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Physics

C 5 Courseno.5
Propagation of perturbations in elastic media
Wave propagation of a perturbation in an elastic medium.
Propagation possible due to the interaction forces between different
parts of the medium p
Wave equation
Different parts of the medium have small displacements relative
to its equilibrium position so the propagation as wave does not result in
large variations of density and pressure.
The presence of a perturbation causes deviations of the values for
pressure and density of the medium, relative to their equilibrium values:
0 0
0 0

p p p p p
<<
'

'
+ =
<<
' '
+ =
(*)
where p
0
and
0
are the equilibrium values and p and are tiny
deviations that are position and time dependant.
( ) 0
t
v =
c
c
+ V

( )
1
f
v
V V
c

Considering the continuity:


d E l ti
(a)
(b) ( ) p f v v
t
V

= V +
c
and Euler equation: (b)
In the absence of mass forces :
0 f =

The speed of particle displacement is so small that in case of Euler


relation the term may be neglected relative to the term.
( )v v

V
v c

y g
( )
t c
( )
t
v
v v
c
c
<< V


and the equations describing the movement of the ideal fluid
(a&b) become, considering the relations (*):
0 v
t
0
= V +
c

'
c
(**)
0 p
t
v
0
=
'
V +
c
c


The local variations of pressure p= p() determine variations of fluid
density:
Using series expansion (Taylor) and neglecting the high order terms:
( ) ( ) ....
p
p p p p p
0 0 0
+
'
|
|
.
|

\
| c
+ =
'
+ =
'
+ = ( ) ( ) p p p p p
0
0 0 0

|
|
.

\
c

=
| | cp

'
=
'

|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
=
'
=
2
c
p
p
0
The time derivative of the first relation (**) is:
v
2
c
'
c

0
t
v
t
0
2
=
c
c
V +
c
c
2

'
c 1
2

'
c
That leads to: 0 c
t
2
2
=
'
A
c
c
0
t c
1
2 2
=
c
c

'
A
If ' is replaced with the result is:
2
c
p
'
1
2
'
c
0
t
p
c
1
p
2
2
2
=
c
'
c

'
A
If th ti d i ti f th fi t (**) ti i id d d l i If the time derivative of the first (**) equation is considered and applying
the operator to the second one the result is:
0
v 1
v
2
2
2
=
c
A

V
t c
2 2
c
The last three equations are equivalent and represent the differential q q p
equations of the waves propagation. The movement of the elastic
medium is depicted by waves equations of general form:
i 0
1
2
+
c
A psi 0
t c
2 2
+ =
c

A
The quantity has the significance of variation of speed, pressure ( ) t , r

= q y g p p
and medium density. The quantity c has the characteristic of a speed and
represents the propagation speed of a wave and in a continuous
medium its value being dependent on the environment properties.
( ) ,
If the d'Alembert operator is used:
2
1 c
A =
2 2
t c c
A =
the wave equation is written in a more compact form:
0 =

the wave equation is written in a more compact form:


The solution for the plane wave is:


( ) phi
c
x
t cos A t , x
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
e =
for =0:
( ) ( ) kx t cos A
x
T
t
2 cos A t , x e =
|
.
|

\
|

t =
( ) ( ) k A

- wave vector
- it has the direction and the
orientation of c

t
=
2
k
=T/c- wave length
( ) ( ) r k t cos A t , r

e =
Wave energy
Due to elastic forces the wave transports during the propagation no Due to elastic forces, the wave transports during the propagation no
mass but energy.
In case of elastic wave propagation through continuous media, the In case of elastic wave propagation through continuous media, the
energy transfer from a volume unit to another one occurs due to close
interaction between different parts of the medium.
In order to express in a quantitative way the energy transported by the
wave one should considered an infinitesimal volume dV that contains
the mass dm. The energy resulting from the propagation of the elastic
wdV dU dT dW = + =
wave inside the volume dV is:
2 2
The kinetic energy is written:
dV
2
v
dm
2
v
dT
2
0
2
= =
The potential energ is determined b the compression and elongation The potential energy is determined by the compression and elongation
(deformation) of the infinitesimal volume dV during the wave
propagation.
The deformation determines a modification of continuous medium density
and due to the conservation of mass fluid one can write down:
( )( )
'
+
'
= dV dV dV
0 0
where ' and dV' represent the deviation of density and where and dV represent the deviation of density and
infinitesimal volume from the equilibrium values, so those quantities have
tiny values relative to
0
and dV. The previous mentioned relation is
rewritten as:
'
+ = dV dV ' dV dV
0 0 0
dV dV

