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PEMP

MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Introduction To Machine Design
Session delivered by:
Mr. Nithin Venkataram
PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Session Objectives
At the end of this session students would have understood,
General consideration for machine design.
Procedure for machine design.
Types of load.
Load analysis.





PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Session Topics
Introduction to machine design.
General consideration & procedure for machine
design.
Types of loads.
Load analysis.




PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Design Overview
The term design is popularly used to refer to an objects
aesthetic appearance with specific reference to its form or
outward appearance, as well as its function.




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Design
Latin word Designare
Which means to designate or
mark out
PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Design generally begins with
either a need or requirement or,
alternatively, an idea.

It ends with a set of drawings
or computer representations
and other information that
enables a product to be
manufactured and utilized.

Good design is a one which fulfils a range of
requirements such as visual impact, appealing to our
visual perception and the concept of function.
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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
What is machine design?
A device consisting of fixed and moving parts that modifies
mechanical energy and transmits it in a more useful form.
A simple device, such as a lever, a pulley, or an inclined
plane, that alters the magnitude or direction, or both, of an
applied force; a simple machine.
Machine



Application of science and invention to the development,
specification, and construction of machines.
Is known as Machine Design
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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
General consideration for machine design
Type of load and stresses caused by the load.
The load, on a machine component, may act in several ways due to which
the internal stresses are set up.
Motion of the parts or kinematics of the machine.
The successful operation of any machine depends largely upon the
simplest arrangement of the parts which will give the motion required.
Selection of materials.
It is essential that a designer should have a thorough knowledge of the
properties of the materials and their behavior under working conditions.
Some of the important characteristics of materials are :
Strength,
Durability,
Flexibility,
Weight, resistance to heat and corrosion,

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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Form and size of the parts.
In order to design any machine part for form and size, it is necessary to
know the forces which the part must sustain.
It is also important to anticipate any suddenly applied or impact load
which may cause failure.
Frictional resistance and lubrication.
There is always a loss of power due to frictional resistance.
It is noted that the friction of starting is higher than that of running
friction.
It is essential that a careful attention must be given to the matter of
lubrication of all surfaces which move in contact with others .
Convenient and economical features.
If parts are to be changed for different products or replaced on account
of wear or breakage, easy access should be provided.
The economical operation of a machine which is to be used for
production, or for the processing of material should be studied.
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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Use of standard parts.
The use of standard parts is closely related to cost because the cost of
standard or stock parts is only a fraction of the cost of similar parts
made to order.
Bolts and studs should be as few as possible to avoid the delay caused
by changing drills, reamers and taps and also to decrease the number of
wrenches required.
Safety of operation.
moving part of a machine which is within the zone of a worker is
considered an accident hazard and may be the cause of an injury.
It is necessary that a designer should always provide safety devices for
the safety of the operator.
Workshop facilities.
A design engineer should be familiar with the limitations of his
employers workshop, in order to avoid the necessity of having work
done in some other workshop.
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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Number of machines to be manufactured.
The number of articles or machines to be manufactured
affects the design in a number of ways.
The engineering and shop costs which are
called fixed charges or overhead expenses are
distributed over the number of articles to be manufactured.
Cost of construction.
The cost of construction of an article is the most
important consideration involved in design.
The aim of design engineer under all conditions,
should be to reduce the manufacturing cost to the minimum.
Assembling.
Every machine or structure must be assembled
as a unit before it can function.
The design engineer must anticipate the
exact location and the local facilities for erection.
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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Procedure for machine design
Recognition of need.
Design begins when an individual or
company recognizes a need, or
identifies a potential market, for a
product, device or process.

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Definition of problem.
This involves all the specifications of the
product or process to be designed.

Synthesis.
This is the process of combining the
ideas developed into a form or concept,
which offers a potential solution to the
design requirement.
PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Analysis .
This involves the application of engineering
science, such as statics and dynamics,
mechanics of materials. Designers have to
synthesize something before it can be
analyzed.

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Optimization.
This is the process of repetitively
refining a set of often-conflicting
criteria to achieve the best compromise.

Evaluation.
This is the process of identifying
whether the design satisfies the
original requirements.

PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Case Study on design process
Following some initial market assessments the board of a
plant machinery company has decided to proceed with the
design of a new product for transporting pallets around
factories with the help of forklift truck.

The process of the design can be
used to develop the new product.

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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Recognition of need.
The company has identified a potential market for a new pallet-
moving device.
Definition of problem.
This allows the design team to identify whether their design
proposals meet the original request. In this many aspects such as.
What sizes of pallet are to be moved?
What is the maximum size of the load on the pallet?
What maximum height must the pallet be lifted?
What lifetime is required?
Synthesis.
Some initial ideas must be proposed or generated in order for
them to be assessed and improved.
Concepts can be generated by imagination, experience or by the
use of design techniques.
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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Some evaluation should be made at this stage to reduce the
number of concepts requiring further work.
Analysis.
Once a concept has been proposed it can then be analyzed to
determine whether constituent components can meet the demands
placed on them in terms of
Performance.
Manufacture.
Cost & other specified criteria.
Alternatively, analysis techniques can be used to determine what
size components need to be to meet the required functions.
Optimization.
Inevitably there are conflicts between requirements.
In the case of the forklift truck, size, maneuverability, cost,
aesthetic appeal, ease of use, stability and speed are not
necessarily all in accordance with each other.
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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Evaluation.
Once a concept has been proposed and selected
The details of component sizes, materials, manufacture, costs and performance
worked out
It is then necessary to evaluate it.






