ter$ct the o,tic$) i))"sio& =hich (ives $ sh$4t /o"&ded /+ str$i(ht
)i&es the $,,e$r$&ce o4 c"rvi&( i&=$rdsO $ /")(e i& $rchitect"r$) co)".&N $ s)i(ht
/")(e i& the sh$4t o4 $ co)".& desi(&ed to co"&ter the vis"$) i.,ressio& o4
co&c$vit + th$t $ ,er4ect) + str$i(ht co)".& =o")d (ive
'. >LUTES R The vertic$) ch$&&e)i&( o& the sh$4t o4 $ co)".&O $rchitect"reN (roove i&
co)".&N $ (roove r"&&i&( do=& $& $rchitect"r$) co)".&
*. CARYATI<S R Sc"),t"res 4e.$)e 4i("res "sed $s co)".&s or s",,orts
3. <AA<O R the ,ortio& o4 $ ,edest$) /et=ee& its /$se $&d cor&ice. A ter. $)so
$,,)ied to the )o=er ,ortio&s o4 =$))s =he& decor$ted se,$r$te) +.
?. ARRIS RThe sh$r, ed(e 4or.ed /+ the .eet i&( o4 t=o s"r4$ce "s"$)) + i& <ORIC
co)".&s
@. >ILLETS R $ s.$)) 4)$t /$&d /et=ee& .o")di&(s to se,$r$te the. 4ro. e$ch other.
$rchitect"re 4)$t &$rro= .o")di&(N $ r$ised or s"&0e& or&$.e&t$) s"r4$ce set
/et=ee& )$r(er s"r4$ces
1S. PE<IME6T R A tri$&(")$r ,iece o4 =$)) $/ove the e&t$/)$t"re e&c)osed /+
r$0i&( cor&icesO $rchitect"re ($/)e o& co)o&&$deN $ /ro$d tri$&(")$r or se(.e&t$)
($/)e s"r.o"&ti&( $ co)o&&$de $s the .$D or ,$rt o4 $ 4$c$de
11. PLI6TH R The )o=est sA"$re .e./er o4 the /$se o4 $ co)".&
1!. A1ORA R To=& sA"$re =$s the ce&ter o4 soci$) $&d /"si&ess )i4e $ro"&d
=hich =ere sto$s or co)o&&$ded ,orticoes te.,) es .$r0ets ,"/)ic /"i)di&(s
.o&".e&ts shri&es.
; 1 H 5 > < L I B E A C
1. TRIUMPHAL ARCH R These $re $rches erected to e.,erors $&d (e&er$)s
co..e.or$ti&( victorio"s c$.,$i(&sO h$s o&e or three o,e&i&(s . S"ch $rches =ere
$dor&ed =ith $,,ro,ri$te /$s2re)ie4s 74)$t sc"),t"reO s)i(ht) + ,roD ecti&(8 $&d "s"$)) +
c$rried (rit2/ro&:e st$t"$r+ 7st$t"es co&sidered co))ective) +8 o& $& $ttic store+ $&d
h$vi&( $ dedic$tor+ i&scri,tio& i& its 4$ce .
!. THERMAE R P$)$ti$) ,"/)ic /$ths o4 I.,eri$) Ro.e r$ised o& $ hi(h ,)$t4or.O hot
s,ri&(sN hot s,ri&(s or /$ths es,eci$) ) + the ,"/)ic /$ths o4 $&cie&t Ro.e.
#. COLOSSEUM R E))i,t ic$) A.,hithe$tres $re ch$r$cteristic$)) + Ro.$& /"i)di&(s
4o"&d i& ever+ i.,ort$&t sett)e.e&t "sed to dis,)$+ o4 .ort$) co./$ts
7()$di$tori$)8
%. APUE<UCTS R A ro.$& str"ct"re =here i..e&se A"$&tities o4 =$ter =ere reA"ired
4or the (re$t ther.$e $&d 4or ,"/)ic 4o"&t$i&s $&d 4or do.est ic s",,)+ 4or the )$r(e
,o,")$tio&O $ ch$&&e) 4or =$terN $ ,i,e or ch$&&e) 4or .ovi&( =$ter to $ )o=er )eve)
o4te& $cross $ (re$t dist$&ce
'. >ORUM R Corres,o&ds 7)i&0s8 to the A(or$ i& $ 1ree0 cit + =$s $ ce&tr$) o,e&
s,$ce "sed $ ,"/)ic .eet i&( s,$ce .$r0et or re&de:vo"s 4or ,o)itic$)
de.o&str$tio&s.
*. PI66ACLE R A t"rret 7s.$)) ro"&ded to=er8 or ,$rt o4 $ /"i)di&( e)ev$ted $/ove the
.$i& /"i)di&(. $rchitect"re ,oi&ted or&$.e&tN $ ,oi&ted or&$.e&t o& to, o4 $
/"ttress or ,$r$,et
3. SARCOPHA1US R T$0e& 4ro. $ to./ ch$./er or the or&$.e&t $) tre$t.e&t (ive&
to $ sto&e co44i& he=& o"t o4 o&e /)oc0 o4 .$r/)e $&d =ith sc"),t"res 4i("res $&d
4estoo&s 7($r)$&d8 o4 $ )$te ,eriod s"r.o"&ted /+ )ids )i0e roo4s ter.i&$ti&( i&
scro))s. sto&e co44i&N $& $&cie&t sto&e or .$r/)e co44i& o4te& decor$ted =ith
sc"),t"re $&d i&scri,tio&s
?. MAUSOLEUM R A ter. $,,)ied to .o&".e&t$) to./s . The+ co&sisted o4 )$r(e
c+) i&dric$) /)oc0s o4te& o& $ A"$dr$&(")$r ,odi". to,,ed =ith $ co&ic$) cro=& o4
e$rth or sto&e.
@. 1ROI6S R Li&e o4 i&tersectio& o4 cross2v$")ts.
1S. CO>>ER R S"&0 ,$&e)s c$isso&s or )$c"&$ri$ 4or.ed i& cei)i&(s v$")ts or
do.esO s"&0e& ,$&e) i& $ cei)i&(N $ decor$tive s"&0e& ,$&e) i& $ cei)i&(
11. BUTTRESS R A .$ss o4 .$so&r+ /"i)t $($i&st $ =$)) to resist the ,ress"re o4 $&
$rch B v$")t.
