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Campbell's Biology, 9e (Reece et al.

)
Chapter 42 Circulation and Gas Exchange
Substantial emphasis is placed in Chapter 42 on the big picture of animals existing only by virtue of
exchanging matter with their environments. In particular, oxygen and carbon dioxide dynamics are
explored in a wide variety of animals, with close investigation of the diverse structures and functions
involved in gas exchange. The Test an! "uestions assess learning across many levels of in"uiry, from
atomic to organismal.
#ultiple$Choice %uestions
&' (as exchange in the a"uatic salamander !nown as the axolotl is correctly described as
)' active transport to move oxygen into the salamander from the water.
' carrier$mediated transport to move oxygen into the salamander from the water.
C' facilitated diffusion of carbon dioxide from the salamander into the water.
*' simple diffusion of oxygen into the salamander from the water.
+' active transport of carbon dioxide from the salamander into the water.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.&
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
2' Circulatory systems have the primary benefit of overcoming the shortcomings of
)' temperature differences between the lungs and the active tissue.
' the slow rate at which diffusion occurs across cells.
C' communication systems involving only the nervous system.
*' having to cushion animals from trauma.
+' fetal organisms maintaining an optimal body temperature.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.&
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
/' To become bound to hemoglobin for transport in a mammal, atmospheric molecules of oxygen must
cross
)' 0ero membranesoxygen binds directly to hemoglobin, a protein dissolved in the plasma of the
blood.
' one membranethat of the lining in the lungsand then bind directly to hemoglobin, a protein
dissolved in the plasma of the blood.
C' two membranesin and out of the cell lining the lungand then bind directly to hemoglobin, a
protein dissolved in the plasma of the blood.
*' four membranesin and out of the cell lining the lung, in and out of the endothelial cell lining the
pulmonary capillary1and then bind directly to hemoglobin, a protein dissolved in the plasma of the
blood.
+' five membranesin and out of the cell lining the lung, in and out of the endothelial cell lining the
pulmonary capillary, and into the red blood cellto bind with hemoglobin.
)nswer, +
Topic, Concept 42.&
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
&
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4' The fluid that moves around in the circulatory system of a typical arthropod is
)' the digestive 5uices.
' the intracellular fluid.
C' the blood plasma.
*' the cytosol.
+' the interstitial fluid.
)nswer, +
Topic, Concept 42.&
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
6' Circulatory systems in molluscs
)' are open in all species of molluscs.
' are closed in all species of molluscs.
C' are open in species of large$si0ed molluscs and are closed in species of small$si0ed molluscs.
*' are open in species of small$si0ed molluscs and are closed in species of large$si0ed molluscs.
+' are open or closed without regard to body si0e.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.&
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
7' The circulatory system of bony fishes, rays, and shar!s is similar to
)' that of birds, with a four$chambered heart.
' the portal systems of mammals, where two capillary beds occur se"uentially, without passage of
blood through a pumping chamber.
C' that of reptiles, with one pumping chamber driving blood flow to a gas$exchange organ, and a
different pumping chamber driving blood to the rest of the circulation.
*' that of sponges, where gas exchange in all cells occurs directly with the external environment.
+' that of humans, where there are four pumping chambers to drive blood flow.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.&
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
8' ) significant increase in the amount of interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary beds of a human9s
lungs will cause
)' an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide moving from the blood to the lungs.
' an increase in the amount of oxygen moving from the lungs into the blood.
C' a decrease in the amount of oxygen moving from the lungs into the blood.
*' an increase of pressure that would cause the capillary beds to burst.
+' a decrease in the amount of wor! needed for effective ventilation of the lungs.
)nswer, C
Topic, Concept 42.&
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
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:' ;rganisms with a circulating body fluid that is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the
body9s cells are li!ely to have
)' an open circulatory system.
' a closed circulatory system.
C' a gastrovascular cavity.
*' branched tracheae.
