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LiDAR Tools, Applications and

Experiences

Overview

October 2006 GRF LiDAR Data Collect

• Data Issues ….

LiDAR tools, products and application areas

Recent GRF LiDAR Projects

• Lessons Learned…

LiDAR Defined

LiDAR Defined • LiDAR is a an acronym for Li ght D etection A nd R

LiDAR is a an acronym for Light Detection And Ranging that relies on measuring the distance from an aircraft to the Earth’s

surface by precisely timing the round-trip travel time of a brief

pulse of laser light

The travel-time is measured from the time the laser pulse is fired to the time laser light is reflected back from the surface.

The reflected laser light is received and converted to distance

from the plane to the surface based on the speed of light.

LiDAR Data Collection

LiDAR Data Collection Laser Pulse Returns

Laser Pulse Returns

2006 AGRG

LiDAR Data Collect

3-Stage LiDAR Data Collection and

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Management Process

Identification of Study Area

Supply study area background files

Flight Planning

Pre-Flight
Pre-Flight

GPS Base Station Operation (Ground Crew)

Hardware Install (Flight Crew)

In-Flight Data Collection

Collection Day
Collection Day

Raw data processing

Point Classification and Export

Creation of DEM’s and other products

Post-Flight
Post-Flight

Identification of Study Area

Identification of Study Area

Supply of Background Files

Provided the following;

Georeferenced NTS Topo Map Image

Rivers, Roads etc. as shapefile vectors

Survey Monuments text file

Selected Best Available Base Station Monument

Flight Planning

Optech’s ALTM Nav Software is Used to Plan Flights

Flight Planning Optech’s ALTM Nav Software is Used to Plan Flights

Hardware Install

Hardware Install
2005 AGRG Summer LiDAR Workshop
2005 AGRG Summer LiDAR Workshop

?

?

Flight Leaves Late from PEI…Yes I said PEI

540 km by Air!

Flight Leaves Late from PEI…Yes I said PEI 540 km by Air!
Flight Leaves Late from PEI…Yes I said PEI 540 km by Air!

GPS-Base Station Set-up

96G7002 CRK

120

48 56 38.4634

57 56 59.0467 100 Y A R 2003

68.554 100 1 P 1 CGVD28 1999 1

1

012A13

98F001

98F001

100

48 56 38

57 56 59

S

S

S

S

64.970 100 1 P 1 CGVD28 1999 1

1

012A13

98F002

98F002

100

48 56 38

57 56 59

S

66.563 100 1 P 1 CGVD28 1999 1

1

012A13

96F003

96F003

100

48 56 38

57 56 59

S

67.709 100 1 P 1 CGVD28 1999 1

1

012A13

In-Flight Data Collection

Pilot maintains course(and checks fuel level!)

Technician maintains Laser and data checking

Raw Data Processing

Data Sources

Aircraft Global Positioning System (A-GPS)

Base Station GPS

Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)

Inertial Navigation System (INS)

LiDAR Returns

Raw Data Processing

(ALTM Workflow)

Raw Flight Data is processed in PosPac to create an SBET File. PosPac is used primarily for 3d sensor location.

A-GPS

+

Base Station GPS

+

IMU

+

INS

Applanix PosPac Software

SBET File

Raw Data Processing

SBET file and LiDAR return data is processed to create a LAS Binary File

SBET File

+

LiDAR Return

Data

Optech REALM Software

is processed to create a LAS Binary File SBET File + LiDAR Return Data Optech REALM

LAS Binary File

Point Classification and Export

LAS files are processed in TerraScan to classify points as vegetation, ground, non- ground etc.

LAS Binary File

as vegetation, ground, non- ground etc. LAS Binary File TerraScan (Microstation) Ground Non-Ground

TerraScan (Microstation)

Ground

Non-Ground

Vegetation

LAS Files

LAS (LASer) contains LiDAR point data records which combine GPS,IMU and laser pulse returns to produce X,Y and Z

point data.(others too like intensity…)

ASPRS Open Data specification/standard

and format

Specification now at version 1.4, 2.0 is in

the works

Item

Fmt 0

Fmt 1

Fmt 2

Fmt 3

Fmt 4

Fmt 5

Fmt 6

Fmt 7

Fmt 8

Fmt 9

Fmt 10

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Intensity

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Return Number

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Number of Returns (given pulse)

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Scan Direction Flag

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Edge of Flight Line

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Classification

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Scan Angle Rank

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User Data

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Point Source ID

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GPS Time

 

