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Time and Frequency Domain Identification Methods

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For example, in structures with frequency-dependent mechanic properties, as viscoelastic materials, frequency domain is clearly

more interesting than time domain. On the other hand, if non-linear systems are considered, time domain may present some

advantages. Regarding these last considerations, it is clearly observed that both domains are very important in structural

analysis. Besides that, the use of image processing based structural monitoring system has increased over the last years.

Professional integrated monitoring systems are been developed and, in a short time period, it is expected an augmentation of the

application of this non-contact instrumentation method. In the present work, an assessment of time and frequency domain

identification methods applied image processing results is carried out. To this end, time domain methods like Ibrahim Method,

Random Decrement Method, Exponential Decrement Method and frequency domain methods like Peak Picking Method,

Frequency Decomposition Methods, are applied to experimental results obtained from laboratory tests performed with image

processing techniques. As a conclusion of this work, some recommendations for the use of each tested method applied for the

class of experimental data (image processing based data) are expressed, regarding theirs efficiencies and accuracies.

KEY WORDS: Structural Identification; Image Processing; Time and Frequency Domain Identification Methods.

1 INTRODUCTION

The evaluation process of structural dynamic properties is

based on vibration data (vibration modes, natural

frequencies and damping) obtained by means of dynamic

tests. To this end, time domain based algorithms as Ibrahim

Method [1], Random Decrement Method [2], Exponential

Decrement Method [3]; or frequency domain based

algorithms as Peak Picking Method [4], Frequency Domain

Decomposition Methods [5], are frequently used.

In order to apply an identification method, normally,

time histories of the analyzed structure are required. In the

most cases, accelerometers, displacemeters or strain-gages

are used as sensors and computer systems are employed to

record time histories. Alternatively, the utilization of digital

images to analyse dynamical behaviour of structures is

present in some works in the literature [6,7]. Specifically,

in the structural dynamic domain, researches analyse

structural damage [1] and, in the most cases, modal

identification [2] as the present work.

In this paper, a cantilever beam is tested by means of

image processing based techniques. The resulted time-

histories are used as input for the time and frequency

domain identification methods overviewed in this text.

Accuracy of the modal components obtained by using

images is evaluated by comparing results extracted from a

strain-gage instrumentation and a computer models.

2 IDENTIFICATION METHODS

In this section, an overview of the applied identification

methods is performed.

2.1 Methods in Time Domain

2.1.1 Random Decrement Method - RD [2]

The random decrement method is a temporal modal method

which was used at the first time by H. Cole in the late 60s.

Since that time, this method has not stopped growing. It is

in particular used in the aerospace industry for the analysis

of experimental vibration data. The success of this method

is its simplicity of use and ability to analyze data in real

time.

This method transforms a stochastic processes y(t) into a

random decrement function (D

y

()) defined as:

( )

( ) ( )

y y t

D E y t T

= +

(1)

where T

y(t)

is called as trigger condition.

An estimation for the random decrement function may be

written using mean values describe in Equation (2):

( )

1

1

( ) ( ( ) )

i

N

y i y t

i

D y t T

N

=

= +

%

(2)

Equation (2) is usually interpreted as an approximation of

the structural free vibration response. In that way, methods

An Assessment of Time and Frequency Domain Identification Methods Applied to

Non-contact Experimental Data

F.S.Barbosa

1,2

, P.H.Hallak

1

, J.G.O.Borges

3

, R.A.Cardoso

1

1

Department of Applied and Computational Mechanics, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora MG, Brazil

2

Graduation Program in Computational Modeling, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora MG, Brazil

3

Civil Engineering Laboratory, State University of North Fluminense, Campos dos Gotacazes - RJ, Brazil

email: flavio.barbosa@ufjf.edu.br, patricia.hallak@ufjf.edu.br, jair.borges@gmail.com, rhacardoso@hotmail.com

Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2011

Leuven, Belgium, 4-6 July 2011

G. De Roeck, G. Degrande, G. Lombaert, G. M uller (eds.)

ISBN 978-90-760-1931-4

3544

that use this kind of time history for modal identification, as

Exponential Decrement Method [3] or Ibrahim Method [1],

may be applied.