+' hemolymph.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.&
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
<' In which of the following organisms does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the
heart before circulating through the rest of the body=
)' annelids
' molluscs
C' fishes
*' frogs
+' insects
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.&
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
&3' The only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without
first returning to the heart are the
)' amphibians.
' birds.
C' fishes.
*' mammals.
+' reptiles.
)nswer, C
Topic, Concept 42.&
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
&&' To ad5ust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the gas$exchange surface and in the
capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would need a>n'
)' open circulatory system.
' hemocoel.
C' lymphatic system.
*' two$chambered heart.
+' four$chambered heart.
)nswer, +
Topic, Concept 42.&
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
/
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&2' ) portal system is
)' an area connecting arterioles to venules.
' a series of vessels that returns blood to the heart in an animal with an open circulatory system.
C' a space within or between organs where blood is allowed to pool.
*' a slightly muscular vessel that has minimal pumping action in an organism with no heart.
+' a vessel or vessels connecting two capillary beds.
)nswer, +
Topic, Concept 42.&
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
&/' ?hich of the following develops the greatest pressure on the blood in the mammalian aorta=
)' systole of the left atrium
' diastole of the right ventricle
C' systole of the left ventricle
*' diastole of the right atrium
+' diastole of the left atrium
)nswer, C
Topic, Concept 42.2
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
&4' ?hich of the following pairs of mammalian blood vessels has blood that is the least similar in its gas
content=
)' the pulmonary vein and the 5ugular vein
' the veins from the right and left legs
C' the pulmonary artery and the vena cava
*' the pulmonary vein and the aorta
+' the inferior vena cava and the superior vena cava
)nswer, )
Topic, Concept 42.2
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
&6' )fter several wee!s of exercise, a human athlete9s resting heart rate is typically lower than before
because
)' the body needs less oxygen than before.
' the body temperature has increased.
C' the stro!e volume has increased.
*' the cardiac output has decreased.
+' the body produces less carbon dioxide than before.
)nswer, C
Topic, Concept 42.2
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
4
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&7' ) human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the
thumb. To travel from the artery in the arm to the left ventricle, this red blood cell must pass through
)' one capillary bed.
' two capillary beds.
C' three capillary beds.
*' four capillary beds.
+' five capillary beds.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.2
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
&8' ?hich of the following is the correct se"uence of blood flow in reptiles and mammals=
)' left ventricle @ aorta @ lungs @ systemic circulation
' right ventricle @ pulmonary vein @ pulmocutaneous circulation
C' pulmonary vein @ left atrium @ left ventricle @ pulmonary circuit
*' vena cava @ right atrium @ right ventricle @ pulmonary circuit
+' right atrium @ pulmonary artery @ left atrium @ ventricle
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.2
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
&:' ) patient with a blood pressure of &23.86, a pulse rate of 43 beats.minute, a stro!e volume of 83
mA.beat, and a respiratory rate of 26 breaths.minute will have a cardiac output of
)' 633 mA.minute.
' &,333 mA.minute.
C' &,863 mA.minute.
*' 2,:33 mA.minute.
+' 4,:33 mA.minute.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.2
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
&<' *amage to the sinoatrial node in humans
)' is a ma5or contributor to heart attac!s.
' would bloc! conductance between the bundle branches and the 4ur!in5e fibers.
C' would have a negative effect on peripheral resistance.
*' would disrupt the rate and timing of cardiac muscle contractions.
+' would have a direct effect on blood pressure monitors in the aorta.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.2
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
6
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23' ) stro!e volume in the heart of 83 mA.cycle, with a pulse of 82 cycles per minute, results in a
cardiac output of
)' 6 A.minute.
' 634 mA.minute.
C' 3.6 A.minute.
*' 63 A.minute.
+' 633 A.minute.
)nswer, )
Topic, Concept 42.2
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
2&' The semilunar valves of the mammalian heart
)' are the route by which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles.