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Red

   

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Green

   

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Blue

   

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Wave Packet Descriptor Index

       

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Byte offset to waveform data

       

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Waveform packet size in bytes

       

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Return Point Waveform Location

       

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X(t)

       

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Y(t)

       

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Z(t)

       

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NIR

               

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TerraScan Classification Options

TerraScan Classification Options

Point Cross-Section

Point Cross-Section

Point Classification and Export

Classified LAS points are exported as ascii xyz files

Ground

TerraScan

Non-Ground

Vegetation

Ground.xyz

Non-Ground.xyz

Vegetation.xyz

RESULTS

OCTOBER 2006 LiDAR
OCTOBER 2006 LiDAR

Lots of Points…

343,083,691 Total Points!

Lots of Points… 343,083,691 Total Points! More than 25GB of Data!

More than 25GB of Data!

Tiles make data Manageable 523 tiles in all

Tiles make data Manageable 523 tiles in all
Tiles make data Manageable 523 tiles in all

Delivered Data Formats

14 industry standard LAS binary all hits files.

523 ASCII space delimited x,y,z,i files for Ground Only Returns

523 ASCII space delimited x,y,z,i files for All Hits

Derivative Product Development

Derivative Product Development Reformatted Shapefiles ASCII Vegetation Grids Raster ASC Raster GDB DEMS Aspect
Reformatted Shapefiles ASCII Vegetation Grids Raster ASC Raster GDB DEMS Aspect Raster Grids Mosaics Surfer
Reformatted
Shapefiles
ASCII
Vegetation
Grids
Raster
ASC
Raster
GDB
DEMS
Aspect
Raster
Grids
Mosaics
Surfer
Grids
Slope
Hillshade
DSM
Grids
Grids
Points
Points
342475 Ground Points
342475
Ground Points
DEM from Ground Points
DEM from Ground Points
Hillshade
Hillshade
Slope
Slope
Slope
Aspect
Aspect
Aspect

Surfer Tile294 All Hits

Surfer Tile294 All Hits

Surfer Tile294 Ground ONLY

Surfer Tile294 Ground ONLY

Selected LiDAR Software

TerraScan (Part of TerraSolid)

Surfer

QT Modeler

LP360

LiDAR Analyst

LASTools

Voxler

Pointools

ArcMAP/ArcToolbox

Terrasolid(Terrascan)

Terrasolid(Terrascan)

Surfer

Surfer

QT Modeler/Reader(Applied Imagery)

QT Modeler/Reader(Applied Imagery)

LP360 in ArcMAP

LP360 in ArcMAP

LiDAR Analyst (Overwatch)

LiDAR Analyst (Overwatch)

LasTools(Martin Isenburg)

* txt2las.exe converts LIDAR data from ASCII text to binary LAS format

* las2txt.exe turns LAS into human-readable and easy-to-parse ASCII text

* lasinfo.exe prints out a quick overview of the contents of a LAS file

* las2shp.exe turns binary LAS into ESRI's Shapefile format

* shp2las.exe turns an ESRI's Shapefile into binary LAS

* lasmerge.exe can merge several LAS files into one

* las2las.exe extracts only last returns, clips, subsamples, etc

* lasthin.exe implements a simple point thinning algorithm

* las2tin.exe triangulates the points of a LAS file into a TIN

* las2dem.exe rasterizes them into a DEM

* las2iso.exe extracts, optionally simplified, elevation contours

* lasview.exe visualizes the contents of a LAS file.

* lasclip.exe clipping LiDAR points

* ArcGIS for Desktop toolbox.

Voxler (Golden Software)

Voxler (Golden Software)

Pointools (Bentley)

Pointools (Bentley)

ESRI Las Dataset

ESRI Las Dataset

ESRI Tools

Point File Information

file name, point count, z-minimum, z-maximum,

and point spacing

LAS to multipoint

LAS Point Statistics as Raster

– pulse count, return count, intensity range …others

LAS Dataset to Raster

Entire Section dedicated to LAS in help

including Canopy Height workflow

2006 Data Issues

and

Processing …Screw-ups !

OCTOBER 2006 LiDAR Holes!
OCTOBER 2006 LiDAR
Holes!

City and Marble Holes

City and Marble Holes
City and Marble Holes

Low Point Density

0.63 points/Square m

Up to 15 points m 2 possible

March 2009 before all issues were fixed…….

March 2009 before all issues were fixed…….

Applications (For good LiDAR!)

What is it used for ?