2.1.2 Exponential Decrement Method - ED [3]

This is one of the most simple identification method. For

this reason, this method is widely used. By curve fitting

modal parameters to structural free vibration time history

responses filtered around a specific natural frequency, it is

possible to identify damping ratio and natural frequencies.

Natural frequencies are expressed by Equation (3) and

damping ratio by means of Equation (4).

i

i

T

2

= (3)

q

p

i

D

D

ln

2

1

= (4)

being

i

the i-th natural circular frequency of vibration

period T

i

;

i

the i-th damping ratio; D

p

and D

q

two

consecutive peaks of the free vibration response D.

2.1.3 Ibrahim Time Domain Method ITD [1]

By solving the eigenvalue problem describe by:

(A -

i

I) = 0 (5)

where A is the state matrix of the system (directly extracted

from the free vibration system response), natural

frequencies and damping ratios may be achieved from the

eigenvalues

i

, and modal amplitudes from the eigenvects

.

2.2 Methods in Frequency Domain

2.2.1 Peak Picking Method - PP [4]

The peak picking method (PP), also called as basic method,

assumes that the modal parameters may be identified if the

structure is excited by a Gaussian white noise. With this

assumption, it is possible to identify the modal parameters

using only its response over time

The natural frequencies are recognized through the

resonant peak of the Average Normalized Power Spectral

Density (ANPSD):

=

=

GL

n

i

n i

GL

n

NPSD

n

ANPSD

1

) (

1

) ( (6)

where:

=

=

N

i

n

n

n i

PSD

PSD

NPSD

1

) (

) (

) (

(7)

In Equation (6)

GL

n is the number of the analyzed

degrees of freedom. In Equation (7), ) (

n

PSD denotes the

Power Spectrum Density for

n

, being N the among of

discrete frequencies of the analyze.

In order to verify if identified natural frequencies are not

noises, a coherence function described in Equation (8) may

be used. In this equation, i and j are the degree of freedom,

ij

S

~

are the elements of the spectral density matrix and

ij

is

the coherence function, which can range from 0 to 1.

Values of

ij

S

~

close to unity indicate a higher degree of

linearity between the measured signals, pointing that the

identified frequencies are actual natural frequencies of the

analyzed structure.

) ( S ) ( S

) ( S

) (

m ij m ij

m ij

m ij ~ ~

~

2

2

= (6)

The modal configuration is attained by using the transfer

function, which relates the PSD of a degree of freedom

with a reference degree of freedom.

The damping ration is evaluated using the traditional

half-power method. However, many researchers report

some uncertainty in this evaluation [8]. This method

requires for a reasonable estimation of damping that natural

frequencies are not close from each other.

2.2.2 Frequency Domain Decomposition Method FDD

[5]

The Frequency Domain Decomposition method was

developed in order to solve the problems of PP method. It

is based on the singular value decomposition of the PSD

matrix, known at discrete frequency

i

= . It was firstly

proposed by Brincker et al [5,9]. This decomposition is

shown in Equation (9), where the matrix

[ ]

im i i i

u u u U ,..., ,

2 1

= is an unitary matrix having the singular

vectors

ij

u and

i

S is a diagonal matrix with the scalar

singular values

ij

s .

H

i i i i yy

U S U j G = ) (

)

(7)

Near to a peak, corresponding to the k-th mode in the

spectrum, the correspondent mode will be dominating.

Thus, in this case, the first singular vector ui1 is an

estimation of the mode shape:

1 i

u =

)

(8)

This PSD function is identified around the peak by

comparing the estimated mode shape

)

with singular

vectors for the frequency around this peak. Modal

Assurance Criterion (MAC) value is used to compare these

vectors.