' are found only on the right side of the heart.
C' are the attachment site where the pulmonary veins empty into the heart.
*' prevent bac!flow of blood in the aorta and pulmonary arteries.
+' are at the places where the anterior and posterior venae cavae empty into the heart.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.2
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
22' The material present in arterioles that is not present in capillaries is
)' fully oxygenated blood.
' plasma in which carbon dioxide has been added.
C' a lining of endothelial cells.
*' circular smooth muscle cells that can alter the si0e of the arterioles.
+' white blood cells and platelets.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
2/' The set of blood vessels with the slowest velocity of blood flow is
)' the arteries.
' the arterioles.
C' the metarterioles.
*' the capillaries.
+' the veins.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
24' The set of blood vessels with the lowest blood pressure driving flow is
)' the arteries.
' the arterioles.
C' the metarterioles.
*' the capillaries.
+' the veins.
)nswer, +
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
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26' )n increased concentration of nitric oxide within a vascular bed is associated with
)' vasoconstriction.
' vasodilation.
C' narrowing of the arteries.
*' a reduction in blood flow in that region.
+' a decreased amount of blood in the capillaries of that vascular bed.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
27' )mong the following choices, which organism li!ely has the highest systolic pressure=
)' mouse
' rabbit
C' human
*' hippopotamus
+' giraffe
)nswer, +
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
28' Small swollen areas in the nec!, groin, and axillary region are associated with
)' increased activity of the immune system.
' a bro!en limb.
C' blood sugar that is abnormally high.
*' dehydration.
+' sodium depletion.
)nswer, )
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
2:' The velocity of blood flow is the lowest in capillaries because
)' the capillary walls are not thin enough to allow oxygen to exchange with the cells.
' the capillaries are far from the heart, and blood flow slows as distance from the heart increases.
C' the diastolic blood pressure is too low to deliver blood to the capillaries at a high flow rate.
*' the systemic capillaries are supplied by the left ventricle, which has a lower cardiac output than the
right ventricle.
+' the total cross$sectional area of the capillaries is greater than the total cross$sectional area of the
arteries or any other part of the circulatory system.
)nswer, +
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, Synthesis.+valuation
8
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2<' The blood pressure is lowest in the
)' aorta.
' arteries.
C' arterioles.
*' capillaries.
+' venae cavae.
)nswer, +
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
/3' Bluid is filtered out of the bloodstream into the surrounding interstitial fluid at the arteriole end of
systemic capillaries because
)' the osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than that of the blood.
' the hydrostatic pressure of the blood is less than that of the interstitial fluid.
C' the hydrostatic pressure of the blood is greater than the osmotic pressure of the blood.
*' the osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the blood.
+' the osmotic pressure of the blood is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid.
)nswer, C
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
/&' If, during protein starvation, the osmotic pressure on the venous side of capillary beds drops below
the hydrostatic pressure, then
)' hemoglobin will not release oxygen.
' fluids will tend to accumulate in tissues.
C' the pC of the interstitial fluids will increase.
*' most carbon dioxide will be bound to hemoglobin and carried away from tissues.
+' plasma proteins will escape through the endothelium of the capillaries.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
/2' ?hat will be the long$term effect of bloc!ing the lymphatic vessels associated with a capillary bed=
)' more fluid entering the venous capillaries
' an increase in the blood pressure in the capillary bed
C' the accumulation of more fluid in the interstitial areas
*' fewer proteins lea!ing out of the blood to enter the interstitial fluid
+' the area of the bloc!age becoming abnormally small
)nswer, C
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
:
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//' ) species that has a normal resting systolic blood pressure of D273 mm Cg is li!ely to be
)' an animal that is small and compact, without the need to pump blood very far from the heart.
' an animal with abundant lipid storage.
C' a species that has very wide diameter veins.
*' an animal that has a very long distance between its heart and its brain.
