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CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA

THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA


Dr. J. Kuruvachira
Introduction
One of he rea!on! for he "heno#ena$ !"rea% of he i%eo$o&' of Hin%uva in a !hor
!"an of i#e( can )e a!cri)e% o he a)i$i' of i! i%eo$o&ue! o in%ocrinae he #a!!e!
*ih #'h!
+
of Hin%uva. T'"ica$$'( #'h! %ea$ *ih variou! %i#en!ion! of hu#an $ife
ha are con!i%ere% o )e e!!enia$ for he !ocia$( cu$ura$ an% re$i&iou! $ife of "eo"$e.
M'h! have !"ecia$ e#oive a""ea$ o he #a!!e!( he' i&nie heir i#a&inaion an%
"ro,ec i%ea$! for he# o "ur!ue. M'h! are a$!o a#)iva$en in heir naure in he !en!e
ha( he' have he "o*er o #i!&ui%e he i$$ierae( he i&noran an% he naive.
Therefore( if #'h! are no !u),ec o ri&orou! her#eneuic!( here i! %an&er of "eo"$e
#i!a-in& #'h! for rea$i'( ficion for hi!orica$ fac!( a #ean! o "ro"a&ae fa$!ehoo%
an% a #eho% o ,u!if' #an' !u"er!iiou! )e$ief! an% "racice! ha are %eri#ena$ o
he "ro&re!! of civi$i!aion an% %i&ni' of hu#an )ein&!. .e$o* *e e/a#ine !o#e of he
nooriou! #'h! of Hin%uva ha have a !*a' over he Hin%u #a!!e!( an% offer a
crii0ue of he !a#e.
1.The myth of a Vedic Golden Age
The en%or!e#en of a 12o$%en A&e3 i! a "re4re0ui!ie for c$ai#! o civi$i!aion.
Civi$i!aion! are !ai% o have a 2o$%en A&e *hen virua$$' ever' #anife!aion of $ife
reache! a "ea- of e/ce$$ence
5
. In ancien hi!orio&ra"h'( he 12o$%en A&e3 *a! &enera$$'
in he %i!an "a!( in he )e&innin& of i#e( !o %i!an an% !o #'ho$o&ica$ ha none
cou$% 0ue!ion he hi!orici' of he a&e an% i *a! i#)ue% *ih *haever va$ue! he
hi!orian *i!he% o "ro"a&ae
6
. The "ro,ecion of a Ve%ic 2o$%en A&e i! one of he
corner !one! of he Hin%uva i%eo$o&' an% he "erio% fro# +577 8 977 ..C. i!
"o"u$ar$' con!i%ere% a! he 2o$%en A&e of he Ve%ic "erio%
:
. The "ro"onen! of
Hin%uva "ro,ec he Ve%ic A&e a! an un)$e#i!he% 12o$%en A&e3 of &reae! #aeria$
"ro!"eri'( %eve$o"#en in a$$ )ranche! of !cience( "uri' of re$i&ion( hi&he!
!"iriua$i'( "erfec -no*$e%&e of he ruh an% una#)i&uou! "racice of #ora$!( !ocia$
e0ua$i' an% har#on'.
Hi!or' e$$! u! ha i *a! S*a#i Da'anan%a Sara!*ai( *ho( !ee-in& o refor#
Hin%u re$i&ion an% Hin%u !ocie' fir! "ro"oun%e% he i%ea of a Ve%ic 2o$%en A&e an%
a!-e% Hin%u! o 1reurn o he Ve%a!3. Thu!( he !"o-e of a 2o$%en A&e in *hich he
Ar'an! of he Ve%ic era are "re!ene% a! he cho!en "eo"$e o *ho# 2o% revea$e% he
+
Here )' 1#'h!3 *e #ean 1fa$!e noion!3( 1fa)ricae% !orie!3( 1fana!ie!3( 1uo"ia!3 an% 1"iou! )e$ief!3
*ihou "ro"er hi!orica$ foun%aion.
5
See ;.THA<A;( The Penguin History of Early India( 5=7.
6
See ;.THA<A;( Cultural Pasts( >?.
:
See ;.THA<A;( The Penguin History of Early India( +66.
+57
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
"erfec -no*$e%&e of he Ve%a!
@
. He furher ar&ue% ha( he Ve%a! are he !ource! of a$$
-no*$e%&e an% ha i i! con!i!en *ih #o%ern !cience
9
. Auro)in%o en%or!e% he vie*
of S*a#i Da'anan%a an% !ae% ha he Ve%a! conain ruh! of !cience a! *e$$ a!
re$i&ion
?
( an% he cone#"orar' "ro"onen! of Hin%uva coninue o &ive o hi! #'h
*i%e "u)$ici' an% %iffu!ion
=
.
Ho*ever( Koenraa% E$! o"ine! ha( he he#e of he 2o$%en A&e i! 0uie co##on in
Hin%u *riin&! an% i! )' no #ean! a #o%ern %evice of he Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! )u an
ancien Hin%u ra%iion. The characeri!ic! *hich each auhor ari)ue! o hi! 2o$%en
A&e i! %e"en%en on hi! o*n i%eo$o&ica$ "o!iion
>
. For e/a#"$e( #an' Hin%u! con!i%er
he rei&n of ;a# Aif he e/i!e% a a$$B a! a 2o$%en A&e. In cerain "ar! of In%ia( he
rei&n of he $e&en%ar' Maha .a$i i! %e!cri)e% a! a 2o$%en A&e
+7
. The !i/h cenur' ..C
*hich *ine!!e% he a%ven of 2aua#a .u%%ha he foun%er of .u%%hi!#( Var%ha#ana
Mahavira( he 5:h Tirthankara or "ro"he *ho occu"ie! a uni0ue "$ace in Jaini!#( an%
he &rea U"ani!ha%ic hin-er!( can a$!o )e con!i%ere% a! 2o$%en A&e! of In%ian
"hi$o!o"h' an% !"iriua$i'. Savar-ar( *ih a rare #i/ of i&norance of hi!orica$ fac! an%
!rech of i#a&inaion( %e!cri)e! he rei&n of Chan%ra&u"a Maur'a an% A!ho-a a!
2o$%en E"och! of Hindu history
++
. Man' hi!orian! #ainain ha he a&e of he i#"eria$
2u"a! *a! a 2o$%en A&e
+5
. If one i! o),ecive a)ou he achieve#en! of he Mu&ha$
e#"eror A-)ar( hi! rei&n can )e rae% a! he 2o$%en A&e of he Mu!$i# ru$e in In%ia.
Fro# he a)ove %i!cu!!ion( i i! evi%en ha he conce"ion of a 2o$%en A&e i! no
an'hin& uni0ue o he Ve%ic A&e.
.u ho* 1&o$%en3 *a! he !o4ca$$e% Ve%ic 2o$%en A&eC A c$o!e e/a#inaion revea$!
ha he Ve%ic A&e har%$' %e!erve! he a""e$$aion of a 12o$%en A&e3. The Ve%ic cu$ure
*a! an a#a$&a#aion of #an' inf$uence!( e!"ecia$$' he In%u! Va$$e' civi$i!aion an%
he In%o4Euro"ean i##i&ran! ca$$e% Ar'an! *ho ca#e fro# Cenra$ A!ia o norhern
In%ia( "ro)a)$' in a nu#)er of *ave!
+6
an% evenua$$' !u),u&ae% he in%i&enou!
"eo"$e. ;o#i$a Tha"ar #ainain! ha &rou"! of In%o4Ar'an !"ea-er! &ra%ua$$'
@
See D.SA;ASDATI( Satyartha Prakash( 5=+45==(6=@(6=?46>+. The er# 1Ve%a!3 in he "$ura$ #ean!
he four Samhitas: Rig Veda( Sama Ve%a( Yajur Veda an% Atharva Veda. 1Ve%a3 in he !in&u$ar or 1ve%ic
$ieraure3 in%icae! he Samhitas( rahmanas( Aranyakas an% !"anisads# See M.DHAVAMANY(
$%Induismo( = noe +.