Using the Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) PSD

obtained around a peak, the natural frequency and the

damping can be achieved. In this paper the PSDs piece

related to a SDOF is taken back to the time domain by an

Inverse Fast Fourier transform (IFFT). Frequency and the

damping are estimated from the crossing times and the

logarithmic decrement of the corresponding SDOF

autocorrelation function.

Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2011 3545

3 IMAGE PROCESSING ALGORITHM [10]

The methodology used in this work consists on to record

fixed targets placed on a structure under free vibration

using a digital camera. The obtained video is transferred to

a computer and the developed software is applied in order

to automatically identify the central target coordinates for

each video frame. This process, after simple algebraic

operations, results in displacement time histories. Modal

parameters may be extracted by using identification

methods (section 2).

The targets must allow a robust identification through

automatic methods and it should present geometric

characteristics compatible to the application. In this way, a

black circle on a white background is used as target.

A simple thresholding is capable to transform a

grayscale (8 bits) or true colour (24 bits) image into a

binary (1 bit) image as presented in Figure 1. In this case a

grayscale image is transformed into a binary image. The

thresholding defines the limit between the light and dark

image pixel grayscale, transforming light ones into white

pixels, and dark ones into black pixels.

Using a binary image, the pixels attached to the black

colour (inside the circle) have the label b(x,y)=1, and the

pixels attached to the white colour (outside the circle) have

the label b(x,y)=0, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 - The threshold operation

The thresholding limit may be considered constant if the

illumination conditions are stable during all operation.

After the target pixel identification, it is possible to

determine the black circle image centroid

( ) y x,

coordinates

x and y , shown in Figure 1, with sub-pixel precision

using:

( ) x y x b

M N

x

N

x

M

y

. ,

1

1 1

= =

= (9)

and:

( ) y y x b

M N

y

N

x

M

y

. ,

1

1 1

= =

= (10)

where: N and M are the number of columns and rows of the

image, respectively.

By taking the coordinates

( ) y x,

obtained for each frame, it is

possible to generate time history series

t

x and

t

y , where t

represents the frame number. These time series allow

structural natural frequency identification that, in this work,

is obtained by using algorithms described in section 2.

This methodology is quite simple and relatively not

expensive but it may be not generally applied due to some

limitations. A modal identification using the proposed

method may present errors in some particular situations.

The first limitation is attached to the aliasing problem.

The standard digital camera used in the analysis has frame

rate equals to 25 frames per second, and this situation

demands a dynamic behaviour with maximal frequency

component of 12.5 Hz (Nyquist frequency). This low

frequency limit may be increased using a higher frame rate

camera, which is obviously more expensive then the used

camera.

Secondly, it must be observed that images are bi-

dimensional (2D) projections of the three-dimensional (3D)

space. In that case, the perspective effects of this 3D to 2D

transformation affect natural frequency identification when

the camera sensor plan is not parallel to the analysed

structure oscillation plan. If this parallelism does not occur,

magnitude of modal components are affected and ghost

frequencies may appear in the time series

t y

[11].

Finally, illumination and reverberation problems

may cause inaccurate results. This kind of problem is

inherent to image processing methods.

4 APPLICATION

The studied object was a fixed-free cantilever beam, which

was numerically and experimentally analyzed.

In the numerical simulation, it was possible to indentify

natural frequencies and respective modes shapes for the

adopted model.

In the experimental tests, two types of instrumentation

schemes were applied. In the first one, a classical strain

gage monitoring was used in order to obtain a benchmark

result in terms of system natural frequencies and damping

ratios. The second campaign consisted on an image

processing based instrumentation.

Using identification methods, described in section 2,

modal results acquire from numerical and experimental

tests are compared and the main advantages or

disadvantages of each algorithm are stressed.