+' an animal that ma!es fre"uent, "uic! motions.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, Synthesis.+valuation
/4' *ialysis patients, who will have blood withdrawn, dialy0ed, then replaced, are always weighed when
they enter the facility and then weighed carefully again before they leave, because
)' even small changes in body weight may signify changes in blood volume and therefore blood
pressure.
' many people who have dialysis are diabetic and must control their weight carefully.
C' dialysis removes blood proteins and these weigh more than other blood components.
*' dialysis is li!ely to cause edema and such swelling must be controlled.
+' reclining posture during dialysis can cause a tendency for weight gain.
)nswer, )
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, Synthesis.+valuation
/6' Aarge proteins such as albumin remain in capillaries rather than diffusing out, resulting in the
)' loss of osmotic pressure in the capillaries.
' development of an osmotic pressure difference across capillary walls.
C' loss of fluid from capillaries.
*' increased diffusion of C;
2
.
+' increased diffusion of Cb.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
/7' Easoconstriction in the gut is a li!ely response when an individual is
)' lying down after standing up.
' standing up after lying down.
C' stressed and secreting stress hormones.
*' responding to increased blood pressure.
+' having an allergy attac! with lots of histamine secretion.
)nswer, C
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
<
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/8' The diagnosis of hypertension in adults is based on the
)' measurement of fatty deposits on the endothelium of arteries.
' measurement of the A*A.C*A ratio in peripheral blood.
C' percent of blood volume made up of platelets.
*' blood pressure being greater than &43 mm Cg systolic and.or D<3 diastolic.
+' number of leu!ocytes per mm
/
of blood.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42./
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
/:' )mong these choices, the biggest set that includes only those FcellsF that lac! nuclei is
)' platelets.
' platelets and erythrocytes.
C' platelets, erythrocytes, and basophils.
*' platelets, erythrocytes, basophils, and neutrophils.
+' platelets, erythrocytes, basophils, neutrophils, and monocytes.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.4
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
/<' In a healthy human, the typical life span of a red blood cell is
)' 24 hours.
' one wee!.
C' one month.
*' four months.
+' :3 years or more.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.4
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
43' The hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells, and the organ where this hormone is
synthesi0ed, are
)' growth hormone and pancreas, respectively.
' erythropoietin and !idney, respectively.
C' cortisol and adrenal gland, respectively.
*' epinephrine and adrenal gland, respectively.
+' acetylcholine and bone marrow, respectively.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.4
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
&3
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4&' *issolved proteins in human plasma include which of the following=
I. fibrinogen
II. hemoglobin
III. immunoglobulin
)' I only
' II only
C' I and III only
*' II and III only
+' I, II, and III
)nswer, C
Topic, Concept 42.4
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
42' The plasma proteins in humans
)' maintain the blood9s osmotic pressure.
' transport water$soluble lipids.
C' carry out gas exchange.
*' undergo aerobic metabolism.
+' transport oxygen.
)nswer, )
Topic, Concept 42.4
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
4/' Cyanide poisons mitochondria by bloc!ing the final step in the electron transport chain. Cuman red
blood cells placed in an isotonic solution containing cyanide are li!ely to
)' retain the normal cell shape, but the mitochondria will be poisoned.
' lyse as the cyanide concentration increases inside the cell.
C' switch to anaerobic metabolism.
*' become unable to carry oxygen.
+' be unaffected.
)nswer, +
Topic, Concept 42.4
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
44' Ceart rate will increase in the presence of increased
)' low$density lipoproteins.
' immunoglobulins.
C' erythropoietin.
*' epinephrine.
+' platelets.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.2
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
&&
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46' The production of red blood cells is stimulated by
)' low$density lipoproteins.
' immunoglobulins.
C' erythropoietin.
*' epinephrine.
+' platelets.
)nswer, C
Topic, Concept 42.4
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
47' The meshwor! that forms the fabric of a blood clot is
)' chymotrypsin.