9
See D.SA;ASDATI( Satyartha Prakash( 5>5(6=@(6>+.
?
See AU;O.INDO( India%s Re&irth( ++94++=.
=
See for e/a#"$e( ;.SDA;U<( 'n Hinduism( 6+465E D.F;ADFEY( Ho( I e)ame a Hindu( +9>4
+??E ..S.<A;AKH Ae%.B( India and the *orld( ==4>+.
>
See K( EFST( +e)olonising the Hindu ,ind( 6??.
+7
In he Sae of Kera$a( Souh In%ia( he ce$e)raion of he 'nam fe!iva$ i! #ean o re#in% he
"eo"$e of he 12o$%en A&e3 of he rei&n of Maha .a$i.
++
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Histori) Statements- 57@4579. I #a' )e noe% ha( Savar-ar3! u!e of he
e/"re!!ion 1Hin%u hi!or'3 o refer o he Maur'an a&e i! #i!$ea%in&. Fro# he .rah#anica$ "oin of
vie*( he Maur'a! *ere "aron! of hereica$ !ec! !uch a! he Jain!( A,iva-a! an% .u%%hi!!.
Chan%ra&u"a Maur'a *a! c$o!e$' a!!ociae% *ih he Jaina ra%iion( .in%u!ara( he faher of A!ho-a(
*ih he A,iva-a!( an% A!ho-a *ih he .u%%hi!!. See ;.THA<A;( Cultural Pasts( :554:56.
+5
See ;.THA<A;( The Penguin History of Early India( 5=7.
+6
See N.SMA;T Ae%.B( Atlas of the *orld%s Religions( 6?.
+5+
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
#i&rae% in !#a$$ nu#)er! hrou&h he "a!!e! in he norh4*e!ern #ounain! fro# he
In%o4Iranian )or%er$an%! an% Af&hani!an o norhern In%ia. The i#"eu! o #i&rae *a!
a !earch for )eer "a!ure!( ara)$e $an% an% !o#e a%vana&e fro# an e/chan&e of
&oo%!
+:
. Hi!orian! e$$ u! ha he Ar'an! *ere no#a%ic "a!ora$ "eo"$e( an% heir
re$i&iou! ra%iion! *ere "ora)$e. The ear$ie! of he Ve%ic e/!( he Rig Veda ref$ec! a
"a!ora$( ca$e4-ee"in& "eo"$e unfa#i$iar *ih ur)an $ife
+@
. A! a co##uni' he' *ere
concerne% *ih he #un%ane hin&! of ever'%a' $ife
+9
. Their re$i&iou! "racice! *ere
cenre% aroun% fire !acrifice an% a hierarchica$ !ocia$ !rucure. The' a$!o *or!hi""e% a
"anheon of %eiie!( #an' of he# re"re!enin& force! of naure. In he NCE;T !choo$
e/)oo- for C$a!! VI *e rea%: G;i&Ve%ic "eo"$e *or!hi""e% #an' &o%! re"re!enin&
force! of naure !uch a! fire( !un( *in%( !-' an% ree!H
+?
. Hence i ha! )een re#ar-e%
ha( he hi&he! re$i&ion of he Ar'an! *a! e"io#i!e% in "ri#iive ani#i!#( fire
*or!hi"( "ro"iiaion of a&ricu$ura$ %eiie! an% a)ove a$$ !acrifice AyajnaB
+=
( an% heir
$ieraure con!i!e% of a $iur&ica$ cor"u! %eve$o"e% aroun% he Ve%ic !acrifice!
+>
.
K.M.<ani--ar ho$%! a !i#i$ar vie*. He !ae!: GThe re$i&iou! i%ea! Iof he Ve%a!J *ere
#ain$' )a!e% on !acrifice! o naive &o%! $i-e fire( !un( he For% of he hun%er)o$H
57
.
.a$ 2an&a%har Ti$a- a$!o affir#! ha he h'#n! of he Rig Veda !ho* ha !acrificia$
cere#onie! #u! hen have )een con!i%era)$' %eve$o"e% in he Ve%ic i#e!
5+
.
A&ain( i ha! )een o)!erve% ha he ori&ina$ Ve%ic re$i&ion *a! no cenre% aroun%
he Vedas a! )oo-!( )u in!ea% aroun% he in!iuion of !acrifice
55
. The Rig Veda
"orra'! a *or$% of #an' &o%! *hich *ere "ro"iiae% *ih e$a)orae "u)$ic !acrifice!.
The !acrifice!( *hich evo$ve% ino increa!in&$' e$a)orae riua$!( ofen invo$ve% he
i##o$aion of an ani#a$ Aor even hu#anB vici# a! a foo% offerin& o he &o%!. The
"a!ora$ roo! of he !acrifice *ere evi%en in he cenra$i' of he co*( *hich *a! he
"referre% !acrificia$ foo% for )oh &o%! an% hu#an!
56
. .e!i%e!( a! a !cri"ure he Ve%ic
h'#n! are fra&#enar' an% incon!i!en. .en,a#in Da$-er !a'!: GThe corru"e%
0uaernar' of he Ve%a!( fra&#enar' an% incon!i!en a! he' are no*( i! referre% )ac-
o a! a 2o$%en A&e *hen he Ve%a *a! one an% i##acu$aeH
5:
. T.J.S.2eor&e o)!erve!
ha he Ve%a! *ere no re$i&iou! e/! o )e&in *ih( ,u! a! Hin%ui!# *a! no a re$i&ion
o )e&in *ih. The #ain &o%! %eifie% in he samhitas *ere naura$ force! !uch a! A&ni
AfireB( Varuna A*in%B an% Sur'a A!unB )e!i%e! In%ra an% So#a
5@
.
Orho%o/ Hin%u ra%iion )e$ieve! ha he Ve%a! are eerna$ AnityaB( )e&innin& $e!!
AanadiB an% auhor$e!! Aa."aurusheyaB. .u a! far a! criica$ rea!onin& i! concerne% !uch
+:
See ;.THA<A;( The Penguin History of Early India- +7@4+7?.
+@
See ;.THA<A;( GI%eo$o&' an% he Iner"reaionH( +7.
+9
See ;.THA<A;( Communalism and the *riting of Indian History( +:.
+?
..S..<A;AKH Ae%.B( India and the *orld( >7.
+=
See ;.THA<A;( A History of India( vo$. +( :64::E ID.( The Penguin History of Early India- +5?4+5>.
+>
See M.DHAVAMANY( $%Induismo( +7.
57
K.M. <ANIKKA;( G A <ri#er of In%iaH( 9.
5+
See ..2. TIFAK( The 'rion( >.
55
See N.SMA;T Ae%.B( Atlas of the *orld%s Religions( 6@.
56
See N.SMA;T Ae%.B( Atlas of the *orld%s Religions( 6?(6>.
5:
..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( 6:?.
5@
See T.J.S.2EO;2E( The En/uire +i)tionary( :?=4:?>.
+55
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
c$ai#! !an% *ihou foun%aion. The #'h4#a-er! of he i#e$e!!ne!! of he Ve%a!
convenien$' for&e ha *haever )e$on&! o our finie *or$% i! $i#ie% in naure an%
ha he' have a )e&innin& an% an en%( even if he' conain reve$aion! of 1i#e$e!!3
ruh!. I ha! )een e!a)$i!he% ha he ear$ie! re$i&iou! co#"o!iion! in In%ia *ere he
San!-ri e/! ca$$e% he Vedas *hich )e$on&e% o he In%o4Euro"ean i##i&ran!(
"ro)a)$' co#"o!e% )e*een +@77 an% 977 ..C
59
. .a$ 2an&a%har Ti$a- %ae! he o$%e!
Ve%a! o aroun% :@77 ..C
5?
