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MGS: 3900 Chapter 4 Job Satisfactions

1) Job Satisfaction
a) Job satisfaction is one of the several individual mechanisms that
directl a!ects "ob performance and or#ani$ational commitment%
b) Job satisfaction is a pleasurable emotional state resultin# from
the appraisal of one&s "ob or "ob e'periences%
i) (t represents ho) ou feel about ou "ob and )hat ou think
about ou "ob%
*+),mploees )ith high job satisfaction e'perience positive
feelin#s )hen the thin- about their duties or ta-e part in
tas- activities
*.),mploees )ith low job satisfaction e'perience ne#ative
feelin#s )hen the thin- about their duties or ta-e part in
their tas- activities%
2) Why are Some Employees more Satisfed Than Others?
i) Values are those thin#s that people consciousl or
subconsciousl )ant to see- or attain% ,': /a0 /romotions0
Supervision0 and etc%
1) Table !"1
b) 1alue 2ul3llment
i) Value#percept theory ar#ues that "ob satisfaction depends
on )hether ou perceive that our "ob supplies the thin#s that
ou value%
*+)$issatisfaction *1 )ant 1 have) 4 *1 importance)
*.)5 6"ob7 isn&t one thin# it&s a collection of tas-s0
relationships0 and re)ards%
ii) %ay satisfaction refers to emploees& feelin#s about their
pa includin# )hether it&s as much as the deserve0 secure0
and ade8uate for both normal e'penses and lu'ur items%
*+)/a satisfaction is based on a comparison of the pa that
emploees& )ant and the pa the receive%
iii)%romotion satisfaction refers to emploees& feelin#s about
the compan&s promotion policies and their e'ecution0
includin# )hether promotions are fre8uent0 fair0 and based on
*+)9nli-e pa0 some emploees ma not )ant fre8uent
promotions because promotions brin# more responsibilit
and increased )or- hours%
*.):o)ever0 man emploees value promotions because the
provide opportunities for more personal #ro)th0 a better
)a#e0 and more presti#e%
i&)Super&ision satisfaction re;ects emploees& feelin#s about
their boss0 includin# )hether the boss is competent0 polite0
and a #ood communicator *rather than la$0 annoin#0 and
too distant)%
&) 'o(or)er satisfaction refers to emploees& feelin#s about
their fello) emploees0 includin# )hether co)or-ers are
smart0 responsible0 helpful0 fun0 and interestin# as opposed to
la$0 #ossip0 unpleasant0 and borin#%
&i)Satisfaction (ith the (or) itself* re;ects emploees&
feelin#s about their actual )or- tas-s0 includin# )hether
those tas-s are challen#in#0 interestin#0 respected0 and ma-e
use of -e s-ills rather than bein# dull% <epetitive0 and
*+) =he 2our facets describe the outcome that result from
)or- *pa0 promotion) and people *supervisors0 co)or-ers)0
this facet focuses on )hat emploees actuall do%
*a)2(G9<, 4>+
*b)2i#ure 4>.
c) Satisfaction ?ith =he ?or- (tself
*+)Scienti3c Mana#ement perspective focuses on increasin#
the e@cienc of "ob tas-s b ma-in# them more simpli3ed
and speciali$ed and usin# time and motion studies to plan
tas- movement and se8uences carefull%
i) =hree critical pscholo#ical state Meanin#fulness of )or-0
responsibilit for outcomes0 and -no)led#e of results
*+)+eanin,fulness of (or)* )hich re;ects the de#ree to
)hich )or- tas-s are vie)ed as somethin# that 6counts7 in
emploee&s sstem of philosophies and beliefs%
*.)-esponsibility for outcome* )hich captures the de#ree
to )hich emploees feel li-e their e!orts don&t reall
matter0 because )or- outcomes are dictated b e!ective
procedures0 e@cient technolo#ies0 or more in;uential
*3).no(led,e of results* )hich re;ects the e'tent to )hich
emploees -no) ho) )ell *or ho) poorl) the&re doin#%
ii) Job characteristics theory* )hich describes the central
characteristic theor0 ar#ues that 3ve core "ob characteristics
*variet0 identit0 si#ni3cance0 autonom0 and feedbac-0
)hich ou can remember )ith the acronm 61(S527) results in
hi#h level of the three pscholo#ical states0 ma-in# )or-
tas-s more satisfin#%
iii) A Core Job Characteristics:
*+)Variety is the de#ree to )hich the "ob re8uires a number
of di!erent activities that involve a number of di!erent
s-ills and talents%
*a)?hen variet is hi#h0 almost ever )or-da is di!erent
in some )a0 an "ob holders rarel feel a sense of
monoton or reprtition%
*.)/dentity is the de#ree to )hich the "ob re8uires
completin# a )hole0 identi3able0 piece of )or- from
be#innin# to end )ith a visible outcome%
*a)=he transformation from inputs to 3nished product is
ver visible0 and the emploee feels a distinct sense of
be#innin# and closure%