1!. VAULT R $& $rch coveri&( i& sto&e or /ric0 over $&+ /"i)di&(O $rchitect"re
$rched cei)i&(N $& $rched str"ct"re o4 sto&e /ric0 =ood or ,)$ster th$t 4or.s $
cei)i&( or roo4 O $ roo. =it h $rched cei)i&(N $ roo. es,eci$) ) + $& "&der(ro"&d
roo. =ith $& $rched cei)i&(
> ; 5 L H < I C A 1 E B
1. 6ARTHEQ R A )o&( $rc$ded e&tr$&ce ,orch to $ Christi$& B$si)ic$& Ch"rch.
!. BAPTISTERIES R A /"i)di&( or $ ,$rt o4 $ ch"rch i& =hich /$,tis. is $d.i&istered
#. >O6T R $ /$si& "s"$)) + o4 sto&e =hich ho)ds the =$ter 4or /$,tis..
%. <OME R A v$")t h$vi&( $ circ")$r ,)$& $&d "s"$)) + i& the 4or. o4 $ s,here ,ortio&
so co&str"cted $s to e-ert $& eA"$) thr"st i& $)) directio&s.
'. BEMA R A r$ised st$(e i& $ B$si)ic$& ch"rch reserved 4or the c)er(+.
*. ARCA<E R A r$&(e o4 $rches s",,orted o& ,iers or co)".&s $tt$ched to or det$ched
4ro. the =$)).
3. AMBO R A r$ised ,"),it o& either side o4 $ B$si)ic$& ch"rch 4ro. =hich the e,ist)e
o4 $ (os,e) =ere re$d.
?. MOSAIC 2 <ecor$tive s"r4$ces 4or.ed /+ s.$)) c"/es o4 sto&es ()$ss B .$r/)e.
@. BAL<ACHI6O R A c$&o,+ s",,orted /+ co)".&s (e&er$)) + ,)$ced over $& $)t$r or
to./. A)so 0&o=& $s KCIBORIUML.
1S. AISLE R A )o&(it"di&$) divisio& o4 $& i&terior $re$ $s i& $ ch"rch se,$r$ted
4ro. the .$i& $re$ /+ $rc$des or the )i0e.
11. 6AVE R The ,ri&ci,$) or ce&tr$) )o&(it"di&$) $re$ o4 $ ch"rch e-te&di&( 4ro. the
.$i& e&tr$&ce or &$rthe- to the CHA6CEL 7$re$ o4 ch"rch &e$r $)t$rN $& $re$ o4 $
ch"rch &e$r the $)t$r 4or the "se o4 c)er(+ $&d choir o4te& se,$r$ted 4ro. the &$ve
/+ $ scree& or ste,s8 "s"$))+ 4)$&0ed /+ $is)es o4 )ess hei(ht.
1!. APSE R The circ")$r or .")ti2$&(")$r ter.i&$tio& o4 $ ch"rch s$&ct"$r+. A
ro"&ded ,roD ectio& o4 $ /"i)di&(.
H > ; 1 5 I 6 E P M B < O A L C
1. 5IOS5 R A s.$)) ,$vi)io& "s"$)) + o,e& R /"i)t i& ($rde&s B ,$r0s.
!. MOSPUE R A& i&=$rd2)oo0i&( /"i)di&( =hose ,ri.e ,"r,ose is 4or co&te.,) $tio&
B ,r$+er. A s,$ce =itho"t o/D ect o4 $dor$tio&. 7M"s)i.8
#. CORBEL R A /)oc0 o4 sto&e o4te& e)$/or$te) + c$rved or .o")ded ,roD ected 4ro. $
=$)) s",,orti&( the /e$.s o4 $ roo4 4)oor or v$")t.
%. MI6ARET 2 $ t$)) to=er i& or co&ti&"o"s to $ .osA"e $rch st$irs )e$di&( ", to o&e
or .ore /$)co&ies 4ro. =hich the 4$ith4") $re c$))ed to ,r$+er.
'. CHAM>ER R A di$(o&$) c"tti&( o4 $& $rris 4or.ed /+ t=o s"r4$ces $t $& $&()e
*. ATRIUM R A& $,,ro$ch or $& o,e& 4oreco"rt s"rro"&ded /+ $rc$des i& $ B$si)ic$&
ch"rch.
3. SPUI6CH R A s.$) ) $rch or /r$c0et /"i)t $cross e$ch $&()e o4 $ sA"$re or ,o)+(o&$)
str"ct"re to 4or. $& oct$(o& or other $,,ro,ri$te /$se 4or $ do.e or $ s,ire. A&
i&terior s",,orti&( ,$rt o4 $ to=erN $& $rch cor/e))i&( or )i&te) /"i)t $cross the
",,er i&side cor&er o4 $ sA"$re to=er to s",,ort the =ei(ht o4 $ s,ire or other
str"ct"re $/ove
?. HAREM R Wo.e&Es or ,riv$te A"$rters o4 $ ho"se or ,)$ce i& Is)$.ic $rchitect"re.
@. CE6OTAPH R A& e.,t + to./. A .o&".e&t erected i& .e.or+ o4 o&e &ot i&terred
i& or "&der it.
1S. O1EE R A do"/)e c"rve rese./)i&( the )etter KSL 4or.ed /+ the "&io& o4 $
c"rve $&d $ co&ve- )i&e.
11. 5EYSTO6E R The ce&tr$) sto&e o4 $ se.i2circ")$r $rch so.et i.es sc"),t"red.
1!. ICO6OSTASIS R $ scree& i& $ 1ree0 orthodo- ch"rch o& =hich ico&s or
7s$cred i.$(es8 ,ict"res $re ,)$ced se,$r$ti&( the ch$&ce) 4ro. the s,$ce o,e& to
the )$it +. A& $)t$r scree& decor$ted =ith ico&s N $ scree& o& =hich ico&s $re
.o"&t ed "sed i& E$ster& Orthodo- ch"rches to se,$r$te the $re$ $ro"&d the $)t$r
4ro. the .$i& ,$rt o4 the ch"rch
1#. VERA6<AH R A covered ,orch 7,orch2roo4ed e-terior o4 $ roo.8 or /$)co&+
7/$)co&+2 $ ,)$t4or. ,roD ecti&( 4ro. $& i&terior or e-terior =$)) o4 $ /"i)di&(8
e-te&di&( $)o&( the o"tside o4 $ /"i)di&( ,)$&&ed 4or s"..er )eis"re.
1%. PIA99A R A ,"/)ic o,e& s,$ce i& B+:$&ti&e $rchitect"re s"rro"&ded /+
/"i)di&(s.