. Here i #u! a$!o )e !ae% ha( $i-e an' oher !acre%
!cri"ure( he Ve%a! oo ha% human authors
5=
. Therefore( he c$ai# ha he Ve%a! are
eerna$( )e&innin&$e!! an% auhor$e!! i! o )e a-en on$' a! a "iou! )e$ief.
A&ain( i i! a fac ha ver' fe* Hin%u! -no* he conen! of he Ve%a!( an% for heir
"racica$ $ife he' are 0uie irre$evan. Davi% Fra*$e' !a'!: GEven Hin%u! *ho !"ea- of
he &$or' of he Ve%a! &enera$$' can3 e/"$ain Ve%ic eachin&! in %eai$. .' he Ve%a!
he' u!ua$$' #ean he U"ani!ha%! or he hagavadgita- no he o$%er Ve%ic e/!H
5>
. In
a%%iion( he Ve%a! have har%$' an'hin& o %o *ih "o"u$ar Hin%ui!#. Koenraa% E$!
noe! ha( he Ve%ic &o%! $i-e Varuna an% In%ra have "racica$$' %i!a""eare% fro# he
Hin%u co$$ecive con!ciou!ne!! in favour of re!'$e% #inor Ve%ic &o%! $i-e Shiva an%
Vi!hnu an% non4Ve%ic &o%! $i-e 2ane!ha an% Ka$i. The #a,or fe!iva$! of he Hin%u
ca$en%ar are )a!e% on he e"ic fea! of ;a#a an% Kri!hna an% on he <uranic $ore
"erainin& o Shiva an% he 2o%%e!!
67
. Thu!( o )e$ieve in a Ve%ic 2o$%en A&e i! o a-e
refu&e in a #'h ha ha! no hi!orica$ foun%aion.
A! i! evi%en fro# *ha ha! )een !ai% a)ove( here i! nohin& rea$$' 1&o$%en3 a)ou
he !o4ca$$e% Ve%ic 2o$%en A&e. In fac( here %oe! no !ee# o have )een an'hin& a-in
o a golden a&e in he Ve%ic i#e!. .u he "ro,ecion of he #'h ha! #uch o %o *ih
he "o$iica$ an% he i%eo$o&ica$ %i#en!ion! of Hin%uva. ;o#i$a Tha"ar o)!erve! ha(
here i! a$*a'! an inevia)$e !earch for a 2o$%en A&e ofen i%enifie% a! he "erio% o
*hich he curren$' %o#inan &rou" race! i! roo!( an% i i! "aine% in he &$o*in& in!
of cu$ura$ re!ur&ence. The "roa&oni!! of hi! a&e )eca#e he heroe! of hi!or' an% ac
a! e"on'#ou! ance!or! o ho!e in "o*er
6+
. Yvon A#)roi!e o)!erve! ha( in or%er o
)ui$% he Hin%u cu$ura$ naiona$i!# i *a! he Ar'a Sa#a,i!! *ho fir! #ooe% he
#'h of a Ve%ic 2o$%en A&e( an% Savar-ar "ur!ue% i an% 2o$*a$-ar &ave i fini!hin&
ouche!
65
. One #a' a$!o #ainain ha he no!a$&ia for he Ve%ic 2o$%en A&e i!
59
See C.SHATTUCK( Hinduism( 57.
5?
See ..2.TIFAK( The Ar)ti) Home of the Vedas A( 6::46:@.
5=
M.Dhava#an' o)!erve!E GSa""ia#o che( a$ %i $K %e$$3affer#aLione %e$$a $oro ori&ine !o"rannaura$e(
i !acri e!i in%M hanno avuo auori u#ani( anche !e 1anoni#i3( i 0ua$i ne curarono $a !e!ura ne$
$in&ua&&io correne %e$$3a#)iene cu$ura$e %e$ e#"oH. M.DHAVAMANY( $%Induismo( >.
5>
D.F;ADFEY( Ho( I &e)ame a Hindu( +6.
67
See K.EFST( *ho is a Hindu0( >. .u A.D.Maa# re#in%! u! ha Shiva an% Vi!hnu are non4Ar'an
&o%!. See A.D.MATTAM( Religions( >@.
6+
See ;.THA<A;( Cultural Pasts( >94>?.
65
See Y.AM.;OISE( GHin%uva3! ;ea$ A&en%aH( 5:. V.D.Savar-ar envi!a&e% a f$ouri!hin& Hin%u
naion *hich *a! racia$$' an% cu$ura$$' ho#o&eneou!( an% one ha *en a! far )ac- a! !o#e @777 'ear!
o he Ve%ic a&e. See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindu Sanghatan( :=. 2o$*a$-ar !a'!: GOur! i! an ancien an%
&rea naion *ih a &$oriou! "a!H. M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( 56=E GHin%u!an $ive% a $ife
of uncha$$en&e% &$or' an% "o*er for hou!an%! of 'ear! an% !"rea% i! !"iriua$ an% cu$ura$ effu$&ence
+56
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
re#ini!cen of A%o$f Hi$er3! conce" of he Thir% ;eich A+as +ritte Rei)hB( *hich
!cho$ar! !"ea- of a! a 1#'hica$ noion3 Amythis)her egriffB ha *a! a$rea%' "reva$en
a#on& he 2er#an! fro# he Mi%%$e A&e! on*ar%!
66
.
2.The myth of Aryans as the original inhabitants of India
In he ne* naiona$i!ic vie* of hi!or' a%vocae% )' he Hin%uva( In%ian cu$ure
cou$% no have co#e fro# ou!i%e( e!"ecia$$' no he Ar'an!( !o ha he Ar'an! are
"re!ene% a! he original inha&itants of In%ia. A! *e have !een( 2o$*a$-ar *a! he fir!
"ro#inen Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue *ho "ro"o!e% hi! heor'. He !a'!: Ghe Hin%u ha! )een
he re!i%en of hi! counr' fro# i#e! i##e#oria$H
6:
. So#e of he Theo!o"hi!! $i-e
Co$one$ O$co a$!o he$% ha he Ar'an! *ere in%i&enou! o In%ia
6@
. Thi! vie* i! o%a'
*i%e$' acce"e% )' "racica$$' a$$ he cone#"orar' "ro"onen! of Hin%uva( a! i i! of
&rea a%vana&e o heir i%eo$o&'. Hence ;o#i$a Tha"ar o)!erve! ha he a#en%e%
heor' of Ar'an! a! he in%i&enou! "eo"$e of In%ia ha! )eco#e a/io#aic o he )e$ief
of Hin%uva
69
. If hi! heor' i! no "ro"a&ae%( i *ou$% #ean ha he Ar'an Hin%ui!# i!
a! #uch a forei&n i#"or a! Chri!iani' or I!$a# or Ju%ai!# or Noroa!riani!#( a! he
Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! c$ai#.
Furher( i !hou$% )e e#"ha!i!e% ha he c$ai# i!e$f i! a ne* a%%iion o he $i! of
he #'h! of Hin%uva. In fac( Savar-ar( *ho &ave !'!e#ai!aion o he Hin%uva
i%eo$o&' hi#!e$f did not maintain ha he Ar'an! *ere he in%i&enou! "eo"$e of In%ia
6?
.
Ye for Savar-ar( a rea$ Hin%u i! a "er!on *ho!e re$i&iou! faih must have an indigenous
origin. Hence E%*in .r'an #a-e! an in!i&hfu$ re#ar-: GI i! "uLL$in& ha Savar-ar(
*ho #u! have )een a*are ha !o#e of hi! cone#"orarie! an% "re%ece!!or! ha%
cha$$en&e% he Ar'an inva!ion heor'( %i% no a&&re!!ive$' o""o!e i. Ta-en o i! $o&ica$
conc$u!ion( hi! acce"ance of he Ar'an inva!ion heor' !ee#! inco#"ai)$e *ih IOJ
he conce" of Hin%uvaH
6=
.
