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# EXPERIMENT 6: ENERGY IN THERMAL SYSTEM

OBJECTIVES
1. To gain thermal equilibrium
2. To determine final temperature

INFERENCE
Thermal equilibrium is achiehed when two substances reach the same temperature and exchange to
heat energy.
HYPOTHESIS
The final temperature obtained from experiment will be the state in which the temperature of two
substances reached the equal temperature at a certain time.
APPARATUS
1. Mercury thermometer -1
2. Beaker (50ml and 250 ml) -2
3. Styrofoam -1
4. Bunsen burner or electric kettle -1
5. Balance or electronic balance -1
6. Hot hand protector -1
7. Tripod stand and wire gauze -1
8. Lighter gun -1
PROCEDUCES
1. Weight the mass of an empty beaker/ Styrofoam and record as m1.
2. Fill 100ml tap water into the beaker / Styrofoam . Measure mass of the beaker with tap
water and record as m2.
3. Read the intial temperature of tap water and record as T1.
4. Fill another empty beaker with 100ml water.
5. Boil the tap water by using electric kettle or Bunsen burner about 10 minutes.
6. Read the temperature of the hot water and record as T2. as Figure 6.
RESULT
TABLE 1
Mass, m gram
Empty beaker , m1
2.6 g
Beaker with 200ml tap water , m2
99.7 g
Beaker / stryrofoam with 200ml mixture water /
100ml tap water with 100ml hot water
99.7 g
TABLE 2
Temperature , T C
Tap water , T1 27C
Hot water , T2 72C
The mixture, Tfinal 48C

Use the values from the Table 1 and 2 above to answer the following question:
Mass of tap water = mcold = m2 - m1
97.1 g
Mass of hot water = mhot = m3 - m1
97.1 g
Mass of water mixture = mcold + mhot
199.4 g

CALCULATION
Calculation Tfinal by using the following equation:-
Tfinal = (mhot Thot)+(mcold Tcold)
(mhot + mcold)
Tfinal = (97.772)+(97.127)
199.4
Tfinal = 49.5 C

Tfinal ( from experiment)

4 C
Tfinal ( from calculation)

47.9 C
% Error
3.03%

48 47.9
100% = 3.03%
48

Question
1. Does the final temperature in the experiment is equal with the final
temperature in calculation ?
No.
2. If both in the final temperature are not the same, explain why and
relate to thermal equilibrium principle?

Because heat or thermal energy always transferred from a region of
higher temperature to a region of lower temperature and there is an
error when doing the experiment. Heat lost more than the heat gain.

3. Conclusion

The final temperature obtained from experiment will be the state in
which the temperature of two substances reached the equal temperature
at a certain time.