Lidar data can be used to accurately measure the topography of the ground, even where overlying vegetation is quite dense.

The data can also be used to determine the height and density of the overlying vegetation, and to characterize the location, shape, and height of buildings and other structures.

Selected Products, Uses and Applications

High Accuracy DEM (Derived Products Slope, Aspect etc )

3D fly through simulations

Landscape visualizations

Tourism and Municipal applications

Accurate contours for a variety of mapping applications

Geophysical applications and visualizations

Flood Hazard Mapping, Coastal zone mapping and assessment

Delineate vegetation height and type

Classified LiDAR(Leading Edge Geomatics)

Classified LiDAR(Leading Edge Geomatics)

RGB Classified LiDAR (Leading Edge Geomatics )

RGB Classified LiDAR (Leading Edge Geomatics )
RGB Classified LiDAR (Leading Edge Geomatics )
RGB Classified LiDAR (Leading Edge Geomatics )

Recent GRF LiDAR Projects

LiDAR /Ortho Data Collection for 10 sites in

Western Newfoundland collected in July 2010

Avalanche Research with MUN SWG Campus

Geohazard Monitoring in conjunction with CCRS

New flight planned for this Summer 2013

Avalanche Hazard Maps

Avalanche Hazard Maps

Avalanche Services/Web Apps

Avalanche Services/Web Apps

Google/JavaScript App

Google/JavaScript App

LiDAR GeoHazard Sites

LiDAR GeoHazard Sites
Daniel’s Harbour: Newfoundland, Canada April 15, 2007 October 20, 2006 The houses are constructed on

Daniel’s Harbour:

Newfoundland, Canada April 15, 2007 October 20, 2006
Newfoundland, Canada
April 15, 2007
October 20, 2006

The houses are constructed on a marine terrace with a surface elevation of about 24 m above present sea level. The Northern Peninsula Highway is located about 20-70 m inland of the cliff edge, between which 14 buildings were located.

Daniel’s Harbour – InSAR Displacement Map: There is no an existing high resolution DEM. Therefore,

Daniel’s Harbour – InSAR Displacement Map:

There is no an existing high resolution DEM. Therefore, 3-pass differential interferometric processing applied to
There is no an existing high resolution DEM. Therefore, 3-pass
differential interferometric processing applied to monitor the
temporal evolution of landslide.
-50
0
50
Vertical displacement [mm]
RADARSAT-2 Ultra Fine
Master: 20090610
Slave: 20090914
Descending Orbit
Perpendicular Baseline: 67 m
Deformations are only shown where the scene coherence exceeds 0.5
RADARSAT-2 - 3x3 multi look intensity image
April 2007

ArcMAP WorkFlow

LAS Files

ArcMAP WorkFlow LAS Files Multipoint FeatureClass T e r r a i n 1m Raster DEM

Multipoint

FeatureClass

ArcMAP WorkFlow LAS Files Multipoint FeatureClass T e r r a i n 1m Raster DEM

Terrain

ArcMAP WorkFlow LAS Files Multipoint FeatureClass T e r r a i n 1m Raster DEM

1m Raster

DEM

ArcMAP WorkFlow LAS Files Multipoint FeatureClass T e r r a i n 1m Raster DEM

HillShade

Slope

Aspect

Focus Area (Daniels hr.)

Focus Area (Daniels hr.)
MultiPoint Featureclass

MultiPoint Featureclass

MultiPoint Featureclass
Terrain

Terrain

Terrain
1m Raster

1m Raster

1m Raster
Hillshade

Hillshade

Hillshade
Slope

Slope

Slope
Slope
Aspect

Aspect

Aspect
Aspect

Some Lessons Learned

Data areas need a specific purpose/focus. The data collect can be tuned to needs( forest metrics, DEM etc. No one flight can do it all!

Do your homework know what to ask for.

Some vendors will only provide x,y,z if that is all you ask for. Lots of other useful info

“hides” in your LiDAR…

Manage stakeholder expectations (software,

formats, coordinate system(s))

Lessons Learned

Discuss data sharing policies and distribution between partners, vendors and external

stakeholders

• Don’t be locked into a single GIS platform use the best tool for the job(Some SW slow….)

Leave the raw LiDAR processing to the vendors focus on “GIS ready deliverables”

Use a reputable experienced vendor (Highly

recommend Leading Edge Geomatics.

Lidar Project Partnerships

Lidar Project Partnerships
Lidar Project Partnerships
Lidar Project Partnerships
Lidar Project Partnerships