.a$ 2an&a%har Ti$a- a$!o !hare% he !a#e vie* a! Savar-ar. He c$ai#! ha he
ancien Ar'an! $ive% near he Norh <o$e Ai.e. in he Arcic re&ion!B an% $aer in he
cour!e of hi!or' he' ca#e an% !e$e% in In%ia
6>
. He a$!o ar&ue! ha( "rior o he
co#in& of he Ar'an! o In%ia( aroun% @777 or 9777 ..C he' ha% !e$e% on he "$ain!
of Cenra$ A!ia
:7
. Even S*a#i Vive-anan%a *a! inc$ine% o )e$ieve ha Ar'an! *ere
over va! area! of he &$o)e P ri&h fro# Me/ico o Ja"anH. I&id.( +9+.
66
See M. DOMA;US( Hitler Reden ( vo$.+( : foonoe 6.
6:
M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( +@5. See a$!o ID.( *e( =. For !i#i$ar i%ea! !ee
AU;O.INDO( India%s Re&irth- >9(>=E D.F;ADFEY( Arise Arjuna( +@54+@?E ;.SDA;U<( 'n Hinduism(
+7=E K.EFST( !"date on the Aryan Invasion +e&ate A+>>>B.
6@
See ;.THA<A;( Penguin History of Early India( +@.
69
See ;.THA<A;( The Penguin History of Early India( +:.
6?
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( =4>.
6=
E..;YANT( The 1uest( 5?5.
6>
See ..2.TIFAK( The 'rion( +>457(55.
:7
See ..2.TIFAK( The Ar)ti) Home of the Vedas( 6:@.
+5:
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
no in%i&enou! o In%ia
:+
. J'oi)a <hu$e( an auhori' on he Da$i! in he $ae nineeenh
cenur' ar&ue% ha he $o*er ca!e! *ere he in%i&enou! "eo"$e of In%ia an% no he
.rah#in! *ho %e!cen%e% fro# he Ar'an! *ho *ere a$ien o In%ia
:5
.
I i! o )e reierae% ha %urin& he "a! fe* 'ear!( ae#"! o "ro%uce $ieraure
%en'in& he Ar'an inva!ion heor' ha! )eco#e an o)!e!!ion *ih he Hin%uva auhor!.
Their ar&u#en i! ha if he Ar'an! are in%i&enou! o In%ia( here *a! no Ar'an
inva!ion eiher. The nefariou! a&en%a of re4*riin& In%ian hi!or' a$!o !erve! o
"ro"a&ae he #'h ha Ar'an! are in%i&enou! o In%ia. The Ar'an inva!ion heor' i!
herefore "ro,ece% a! a concocion of Euro"ean !cho$ar!( #i!!ionarie! an% Mar/i!
hi!orian!. Even he ne* !choo$ e/)oo-! "re"are% in 5775 un%er he au!"ice! of he
Hin%uva hi!orian! an% or&ani!aion! #a-e !renuou! effor o "ro"a&ae hi! #'h. In
he NCE;T !"on!ore% e/)oo- on Socia$ Science! for C$a!! IQ *e rea%: GMa/ Mu$$er
%i% hi! #a/i#u# o "o"u$ari!e he i%ea of an Ar'an race an% he Ar'an inva!ion of
In%ia. IOJ Thi! Ar'an inva!ion heor' *a! u!e% a! an ine$$ecua$ in!ru#en o furher
he *e$$4-no*n .rii!h "o$ic' of %ivi%e an% ru$eH
:6
. The NCE;T %irecor J.S.;a,"u
!a'!: GA &rou" of hi!orian! ha! e#er&e% o "rove ha Ar'an! %i% no co#e fro#
ou!i%e. Tha ar&u#en !hou$% a$!o )e &iven %ue *ei&h for he chi$%ren o ,u%&e or
infer he ri&h hi!or'H
::
.
So#e Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! a$!o !"ea- of he %i!incion )e*een Ar'an an% Dravi%ian
race! an% cu$ure! a! non4e/i!en
:@
. .u hi!orian! e$$ u! ha he %i!incion )e*een
he *o cu$ure! *a! &rea. For e/a#"$e( A.D.Maa# !a'!: GMan' "eo"$e in Norh
In%ia are no a*are of he ancien cu$ure an% civi$iLaion of he Dravi%ian!( IO.J The
curricu$u# in Norh In%ian !choo$! !hou$% inc$u%e he !u%' of Ta#i$ or anoher
Dravi%ian $an&ua&e( an% he hi!or' an% civi$iLaion of he Dravi%ian!( in or%er ha he
chi$%ren #a' &e a correc vi!ion of he rich varie' of cu$ure! an% $an&ua&e! of
In%iaH
:9
. So#e oher Hin%uva *rier! ar&ue ha he In%u! Va$$e' civi$i!aion i! he
!a#e a! he Ve%ic Civi$i!aion( an% ha i )e$on&e% o he Ar'an!. In fac( !o#e have
)e&un o ca$$ i he 1In%u!4Sara!*ai Civi$i!aion3
:?
. E%*in .r'an !a'! i i! he
cenra$i' of he river Sara!*ai( )oh archaeo$o&ica$$' an% cu$ura$$'( ha ha! $e% !o#e
In%ian archaeo$o&i!! o "ro"o!e( an% o )e&in o a%o"( he er# In%u!4Sara!*ai
Civi$i!aion in $ieu of he $a)e$! Hara""an or In%u! Va$$e' Civi$i!aion
:=
. In he NCE;T
e/)oo- for C$a!! VI *e rea%: GYou have a$rea%' rea% ha !o#e !cho$ar! )e$ieve ha
Hara""an an% Ve%ic civi$iLaion! are he !a#eH
:>
. .u .r'an %oe! no he!iae o !a':
GSara!*ai3! re%i!cover'( a$hou&h ar&ua)$' !u&&e!ive of con!i%era)$e Ve%ic ani0ui'
:+
See The Com"lete *orks of S(ami Vivekananda( vo$.IQ( 5@745@+.
:5
See ;.THA<A;( Penguin History of Early India( +:.
:6
..S.<A;AKH Ae%.B( Contem"orary India( 9.
::
<.SEN2U<TA( GE%ucaion in Moher Ton&ueH( +?.
:@
See D.F;ADFEY( Arise Arjuna( +@=4+9>. For !i#i$ar i%ea! !ee a$!o AU;O.INDO( India%s Re&irth(
>=(+7=.
:9
A.D.MATTAM( Religions( 96.
:?
See AU;O.INDO( India%s Re&irth( +7+ foonoeE ..S.<A;AKH Ae%.B( India and the *orld- =7.
:=
See E..;YANT( The 1uest(+9?.
:>
..S. <A;AKH Ae%.B( India and the *orld( +66.
+5@
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
IOJ canno )e u!e% o "rove a)!o$ue !'non'#i' of he In%u! Va$$e' re!i%en! an% he
Ve%ic Ar'an!H
@7
.
Ho*ever( i #a' )e #ainaine% ha he #'h ha Ar'an! are he in%i&enou! "eo"$e of
In%ia an% he oher heorie! ha are coro$$ar' o i( for# "ar of he conce" of he 1.i&
Fie3 of Hin%uva P a noion 1)orro*e%3 fro# A%o$f Hi$er an% hi! Naiona$ Socia$i!#.