*3)Si,nifcance is the de#ree to )hich the "ob has a
substantial impact on the lives of other people0 particularl
people in the )orld at lar#e%
*a)Si#ni3cance as a core "ob characteristic captures
somethin# beond that the belief that this "ob really
*4)0utonomy is the de#ree to )hich the "ob provides
freedom0 independence0 and discretion to the individual
performin# the )or-%
*a)Multiple forms0 includin# the freedom to control the
timin#0 schedulin#0 and se8uencin# of )or- activities0 as
)ell as the procedures and methods used to complete
)or- tas-s%
*A)1eedbac) is the de#ree to )hich carrin# out the activities
re8uired b the "ob provides emploees )ith clear
information about ho) )ell the&re performin#%
*a)Birectl from the "ob as opposed to feedbac- from
co)or-ers or supervisors%
i&)T(o other &ariables2
*+).no(led,e and s)ill and ,ro(th need stren,th0
)hich captures )hether emploees have stron# needs for
personal accomplishment or developin# themselves
beond )here the currentl are%
v) Job enrichment0 such that the duties and responsibilities
associated )ith a "ob are e'panded to provide more variet0
identit autonom0 and so forth%
vi) Job craftin,* )here the shape0 mold0 and rede3ne their "obs
in a proactive )a%
*+)E32 mi#ht alter the boundaries of their "obs b s)itchin#
certain tas-s0 the mi#ht chan#e speci3c collaborative
relationships0 or the mi#ht reenvison ho) the vie) their
)or-0 relative to the broader conte't of the or#ani$ation&s
b) Mood 5nd ,motions
i) +oods are states of feelin# that are often mild in intensit0
last for an e'tended period of time0 and are not e'plicitl
directed at or caused b anthin#%
*+)E32 6(&m feelin#s #rouch7
a) %leasantness and 0cti&ation
ii) =hat hi#h challen#e hi#h s-ill combination can result in 4o(
a state in )hich emploees feel a total immersion in the tas-
at hand0 sometimes losin# trac- of ho) much time has
iii) 05ecti&e e&ents theory* )or-place events can #enerate
a!ective reactions reactions that then can #o on to in;uence
)or- attitudes and behaviors%
iv) Emotions* )hich are states of feelin# that are often intense0
last for onl a fe) minutes0 and are clearl directed at *and
caused b) someone or some circumstance%
*+)E32 6(&m feelin# an#r at m boss%7
v) %ositi&e emotions include "ob0 pride0 relief0 hope0 love0 and
vi) 6e,ati&e emotions include an#er0 an'iet0 fear0 #uilt0
shame0 sadness0 env0 and dis#ust%
vii) Emotional labor2 or the need to mana#e emotions to
complete "ob duties successfull%
*+)E32 2li#ht attendants are trained to put on a happ face in
front of passen#ers%
viii)Emotional conta,ion2 sho)s that one person can 6catch7
or 6be infected b7 the emotions can be transferred to a
customer *li-e a cold or disease)%
2) 7o( /mportant /s Job Satisfaction?
i) =he research lin-in# "ob satisfaction to "ob performance and
or#ani$ational commitment%
*+)2i#ure 4>C
ii) Job satisfaction is stron#l correlated )ith a!ective
commitment and normative commitmentD so satis3ed
emploees are more li-el to )ant to sta )ith the
or#ani$ation% Eot continuance commitment
b) Fife Satisfaction
i) 8ife Satisfaction or the de#ree to )hich emploees feel a
sense of happiness )ith their lives%
ii) <esearch sho)s that "ob satisfaction is one of the stron#est
predictors of life satisfaction%
iii) <esearch su##ests that life satisfaction increases )ith one&s
salar up to a level of around HCA0000% Such 3ndin# ma
seem surprisin#0 #iven that pa satisfaction is a )ea-er driver
of overall "ob satisfaction than other facets0 such as the )or-
itself0 supervision0 or co)or-ers%
3)5pplication: =rac-in# Satisfaction
a) Several methods assess the "ob satisfaction of ran->and>3le
emploees0 includin# focus #roups0 intervie)s0 and attitude
surves% If those three choices0 attitude surves are often the
most accurate and most e!ective%
b) JB( assesses all 3ve>satisfaction facets in: pa satisfaction0
promotion satisfaction0 supervisor satisfaction0 co)or-er
satisfaction0 and satisfaction )ith the )or- itself%
i) 2irst0 the data can indicate )hether the or#ani$ation is
satis3ed or dissatis3ed b comparin# avera#e scores for each
facet )ith the JB(&s 6neutral levels7 for these facet *the
6neutral levels: are available in the JB( manual)%
ii) Second0 it becomes possible to compare the or#ani$ation&s
scores )ith national norms to provide some conte't for the
3rm&s satisfaction levels%
iii) =hird0 the JB( slo)s for )ithin>or#ani$ation comparisons to
determine )hich departments have the hi#hest satisfaction
levels and )hich have the lo)est%