' fibrin.
C' thrombin.
*' prothrombin.
+' collagen.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.4
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
48' ) normal event in the process of blood clotting is the
)' production of erythropoietin.
' conversion of fibrin to fibrinogen.
C' activation of prothrombin to thrombin.
*' increase in platelets.
+' synthesis of hemoglobin.
)nswer, C
Topic, Concept 42.4
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
4:' ?hen the air in a testing chamber is specially mixed so that its oxygen content is &3G and its overall
air pressure is 433 mm Cg, then 4;
2
is
)' 433 mm Cg.
' :2 mm Cg.
C' 43 mm Cg.
*' 2& mm Cg.
+' 4 mm Cg.
)nswer, C
Topic, Concept 42.6
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
&2
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4<' The sun shining on a tidal pool during a hot day heats the water. )s some water evaporates, the pool
becomes saltier, causing
)' a decrease in its carbon dioxide content.
' a decrease in its oxygen content.
C' an increase in its ability to sustain aerobic organisms.
*' a decrease in the water9s density.
+' a decrease in the movement of the water molecules.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.6
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
63' Sponges, cnidarians, and flatworms lac! a speciali0ed gas exchange surface because
)' they are too large for a circulatory system to operate well.
' they live without need for oxygen.
C' they do not produce carbon dioxide.
*' countercurrent exchange mechanisms cannot function well in their living conditions.
+' nearly all of their cells are in direct contact with the external environment.
)nswer, +
Topic, Concept 42.6
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
6&' Blying insects do all of the following except
)' increase metabolism as much as 233$fold during flight.
' switch from diffusion of tracheal gases to active transport during flight.
C' utili0e high numbers of mitochondria in flight muscles.
*' produce water molecules from oxygen in mitochondria.
+' generate carbon dioxide from catabolism of fuel molecules.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.6
S!ill, Synthesis.+valuation
62' The epiglottis of a human covers the glottis when he or she is
)' tal!ing.
' breathing.
C' swallowing.
*' yawning.
+' sleeping.
)nswer, C
Topic, Concept 42.6
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
6/' In mammals, most gas exchange between the atmosphere and the pulmonary blood occurs in the
)' trachea.
' larynx.
C' bronchi.
*' bronchioles.
+' alveoli.
)nswer, +
Topic, Concept 42.6
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
&/
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64' (as exchange is more difficult for a"uatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs
because
)' water is less dense than air.
' water contains much less ;
2
than air per unit volume.
C' gills have less surface area than lungs.
*' gills allow only unidirectional transport.
+' gills allow water to flow in one direction.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.6
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
66' Countercurrent exchange is evident in
)' the flow of water across the gills of a fish and that of blood within those gills.
' the flow of blood in the dorsal vessel of an insect and that of air within its tracheae.
C' the flow of air within the primary bronchi of a human and that of blood within the pulmonary veins.
*' the flow of water across the s!in of a frog and that of blood within the ventricle of its heart.
+' the flow of fluid out of the arterial end of a capillary and that of fluid bac! into the venous end of the
same capillary.
)nswer, )
Topic, Concept 42.6
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
67' Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximi0e
)' endocytosis.
' blood pressure.
C' diffusion.
*' active transport.
+' osmosis.
)nswer, C
Topic, Concept 42.6
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
68' )ir$breathing insects carry out gas exchange
)' in their speciali0ed external gills.
' in their speciali0ed internal gills.
C' in the alveoli of their lungs.
*' across the membranes of their cells.
+' across all parts of their thin cuticular exos!eleton.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.6
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
&4
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6:' )n oil$water mixture wor!s as an insecticidal spray against mos"uitoes and other insects because it
)' coats their lungs.
' bloc!s the openings into the tracheal system.
C' interferes with gas exchange across the capillaries.
*' clogs their bronchi.