1'. ARABESPUE R 1eo.etric$) or&$.e&ts d"e to $/se&ce o4 h".$& $&d $&i .$)
st$t"esO $& or&$te desi(&.
1*. SPA6<REL R The tri$&(")$r s,$ce e&c)osed /+ the c"rve o4 $& $rch $
vertic$) )i&e 4ro. its s,ri&(i&( $ hori:o&t$) )i&e thro"(h its $,e-. A s,$ce /et=ee&
o&e $rch or $&other. S,$ce /et=ee& t=o $rches $&d $ cor&ice.
ME<IEVAL 7>RE6CH8I ROMA6ESPUEN I ; 5 H 1 L < B E A > C
1. TURRET R s.$)) to=ers o4te& co&t$i&i&( st$irs $&d 4or.i&( s,eci$) 4e$t"res i&
.ediev$) /"i)di&(s .
!. MULLIO6S R Vertic$) tr$cer+ .e./ers dividi&( =i&do=s i&to di44ere&t &"./ers o4
)i(ht. A vertic$) =i&do= dividerN $ vertic$) ,iece o4 sto&e .et$) or =ood th$t
divides the ,$&es o4 $ =i&do= or the ,$&e)s o4 $ scree&
#. CHATEAU R A c$st)e i& $ >re&ch2s,e$0i&( co"&tr+ or $ st$te) + reside&ce. A >re&ch
c$st)eN $ c$st)e or )$r(e ho"se i& >r$&ce o4te& o&e th$t h$s $ vi&e+$rd $tt$ched $&d
(ives its &$.e to =i&e ,rod"ced there
%. >LECHE R A s)e&der =oode& s,ire risi&( 4ro. $ roo4. A s)e&der ch"rch s,ireN $
s)e&der s,ire es,eci$)) + o&e th$t e.er(es 4ro. the roo4 o4 $ ch"rch $t the ,oi&t
=here the rid(es i&tersect.
'. 6ICHE R $ 7she))8 or $ recess i& $ =$)) h$))o=ed )i0e $ she)) 4or $ st$t"e or
or&$.e&t.
*. BOSS R 7L"., or 0&o/8 or ,roD ecti&( or&$.e&t $t the i&tersectio& o4 the ri/s o4
cei)i&(s =hether v$")ted or 4)$t.
3. PILASTER STRIP R Is $ rect$&(")$r 4e$t"re i& the sh$,e o4 $ ,i))$r /"t ,roD ecti&(
o&) + $/o"t o&e si-th o4 its /re$dth 7dist$&ce 4ro. side to side8 4ro. the =$)).
?. CHATTRIS R A& "./re))$ sh$,ed co,")$.
@. TRACERY R The or&$.e&t$) ,$tter& =or0 i& sto&e 4i))i&( the ",,er ,$rt o4 $ (othic
=i&do=.
1S. PO<IUM R The hi(h ,)$t4or. o& =hich te.,)es =ere (e&er$)) + ,)$ced 7i&
(e&er$) $&+ e)ev$te ,)$t4or.8. A 4o"&d$tio& =$)) N $ )o= =$)) 4or.i&( $ 4o"&d$tio&
or /$se 4or e-$.,)e 4or $ co)o&&$de
11. TRA6SEPT R The ,$rt o4 $ cr"ci4or. ch"rch ,roD ecti&( $t ri(ht $&()es to the .$i&
/"i)di&(. Wi&(s o4 ch"rchN the ,$rt o4 $ cross2sh$,ed ch"rch th$t r"&s $t ri(ht
$&()es to the )o&( ce&tr$) ,$rt 7&$ve8
1!. RIB B PA6EL R V$")ti&( i& Ro.$&esA"e i& =hich $ 4r$.e=or0 o4 ri/s
s",,orted thi& sto&e ,$&e)s . The &e= .ethod co&sisted i& desi(&i&( the ,ro4i)e o4
the tr$&sverse 7cross=ise or $t ri(ht $&()e =ith so.ethi&(8 )o&(it"di&$) $&d
di$(o&$) ri/s to =hich the 4or. o4 the ,$&e)s =$s $do,ted.
1OTHICN ; H 5 L I A < 1 B > C E
1. CIMBORIO R S,eci$) ter. 4or $ )$&ter& or r$ised str"ct"re $/ove $ roo4 $d.i tti&(
)i(ht i&to the i&terior.
!. LAR<ER R A roo. =here 4ood is storedO $ ,$&tr+ 7 $ =$)02i& c",/o$rd8O $ c",/o$rd
#. SPIRE R The t$,eri&( ter.i&$tio& o4 $ to=er i& 1othic ch"rches.
%. STEEPLE R The ter. $,,)ied to $ to=er cro=&ed /+ $ s,ire
'. WAR<ROBE R A roo. 4or stor$(e o4 ($r.e&ts.
*. CAMBER R A s)i(ht co&ve- c"rv$t"re /"i)t i&to $ tr"ss or /e$. to co.,e&s$te 4or
$& $&tici,$ted de4)ectio& so th$t it =i)) ($ve &o s$( =he& "&der )o$d.
3. COISTERS R Covered ,$ss$(es $ro"&d $& o,e& s,$ce or K1$rthL co&&ecti&( the
ch"rch to the ch$,ter ho"seO $ s.$) ) co"rt +$rd or e&c)osed s,$ce.
?. PA6TRY R A servi&( roo. /et=ee& 0itche& $&d di&i&( roo. or $ roo. 4or stor$(e
o4 4ood s",,)ies.
@. STELLAR VAULT R A v$")t i& =hich the ri/s co.,ose $ Kst$r2sh$,edL ,$tter&.
1S. MO6ASTERY R A /"i)di&( co.,)e- o4 $ cert$i& E&()ish order or $ se)42
co&t$i&ed co.."&i t + "sed /+ .o&0s.
11. ORIEL WI6<OW R A /$+ =i&do= es,eci$)) + c$&ti) evered or cor/e))ed o"t 4ro. the
4$ce o4 the =$)) /+ .e$&s o4 ,roD ecti&( sto&es.
1!. RE>ECTORY R The di&i&( h$)) o4 $ .o&$st er+ co&ve&t or co))e(e.
RE6AISSA6CEN ; > H I 5 B P E 6 < 1 O C L A M
1. SCROLL R A& or&$.e&t co&sisti&( o4 $ s,ir$)) + =o"&d /$&d either $s $ r"&&i&(
or&$.e&t or $s $ ter.i&$) )i0e the vo)"tes o4 the io&ic c$,it$).
