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Subnetting

IPv4

172.16.4.0 /24

Binary Value

128

64

32

16

 

4 2

8 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

   

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.0

 

128

64

32

16

8 4

 

2

1

128

64

32

16

8 4

 

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

 

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

 

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Network Address : 172.16.4.0

 

128

64

32

16

 

8 2

4 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

 

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Broadcast Address : 172.16.4.255

 

128

64

32

16

 

8 2

4 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

 

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

172.16.4.0 /25 Binary Value 128 64 32 16 8 1 4 2 128 64 32
172.16.4.0 /25
Binary Value
128
64
32
16
8 1
4 2
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
1
0
1
0
1 0
1 0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.128
128
64
32
16
8 2
4 1
128
64
32
16
8 2
4 1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Borrowed Bits: 1
Remaining Bits: 7
Network Address : 172.16.4.0
2 n -2
128
64
32
16
8 2
4 1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4 2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
1 0
1 0
1 0
1 0
0
0 0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Broadcast Address : 172.16.4.127 128 64 32 16 8 1 4 2 128 64 32
Broadcast Address : 172.16.4.127
128
64
32
16
8 1
4 2
128
64
32
16 8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4 2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4 2
1
1 0
1 0
1 0
1 0
0
0 0
1 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1 1
1

172.16.4.0 /25

First Usable (Host) Address: 172.16.4.1 128 64 32 16 8 2 4 1 128 64
First Usable (Host) Address: 172.16.4.1
128
64
32
16
8 2
4 1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4 2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
1
0
1
0
1 0
1 0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Last Usable (Host) Address: 172.16.4.126 128 64 32 16 8 2 4 1 128 64
Last Usable (Host) Address: 172.16.4.126
128
64
32
16
8 2
4 1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4 2
1
128
64
32
16
8 1
4
2
1
0
1
0
1 0
1 0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 0
0
0
1
1
1
1 0
1
1
What is the network address of 172.16.4.59 /25? 1 0 1 0 1 1 0
What is the network address of 172.16.4.59 /25?
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
1
1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 0
1 0
1 0
1 0
0
0
0
1 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Question

What will happen to the IP Addresses 172.16.4.128 172.16.4.255?

Answer:

We can still use them but they are identified as a separate subnetwork.

172.16.4.128 /25

Binary Value

128

64

32

16

 

4 2

8 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

   

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.128

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2 1

 

128

64

32

16

8 4

 

2 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

 

1 1

1

1

1

1

 

1 1

 

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Network Address : 172.16.4.128

 

128

64

32

16

 

8 2

4 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

 

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Broadcast Address : 172.16.4.255

 

128

64

32

16

 

8 2

4 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

 

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

172.16.4.128 /25

First Usable (Host) Address: 172.16.4.129 128 64 32 16 8 1 4 2 128 64
First Usable (Host) Address: 172.16.4.129
128
64
32
16
8 1
4 2
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4 2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
1
0
1
0
1 0
1 0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Last Usable (Host) Address: 172.16.4.254 128 64 32 16 8 2 4 1 128 64
Last Usable (Host) Address: 172.16.4.254
128
64
32
16
8 2
4 1
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4 2
1
128
64
32
16
8
4 1
2
1
0
1
0
1 0
1 0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1 0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1 0
1

172.16.4.0 /26

Binary Value

128

64

32

16

 

4 2

8 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

   

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.192

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

 

4 2

8 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

   

1 1

1 1

 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Network Address : 172.16.4.0

 

128

64

32

16

 

8 2

4 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

 

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Broadcast Address : 172.16.4.63

 

128

64

32

16

 

8 2

4 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

 

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

172.16.4.64 /26

Binary Value

128

64

32

16

 

4 2

8 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

   

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.192

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

 

4 2

8 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

   

1 1

1 1

 

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Network Address : 172.16.4.64

 

128

64

32

16

 

8 2

4 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

 

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Broadcast Address : 172.16.4.127

 

128

64

32

16

 

8 2

4 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

 

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

172.16.4.128 /26

Binary Value

128

64

32

16

 

4 2

8 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

   

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.192

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2 1

 

128

64

32

16

8 4

 

2 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

 

1 1

1

1

1

1

 

1 1

 

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Network Address : 172.16.4.128

 

128

64

32

16

 

8 2

4 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

 

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Broadcast Address : 172.16.4.191

 

128

64

32

16

 

8 2

4 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

 

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

172.16.4.192 /26

Binary Value

128

64

32

16

 

4 2

8 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

   

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.192

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2 1

 

128

64

32

16

8 4

 

2 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

 

1 1

1

1

1

1

 

1 1

 

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Network Address : 172.16.4.192

 

128

64

32

16

 

8 2

4 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

 

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

Broadcast Address : 172.16.4.255

 

128

64

32

16

 

8 2

4 1

 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

1

0

1

0

 

1 0

1 0

 

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Subnet Mask

IP Address: 10.24.36.2 / 8 Subnet Mask?

IP Address: 10.24.36.2 / 12

IP Address: 10.24.36.2 / 16 IP Address: 10.24.36.2 / 23

Subnet Mask?

Subnet Mask? Subnet Mask?

IP Address: 10.24.36.2 IP Address: 10.24.36.2

IP Address: 10.24.36.2

IP Address: 10.24.36.2 IP Address: 10.24.36.2

255.255.224.0

255.255.255.192

255.255.255.252

255.254.0.0

255.255.240.0

Prefix Mask? Prefix Mask?

Prefix Mask?

Prefix Mask? Prefix Mask?

Dividing the Network Into the Right Size

VLSM - Variable Length Subnet Masking

(Subnetting a subnet)

Consider the following:

When you are met with the problem:

First, ask yourself does this need to be arranged in a particular way?

When working with VLSM you always want to start with the largest host requirement, that way the rest is easier to organize and put into action.

If you don’t have to arrange it in a certain way

then start with the largest host requirement.

Your Task:

Your Task: • You are given the address space 192.168.10.0 /24 to use for the host

You are given the address space 192.168.10.0 /24 to

use for the host requirements for each LAN.

The following are the hosts to be identified:

each LAN. • The following are the hosts to be identified: Admin LAN requires 25 hosts

Admin LAN requires 25 hosts

Sales LAN requires 50 hosts

LAN requires 25 hosts – – Sales LAN requires 50 hosts – Help Desk LAN requires

Help Desk LAN requires 80 hosts

Executive LAN requires 2 hosts

Using the Formula

2 n 2

n number of bits

Help Desk LAN requires 80 hosts

(192.168.10.0/24)
(192.168.10.0/24)

80 Hosts

2 ? = 80 (2 to the what power is ≥ 80)

2 7 = 128 2 = 126

32 - 7
32 - 7

126 Usable Hosts

Prefix:

Number of bits in IP address minus the host bits

= 25 (The 25 ends up being the

new subnet mask for this LAN)

•

192.168.10.0/25 is the Subnet address/mask

of the Help Desk LAN

Help Desk LAN requires 80 hosts

(192.168.10.0/24)
(192.168.10.0/24)