+' prevents gases from leaving the atmosphere.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.6
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
6<' )tmospheric pressure at sea level is e"ual to a column of 873 mm Cg. ;xygen ma!es up 2&G of the
atmosphere by volume. The partial pressure of oxygen >4;
2
' in such conditions is
)' &73 mm Cg.
' &7 mm Cg.
C' &23.86.
*' 2&.873.
+' 873.2&.
)nswer, )
Topic, Concept 42.6
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
73' Some human infants, especially those born prematurely, suffer serious respiratory failure because of
)' the sudden change from the uterine environment to the air.
' the overproduction of surfactants.
C' the incomplete development of the lung surface.
*' lung collapse due to inade"uate production of surfactant.
+' mutations in the genes involved in lung formation.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.6
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
7&' ;f the following choices, impairment of a mammal9s breathing cycle is most li!ely following neural
damage in
)' the cerebrum and cerebellum.
' the medulla oblongata and the pons.
C' the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex.
*' the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
+' the frontal lobe and the temporal lobe.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.7
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
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72' )ir rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because
)' the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume.
' the volume of the alveoli increases as smooth muscles contract.
C' gas flows from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure.
*' pulmonary muscles contract and pull on the outer surface of the lungs.
+' a positive respiratory pressure is created when the diaphragm relaxes.
)nswer, )
Topic, Concept 42.7
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
7/' The exhalation of air from human lungs is driven by
)' a decrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity.
' a decrease in the residual volume of the lungs.
C' the contraction of the diaphragm.
*' the closure of the epiglottis.
+' the expansion of the rib cage.
)nswer, )
Topic, Concept 42.7
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
74' )s a person goes from rest to full$effort exercise, there is an increase in the
)' tidal volume.
' vital capacity.
C' residual volume.
*' total lung capacity.
+' )ll of the above would be different.
)nswer, )
Topic, Concept 42.7
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
76' ) person with a tidal volume of 463 mA, a vital capacity of 4,333 mA, and a residual volume of
&,333 mA would have a potential total lung capacity of
)' &,463 mA.
' 4,333 mA.
C' 4,463 mA.
*' 6,333 mA.
+' 6,463 mA.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.7
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
77' *uring most daily activities, the human respiration rate is most closely lin!ed to the blood levels of
)' nitric acid.
' nitrogen.
C' oxygen.
*' carbon dioxide.
+' carbon monoxide.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.7
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
&7
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78' reathing is usually regulated by
)' erythropoietin levels in the blood.
' the concentration of red blood cells.
C' hemoglobin levels in the blood.
*' C;
2
and ;
2
concentration and pC$level sensors.
+' the lungs and the larynx.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.7
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
7:' )t an atmospheric pressure of :83 mm Cg of 2&G oxygen, the partial pressure of oxygen is
)' &33 mm Cg.
' &28 mm Cg.
C' &6& mm Cg.
*' &:2 mm Cg.
+' 2&< mm Cg.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.7
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
7<' )t sea level, atmospheric pressure is 873 mm Cg. ;xygen gas is approximately 2&G of the total
gases in the atmosphere, so the approximate partial pressure of oxygen is
)' 3.2 mm Cg.
' 23.3 mm Cg.
C' 87.3 mm Cg.
*' &73.3 mm Cg.
+' 63:.3 mm Cg.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.7
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
83' )t the summit of a high mountain, the atmospheric pressure is /:3 mm Cg. If the atmosphere is still
composed of 2&G oxygen, then the partial pressure of oxygen at this altitude is
)' 3 mm Cg.
' :3 mm Cg.
C' &73 mm Cg.
*' /:3 mm Cg.
+' 873 mm Cg.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.7
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
&8
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8&' Carbon dioxide levels in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid affect its pC. This enables the organism to
sense a disturbance in gas levels as
)' the brain directly measures and monitors carbon dioxide and causes breathing changes accordingly.
' the medulla oblongata, which is in contact with cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pC and uses this
measure to control breathing.