!. PALA99O R A& It$)i$& i.,ressive /"i)di&( or ,riv$te /"i)di&(
#. BALUSTER R O&e o4 $ &"./er o4 short vertic$) .e./ers o4te& circ")$r i& sectio&
"sed to s",,ort $ st$ir h$&dr$i) or $ co,i&( 7=$))Es c$,,i&( s"r4$ce8.
%. ROCOCO 2 KROC5L O $ ter. $,,)ied to $ t+,e o4 Re&$iss$&ce or&$.e&t i& =hich
roc02)i0e 4or.s 4$&t$stic scro))s $&d Mcri .,edE 4o)ded or ,ressed to(ether8 she))s
7$re =or0ed ", to(ether i& $ ,ro4"sio& $&d co&4"sio& o4 det$i) o4te& =itho"t or($&ic
cohere&ce /"t ,rese&ti&( $ )$vish dis,)$+ o4 decor$tio&O A&+ e-cessive) + or&$te or
4$&c+ st+)eO A st +) e o4 $rchitect"re $&d the decor$tive $rts ch$r$cteri:ed /+ i&tric$t e
or&$.e&t$tio& th$t =$s ,o,")$r thro"(ho"t E"ro,e i& the e$r) + 1?th ce&t"r+ .
'. BAROPUE R I& >r$&ce $&+thi&( e-tr$v$($&t) + or&$.e&t ed so or&$te $s to /e i&
/$d t$ste $ st+)e o4 $rt $&d $rchitect"re i& It$) + i& the 13
t h


to 1?
t h


ce&t"r+ .
*. BEL>RY R A to=er &ot co&&ected =ith KBe))L. A ter. $,,)ied to the ",,er roo. i&
$ to=er i& =hich the /e))s $re h"&(.
3. E6TABLATURE R The e&tire co&str"ctio& o4 $ c)$ssic$) te.,) e or the )i0e /et=ee&
the co)".&s $&d the e$ves "s"$)) + co.,osed o4 $& $rchitr$ve 4rie:e $&d $ cor&ice .
?. <O1EES HALL R 7BRITISH8 The h$)) /"i)t or "sed /+ .ediev$) $ssoci$tio& $s o4
.erch$&ts $&d tr$des.e& or($&i:ed to .$i&t$i& st$&d$rds th$t co&stit"ted $
(over&i&( /od+. 7<o(e T It$)i$& re&$iss$&ce chie4 .$(istr$te8
@. PAVILIO6 R 7)itt)e ho"se 4or ,)e$s"re B recre$tio&8. A ,ro.i&e&t str"ct"re
(e&er$)) + disti&ctive i& ch$r$cter.
1S. CHA6CEL R The s,$ce $/o"t the $)t$r o4 $ ch"rch "s"$)) + se,$r$ted /+ $
scree& 4or the c)er(+ $&d other o44ici$)s "s"$)) + re4erred to $s the KchoirL.
11. PUOI6S R A& eter&$) so)id $&()e o4 $ =$)) or the )i0e. O&e o4 the sto&es 4or.i&(
it cor&er sto&e 7Re&$iss$&ce8 A /)oc0 4or.i&( $ cor&erN $ sto&e /)oc0 "sed to 4or.
$ A"oi& es,eci$)) + =he& it is di44ere&t 4or e-$.,)e i& si:e or .$teri $) 4ro. the
other /)oc0s or /ric0s i& the =$))
1!. CO6SOLE R A KBRAC5ETLN is $ ,roD ecti&( .e./er to s",,ort $ =ei(ht
(e&er$)) + 4or.ed =ith scro))s or vo)"te =he& c$rr+i&( the ",,er .e./er o4 the
cor&ice.
1#. CRYPT R A s,$ce e&tire) + or ,$rt) + "&der $ /"i)di&(O i& ch"rches (e&er$)) +
/e&e$th the ch$&ce) $&d "sed 4or /"ri$) i& e$r)ier ti .es. A& "&der(ro"&d ch$./erN
$& "&der(ro"&d roo. or v$")t o4te& /e)o= $ ch"rch "sed $s $ /"ri$) ch$./er or
ch$,e) or 4or stori&( re)i(io"s $rti4$cts
1%. 6EWEL R The ce&tr$) sh$4t o4 $ circ")$r st$irc$se. A)so $,,)ied to the ,ost i&
=hich the h$&dr$i) is 4r$.ed.
1'. <O1EES PALACE R The chie4 .$(istr$teEs /"i)di&(s i& the 4or.er re,"/)ic
o4 Ve&ice B 1e&o$.
1*. CUPOLA R A s,heric$) roo4 7$ do.e2sh$,ed roo48 ,)$ced )i0e $& i&verted c",
over $ circ")$r sA"$re or .")ti2$&(")$r $,$rt.e&t. A do.e o& roo4N $ s.$)) do.e o&
$ roo4 so.eti.es .$de o4 ()$ss $&d ,rovidi&( &$t"r$) )i(ht i&side
5 ; I L 1 H O B < M E P A > C 6
1. VESTIBULE R A& $&te2roo. to $ )$r(er $,$rt .e&t o4 $ /"i)di&(O A& e&tr$&ce h$))N $
s.$) ) roo. or h$)) /et=ee& $& o"ter door $&d the .$i& ,$rt o4 $ /"i)di&(
!. LA6TER6 R A co&str"ctio& s"ch $s $ to=er $t the crossi&( o4 $ ch"rch risi&( $/ove
the &ei(h/ori&( roo4s $&d ()$:ed $t the sides.
#. WREATH R A t=isted /$&d ($r)$&d or ch$,)et re,rese&ti&( 4)o=ers 4r"its )e$ves
o4te& "sed i& decor$tio&O A circ")$r $rr$&(e.e&t o4 4)o=ersN $ circ")$r $rr$&(e.e&t
o4 4)o=ers $&d (ree&er+ ,)$ced $s $ .e.ori$) o& $ (r$ve h"&( ", $s $ decor$tio&
or ,"t o& so.e/od+Es he$d $s $ si(& o4 ho&orO $ re,rese&t$tio& o4 =re$thN $
re,rese&t$tio& o4 $ circ")$r $rr$&(e.e&t o4 4)o=ers vi&es or other thi&(s 4or
e-$.,)e i& $ c$rvi&( or o& $ co$t o4 $r.sO Fhe$ddressO ($r)$&dO )$"re)H
%. SALO6 R I& Re&$iss$&ce $ roo. "sed ,ri.$ri) + 4or e-hi/itio& o4 $rt o/D ects or $
dr$=i&( roo.OF(r$&d sitti&( roo.O soci$) ($theri&( o4 i&te))ect"$)sO $rt e-hi/itio& or
($))er+H
'. MA6SAR< R A roo4 h$vi&( $ do"/)e s)o,e o& 4o"r sidesO the )o=er s)o,e /ei&(
."ch stee,er $&d the 4)$tter ",,er ,ortio&. A)so 0&o=& $s the ($./re) roo4 .