<ara%o/ica$$'( he 1.i& Fie!3 are "ro"a&ae% in a counr' ha ha! acce"e% 1Styameva
2ayate% A1ruh a$one riu#"h!3B a! i! #ooR
Michae$ DiLe$ ar&ue! ha a$$ he !u)coninen! of A!ia have )een con!an$' enere%
an% cri!!4cro!!e% )' ne* *ave! of "eo"$e!. I ha! a$!o )een e!a)$i!he% ha he
!"ea-er! of he o$% In%o4Ar'an $an&ua&e oo #u! have co#e fro# !o#e*here in
Cenra$ A!ia( a! heir $an&ua&e ref$ec! coo$ c$i#ae "$an! an% ani#a$!. The !a#e
Cenra$ A!ian $oan *or%! for vi$$a&e $ife an% re$i&iou! ie#! a! in Rig Veda are a$!o
foun% *ih he Mianni" In%o4Ar'an! in Norhern Ira0 an% Norhern S'ria A+:@74+6@7
..CB( *ho!e $an&ua&e an% re$i&ion are ver' c$o!e o )u !$i&h$' o$%er han ;i&ve%ic.
There are a$!o *e$$4-no*n re#ini!cence! of Af&hani!an an% Cenra$ A!ia in he Rig
Veda
@+
. In a%%iion( he %eiie! #enione% in he Rig Veda inc$u%e !o#e ha &o )ac- o
In%o4Iranian ori&in!( !uch a!( Mira an% Varuna
@5
.
T.J.S.2eor&e affir#! ha i#"oran archaeo$o&ica$ %i!coverie! in +>554+>56 an%
!u)!e0uen e/cavaion! e$!e*here in In%ia have e!a)$i!he% ha he In%u! Va$$e'
Civi$i!aion %ain& )ac- o a)ou 6777 ..C. *a! ra%ica$$' %ifferen fro# he Ar'an
cu$ure in he In%o42an&eic "$ain!. Thi! conc$u!ion f$e* in he face of he ear$ier )e$ief(
!"rea% $ar&e$' )' Ar'an e/! ha he !arin& "oin of In%ian civi$i!aion *a! Ar'an or
Ve%ic cu$ure. Scho$ar! ho$% ha he Ar'an!( afer ca"urin& he 2an&eic "$ain!(
rena#e% he re&ion Aryavrata o %i!in&ui!h i fro# he !ouh of In%ia *hich ha% )' hi!
i#e )eco#e he ho#e of he Dravi%ian!
@6
. The noe% hi!orian of ancien In%ia( ;o#i$a
Tha"ar ha! a$!o re"eae%$' ar&ue% for he fac of he co#in& of he Ar'an! o Norhern
In%ia
@:
. Anoher e#inen hi!orian( K.M.<ani--ar a$!o #ainaine! a !i#i$ar "o!iion
@@
.
Thu!( hi!orica$ fac! &o a&ain! he c$ai# of Hin%uva ha Ar'an! *ere he ori&ina$
inha)ian! of In%ia
@9
. Once a&ain( he "ro"a&aion of hi! #'h i! #oivae% )'
i%eo$o&ica$ an% "o$iica$ inere!!( an% a #echani!# o e/c$u%e !o#e !ecion! of In%ian
!ocie'( e!"ecia$$' he Mu!$i#! an% Chri!ian! )' ar&uin& ha he' are a$ien!.
.u he heor' ha Ar'an! are in%i&enou! o In%ia ha! inheren "ro)$e#!. Fir!( if )'
Ar'an! i! #ean on$' he ca!e Hin%u!( hen a$$ he $o*er ca!e! an% Da$i! *ou$% have
o )e e/c$u%e% fro# Hin%ui!#( an% i *ou$% re%uce he nu#erica$ coun of Hin%ui!#
an% con!e0uen$' a$!o Hin%uva3! voe )an-. Thi! *ou$% furher i#"$' ha Hin%u! %o
no con!iue he #a,ori' of In%ia( an% if Hin%u! are no he #a,ori' in In%ia he'
@7
E..;YANT( The 1uest( +9> AE#"ha!i! in he ori&ina$B.
@+
See M.DITNEF( G<ara%i&# Shif3 in Hi!or'CH( +7.
@5
See ;.THA<A;( Penguin History of Early India( +5?E ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.I( ?7.
@6
See T.J.S.2EO;2E( The En/uire +i)tionary( 6746+.
@:
See ;.THA<A;( Penguin History of Early India( +64+@(+++(++64++@E ID.( Cultural Pasts( 66?4
6:5(++574++5+.
@@
See K.M.<ANIKKA;( GThe I%ea of Soverei&n'H( +:( >+E ID.( GA <ri#er of In%iaH( @.
@9
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.I( 9>4?5E J.KU;UVACHI;A( GFac! Nai$ Hin%ui!#3! C$ai#!H(
6546?.
+59
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
canno a$!o c$ai# ha In%ia !hou$% )e a Hin%u naion. Secon%$'( if he $o*er ca!e! an%
Da$i! are inc$u%e% a#on& Hin%u!( i *ou$% u"!e #an' ca!e Hin%u!.
3.The myth of racial purity and superiority of the Aryans
Hin%uva "ro"a&ae! he #'h of In%ia a! con!i!in& of one race( one re$i&ion an% one
cu$ure( na#e$'( he Hin%u( an% eu$o&i!e! i a! he 1)e! naion of he Ar'an!3
@?
. In
ancien *riin&! he $an% inha)ie% )' he Ar'an! *a! ca$$e% Aryavarta an% he re! *ere
,le))ha.desa. ;o#i$a Tha"ar o)!erve! ha aryavarta e!!enia$$' #ean he 2an&eic
<$ain an% i! frin&e!( a$hou&h !o#ei#e! e/"an%e% o inc$u%e #ore of norhern In%ia
@=
.
D.Ha$)fa!! noe! ha he er# mle))ha #ean he )ar)arian( he forei&ner( 1he oher3(
ho!e *ho *ere ou!i%e he Ar'an co##uni'( ho!e *ho %i% no -no* San!-ri( ho!e
*ho *ere ou!i%e he ca!e !'!e#( ec
@>
. Accor%in& o ;o#i$a Tha"ar( he e'#o$o&' of
mle))ha *a! re$ae% o he in%i&enou! inha)ian! of norhern In%ia a he i#e of he
arriva$ of Ar'an4!"ea-in& "eo"$e!. Kno*$e%&e of he efficac' of he riua$ h'#n! an%
he u!e of correc San!-ri *a! crucia$ o he noion of )ein& an arya# If mle))ha
e"io#i!e% he )ar)arian( hen arya #ean a$$ ha i! no)$e an% civi$i!e%. ,le))ha area!
*ere con!i%ere% i#"ure $an%! an% he "ure $an% *a! aryavarta. The Ar'a! vi!iin& he
$an%! of he mle))ha are riua$$' i#"ure an% !o he' ha% o "erfor# e/"iaor' rie!
97
.
Savar-ar u!e! he er#! Sindhusthan an% ,le))ahstan o %enoe he $an% of he ar'a!
an% he $an% of forei&ner!( re!"ecive$'
9+
. For 2o$*a$-ar he er# mle))ha #ean a$$
ho!e *ho %o no !u)!cri)e o he !ocia$ $a*! %icae% )' he Hin%u re$i&ion an%
cu$ure
95
.
Savar-ar #ainaine% ha )on% of co##on race or co##on )$oo% i! an i#"oran
a!"ec of a Hin%u. He !a'!: G;acia$$' an% Cu$ura$$' he' Iance!or! of he Hin%u!J
*ere ca$$e% ar'an!H
96
. He a%%!: GDe feel *e are a JATI I!icJ( a race )oun% o&eher )'
he %eare! ie! of )$oo%H
9:
E Gno "eo"$e in he *or$% can #ore ,u!$' c$ai# o &e
@?
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( ?>. Ma/i#iani <ora! a$ia! Saviri Devi *ho i! ca$$e% he
1"ro"hee!! of Ar'an reviva$3 *a! a &rea a%#irer of A%o$f Hi$er an% a !aunch "ro"onen of he NaLi
i%eo$o&'. She ca#e o In%ia in he +>67! in !earch of he "ure Ar'an race. See N. 2OOD;ICK4
CFA;KE( Hitler%s Priestess A5777B.
@=
See ;.THA<A;( The Penguin History of Early India( 6=.