In the next subsections, a brief description of the

structure, the numerical and experimental results are

presented.

4.1 Description of the structure and numerical results.

Figure 2 shows a picture of the cantilever beam in which

four masses with four circular black targets were added and

a strain gage was bounded Table 1 presents the physical

and geometrical properties of this beam.

Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2011 3546

Figure 2 A picture of the experiment.

Table 1. Physical and geometrical properties of the beam.

Material aluminum

Elasticity module 70.3 GPa

Specific mass 2600 kg/m

3

Cross section area 39 mm

2

Moment of inercia 29.25mm

4

In order to procede the numerical simulation, a Finite

Element Model (FEM) was used with the following

consideration:

i. The vibrations occur around an undeformable

configuration, it means, the static deformation

imposed by adding masses were disregarded;

ii. The structure were discretized using frame elements

with nodes located in the geometrical middle of

each mass;

iii. The four masses added in the system were

introduced in the model as concentrated masses.

The numerical model reached with these assumptions

takes the form of the scheme presented in Figure 3, with 5

nodes and 4 elements. Table 2 resume the dynamic

properties obtained in the numerical simulation for the first

two mode shapes. Note that the amplitude of each mode

i

were normalized using the amplitude of free extreme (node

1).

0.20m 0.20m 0.20m 0.22m

78g 82g 72g 72g

0.025m

1

1

2 3 4 5

2 3 4

0.20m 0.20m 0.20m 0.22m

78g 82g 72g 72g

0.025m

1

1

2 3 4 5

2 3 4

Figure 3 Numerical model.

Table 2 Dynamic properties of the numerical model

Node

Mode 1

1.41 Hz

Mode 2

9.10 Hz

1 1.00 1.00

2 0.66 -0.60

3 0.34 -1.24

4 0.10 -0.70

5 0.00 0.00

4.2 Description of the experimental tests.

4.2.1 Strain gage based instrumentation signal

processing

The obtained signal in terms of microstrains (s), for a free

vibration test of the beam, after an impulsive load, is

plotted in Figure 4. The frequency of acquisition was set in

300 Hz and a low-pass filter in 20Hz was used.

Figure 4 Strain gage signal.

The signal of Figure 4 was used to determine reference

results. By curve fitting theoretical free vibration solution

for this system presented in Equation (11), it was possible

to obtained natural frequencies and damping.

=

+ =

2

1

) exp( ) cos( ) (

i

i i i i i

t t t x (11)

being, x(t) the strain amplitude;

i

the i-th modal amplitude;

i

and

i

the i-th natural frequency and damping ratio,

respectively; and

i

the i-th phase angle.

In Table 3 are presented frequencies, damping ratios

obtained and magnitudes of and for each modes

1

Table 3 Frequencies and damping ratio of the simulated

signal.

Mode f

i

(Hz)

i

(%)

i

i

1 1.49 0.30 0.34 0

2 10.00 0.50 0.70 0

After the curve fitting process, x(t) must have to

approximate the original signal obtained with the strain

gage. In order to assure the fidelity between both signals,

MAC (modal assurance criterion) coefficient was used.

In Figure 5, it is plotted x(t) and the original signal from

the strain gage, for a short period of time. The MAC

coefficient obtained was approximately 96%, indicating a

very good correlation between both signals.

Figure 5 Comparison between strain gage signal and

theoretical curve fitted model.

Modal values presented in Table 3 were considered as

reference results, since they allow an almost perfect

correlation between the strain gage response and the

theoretical curve fitted model x(t).

1

Note that damping ratios are very small (lower than 1%).

Consequently, damped and undamped natural frequencies

are considered identical.

Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2011 3547

4.2.2 Camera signal processing

Time histories for nodes 1 and 3, obtained after the image

processing method described in section 3, is shown in

Figure 6. In order to avoid repetition, results for nodes 2

and 4 are not presented since they are similar to ones

presented in Figure 6.