*. 6YMPHAEUM R A roo. decor$ted =ith ,)$&ts sc"),t"re $&d 4o"&t$i&s 7o4te&
decor$ted =ith /e$"ti4") M$ide& )ivi&( i& Rivers trees8 $&d i&te&ded 4or re)$-$t io&.
F&+.,hN $ s,irit or $ .i&or (oddess o4 &$t"reO or $ /e$"ti4") +o"&( =o.$&H
3. >I6IAL R A& or&$te iro& (ri))e or scree& $ ch$r$cterist ic 4e$t"re o4 S,$&ish Ch"rch
i&teriors O A& $rchitect"r$) decor$tio&N $ c$rved decor$tio& $t the to, o4 $ ($/)e
s,ire or $rched str"ct"re
?. PE<ESTAL R A s",,ort 4or $ co)".& st$t"e or $ v$se it "s"$)) + co&sists o4 $ /$se.
K<ieL or <$do $&d $ cor&ice or c$, .o")d .
@. <ORMER R A =i&do= i& $ s)o,i&( roo4 "s"$)) + th$t o4 $ s)ee,i&( $,$rt .e&t. A
=i&do= ,roD ecti&( 4ro. roo4N $ =i&do= 4or $ roo. =ithi& the roo4 s,$ce th$t is
/"i)t o"t $t ri(ht $&()es to the .$i& roo4 $&d h$s its o=& ($/)e
1S. HERMES R A /"st 7sc"),t"re o4 he$d B sho")ders8 o& $ sA"$re ,edest$)
i&ste$d o4 $ h".$& /od+ "sed i& c)$ssic ti .es to .$r0 /o"&d$ries o& hi(h=$+s $&d
"sed decor$tive) + i& Re&$iss$&ce ti.es.
11. MULLIO6 R Vertic$) .e./ers dividi&( =i&do=s i&to di44ere&t &"./er o4 )i(hts.
1!. PATIO R A S,$&ish $rc$ded or co)o&&$ded +$rdO $ ,$ved $re$ o"tside $ ho"seN
$ ,$ved $re$ $dD oi&i&( $ ho"se "sed 4or o"tdoor di&i&( (ro=i&( ,)$&ts i&
co&t$i&ers $&d recre$tio&. A roo4)ess co"rt+$rdN $ roo4)ess i&&er co"rt+$rd t +,ic$)
o4 $ S,$&ish2st+)e ho"se.
1#. MO<ILLIO6S R A)so c$))ed M/r$c0etsL or Kco&so)esL or K$&co&esL . It is $
,roD ecti&( .e./er to s",,ort $ =ei(ht. (e&er$)) + 4or.ed =ith scro))s or vo)"tes
=hich c$rr+ the ",,er .e./er o4 $ cor&ice 7$ ,roD ecti&( .o")di&( $t the to, o4 $
=$)) or $t =here the =$)) B cei)i&( .eets8O $)so $ /r$c0et i& Cori&thi$& orderN $
s.$) ) c"rved or&$.e&t $) /r$c0et "&der the coro&$ o4 $ Cori&thi$& or Co.,osi te
co)".&
1%. TRA6SOM R The hori:o&t$) divisio&s or cross/$rs o4 =i&do=s.
1'. TABER6ACLE R A decor$tive &iche o4te& to,,ed =ith $ c$&o,+ $&d ho"si&(
$ st$t"e or $& ico&.
1*. AMBULATORY R 7to =$)08 the c)oister 7covered =$)0=$+ $ro"&d $
co"rt +$rd8 or covered ,$ss$(e $ro"&d the e$st e&d o4 the ch"rch /ehi&d the $)t$r.
SPA6ISHN O H 1 L ; 5 M E < > A P I B C 6
1. >I6IAL R A)so c$))ed K0e+ ,$tter&L the ",,er ,ortio& o4 the ,i&&$c)e F,i&&$c)eN
,oi&ted or&$.e&tN $ ,oi&ted or&$.e&t o& to, o4 $ /"ttress or ,$r$,etHO $&
$rchitect"r$) decor$tio&N $ c$rved decor$tio& $t the to, o4 $ ($/)e s,ire or $rched
str"ct"re
!. <AIS R $ r$ised ,)$t4or. reserved 4or the se$ti&( o4 s,e$0ers $&d di(&it$riesO $
r$ised ,)$t4or.N $ r$ised ,)$t4or. $t the e&d o4 $ h$)) or )$r(e roo.. F,odi".
,)$t4or. ,"),it st$(eH
#. BAY WI6<OW R The =i&do= o4 $ ,rotr"ded /$+ or the =i&do=ed /$+ itse)4. A
,rotr"di&( =i&do=N $ ro"&ded or three2sided =i&do= th$t stic0s o"t 4ro. $& o"tside
=$)) $&d 4or.s $ recess o& the i&side.
%. HELM ROO> R B")/o"s ter.i&$tio& to the to, o4 $ to=er 4o"&d ,ri&ci,$) ) + i&
Ce&tr$) B E$ster& E"ro,e.
'. 1ALLERY R A co.."&i c$t i&( ,$ss$(e or =ide corridor 4or ,ict"res $&d st$t"es. A&
",,er store+ 4or se$ts i& $ ch"rch.