@>
See D.HAF.FASS( GFa Sco"era In%iana %e$$3Euro"aH( 57.
97
See ;.THA<A;( Cultural Pasts- 569(56=(@6=4@6>.
9+
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( 65466.
95
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( *e( @6.
96
V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindu Sanghatan( :=. He ca$$! he Ar'an! 1he Ar'an "ariarch! of our Hin%u
;ace3. See I&id.(:7.
9:
V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( =>4>7 AE#"ha!i! a%%e%B. He affir#! furher: GThe Hin%u! are no
#ere$' he ciiLen! of he In%ian Sae )ecau!e he' are unie% no on$' )' he )on%! of he $ove he' )ear
o a co##on #oher$an% )u a$!o )' he )on%! of a )ommon &lood. The' are no on$' a naion )u a$!o a
ra)e4,ai. The *or% ,ai %erive% fro# he roo Jan o "ro%uce( #ean! a )roherhoo%( a ra)e %eer#ine% )'
a co##on ori&in 8 "o!!e!!in& a )ommon &lood# A$$ Hin%u! c$ai# o have in heir vein! he )$oo% of he
#i&h' ra)e incor"orae% *ih an% %e!cen%e% fro# he Ve%ic faher!H. I&id.( =: AE#"ha!i! a%%e%B.
+5?
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
reco&ni!e% a! a ra)ial uni han he Hin%u! an% "erha"! he Je*!H
9@
. For hi#
mle))hastan #ean ho!e *ho are forei&ner! naiona$$' an% ra)ially
99
. He furher !"ea-!
of he Hin%u race a! he &rea race ha inha)i! an% o*n! he $an% of In%ia
9?
( an%
San!-ri a! he #oher on&ue of he Hin%u race. Savar-ar !a'!: GDe Hin%u! are no
on$' a ;a!hra( a Jai( )u a! a con!e0uence of )ein& )oh( o*n a co##on San!-rii
e/"re!!e%( "re!erve% chief$' an% ori&ina$$' hrou&h San!-ri( he rea$ #oher on&ue of
our raceH
9=
.
For 2o$*a$-ar( race #ean! a here%iar' !ocie'
9>
an% he con!i%er! i a! he )o%' of
he naion !o ha if i fa$$! he naion cea!e! o e/i
?7
. ;ace AjatiB for hi# #ean! "eo"$e
*ho have a co##on ori&in an% co##on fe$$o* fee$in&
?+
. He ca$$! he Hin%u race he
1ancien race3
?5
. He ho$%! ha he ancien rishis A!a&e!B "rou%$' ca$$e% he#!e$ve! Ar'a!
an% ha% re!o$ve% o Ar'nai!e he *ho$e of hu#ani'
?6
. The Ar'an! a$!o "o!!e!!e% a
&rea civi$i!aion !o ha i cou$% c$ai# !u"eriori' over oher cu$ure!. He !a'!: GDe
)ui$ a &rea civi$i!aion( a &rea cu$ure an% an uni0ue !ocia$ or%er. De ha% )rou&h ino
acua$ $ife a$#o! ever'hin& ha *a! )eneficia$ o #an-in%. IOJ in r'in& o %i!in&ui!h
our "eo"$e fro# oher!( *e are ca$$e% 1he en$i&hene%3 P he Aryas P an% he re!
,le))hasH
?:
. I ha! )een o)!erve% ha( #ore han an'one e$!e( i *a! 2o$*a$-ar *ho
"ro"a&ae% he #'h of Hin%u! )ein& a "ure race( an% in hi! he *a! in!"ire% )' A%o$f
Hi$er
?@
.
In he *riin&! of Savar-ar an% 2o$*a$-ar he er# 1Ar'a3 ofen !an%! for 1race3
?9
(
an% e/"re!!ion! $i-e 1Ar'an )$oo%3
??
( 1ancien )$oo%3
?=
( 1co##on ance!r'3
?>
( 1co##on
)$oo%3
=7
( 1our )$oo%3
=+
( 1Hin%u )$oo%3
=5
( 1"ure Hin%u )$oo%3
=6
( 1)$oo% of he
9@
V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( >7 AE#"ha!i! a%%e%B.
99
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( 66.
9?
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( >?.
9=
V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( >>.
9>
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( *e( 5+. For 2o$*a$-ar he Je*! are he e/a#"$e of "ure! !oc-. See I&id.(
+>(67.
?7
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( *e( 5+.
?+
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( *e( @6.
?5
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( *e( :7.
?6
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( :@5.
?:
M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( @@.
?@
See C.JAFF;EFOT( The Hindu 3ationalist ,ovement( @@.
?9
Ho*ever( ;o#i$a Tha"ar re#in%! u! ha he er# arya %oe! no !an% for he noion of )io$o&ica$
race( hou&h !o#e in%o$o&i!! have iner"ree% i o )e !o. She u!e! he e/"re!!ion 1Ar'an !"ea-er!3
in!ea% of 1Ar'an race3. See ;.THA<A;( The Penguin History of Early India( +@.
??
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( +5( >7(+55.
?=
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( =>.
?>
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindu Sanghatan( +@.
=7
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( 66(6>(=:(=>(>+(>5( +57(+:+.
=+
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( =:.
=5
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( >+(+5+(+6>.
=6
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( +77.
+5=
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
forefaher!3
=:
( 1here%iar' !ocie'3
=@
( 1our racia$ )ein&3
=9
( 1#oher race3
=?
( 1inheriance of
he )$oo% of he &rea race3
==
( 1race4!"iri3
=>
( 1)on%! of race3
>7
( 1our race3
>+
( 1naiona$
race3
>5
( 1Hin%u race3
>6
( 1one race3
>:
( 1&rea race3
>@
( 1co##on race3
>9
( 1race !"iri3
>?
(1our!
)' )$oo% an% )' race3
>=
are fre0uen.
In he cour!e of hi!or'( ofen a""ea$ o ca!e !'!e# ha! )een #a%e in or%er o
#ainain he racia$ "uri' of he Ar'an !oc-. The convenion of racin& a "er!on3!
%e!cen a! "re!ervin& &enea$o&ica$ ree!( !ho*in& hi! "ure $inea&e fro# Ve%ic "erio%
an% E"ic heroe!( i! a #e%ieva$ e/"e%ien. .u hi!or' e$$! u! ha he ance!or! of he
&rea Hin%u %'na!ie! %o no !hine a! e/a#"$e! of racia$ "uri' or re$i&iou! orho%o/'(
a$hou&h here are $ar&e nu#)er! of e%ucae% Hin%u! *ho are carrie% a*a' )'
!eni#ena$ aach#en o he heroic na#e! of he $e&en%ar' "a!( an% $i-e o hin- of
he# a! "ure .rah#in or "ure K!hari'a. The fac i! ha a$#o! a$$ he &rea fa#i$ie! of
ancien In%ia *ere of #i/e% ori&in( .rah#in a! *e$$ a! K!hari'a. Hence conce"! $i-e
1"ure race3( 1"ure fa#i$ie!3( 1"ure ca!e3( ec. are #ere ficion
>>
.en,a#in Da$-er #ainain! ha here have )een ie! of )$oo% )e*een Ar'an! an%
non4Ar'an! hrou&h a !ea%' "roce!! of iner#arria&e. Thi! "roce!! i! ref$ece% in heir
"anheon( for he Ar'an %eiie! a$!o )e&an o conrac #ari#onia$ a$$iance! *ih he
&o%%e!!e! of he naive "eo"$e !oon afer heir arriva$ in he In%ian "$ain!. In fac( he
Rig Veda $a#en! he "reva$ence of #arria&e! )e*een 1)$ac-3 an% 1*hie3. One "ra'er
&oe! a! fo$$o*!: 1O In%ra( fin% ou *ho i! an Ar'an an% *ho i! a Da!a an% !e"arae
he#3. A&ain( anoher h'#n in he Atharva Veda ha! )een iner"ree% a! referrin& o he
!e%ucion of In%ra hi#!e$f )' an asura *o#an
+77
.
