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Light and Lighting Light and Lighting

Introduction
o Good lighting can make or break a home in the same way that furnishings
and interior decoration set a style, yet too often lighting is treated as an
afterthought.
o Designing light require the architect to start with the space to light and
most importantly will look at what space is FOR.
o Designers must treat space as a dynamic entity because homes are not
static showpieces, people live in them and lighting design must account
the different activities in each spaces.
o Every human activity needs different lighting state that gives the right
levels of light for visual task on appropriate mood.
o Finally, the quality of lighting design must evoke the emotional feeling of
the space.
o Good lighting can make or break a home in the same way that furnishings
and interior decoration set a style, yet too often lighting is treated as an
afterthought.
o Designing light require the architect to start with the space to light and
most importantly will look at what space is FOR.
o Designers must treat space as a dynamic entity because homes are not
static showpieces, people live in them and lighting design must account
the different activities in each spaces.
o Every human activity needs different lighting state that gives the right
levels of light for visual task on appropriate mood.
o Finally, the quality of lighting design must evoke the emotional feeling of
the space.
Light
oEnergy producing brightness: the
energy producing a sensation of
brightness that makes seeing
possible
oIs visually perceived radiant
energy on the electromagnetic
spectrum in the range visible to
the human eye.
oEnergy producing brightness: the
energy producing a sensation of
brightness that makes seeing
possible
oIs visually perceived radiant
energy on the electromagnetic
spectrum in the range visible to
the human eye.
o Visible light comprises only a very small part
of the energy spectrum yet makes it possible
for people to see.
o Light and color affects human sight.
o Color is determined by wave length
(370 nanometers to 800 nanometers)1
nanometer = 1billionth of a meter
o Longest wavelength has lowest frequency
and shortest wavelength has highest
frequency
Fundamental Laws of Light
o Visible light comprises only a very small part
of the energy spectrum yet makes it possible
for people to see.
o Light and color affects human sight.
o Color is determined by wave length
(370 nanometers to 800 nanometers)1
nanometer = 1billionth of a meter
o Longest wavelength has lowest frequency
and shortest wavelength has highest
frequency
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Sources of Light
Incandescence
o In an incandescent light source, hot atoms collide
with one another. These collisions transfer energy
to some electrons, boosting them into higher
energy levels. As the electrons release this energy,
they emit photons. Some collisions are weak and
some are strong, so the electrons are excited to
different energy levels and photons of different
energies are emitted.
o Candle light is incandescent and results from the
excited atoms of soot in the hot flame. Light from
an incandescent light bulb comes from excited
atoms in a thin wire called a filament that is
heated by passing an electric current through it.
Incandescence
o In an incandescent light source, hot atoms collide
with one another. These collisions transfer energy
to some electrons, boosting them into higher
energy levels. As the electrons release this energy,
they emit photons. Some collisions are weak and
some are strong, so the electrons are excited to
different energy levels and photons of different
energies are emitted.
o Candle light is incandescent and results from the
excited atoms of soot in the hot flame. Light from
an incandescent light bulb comes from excited
atoms in a thin wire called a filament that is
heated by passing an electric current through it.
Sources of Light
Luminescence
o A luminescent light source absorbs energy in
some form other than heat, and is therefore
usually cooler than an incandescent source.
The color of a luminescent source is not related
to its temperature. A fluorescent light is a type
of luminescent source that makes use of
chemical compounds called phosphors..
Luminescence
o A luminescent light source absorbs energy in
some form other than heat, and is therefore
usually cooler than an incandescent source.
The color of a luminescent source is not related
to its temperature. A fluorescent light is a type
of luminescent source that makes use of
chemical compounds called phosphors..
Sources of Light
Laser
o A laser is a special kind of light source that
produces very regular waves that permit the light
to be very tightly focused. Laser is actually an
acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated
Emission of Radiation. Each radiating charge in a
non laser light source produces a light wave that
may be a little different from the waves produced
by the other charges. Laser sources have atoms
whose electrons radiate all in step, or
synchronously. As a result, the electrons produce
light that is polarized, monochromatic, and
coherent, which means that its waves remain in
step, with their peaks and troughs coinciding, over
long distances.
Laser
o A laser is a special kind of light source that
produces very regular waves that permit the light
to be very tightly focused. Laser is actually an
acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated
Emission of Radiation. Each radiating charge in a
non laser light source produces a light wave that
may be a little different from the waves produced
by the other charges. Laser sources have atoms
whose electrons radiate all in step, or
synchronously. As a result, the electrons produce
light that is polarized, monochromatic, and
coherent, which means that its waves remain in
step, with their peaks and troughs coinciding, over
long distances.
Behavior of Light
oLight behavior can be divided into two
categories: how light interacts with
matter and how light travels, or
propagates through space or through
transparent materials. The propagation
of light has much in common with the
propagation of other kinds of waves,
including sound waves and water
waves.
oLight behavior can be divided into two
categories: how light interacts with
matter and how light travels, or
propagates through space or through
transparent materials. The propagation
of light has much in common with the
propagation of other kinds of waves,
including sound waves and water
waves.
ois the bending of light when it passes from
one kind of material into another.