Figure 6 Non contact camera signals for nodes 1 and 3.

In Table 4 the frequencies and damping ratio obtained

using the ITD (after applying RD), PP and FDD methods

applied to this non-contact experimental data are given.

Achieved modes shapes are presented in Table 5.

Table 4 Frequency and damping ratio results (Hz).

Frequency (Hz)

Damping ratio

(%)

Mode

ITD PP FDD ITD PP FDD

1 1.50 1.56 1.56 1.30 6.00 3.50

2 9.80 9.96 9.96 7.30 1.20 0.60

Table 5 Modes shapes results.

Mode 1

Node ITD PP FDD

1 1.00 1.00 1.00

2 0.67 0.67 0.67

3 0.37 0.37 0.37

4 0.13 0.14 0.13

5 0.00 0.00 0.00

Mode 2

Node ITD PP FDD

1 1.00 1.00 1.00

2 -0.55 -0.50 -0.52

3 -1.20 -1.16 -1.19

4 -0.80 -0.79 -0.81

5 0.00 0.00 0.00

4.3 Comparison of Results and Discussions

All results previously obtained are summarized in this

section. Reference modal parameters Ref. (obtained from

the strain gage instrumentation Table 3) and numerical

results, referred as FEM, are also included.

In

Table 6 values of frequency are regrouped with

percentage differences to Ref. values.

Table 6 Frequency comparisons (Hz)

Camera

f

i

Ref. FEM

ITD PP FDD

(-%) (-%) (-%)

1 1.49

1.41

(-5,37%)

1.50

(0.67%)

1.56

(4.70%)

1.56

(4.70%)

2 10.0

9.10

(-9,00%)

9.80

(-2,00%)

9.96

(-0.40%)

9.96

(-0.40%)

Regarding Table 6, it is possible to observe that the first

natural frequency is better identified by using ITD. On the

other hand, for the second natural frequency, PP and FDD

have a better performance. These results are consequence

of the camera frame rate (25 fps) and the total time of the

experimental test (10s), leading to frequency resolution of

0.1 Hz. In these conditions, time domain methods normally

tend to present a reasonable performance for low frequency

identification (1.49Hz). In order to increase the

performance of frequency domain methods, one must

reduce frequency resolution. For higher frequencies,

frequency resolution are proportionally less important,

leading to enhance PP and FDD performances, as detected

in the present case.

Considering, damping ratios, all the used identification

methods had an erratic performance as it may be verified in

Table 7. Discrepancies in damping ratio identification are

not rare in modal analysis. References [12 and 13] face the

same behavior for damping ratio identification.

Table 7 Damping ratios comparison

Camera

Mode benchmark

ITD PP FDD

1 0.30 1.30 6.00 3.50

2 0.50 7.30 1.20 0.60

Finally, first and second mode shapes and FEMs results

are compared in Figure 7 and 8, respectively.

0

1

1 2 3 4 5

Node

Figure 7 First identified mode shapes and FEMs result

-2

-1

0

1

1 2 3 4 5

Node

Figure 8 Second identified mode shape and FEMs result

The identified mode shapes have practically coincident

amplitudes and FEMs results are slightly different from

then, in both figures. Tables 8 and 9 present MAC

comparisons for mode shapes #1 and #2, respectively. For

all cross mode shape comparison, MAC values are superior

than 99%, indicating an almost identical performance for

all identification method.

Table 7 Mode shapes comparisons via MAC

Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2011 3548

Mode 1

FEM ITD PP FDD

FEM 100 99.9301 99.9007 99.9298

ITD 99.9301 100 99.9934 99.9998

PP 99.9007 99.9934 100 99.9939

FDD 99.9298 99.9998 99.9939 100

FEM 100 99.9301 99.9007 99.9298

Mode 2

FEM ITD PP FDD

FEM 100 99.5839 99.3443 99.3624

ITD 99.5839 100 99.9366 99.9633

PP 99.3443 99.9366 100 99.9872

FDD 99.3624 99.9633 99.9872 100

FEM 100 99.5839 99.3443 99.3624

5 CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, time and frequency domain identification

methods were applied to time histories obtained by means

of an image processing based procedure used in a structural

experimental test.