*. STRAPWOR5 R A t+,e o4 re)ie4 or&$.e&t or cresti&( Fcresti&(N $ decor$tive roo4
rid(eN $& or&$.e&t$) rid(e o& $ roo4 H rese./) i&( the st"dded )e$ther str$,s
$rr$&(ed i& (eo.etri c$) $&d so.eti .es i&ter)$ced ,$tter&s ."ch "sed i& the e$r) +
re&$iss$&ce $rchitect"re o4 E&()$&d . A decor$tive =or0 o& /"i)di&(N decor$tive =or0
i& the 4or. o4 crossi&( or i&ter)$ced /$&ds o& the o"tside o4 $ /"i)di&( es,eci$)) +
i& T"dor $rchitect"re 71%?'21*S#8 . FT"dorN re)$ti&( to T"dor $rchitect"r$) st +) eN
re)$ti&( to or /ei&( $ st+)e o4 $rchitect"re ,o,")$r thro"(ho"t the T"dor ,eriod. Its
/"i)di&(s t+,i c$)) + h$ve $ ti./er 4r$.e=or0 visi/)e 4ro. the o"tside 4i))ed i& =ith
,)$ster or /ric0H
3. I6TERCOLUM6ATIO6 R The s,$ce /et=ee& t=o co)".&s
?. CHERUBS R O&e o4 the =i&(ed he$ve&) + /ei&(s th$t s",,ort the thro&e o4 1od or
$ct $s ("$rdi$& s,irits or Ch"//+ $ ros+24$ced chi)d =ith =i&(s. A& $&(e) o4
seco&d orderN $& $&(e) s,eci4ic$) ) + o&e /e)o&(i&( to the seco&d order o4 $&(e)s i&
the ce)esti$) hier$rch+ =hose disti&ctive $ttri/"t e is 0&o=)ed(e. Arts de,ictio& o4
$&(e)N $& $&(e) de,icted $s $ ch"//+24$ced chi)d =ith =i&(s so.eti .es si.,) + $s $
chi)dEs he$d $/ove $ ,$ir o4 =i&(s
@. TERRA2COTA R E$rth2/$0ed 7"&()$:ed8 or /"r&t i& .o")ds. >or "se i&
co&str"ctio& h$rder i& A"$)it + th$& /ric0. F/ro=&ish red co)orH
1S. HERAL<IC R A co$t o4 $r.sO co&&ected =ith her$)dr+ or her$)dsN /e)o&(i&(
or re)$ti&( to her$)dr+ or her$)ds
11. PLATERESPUE R Ph$se o4 the e$r)+ ,eriod o4 S,$&ish $rchitect"re o4 the )$ter 1'
t h



$&d e$r)+ 1*
t h


ce&t"r+ $& i&tric$te st+)e &$.ed $4ter its )i0e&ess to si)ver=or0O
e)$/or$te) + decor$tedN re)$ti&( to $ he$vi) + decor$ted $rchitect"r$) st +) e 4$shio&$/)e
i& 1*th2ce&t"r+ S,$i& re.i&isce&t o4 e)$/or$te si)ver=$re
1!. PULPIT R A& e)ev$ted e&c)osed st$&d i& $ CHURCH i& =hich the ,re$cher
st$&ds.
1#. BELVE<ERE R A roo4ed /"t o,e&2sided str"ct"re $44ordi&( $& e-te&sive vie=
"s"$)) + )oc$ted $t the roo4to, o4 $ d=e))i&( /"t so.et i.es $& i&de,e&de&t /"i)di&(
or $& e.i&e&ce 7$ hi))8 o& $ 4or.$) ($rde&O $ /"i)di&( =ith 4i&e vie=N $ /"i)di&( or
,$rt o4 $ /"i)di&( ,ositio&ed to o44er $ 4i&e vie= o4 the s"rro"&di&( $re$
1%. CHURRI1UERESPUE R A& e-,ressio& o4 S,$&ish /$roA"e $rchitect"re $&d
sc"),t"re $ rec"rre&t 4e$t"re =$s the rich) + ($r)$&ded s,ir$) co)".&s. F4)$./o+$&t2
sho=+O /ri(ht) + co)oredO hi(h) + decor$ted or&$.e&t$t io&H
1'. CA6<ELABRA R A .ov$/) e c$&d)e )$.,2st$&d =ith ce&tr$) sh$4t $&d o4te&
/r$&ches or decor$tive re,rese&t$t io& thereo4O $ /r$&chi&( )i(ht 4itti&(N $ )$r(e
decor$tive c$&d)e ho)der =ith sever$) $r.s or /r$&ches or $ si.i)$r) + sh$,ed
e)ectric )i(ht 4itti&(
1*. >RETWOR5 R 7(r$ti&(N .et$) (ri))e8 $& or&$.e&t i& c)$ssic or re&$iss$&ce
$rchitect"re co&sisti&( o4 $& $sse./) + o4 str$i(ht )i&es i&tersect i&( $t ri(ht $&()es
$&d o4 v$rio"s ,$tter&s.
M H ; O 1 5 L P < E B > I C A 6
1. WATA2<A1E R O"tst$&di&( $rchitect"r$) cre$tio& i& Sri L$&0$ =hich is $ circ")$r
re)ic ho"se /"i)t i& sto&e $&d /ric0.
!. TU<OR2REVIVAL R Pict"resA"e co.,ositio& /"i)t i& A.eri c$ si&ce 1@?S . H$))
ti ./eri&( $&d .$ssive .ediev$) chi .&e+. Ide&ti4ied /+ ,ro.i&e&t ($/)es $&d )$r(e
e-,$&sive =i&do=s =ith s.$)) ,$&es.
#. TORUS R $ )$r(e co&ve- .o")di&( "sed ,ri&ci,$)) + i& the /$ses o4 co)".&s.
%. PA1O<A R Most t +,ic$) Chi&ese /"i)di&( "s"$)) + oct$(o&$) i& ,)$& odd &"./er o
stories "s"$)) + @ or 1# store+s $&d re,e$ted roo4s hi(h)+ co)ored $&d =ith ",t"r&ed
e$ves s)o,es to e$ch store+.
'. BU61ALOW R O&e store+ =ith )o=2overh$&(i&( roo4 $&d /ro$d 4ro&t ,orch.
U&,rete&tio"s st +) e o4te& r$./)i&( s,re$d o"t 4)oor ,)$& .ore e-,e&sive to /"i)dO
)i(ht=ei(ht tro,ic$) ho"seN $ si.,) +2 /"i)t o&e2store+ ho"se =ith $ ver$&d$ $&d $
=ide (e&t)+ s)o,i&( roo4 i& So"the$st Asi$ $&d the So"th P$ci4ic
*. >AIE6CE R A ()$:ed e$rth =$re ori(i&$)) + .$de i& It$)+O ,otter+ =ith co)ored
()$:eN e$rthe&=$re decor$ted =ith co)ored o,$A"e .et $)) ic ()$:es 7o4te& "sed /e4ore
$ &o"&8
3. STAMBASI LATHS R Mo&".e&t $) ,i))$rs st$&di&( 4ree =itho"t $&+ str"ct"r$)
4"&ctio& =ith circ")$r or oct$(o&$) sh$4ts =ith i&scri,tio&s c$rved i& it. The
c$,it$) =$s /e))2sh$,ed $&d cro=&ed =ith $&i .$) s",,orted /e$ri&( the B"ddhist
=i)) o4 L$=.