C' the brain alters the pC of the cerebrospinal fluid to force the animal to retain more or less carbon
dioxide.
*' stretch receptors in the lungs cause the medulla oblongata to speed up or slow breathing.
+' the medulla oblongata is able to control the concentration of bicarbonate ions in the blood.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.7
S!ill, Synthesis.+valuation
82' )n increase from pC 8.2 to pC 8.4 around hemoglobin causes
)' hemoglobin to release all bound oxygen molecules.
' an increase in the affinity of hemoglobin to bind oxygen molecules.
C' hemoglobin to denature.
*' an increase in the binding of C
H
by hemoglobin.
+' hemoglobin to more readily give up its oxygen molecules.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.8
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
8/' )n Finternal reservoirF of oxygen in rested muscle is found in oxygen molecules bound to
)' hemoglobin.
' bicarbonate ions.
C' carbonic acid.
*' actin and myosin.
+' myoglobin.
)nswer, +
Topic, Concept 42.8
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
84' Cemoglobin and hemocyanin
)' are both found within blood cells.
' are both red in color.
C' are both freely dissolved in the plasma.
*' both transport oxygen.
+' are both found in mammals.
)nswer, *
Topic, Concept 42.8
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
&:
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86' The ohr shift on the oxygen$hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in
)' the partial pressure of oxygen.
' the partial pressure of carbon monoxide.
C' hemoglobin concentration.
*' temperature.
+' pC.
)nswer, +
Topic, Concept 42.8
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
87' #ost of the carbon dioxide produced by humans is
)' converted to bicarbonate ions by an en0yme in red blood cells.
' bound to hemoglobin.
C' transported in the erythrocytes as carbonic acid.
*' simply dissolved in the plasma.
+' bicarbonate ions bound to hemoglobin.
)nswer, )
Topic, Concept 42.8
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
88' Cydrogen ions produced within human red blood cells are prevented from significantly lowering
plasma pC because they bind to
)' hemoglobin.
' plasma proteins.
C' carbon dioxide.
*' carbonic acid.
+' plasma buffers.
)nswer, )
Topic, Concept 42.8
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
8:' The hemocyanin of arthropods and molluscs differ from the hemoglobin of mammals in that
)' the oxygen dissociation curve for hemocyanin is linear.
' hemocyanin carries appreciably more carbon dioxide.
C' hemocyanin has protein coupled to copper rather than iron.
*' the protein of hemocyanin is not bound to metal.
+' hemocyanin includes cyanic acid.
)nswer, C
Topic, Concept 42.8
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
&<
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8<' In an animal species !nown for endurance running rather than fast sprinting, you would expect to
find
)' a slower rate of oxygen consumption so that its breathing will not have to be accelerated.
' an increase of storage of oxygen in myoglobin of its muscles.
C' a relatively slow heart rate in order to lower oxygen consumption.
*' a lower pressure of oxygen in the alveoli.
+' a much higher rate of oxygen consumption for its si0e.
)nswer, +
Topic, Concept 42.8
S!ill, Synthesis.+valuation
)rt %uestions
lood entering a capillary bed of an unusual vertebrate was measured for the pressures exerted by
various factors, as shown in Bigure 42.&.
Figure 42.1
:3' Bor this unusual capillary bed,
)' the pC is lower on the arterial side than on the venous side.
' oxygen is ta!en up by the erythrocytes within the capillaries.
C' the osmotic pressure remains constant due to carbon dioxide compensation.
*' the hydrostatic pressure declines from the arterial side to the venous side because oxygen is lost.
+' fluids will leave the capillaries on the arterial side of the bed and re$enter on the venous side.
)nswer, +
Topic, Concepts 42./, 42.6, 42.7
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
Scenario %uestions
:&' )n anthropologist discovers the fossili0ed heart of an extinct animal. The evidence indicates that the
organism9s heart was large, well$formed, and had four chambers, with no connection between the right
and left sides. ) reasonable conclusion supported by these observations is that the
)' animal had evolved from birds.