A strain gage classical instrumentation and a numerical

model were used to evaluate the quality of the obtained

image processing time histories. Comparisons concerning

mode shapes and natural frequencies presented good

agreement. On the other hand, damping ratios were not

correctly identified.

Time domain methods presented better performance for

the first natural frequency. It is due to limitations regarding

cameras frame rate, leading to a Nyquist frequency limit of

12.5 Hz. The identification process tends to be more

inaccurate for frequencies near to Nyquist limit.

Frequency domain methods were specially limited by

frequency resolution. For low frequencies, this limitation is

more pronounced.

It is important to notice, that all conclusions extracted

from this paper are not inherent to time histories obtained

by image processing based algorithms. Any kind of

instrumentation method having 0.1Hz of frequency

resolution and 25Hz of acquisition frequency tend to

present the same facilities an difficulties. In the face of that,

one can conclude that an image processing based

instrumentation can allows equivalent results in terms of

modal identification, if compared to classical

instrumentation methods.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank UFJF (Universidade

Federal de Juiz de Fora), FAPEMIG (Fundao de Amparo

Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais), CNPq (Conselho

Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientfico e tecnolgico) and

CAPES (Coordenao de Aperfeioamento de Pessoal de

Nvel Superior) for the financial support.

REFERENCES

[1] [1] D.J Ewins, Modal Testing: Theory, Practice and Application,

Research Studies Press, 2000

[2] [2] J.C Asmussen, Modal Analysis Based on the Random Decrement

Technique - Application to Civil Engineering Structures, PhD thesis,

Aalborg University, Denmark, 1998.

[3] [3] R. W. Clough and J. Penzien, Dynamics of Structures, McGraw-

Hill, 1993

[4] [4] A.J Felber, Development of a Hybrid Bridge Evaluation System,

Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of British

Columbia, Vancouver, Canada., 1993.

[5] [5] R. Brincker, L. Zhang, and P. Andersen, Modal Identification

from Ambient Responses using Frequency Domain Decomposition,

Proc. 18th Int. Modal Analysis Conference, Kissimmee, FL., 2000.

[6] [6] U.P Poudel, G. Fu and J. Ye., Structural damage detection using

digital video imaging technique and wavelet transformation, Journal

of Sound and Vibration, v286, n45, p869-895, 2005.

[7] [7] Y. M. Ram, J. Caldwell. Free vibration of a string with moving

boundary conditions by the method of distorted images. Journal of

Sound and Vibration, 1996, 194(1), 35-47.

[8] [8] J.G.O Borges, J.G.O, Assessment of Time and Frequency Domain

Identification Methods for Modal Identification of Structures. Master

thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, State University of North

Fluminense, Brazil, in portuguese, 2010.

[9] [9] R. Brincker, C. Ventura and P. Andersen, Damping Estimation

by Frequency Domain Decomposition, Proc. 19th Int. Modal

Analysis Conference, San Antonio, TX, 2001.

[10] [10] R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods. Digital Image Processing.

2nd edition. Prentice Hall, 2002.

[11] [11] F. M. A. Nogueira, F. S. Barbosa and L. P. S. Barra. Evaluation

of structural natural frequencies using image processing.

Proceedings of EVACES 2005

[12] [12]G.C.V. Lozano, Parametric identification of mechanical

systems, M.Sc. dissertation, Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Rio

de Janeiro, in portuguese, 2003.

[13] [13] Mendes, P., Oliveira, S. Dynamic Analysis of Structures,

Lisboa, Portugal: Laboratrio Nacional de Engenharia Civil, 169p,

2008.

Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2011 3549

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