?. 1REAT WALL R Most 4$.o"s o4 $&cie&t Chi&ese /"i)di&( "&dert$0i&(s. It s&$0es
)oo,s $&d do"/)es /$c0 o& itse)4. Me$&deri&( $cross v$))e+s ,)$i&s sc$)i&(
.o"&t $i&s ,)"&(i&( i&to dee, (or(es $&d )e$,i&( r$(i&( rivers o4 # 3SS .i )es.
@. ART 6OVEAU R A& $rt 4ree 4ro. $&+ historic$) st+)e ch$r$cteri:ed /+ 4or.s o4
&$t"re 4or or&$.e&t$t io& i& the 4$U$de $,t) + c$))ed 4or the 4)or$) desi(&.
1S. BAUHAUS R $ schoo) 4o"&ded /+ 1ro,i"s i& 1@1@ deve)o,i&( $ 4or. o4
tr$i&i&( i&te&ded to re)$te $rt $&d $rchitect"re to tech&o)o(+ $&d the ,r$ctic$) &eeds
o4 h".$& )i4e.
11. >E6ESTRATIO6 R The $rr$&(e.e&t $&d desi(& o4 =i&do=s i& $ /"i)di&(.
1!. ARCHITECTO6IC R Re)$ti&( or co&4or.i&( to tech&ic$) $rchitect"r$)
,ri&ci,)es .
1#. RARHS R Roc02c"t te.,)es i& I&di$
1%. SPACE2>RAME R A str"ct"r$) s+ste. co&sisti&( o4 tr"sses i& t=o directio&s
ri(id) + co&&ected $t their i&tersectio&s. A rect$&(")$r sh$,e is 4or.ed =here the to,
$&d /otto. chords o4 the tr"sses $re direct) + $/ove B /e)o= o&e $&other.
1'. BALOO62>RAME R $ t +,e o4 ti./er 4r$.i&( i& A.eric$ $/o"t 1?!Ss =herei&
it o=es its stre&(th to the =$))s roo4 $cti&( $s di$,hr$(.s $&d &ot o& the ,ost. It
is $& e-te&sio& o4 the roo4.
1*. PAILOU R A Chi&ese cere.o&i$) ($te=$+ erected i& .e.or+ o4 $& e.i&e&t
,erso&.
> 5 E 1 B H ; I L < A C O P 6 M
1. BO6SAI R A d=$r4 tree =hich is $ ,er4ect re4)ectio& o4 ;$,$&ese c")t"re.
!. A6TILLA6 HOUSE R A& e)e($&t t=o store+ rect$&(")$r to=& ho"se =ith $ .$ssive
sto&e 4irst 4)oor $&d $ )i(ht $&d $ir+ seco&d 4)oor .other2o42,e$r) or Kc$,i:L
=i&do=s $&d ,ict"resA"e =ide ti)e roo4. E&tr$&ce is o4 He$v+ ,)$&0 door =ith
=ro"(ht iro& or /r$ss &$i)s st"rd+ /$)"str$des o4 =ood or iro& (ri))es /e)o=
=i&do=s to )et i& coo) $ir.
#. BELVE<ERE R A& o,e&2roo4ed ($))er+ i& $& ",,er store+ /"i)t 4or (ivi&( $ vie= o4
the sce&er+.
%. TEA HOUSE R I& ;$,$& $ str"ct"re =here the $,,reci$tio& o4 the $rts $&d 4)o=er
$rr$&(e.e&t =ith dri&0i&( cere.o&+ is do&e.
'. 5E6 R I&terco)".&i$tio& is re(")$ted /+ this st$&d$rd o4 ;$,$&ese .e$s"re.e&t
=hich is divided i&to !S ,$rts c$))ed .i&"t es $&d e$ch .i&"t e /ei&( $($i& divided
i&to !S ,$rts or seco&ds o4 s,$ce.
*. I>U1AOIBO6TOC HOUSE R Cordi))er$ o&e roo. ho"se o& 4o"r =oode& ,osts =ith
$& $&i.$) or i&sect /$rrier $&d $ ,+r$.id$) roo4 Co(o& (r$ss /"i)t =itho"t &$i)s.
3. 6IPA HOUSE R A ho"se =ith $ ,ro=2)i0e 74ro&t o4 shi,8 .$D estic roo4 the
,o) +chro.e e-tr$v$($&t =oode& c$rvi&(s derived 4ro. the M$)$+ M+thic$) /ird the
KS$ri M$&o0L The si)0e& M"s)i. c$&o,ies i& the I&teriors. The ,rotr"di&( e&ds o4
4)oor /e$.s $re decor$ted =ith i&tric$te c$rvi&(s.
?. MARA6AO HOUSE R Lo=)$&ds $re$ ho"se =ith ,ithed roo4 .$de o4 /$./oo
,o)es th$tch roo4 =ith =ove& s)it c$&es 4or =$))s $&d s,)it /$./oo s)$ts 4)oori&(.
@. IVATA6 HOUSE R M$de o4 S. 3' .. thic0 sto&e o4 )i .e =$)) =ith thic0 th$tched
roo4 .$de o4 sever$) )$+ers o4 co(o& $&d he)d to(ether /+ se$so&ed stic0s or reeds
$&d r$tt$& to =ithst$&d 4iercest t+,hoo&s i& the &orth.
1S. LO11IA R A& $rc$de o4 roo4ed ($))er+ /"i)t i&to or ,roD ecti&( 4ro. the side
o4 $ /"i)di&( ,$rtic")$r) + o&e over)oo0i&( $& o,e& co"rt. A covered /$)co&+ $&d
=$)0=$+N $ covered o,e&2sided =$)0=$+ o4te& =ith $rches $)o&( o&e side o4 $
/"i)di&(
11. IRIMOYA 1ABLE R ;$,$&ese do.i&$&t roo4s ch$r$cteri :ed /+ their e-A"isite
c"rv$t"re $&d $re s",,orted ",o& $ s"ccessio& o4 si.,)e or co.,o"&d /r$c0ets .
The ",,er ,$rt o4 the roo4 is ter.i&$ted /+ $ ($/)e ,)$ced vertic$)) + $/ove the e&d
=$))s =hi)e the )o=er ,$rt o4 the .$i& roo4 is c$rried ro"&d the e&ds o4 the /"i)di&(
i& $ hi,,ed 4or..