Because light travels at a different speed
in different materials, it must change
speeds at the boundary between two
materials. If a beam of light hits this
boundary at an angle, then light on the
side of the beam that hits first will be
forced to slow down or speed up before
light on the other side hits the new
material. This makes the beam bend, or
refract, at the boundary.
Refraction
ois the bending of light when it passes from
one kind of material into another.
Because light travels at a different speed
in different materials, it must change
speeds at the boundary between two
materials. If a beam of light hits this
boundary at an angle, then light on the
side of the beam that hits first will be
forced to slow down or speed up before
light on the other side hits the new
material. This makes the beam bend, or
refract, at the boundary.
Reflection
o Reflection also occurs when light hits the
boundary between two materials. Some of
the light hitting the boundary will be reflected
into the first material. If light strikes the
boundary at an angle, the light is reflected at
the same angle. Light that is reflected from a
flat boundary, such as the boundary
between air and a smooth lake, will form a
mirror image. Light reflected from a curved
surface may be focused into a point, a line,
or onto an area, depending on the curvature
of the surface.
o Reflection also occurs when light hits the
boundary between two materials. Some of
the light hitting the boundary will be reflected
into the first material. If light strikes the
boundary at an angle, the light is reflected at
the same angle. Light that is reflected from a
flat boundary, such as the boundary
between air and a smooth lake, will form a
mirror image. Light reflected from a curved
surface may be focused into a point, a line,
or onto an area, depending on the curvature
of the surface.
Types of Reflection
oSpecular Directed from a smooth
polished surface
oDiffused A scattered reflection of
light from an irregular surface or an
erratic dispersion through a translucent
material.
oSpecular Directed from a smooth
polished surface
oDiffused A scattered reflection of
light from an irregular surface or an
erratic dispersion through a translucent
material.
oReflectance The ratio of the radiation
reflected by a surface to the total
incident on the surface
oAbsorptance The ratio of the
radiation absorbed by a surface to the
total incident on the surface
oTransmittance The ratio of the
radiation transmitted through and
emerging from a body to the total
incident on it, equivalent to 1 minus
the absorption
oReflectance The ratio of the radiation
reflected by a surface to the total
incident on the surface
oAbsorptance The ratio of the
radiation absorbed by a surface to the
total incident on the surface
oTransmittance The ratio of the
radiation transmitted through and
emerging from a body to the total
incident on it, equivalent to 1 minus
the absorption
Materials in relation to Light
oOpaque Impenetrable to light
oTranslucent Transmitting and
diffusing light so that bodies on
the opposite side are not clearly
visible
oTransparent Capable of
transmitting light so that bodies
situated beyond or behind can
be distinctly seen.
oOpaque Impenetrable to light
oTranslucent Transmitting and
diffusing light so that bodies on
the opposite side are not clearly
visible
oTransparent Capable of
transmitting light so that bodies
situated beyond or behind can
be distinctly seen.
Lighting
The science, theory, or method of
providing illumination through the
use electric lamps
The science, theory, or method of
providing illumination through the
use electric lamps
Lighting Fundamentals
oCandlepower The Intensity of light
from a source in a certain direction,
and measured in candelas.
oCoefficient of Utilization The ratio of
illuminance to the lumens radiated from
the light source.
oEfficacy The ratio of the approximate
initial lumens produced by a light
source divided by the necessary power
to produce them.
oCandlepower The Intensity of light
from a source in a certain direction,
and measured in candelas.
oCoefficient of Utilization The ratio of
illuminance to the lumens radiated from
the light source.
oEfficacy The ratio of the approximate
initial lumens produced by a light
source divided by the necessary power
to produce them.
Lighting Fundamentals
oFootcandle A unit of illuminance
measurement; the number of lumens
that are incident on each square foot
of work surface. 1fc = 10.76 lux
oIlluminance The light falling on a
surface, measured in footcandles or lux.
oLumen A measure of total light
producing output of a source; the
quantity of visible light emitted.
oFootcandle A unit of illuminance
measurement; the number of lumens
that are incident on each square foot
of work surface. 1fc = 10.76 lux
oIlluminance The light falling on a
surface, measured in footcandles or lux.
oLumen A measure of total light
producing output of a source; the
quantity of visible light emitted.
Lighting Fundamentals
oLuminaire An assembly used to house
one or more light sources. Also called
lighting fixture.
oLuminance The emitted or reflected
light from a surface in a particular
direction, measured in candelas per
square meter.
oLux A unit of measurement used to
gauge the illuminance falling on a
surface; the number of lumens incident
on each square meter
oLuminaire An assembly used to house
one or more light sources. Also called
lighting fixture.
oLuminance The emitted or reflected
light from a surface in a particular
direction, measured in candelas per
square meter.
oLux A unit of measurement used to
gauge the illuminance falling on a
surface; the number of lumens incident
on each square meter
Luminance and Illuminance
Categories of Luminaires
oDirect: 90 100% downward
oSemi direct: 60 90% downward
oGeneral diffuse: 40 60% both
downward and upward
oDirect indirect: little light is emitted in
the horizontal plane
oSemi indirect: providing 60 90% of its
output upward
oIndirect: providing 90-100% of its luminous
output upward.
oDirect: 90 100% downward
oSemi direct: 60 90% downward
oGeneral diffuse: 40 60% both
downward and upward
oDirect indirect: little light is emitted in
the horizontal plane
oSemi indirect: providing 60 90% of its
output upward
oIndirect: providing 90-100% of its luminous
output upward.