Socia$ #o)i$i' *a! "o!!i)$e in he ear$' "erio% of In%ian hi!or'. Even Savar-ar
!"o-e of he iner#in&$in& of race!. He affir#! ha he Ar'an! an% he in%i&enou!
=:
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( +77.
=@
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( *e( +=.
=9
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindu Sanghatan( =:.
=?
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( *e( 5+.
==
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( +77.
=>
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( *e( +7(+5(+6.
>7
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( *e- +?.
>+
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( 6:(6=(:7(?>(>?(+6+(+6>(+:7.
>5
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( *e( 5+(5>(67(66(:@(:9.
>6
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( :(>?(>>(+57E ID.( Hindu Sanghatan( :7. M.S.2OFDAFKA;( *e(
+5(:7(:6(::(:@(@5.
>:
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( >+.
>@
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( >?E M.S.2OFDAFKA;( *e( >.
>9
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( ++9.
>?
2o$*a$-ar !a'!: GTha ra)e s"irit( *hich ha! !urvive% a$$ he !hoc-! of cenurie! of a&&re!!ion an%
ha! i#e an% a&ain hro*n u" &rea !"iriua$ an% naiona$ heroe!( i! )oun% o rea!!er i!e$fH.
M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( ??4?= AE#"ha!i! a%%e%B. See a$!o ID.( *e( 5:.
>=
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( 6>(
>>
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld- vo$.II( ?@4?9.
+77
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld- vo$. II( ?:4?@.
+5>
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
"o"u$aion! iner#in&$e% *hen he for#er enere% In%ia
+7+
. He !a'!: GFor fir! of a$$ he
racia$ !oc- of he Ar'an! u!e% o iner4#arr' a#on&! he#!e$ve!. Even a ca!ua$
ac0uainance *ih he Ve%ic $ieraure can convince P ha! convince%( ever'one( of he
facH
+75
. He a$!o e/hore% he forei&ner! *ho a!"ire o )eco#e Hin%u! o #arr' Hin%u!
an% have Hin%u chi$%ren. He #ainaine% ha an' non4Hin%u convere% o Hin%uva can
)e a Hin%u( if &ona fide he or !he a%o"! In%ia a! hi! or her counr' an% #arrie! a
Hin%u( hu! co#in& o $ove In%ia a! a rea$ Faher$an%( an% a%o"! In%ian cu$ure an%
con!i%er! In%ia a! he Punya&hu A1Ho$' Fan%3B. The chi$%ren of !uch a union *ou$%(
oher hin&! )ein& e0ua$( a$!o )e Hin%u
+76
. He a$!o a%vocae% ha forei&n conver! o
an' !ec of Hin%ui!# )e con!i%ere% a! Hin%u!( an% he he$% in hi&h e!ee# *e$$ -no*n
conver! o Hin%ui!# $i-e( Si!er Nive%ia AMar&are No)$eB an% Annie .e!an
+7:
. Fro#
hi! i i! c$ear ha Savar-ar %i% not insist on he #ainenance of "ure race( hou&h he
conce" of Ar'an race *a! i#"oran o hi#.
The #'h of racia$ "uri' an% !u"eriori' of he Ar'an race i! a$!o evi%en fro#
conc$u!ion! of !cho$ar! $i-e ;o#i$a Tha"ar. She ar&ue! ha he Ar'an! *ere no a
%i!inc racia$ &rou" *ih a reco&ni!a)$e a!!e#)$a&e of #aeria$ cu$ure. In fac( he'
*ere no a race )u Ar'an !"ea-er!
+7@
. A&ain( he roo! of In%ia3! $e&en%ar' "a! &o )ac-
o he i#e )efore he Ar'an! o he Dravi%ian!( o he "re4Dravi%ian!( o he "ri#iive
<roo4Au!ra$oi%! an% Ne&rio!. I i! a$!o racea)$e o race! ou!i%e In%ia( !uch a!( he
E&'"ian!( .a)'$onian!( Je*! an% <hoenician!. Su)!ania$ conri)uion! have a$!o )een
#a%e o he 1racia$ rea!ur'3 of In%ia )' "eo"$e! of he "o!4Ar'an "erio%: he <er!ian!(
2ree-!( Sc'hian!( Chine!e an% Cenra$ A!ian!
+79
. Thu!( a)!or"ion of a$ien! *a! a
"er#anen feaure of In%ian !ocie'.
Furher( hi!or' ae!! o he fac ha here *ere 2ree-4In%ian iner#arria&e! afer
A$e/an%er3! inva!ion. Man' Mace%onian !o$%ier! #arrie% $oca$ *o#en. Chan%ra&u"a
Maur'a #arrie% a 2ree- "rince!! )e$on&in& o he fa#i$' of Se$eucu!. Man' 2ree-!
!e$e% %o*n in In%ia an% #u! have ha% In%ian *ive!. 2ree- *o#en *ere )rou&h o
norh an% *e! In%ia for cenurie!. Man' In%ian! *ho cou$% affor% )ou&h an%
#ainaine% *o#en of he 2ree- race. I i! !ai% ha here *ere even f$ouri!hin& #ar-e!
in In%ia for Euro"ean *o#en in he !econ% cenur' ..C
+7?
.
The #'h of a "ure Ar'an race i! furher e/"$o%e% )' he fin%in&! of K.M. <ani--ar
*ho ar&ue! ha he racia$ co#"o!iion of In%ia3! "o"u$aion i! hi&h$' #i/e%. Ever'
racia$ &rou"( Cauca!ian AAr'anB( Me%ierranean ADravi%ianB( Au!ric( Se#eic(
Mon&o$oi% an% Ne&rio !ee# o have &one u" o #a-e he In%ian "eo"$e( an%
re"re!enaive! of a$$ he!e cou$% )e foun% in In%ia. In he <un,a) an% De!ern 2an&eic
va$$e' he Ar'an e$e#en #a' )e "re%o#inan hou&h here a$!o a con!i%era)$e %i$uion
no on$' hrou&h #i/ure *ih in%i&enou! ri)e! )u *ih inva%in& !oc-! i!
+7+
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindu Sanghatan( :>.
+75
V.D.SAVA;KA;( GThen Dho i! Dho( <ra'CH(+9>.
+76
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva +67.
+7:
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( +6+.
+7@
See ;.THA<A;( Cultural Pasts( 6::. ID.( The Penguin History of Early India( +@.
+79
See .. DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( +7:.
+7?
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( ??.
+67
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
noicea)$e
+7=
. <ani--ar furher noe! ha in he $aer $ieraure of he Ar'an! oo here i!
c$ear evi%ence of he Ar'an! iner#in&$in& *ih oher race! an% cu$ure!
+7>
.
Fro# he !evenh cenur' on*ar%! Ara) an% <er!ian ra%er! *ho ha% !e$e% in $ar&e
nu#)er! in Ma$a)ar an% he *e! coa! oo- a! heir $e&a$ *ive! In%ian *o#en an%
foun%e% i#"oran %'na!ie! an% fa#i$ie!. Un%er he Mu&ha$! forei&n e$e#en!
"re%o#inae% he ro'a$ cour!. The <ahan Khi$,i!( he Tur-i Tu&h$u0!( he Ara)
Sa''i%!( he Af&han Fo%i!( he 2eor&ian .i,a"uri!( a$$ #a%e %'na!ic a$$iance! *ih
convere% Hin%u ro'a$ hou!e!. The Mu&ha$!( e!"ecia$$' A-)ar( *a! noe% for heir
"o$ic' of "ro#oion of iner#arria&e. The fina$ "ha!e of #i!ce&enaion ca#e *ih he
a%ven of .rii!h( French( Duch( an% Dani!h co$oni!er! !o#e of *ho# #arrie% In%ian
*o#en
++7
. Hence .en,a#in Da$-er a!-! a "erinen 0ue!ion: GHo* #an' 2ree-(
<er!ian( <arhian( Chine!e( Sa-a( Ku!han an% oher forei&n na#e! $ie concea$e% in he
"on%erou! !'$$a)ar' of San!-ri( *ho can e$$CH
+++
.