'
=
'
0

The change of the volume with dV' is determined by the presence of local
extra pressure of p' who emerges during wave propagation and the
potential energy can be written as work of the extra pressure who is
responsible for the volume variation with dV'. In the process of
deformation for the infinitesimal volume, the extra pressure varies from
ero to p' al e so the a erage press re responsible for the deformation zero to p' value, so the average pressure responsible for the deformation
is:
2
0 p
p
m
+
'
=
The potential energy is:
p p
2
'

' '
'
dV
c 2
p
dV
2
p
dV p dU
0
2
0
m

=
'
=
And the energy transported by the volume dV is:
dV
c 2
p
dV v
2
1
dW
0
2
2
2
0

'
+ =
c 2 2
0

The volume density of energy is:


0
2
2 2
0
c 2
p
2
v
w

'
+ =
0

In case of a plane wave that propagates along Ox axis, the pressure has
an harmonic variation (pressure wave) and can be written as:
( ) kx t cos p p
max
e
'
=
'
c

0 p
t
v
0
=
'
V +
c
c


The projection of the equation on Ox axis:
0
x
p 1
t
v
0
x
=
c
'
c

+
c
c
( ) | | 0 kx t cos p
x
1
t
v
max
0
x
= e
'
c
c

+
c
c
0

x t
0
c c
( ) kx t sin
k p
t
v
max x
e
'
=
c
c
t
0
c
From the previous relation the speed on Ox axis is obtained:
( ) ( ) kx t cos
k p
dt kx t sin
k p
v
0
max
t
0
0
max
x
e
e
'
= e
}

'
=
The energy density is written as:
( ) ( ) x k t cos
p 1
x k t cos
k p 1
w
2
max
2
2
2
max
2
= e
'
+ e
'
= ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) kx t cos
p
x k t cos
1 k
2
p
x k t cos
c 2
x k t cos
2
w
2
2
max
2
2
2 2
2
max
2
0
2
2
2
0
0
e
'
= e
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
'
=
= e

+ e
e
=
( ) ( )
c c 2
2
0
2 2
0

|
.

\
e
Previous equation indicates that the kinetic and the potential energy
transported by the wave are in phase. The energy density of the elastic
wave has position and time variation. The average volume density of the
energy for a period is:
( )
2
0
2
max
T
0
c 2
p
dt t w
T
1
w

'
= =
}
The intensity of the elastic waves is equal with the average value of the The intensity of the elastic waves is equal with the average value of the
energy transferred in unit time through unit surface that is perpendicular
on the propagation direction:
c w
c 2
p
I
0
2
max
=

'
=
Longitudinal waves
The longitudinal waves have the property that medium particles oscillates
along the direction of elastic wave propagation.
An elastic, homogenous, linear, isotropic, non-dispersive and conservative
medium having a shape of cylindrical rod of S section and a Young
modulus E is considered. An infinitesimal volume in a shape of a cylinder
with a section S and length dx has forces F
x
and F
x+dx
acting at both ends.
The relative variation of the cylinder length due to the oscillation during the
propagation of the longitudinal waves is:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
x
t , x
dx
t , x t , dx x
t , x
c
c
=
+
= c
F
x
F
x + dx
(x+dx) (x)
csi
x x + dx
( ) ( ) t , x i t , dx x +
- The displacements of the particles from the
( ) ( )
equilibrium position in the x+dx and x points
respectively.
The infinitesimal relative variation of the cylinder length is:
( ) ( )
( )
d
t , x
d t t d d
2
c c c
( ) ( )
( )
dx
x
,
dx
x
t , x t , dx x d
2
c

=
c
= c + c = c
Considering Hooke law the elastic force responsible for the relative Considering Hooke law the elastic force responsible for the relative
variation of the length dc:
dV E dx S E d S E dF
2 2
c
=
c
= c = dV
x
E dx
x
S E d S E dF
2 2
c
=
c
= c =
The cylinder mass is dm=dV and from the Newton second law results:
dV
x
E
t
dV
2
2
2
2
c
c
=
c
c

0
t E x
2
2
2
2
=
c
c

c
c
t E x c c
Considering the previous mentioned equation and the wave propagation
equation: q

=
E
c

In case of fluids (liquids and gases), the speed of longitudinal waves
depends on the compressibility. The corresponding formula is very straight
forward if one considers the Hooke law and compressibility modulus forward if one considers the Hooke law and compressibility modulus
expression:
V
V
S E
F A
=
A
=

