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IGCSE Language Examination Q 2 (10 marks)

Using reading skills: understanding ho riters a!hie"e e##e!ts


Writers effect: The effect on the reader created by an
authors words. This effect could be to
stimulate our senses or convey a scene,
idea or emotion.
After reading a passage you need to work out what effect the writer has created.
Here is a checklist of possibilities:
An experience has been described
An atmosphere has been created
A statement of fact has been made
An opinion emotion has been conveyed
A reaction has been provoked
!ext you need to work out what impression has been made on your mind or senses.
Here is a checklist of possibilities:
"ou can see the scene that has been described
"ou can hear the sounds that have been described #onomatopoeia, alliteration,
consonance, assonance$
"ou can almost smell or taste something that was described #vivid description$
"ou can almost physically or emotionally feel something described #vivid
description$
%inally you need to understand what caused this effect on you. Here is a checklist of
possible causes:
The specific meaning of a word
The associations created by a word
The rhythm and pace of words and sentence structures
The positioning of words, phrases, sentences and lines on the page
Sam$le Question:
&By referring closely to the language used by the writer, explain how she communicates:
a) The violence of the girls actions
b) Her feelings about the girls behaviour
"ou are first told where to look' &language used by the writer
(n the first part of the )uestion you are given information about the
impressions produced on the mind or senses ' &violence* so you need to
look for instances of this feature of the writing and explain how they
create the effect of &violence
The second part of the )uestion does not tell you exactly what to look for+
however it does give you a clue that a feeling is shown. "ou have to work
out which feeling and how it is expressed.
%i$s #or su!!ess:
,. -ead the )uestion carefully -emember you are looking for . things:
/oes the )uestion tell you
what effect you are looking
for0
/oes the )uestion tell you
where to look for the effect0
/oes the )uestion tell you
how the effect is created0
1. 2e as precise as possible when
identifying effects
This shows the examiner that you have
thought carefully about the words of the
passage and have reached a conclusion
about their effect
.. 3uote selectively from the passage "ou will only ever need to )uote single
words or brief phrases. (f you are copying
out more than this then you are not
showing that you can accurately 4udge how
an effect is being created. "ou are simply
showing where the effect might be.
5. 6xplain how the writer creates the
effect
7nce you have identified the effect that has
been produced and where the proof of it
can be found, you must then explain how
the proof shows the effect that you have
claimed is there. Three types of proof:
8se the precise meaning of a word
#denotation$ to explain how it
creates the effect #identify specific
words synonyms antonyms
groups of words that are similar
different in meaning and create a
similar contrasting effect$
8se the &intensity of a word to
explain how it creates the effect
#think of synonyms on a continuum$
8se the associations #connotation$
of a word to explain how it creates
the effect e.g.:
A set of visual images #figurative
language$
9ensory impressions #figurative
language, synesthesia$
/istinctive atmospheres emotions
#cumulative$
:ook out for more than one effect 2e aware that there may be more than one
effect in the same piece of writing+ words
and phrases an do a lot of different things at
the same time #if love is described as being
like a rose ' what possible connotations
does this have0$