Classification of Luminaires
o Recessed
o Ceiling Mounted
o Track Mounted
o Wall mounted
o Suspended
o Architectural
o Portable
o Pole Mounted
o Bollard
o Outdoor
o Recessed
o Ceiling Mounted
o Track Mounted
o Wall mounted
o Suspended
o Architectural
o Portable
o Pole Mounted
o Bollard
o Outdoor
Lighting and Vision
Factors that affect visual performance
independent of lighting
o Contrast: refers to the luminance difference
between the critical detail of a task and its
immediate background
o Size: refers to the size of the visual task
o Time: refers to the time a visual task is
presented.
Factors that affect visual performance
independent of lighting
o Contrast: refers to the luminance difference
between the critical detail of a task and its
immediate background
o Size: refers to the size of the visual task
o Time: refers to the time a visual task is
presented.
Factors that affect visual performance
dependent on lighting
oTask Luminance
oReflectance of a surface
oVeiling Reflections: reflections that
create a luminous veil over a visual task
oGlare: an annoying or painful sensation
caused by the non-uniformityof lighting
Lighting and Vision (cont.)
Factors that affect visual performance
dependent on lighting
oTask Luminance
oReflectance of a surface
oVeiling Reflections: reflections that
create a luminous veil over a visual task
oGlare: an annoying or painful sensation
caused by the non-uniformityof lighting
Veiling
Reflection
Glare
The following means can reduce
discomfort glare
oDecrease the luminance of the
offending source of light
oReducing the area or size of the
offending source
oIncreasing the luminance of
surfaces surrounding the offending
source
The following means can reduce
discomfort glare
oDecrease the luminance of the
offending source of light
oReducing the area or size of the
offending source
oIncreasing the luminance of
surfaces surrounding the offending
source
Lighting and Psychology
Research has resulted in some approaches to
lighting a space that tend to reinforce some
subjective impressions.
o Visual Clarity: reinforced by bright, uniform lighting
combined with high brightness of the walls
o Spaciousness: reinforced by uniform wall lighting
o Relaxation: reinforced by non-uniform lighting and
lower ceiling brightness
o Privacy/Intimacy: reinforced by non-uniform lighting
(low levels around the occupants, higher levels further
away)
o Pleasantness/preference: reinforced by non-uniform
lighting with high wall brightness
Research has resulted in some approaches to
lighting a space that tend to reinforce some
subjective impressions.
o Visual Clarity: reinforced by bright, uniform lighting
combined with high brightness of the walls
o Spaciousness: reinforced by uniform wall lighting
o Relaxation: reinforced by non-uniform lighting and
lower ceiling brightness
o Privacy/Intimacy: reinforced by non-uniform lighting
(low levels around the occupants, higher levels further
away)
o Pleasantness/preference: reinforced by non-uniform
lighting with high wall brightness
Artificial Light Sources
o Incandescent Lamps
o Fluorescent Lamps
o High-Intensity Discharge Lamps
o Mercury Lamps
o Metal Halide Lamps
o High Pressure Sodium Lamps
o Low Pressure Sodium Lamps
o Electrode-less Lamps
o Compact arc xenon
and Mercury Lamps
o Electroluminescent Lamps
o Light Emitting Diodes
o Carbon arc Lamps
o Gaslights
o Incandescent Lamps
o Fluorescent Lamps
o High-Intensity Discharge Lamps
o Mercury Lamps
o Metal Halide Lamps
o High Pressure Sodium Lamps
o Low Pressure Sodium Lamps
o Electrode-less Lamps
o Compact arc xenon
and Mercury Lamps
o Electroluminescent Lamps
o Light Emitting Diodes
o Carbon arc Lamps
o Gaslights
Lighting Calculations
oIlluminance
Inverse Square Cosine Law
E =(I cosx)/D2
Where: I is the Luminous Intensity in Candelas
D is the distance between the source and the point
and the angle x between the normal or perpendicular to
surface A and the direction along the distance D
oLuminance
L = rE/
Where: r is the reflectance, and E is the illuminance in lux
oIlluminance
Inverse Square Cosine Law
E =(I cosx)/D2
Where: I is the Luminous Intensity in Candelas
D is the distance between the source and the point
and the angle x between the normal or perpendicular to
surface A and the direction along the distance D
oLuminance
L = rE/
Where: r is the reflectance, and E is the illuminance in lux
Types of Lighting
oGeneral Lighting
Types of Lighting
oAccent Lighting
Types of Lighting
oDecorative Lighting
Types of Lighting
oTask Lighting
Types of Lighting
oKinetic Lighting