E
V
p
V
0

=
A
A
0 0
V S E
considering:
E p A
p V V
0
A _ = A
hi
E
1
_ _ =
_
=
1
c

For gases, the modulus of propagation of longitudinal elastic waves is


frequency dependent: for high frequency there is an adiabatic process q y p g q y p
while for low frequency there is an isothermal one.
High frequency case:
. ct V p =

High frequency case:


Using a derivative approach:
dp V
1
dV
V dV
dp V
p
dV

=
p dp
=
p E = p E =

=
p
c

At low frequency the propagation is isothermal: At low frequency, the propagation is isothermal:
. ct V p =
V dV
The derivative is:
p
V
dp
dV
=
The derivative is:
p

=
p
c

Transversal waves
Transversal waves have the property that the continuous medium
particles oscillates perpendicular on the direction of the elastic wave
propagation propagation.
Lets consider a vibrating rope having an uniform linear mass density. The
elongation is
) t x (
elongation is
) t , x (
Considering an infinitesimal segment MN from the rope having an uniform
linear mass that at equilibrium under the action of tension forces T has a linear mass that at equilibrium, under the action of tension forces T has a
length dx. If
0
is the mass linear density, the mass of the MN segment is
dm=
0
dx. The vibrating rope is moved from the equilibrium position and
the MN segment is now in the PQ position under the action of the tension the MN segment is now in the PQ position, under the action of the tension
forces. Now the length is larger then the one at equilibrium. The resulting
force that act on the considered rope segment on Oy direction is:
1 1 2 2 y
sin T sin T ) t ( F u u =
Q
T
Q
u
1
P
u
2
Q
T
2
0
M N
P
dx
N
M
T
1
M N
On P point, at t moment, one can write down:
T cosu = T cosu = T
( )
1
tg
x
t , x
u =
c
c
T
2
cosu
2
= T
1
cosu
1
= T
1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 y
tg T tg T tg cos T tg cos T sin T sin T ) t ( F
|
|

|
c
|
|

|
c
= u u = u u u u = u u =
1 2
x
T
x
T
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

|
.
|

\
|
c
c
=
Using the Ta lor series
|
|

|
c
aro nd al e |
|

|
c
one obtains Using the Taylor series
2
x
|
.

\
c
around value
1
x
|
.

\
c

one obtains:
( ) ( ) ......
x x
x x
2
1
x x
x x
x x
1
2
2
2
1 2
1
1 2
1 2
+
(

|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
+
(

|
.
|

\
|
c
c
c
c
+
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
1 1
1 2
. \

. \ . \ . \
where x
2
x
1
=dx
Neglecting the square and high order terms:
dx dx
2
c
=
(
(

|
|

|
c

c
=
|
|

|
c

|
|

|
c
dx
x
dx
x x x x
2
1 2
c
=
(

|
.

\
c

c
=
|
.

\
c

|
.

\
c
In the previous relation the index one was not considered since it is not
important in which point of the vibrating rope the derivative relative to x is
considered. The total force acting on the segment will be:
dx
x
T ) t ( F
2
2
y
c
c
=
Using the Newton second law:
dx
t
dm a dx
x
T
2
2
0
2
2
c
c
= =
c
c
0
T
t
2
2
2
2
=
c
c

c
c
x t
2
0
2
c c
T
0
t
T
c

=
0
T E

>

(
0
is the linear density and is volume density).
Problems
1. A sinusoidal wave traveling in the positive x direction has an amplitude A=15.0 cm,
a wavelength =40.0 cm and a frequency =8.0 Hz. The vertical position of an g q y p
element of the medium at t=0 and x=0 is also y=15 cm.
a) find the wave number k, period T, angular frequency and speed c of the
wave.
b) determine the phase constant and write the general expression for the wave
function.
2. An uniform string has a mass of m
string
=0.300 kg and a length l=6.00 m. The string
passes a pulley and supports a 2.00 kg object. Find the speed of a pulse traveling
along this string. along this string.
3. An 80 kg hiker is trapped on a mountain ledge following a storm. A helicopter
rescues the hiker by hovering above him and lowering a cable to him The mass of rescues the hiker by hovering above him and lowering a cable to him. The mass of
the cable is m
cable
= 8.00 kg and its length is l=15.0 m. A sling of mass m
sling
=70.0
kg is attached to the end of the cable. The hiker attaches himself to the sling and
the helicopter then accelerates upward. Terrified by hanging from the cable in
midair, the hiker tries to signal the pilot by sending transverse pulses up the cable.
A pulse takes a t=0.250 s to travel the length of the cable. What is the acceleration
of the helicopter? Assume the tension in the cable is uniform.