' animal was endothermic and had a high metabolic rate.
C' animal was most closely related to alligators and crocodiles.
*' animal was li!ely an invertebrate animal.
+' species had little to no need to regulate blood pressure.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.&
S!ill, Synthesis.+valuation
23
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:2' ) group of students was designing an experiment to test the effect of smo!ing on grass frogs. They
hypothesi0ed that !eeping the frogs in a smo!e$filled environment for defined periods would result in
the animals developing lung cancer. Cowever, when they searched for previously published information
to shore up their hypothesis, they discovered they were "uite wrong in their original assessment. +ven
though they were never going to go ahead with their experiment >so as not to harm frogs needlessly',
they !new that a more li!ely outcome of putting carcinogens in the air would be the development of
)' the amphibian e"uivalent of hypertension.
' s!in cancer.
C' gill abnormalities in the next generation of tadpoles.
*' tracheal tube abnormalities.
+' diminished absorption of oxygen.
)nswer,
Topic, Concept 42.6
S!ill, Synthesis.+valuation
+nd$of$Chapter %uestions
The following "uestions are from the end$of$chapter ITest Jour KnderstandingL section in Chapter 42 of
the textboo!.
:/' ?hich of the following respiratory systems is not closely associated with a blood supply=
)' the lungs of a vertebrate
' the gills of a fish
C' the tracheal system of an insect
*' the s!in of an earthworm
+' the parapodia of a polychaete worm
)nswer, C
Topic, +nd$of$Chapter %uestions
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
:4' lood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into the
)' vena cava.
' left atrium.
C' right atrium.
*' left ventricle.
+' right ventricle.
)nswer,
Topic, +nd$of$Chapter %uestions
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
:6' 4ulse is a direct measure of
)' blood pressure.
' stro!e volume.
C' cardiac output.
*' heart rate.
+' breathing rate.
)nswer, *
Topic, +nd$of$Chapter %uestions
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
2&
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:7' ?hen you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes first leads to the urge to
breathe=
)' rising ;
2
' falling ;
2
C' rising C;
2
*' falling C;
2
+' rising C;
2
and falling ;
2
)nswer, C
Topic, +nd$of$Chapter %uestions
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
:8' ;ne feature that amphibians and humans have in common is
)' the number of heart chambers.
' the type of gas exchange tissues.
C' a complete separation of circuits for circulation.
*' the number of circuits for circulation.
+' a low blood pressure in the systemic circuit.
)nswer, *
Topic, +nd$of$Chapter %uestions
S!ill, -nowledge.Comprehension
::' If a molecule of C;
2
released into the blood in your left toe is exhaled from your nose, it must pass
through all of the following except
)' the pulmonary vein.
' an alveolus.
C' the trachea.
*' the right atrium.
+' the right ventricle.
)nswer, )
Topic, +nd$of$Chapter %uestions
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
:<' Compared with the interstitial fluid that bathes active muscle cells, blood reaching these cells in
arteries has a
)' higher 4
;
2
.
' higher 4
C;
2
.
C' greater bicarbonate concentration.
*' lower pC.
+' lower osmotic pressure.
)nswer, )
Topic, +nd$of$Chapter %uestions
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
22
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<3' ?hich of the following reactions prevails in red blood cells traveling through alveolar capillaries=
>Cb M hemoglobin'
)' Cb H 4 ;
2
@ Cb>;
2
'
4
' Cb>;
2
'
4
@ Cb H 4 ;
2
C' C;
2
H C
2
; @ C
2
C;
/
*' C
2
C;
/
@ C
H
H CC;
/
$
+' Cb H 4 C;
2
@ Cb>C;
2
'
4
)nswer, )
Topic, +nd$of$Chapter %uestions
S!ill, )pplication.)nalysis
2/
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