Does the proposed design fulfill the specification?

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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Types of loads
Static Loads
Tensile load.
Compressive load.
Dynamic Loads
Vibration Load.
Torsion load.
Bending load.
Cyclic Loads.
Fatigue load.

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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Static Loads
Tensile load.


Compressive load.


Shear load.

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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Dynamic Loads
Vibration.
These vibration load can be divided
into
Harmonic Vibration.
Transient Vibration.
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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Torsional load
When a machine member is subjected to the action of two equal and
opposite couples acting in parallel planes (or torque or twisting
moment), then the machine member is said to be subjected to torsion.
Consider a shaft fixed at one end and subjected to a torque (T) at the
other end as shown below.



Where
= Torsional shear stress induced
T = Torque;
r = Radius of the shaft
J = Second moment of inertia;
l = length of the shaft
C = Modulus of rigidity; = Angle of twist in radians

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l
C
J
T
r
.
+ +
PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
In engineering practice, the machine parts of structural members may be
subjected to static or dynamic loads which cause bending stress in the sections
besides other types of stresses such as tensile, compressive and shearing
stresses.
Consider a straight beam subjected to a bending moment M as shown




The following assumptions are usually made while deriving the bending
formula.
The material of the beam is perfectly homogeneous
The material of the beam obeys Hookes law.
The transverse sections (i.e. BC or GH) which were plane before bending, remain plane after
bending also.
Each layer of the beam is free to expand or contract, independently, of the layer, above or
below it.
The Youngs modulus (E) is the same in tension and compression.
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Bending Stress in a straight beam
PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Consider a straight beam subjected to a bending moment M as
shown




The bending equation is given by
Where
M = Bending moment equation.
I = Moment of inertia of the cross section.
= Bending stress.
y = Distance form neutral axis to extreme fiber.
R = Radius of curvature of the beam.
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R
E
y I
M
+ +

PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Effect of orientation on bending stress
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Pa 27 . 2
6 . 6
1 . 0 * 150
5
5
e
e
I
My
b
+
+
+

Pa 51 . 4
66 . 1
05 . 0 * 150
5
5
e
e
I
My
b
+
+
+

Area is maintained constant of (0.1*0.2)m


2
Load is 100 N in negative Y direction
PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Effect of change in shape on bending stress
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Pa 27 . 2
6 . 6
1 . 0 * 150
5
5
e
e
I
My
b
+
+
+

Pa 01 . 2
57 . 8
115 . 0 * 150
5
5
e
e
I
My
b
+
+
+

Area is maintained constant of (0.1*0.2)m


2
Load is 100 N in negative Y direction
PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Bending Stress in Curved Beams
Straight beams, the neutral axis of the section coincides with
its centroidal axis and the stress distribution in the beam is
linear.
But in case of curved beams, the neutral axis of the cross-
section is shifted towards the centre of curvature of the beam
causing a non-linear (hyperbolic) distribution of stress.
It may be noted that the neutral axis lies between the
centroidal axis and the centre of curvature and always occurs
within the curved beams.
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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Consider a curved beam subjected to a bending moment M, as shown. In
finding the bending stress in curved beams, the same assumptions are
used as for straight beams.





The general expression for the bending stress (b) in a curved beam at any
fiber at a distance y from the neutral
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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Load Analysis
To understand the load analysis one has to carry
out Free body diagram.

Free body diagram
A sketch showing the particle and all the
forces acting on it

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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Free body diagram
1. Determine the body to be analyzed.
2. Completely isolate the body from supports and other
attached bodies.
3. Sketch the outline of the resulting Free Body.
4. Indicate on the sketch all external applied loads.
5. Clearly indicate the location, magnitude and direction of
each load.
6. At supports, connections and section cuts, show unknown
forces and couples.
7. Assign a symbol to each unknown.
8. Use sign convention to assign positive sense to unknowns or
assign it arbitrarily.

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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
10. Label significant points and dimensions.
11. Show reference axes.

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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Example on FBD
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0
3 2 1
+ O O r r r

From vector loop closure equations
From trigonometry 1 2 & 3 are evaluated
And the loop closure equation can be written
0
0
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
+ O O
+ O O


Sin r Sin r Sin r
Cos r Cos r Cos r
Values of r1, r2 and r3 is evaluated form
solving the above equations
PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Sample Problem
Two men exert forces of F=80 lb and P=50 lb on the
ropes. Determine the moment of each force about A.
Which way will the pole rotate, clockwise or
counterclockwise?

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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Resolving the forces.
Resolve the incline force of P & F into horizontal and
vertical axis
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PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru 33
+
i i R
d F M
A
clockwise M
ckwise counterclo M
A
A
R
R
( +
O +
= = = =
= = ==
= == = ==
= = = =
= = clockwise k 6 131
4 636 768
0 6 12 45 50
0 12
5
4
80
. M
. M
P cos
F M
d P d P d F d F M
M M M
A
A
y
o
y A
P y P x F y F x A
P
A
F
A A
x y x y
( +
O ( +
O O O
O

'
_
Z
'
[
-
-

,
( +
O O O +
O +
PEMP
MMD2512/ MDTD2512
< M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru
Summary
The following concepts which are important from the
point of machine component design are discussed along
with the meanings of Design, Machine design.
Design Overview.
General consideration for machine design.
Procedure for machine design.
Types of loads.
Load analysis.

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