1!. TORII R Shi&to te.,) es 7Shi&to2;$,$&ese re)i(io&8 $re ch$r$cteri:ed /+ this
($te=$+ 4or.ed /+ ",ri(ht ,osts s",,orti&( t=o or .ore hori:o&t$) /e$.s.
1#. TROMPE LE OEIL R K>oo) the e+eL R $re ,$i&ti&(s $dor&i&( ever+thi&( 4ro.
c$/i&ets to c",/o$rds 4ire scree& to dish=$shers. This cre$tes $& i))"sio& o4 s,$ce.
A .$0e2/e)ieve door=$+ 4or e-$.,)e e-te&ds $ h$)). A ()$ss c$/i&et or door is
,$i&ted =ith co=s $&d chic0e& $&d .$0e2/e)ieve or cre$te $& o"tdoor sce&e.
1%. COU6TRY HOUSE R A ho"se co.,osed o4 &$t"r$) .$teri$)s. It is $& ec)ectic
$&d or($&ic )oo0 th$t (ro=s $&d ch$&(es =ith $&tiA"es $&d $ c)"tter o4 di44ere&t
co))ectio&s .$de o4 ro"(h ,)$ster o)d /e$.s =ood 4r$.ed =i&do=s $&d s)$te or
/ric0 4)oors . A ho"se i& the co"&tr+N $ )$r(e ho"se i& the co"&tr+ o4te& =ith $ )$r(e
$re$ o4 )$&d $tt$ched
1'. ART <ECO R 1@#Ss .oder&istEs st +) e o4 $rt i&s,ired /+ .ech$&ic$) 4or.s $&d
chie4) + disti&("ished /+ (eo.etri c$) sh$,es /o)d co)or sche.es $&d s+..et ri c$)
desi(&s s"it$/)e 4or .$ss ,rod"ctio& .
1*. CO6SERVATORIES ARBORS B 1A9EBOS R These $re ($rde& roo.s.
$. >$&ci4") ,re24$/ric$t ed .ode)s $tt$ched to the ho"ses 4i))ed =ith =ro"(ht
iro& or =ic0er 4"r&it"re e-otic ,)$&ts $&d /irds.
/. These $re o,e& s,$ces =ith se$ti&( $re$s /e&e$th =ood r$4ters or )e$42
e&t=i&ed ,)$&ts. 7 $ sh$d+ ,)$ceN $ sh$ded ,)$ce 4or.ed /+ the )e$ves $&d
/r$&ches o4 trees $&d ,)$&ts th$t i&ter=e$ve &$t"r$)) + or $re tr$i&ed to (ro=
$ro"&d $ tre))is 8
c. A roo4 ,)$ce sh$ded 4ro. the s"& to re$d or to e&tert$i& $&d e&D o+ the vie=.
ARCHITECTS & BUILDINGS DESIGNED
E 5 H P A I C ; M O L 6 B > < 1
1. LEVER HOUSE
S0id.ore O=i&(s B Merri)
!. CHRYSLER BUIL<I61 6Y
Wi))i $& V$& A)e&
#. 1EO<ESIC <OME
B"c0.i&ster >"))er
%. SY<6EY OPERA HOUSE
;or& Ut:o&
'. SOLOMO6 1U11E6HEIM MUSEUM
>r$&0 L)o+d Wri(ht
*. PARLIAME6T BUIL<I61S BRA9IL
L"cio Cost$ B Osc$r 6i.e+er
3. BAUHAUS BL<1 1ERMA6Y
W$)ter 1ro,i"s
?. EI6STEI6 TOWER
Eirch Me&de)soh&
@. CHAPEL O> 6OTRE <AME
Le Cor/osier
1S. CULTURAL CE6TER O> THE PHILIPPI6ES
Le$&dro Locsi&
11. TAHA6A61 >ILIPI6OI COCO6UT PALACE
>r$&cisco K/o//+L M$Vos$
1!. ASIA6 <EVELOPME6T BA65 O> THE PHILIPPI6ES
CC. <e C$stro
1#. SA6 MI1UEL CORP. BUIL<I61
M$&"e) M$Vos$
1%. BA65 O> CHI6A H5
I. M. Pei
1'. TWA 5E66E<Y AIRPORT 6Y
Eero S$$ri&e&
1*. ATBT BL<1 6Y
Phi)i, ;oh&so&
FAMOUS DICTUMS/PHILOSOPHIES/SAYINGS
1. K>ORM >OLLOWS >U6CTIO6L
222 Lo"is S"))iv$&
!. K>ORM <OES 6OT 6ECESSARILY >OLLOW >U6CTIO6L
222 A&to&io 1$"di
#. KART B ARCHITECTURE THE 6EW U6ITYL
222 W$)ter 1ro,i"s
%. KA HOUSE I6 A HOUSEL
222 Lo"is 5$h&
'. KCUBE WITHI6 A CUBEE
222 Le Cor/"sier
*. KA BRI<1E IS LI5E A HOUSEL
222 Ro/ert M$i))$rt
3. KLESS IS MOREL
222 L"d=i( Mies V$& <erohe
?. K>U6CTIO6 I6>LUE6CE BUT <OES 6OT <ICTATE >ORML
222 Eero S$$ri&e&
@. KMO<ER6 ARCHITECTURE 6EE< 6OT BE WESTER6L
222 5e&:o T$&(e
1S. KARCHITECTURE MUST MEET # REPUIREME6TSN STE61TH BEAUTY
U6ITYL
222 M$rc"s Vitr"vi"s Pocio
STOAO ,$tio 7S,$&ish o"tdoor )ivi&( or di&i&(8OVERA6<AH 7$ ,orch or /$)co&+ 4or
s"..er )eis"re8O LO11IA
PI66ACLEO
T"rret7.ediev$)8 O .i&$ret 7Is)$.ic8Ost ee,)e 7ch"rch to=er B s,ire87ter. "se 4or s,ire
cro=&ed to=ers8
Pi&&$c)e7hi(hest ,oi&t8O 4)eche 7$ ch"rch s,ire8O s,ire 7t$,eri&( ter.i&$t io& o4 $ (othic
ch"rch to=er8O 4i&i$) 7$ desi(& $t the to, o4 $ s,ire8
Boss 7v$")ted or 4)$t8O (roi& 7v$")ted o&)+8
P"oi&s 7D "st $ cor&er sto&e8 vs. sA"i&ch 7str"ct"r$) $rch to s",,ort $ do.e8
>o+erO vesti/")eO )o//+

Verwandte Interessen