The inf$uence of he Mon&o$ian! in In%ia ha! a$!o )een e/en!ive an% !u)!ania$
a$hou&h i! !i&nificance ha! )een con!i!en$' un%er!ae%. The' oo "$a'e% a #a,or
ro$e in he evo$uion of In%ian hi!or' an% have conri)ue% #uch o he %eve$o"#en of
In%ian hou&h an% re$i&ion
++5
. Mon&o$ian characeri!ic! are foun% in !o#e of he !-u$$!
an% erracoa fi&urine! unearhe% a Mohan,o%aro. The Ve%a!( he e"ic! an% he <urana!
"re!erve he na#e! an% cu!o#! of !evera$ ri)e! *hich ehno$o&i!! have i%enifie% a!
)e$on&in& o he Mon&o$ian race
++6
. A$$ he!e fac! &o o !ho* ha he c$ai#! o racia$
"uri' an% !u"eriori' of he Ar'an! of In%ia i! 'e anoher #'h of Hin%uva.
..;.A#)e%-ar !a'!: Ghe o),ec of ca!e *a! o "re!erve "uri' of race an% "uri' of
)oo%. No* ehno$o&i!! are of he o"inion ha #en of "ure race e/i! no*here an% ha
here ha! )een #i/ure of a$$ race! in a$$ "ar! of he *or$%H
++:
.
4. The myth of Aryan India as the mother of all civilisations
Anoher *i%e$' circu$ae% #'h of Hin%uva i! ha Ar'an In%ia i! he #oher of a$$
cu$ure! an% civi$i!aion! of he *or$%. Da'anan%a Sara!*ai !ee#! o have )een he
fir! "er!on in #o%ern i#e! o "ro"a&ae !uch a vie*. He a%vocae% ha a$$ -no*$e%&e
inc$u%in& a$$ !cience! ori&inae% in In%ia an% hen !"rea% o oher counrie!( fir! o
E&'"( hen o 2reece fro# here o Euro"e an% fina$$' o A#erica an% oher
counrie!
++@
. 2o$*a$-ar a$!o #ainaine% ha he Ar'an! *ere he on$' en$i&hene% an%
civi$i!e% "eo"$e on earh an% he re! *ere mle))has
++9
. He c$ai#! ha auhenic ancien
recor%! conc$u!ive$' !ho* ha In%ian! *ere #an' cenurie! ahea% of he i#e! in ever'
+7=
See K.M.<ANIKKA;( GA <ri#er of In%iaH( 64:.
+7>
See K.M.<ANIKKA;( GA <ri#er of In%iaH( 9.
++7
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( =7.
+++
..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( ?=.
++5
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( =+.
++6
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( =+.
++:
The Essential *ritings of #R#Am&edkar( 59:.
++@
See D.SA;ASDATI( Satyartha Prakash( 5=:(6>+. See a$!o ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.I( 5?7.
++9
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( @@.
+6+
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
)ranch of !cience an% ar. He !a'!: GNo race i! en%o*e% *ih a no)$er an% #ore fruifu$
cu$ure !ure$'. No race i! #ore forunae in )ein& &iven a ;e$i&ion( *hich cou$% "ro%uce
!uch a cu$ureH
++?
. Accor%in& o hi# )rain !ur&er'( #o%ern "$a!ic !ur&er'( he conce"
of 1Lero3( he i%ea of 2o% a! 1one3( he %eci#a$ !'!e#( ec. are "ro%uc! of he in&enui'
of Hin%u!
++=
. The )eni&n inf$uence of Hin%u! e/en%e% over va! re&ion! of he earh
an% "i$&ri#! ca#e fro# %i!an $an%! o have a &$i#"!e of In%ia3! &$or' an% !u%en!
f$oc-e% fro# far an% near o %rin- fro# he !"rin&! of hu#an -no*$e%&e
++>
. Thu! he
inf$uence of Hin%ui!# reache% a! far a! A#erica $on& )efore Co$u#)u! 1%i!covere%3
ha coninen. Then i *en o China( Ja"an( Ca#)o%ia( Ma$a'a( Sia#( In%one!ia an%
a$$ he Souh4Ea! A!ian counrie! an% ri&h u" o Mon&o$ia an% Si)eria in he Norh
+57
.
Auro)in%o ca$$! In%ia he a"e/ of hu#an civi$i!aion( he "erfecion of &oo%
&overn#en an% !e$e% !ocie'( an% he #oher of a$$ re$i&ion!
+5+
. ;a# S*aru" ar&ue!
ha Hin%ui!# once re"re!ene% a &rea civi$i!aion an% ha Hin%u %har#a *en a)roa%
fro# i#e o i#e an% via$$' inf$uence% he cu$ure! an% re$i&ion! of #an' $an%! an%
re&ion! of he &$o)e
+55
. Davi% Fra*$e' c$ai#! ha In%ia a$one a! a counr' ha! he
"oenia$ o a-e he ro$e of !"iriua$$' &ui%in& he *or$%
+56
. The NCE;T !choo$ e/)oo-
on 1Ancien In%ia3 !ae! ha a$$ !u)!anive !cienific %i!coverie!( he Lero( he %eci#a$
!'!e#( he %i!cover' ha he earh #ove! on i! o*n a/i! an% aroun% he !un *ere
a$rea%' #a%e in he Ve%ic civi$i!aion
+5:
. .u criic! an% !cho$ar! e$$ u! ha( in he
.rah#i !cri"( uni$ he !i/h cenur' A.D here *a! no !'#)o$ for Lero. Ar'a)haa *ho
fir! "re!ene% he h'"ohe!i! ha he earh #ove! aroun% he !un $ive% in he $ae fifh
an% ear$' !i/h cenur' A.D
+5@
. In a%%iion i #a' )e re#e#)ere% ha he!e %a'! #an'
!cho$ar! !"ea- of Africa an% no A!ia a! he ori&ina$ ho#e of he hu#an!
+59
. Shereen
;ana&ar( <rofe!!or of Archaeo$o&' a Ja*ahar$a$ Nehru Univer!i'( Ne* De$hi( an%
auhor of #an' )oo-! on he Hara""an civi$i!aion ar&ue! ha he o$%e! -no*n
civi$i!aion i! he Su#erian an% no In%ian
+5?
.
Since va! !ecion! of he In%ian "o"u$aion are i$$ierae an% i&noran( #'h!(
fa$!ehoo%! an% !u"er!iiou! )e$ief! *i$$ have &rea acce"ance a#on& he#. Ho*ever(
++?
M.S.2OFDAFKA;( *e( :5.
++=
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( 57?457=.
++>
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( 57=.
+57
See M.S.2OFDAFKA; ( un)h of Thoughts( ?.
+5+
See AU;O.INDO( India%s Re&irth( 67. Dhen Auro)in%o !"ea-! of 1&oo% &overn#en3 *e are
re#in%e% of K.M.<ani--ar3! o)!ervaion ha Hin%u "o$iica$ heor' a""ro/i#ae% he !choo$ of
Machiave$$i of Euro"e *ho!e couner"ar in In%ia *a! Kaua$'a AChana-'aB an% hi! !ucce!!or! *ho care%
$i$e for ehic! an% #ora$! in "o$iica$ $ife. See K.M.<ANIKKA;( GThe I%ea of Soverei&n'H( ?:4?@.
+55
See ;.SDA;U<( 'n Hinduism( 5:. ;a# S*aru"3! 'n Hinduism ha! a !e"arae cha"er eni$e%
1In%ia an% 2reece3 *here he c$ai#! ha In%ian hou&h e/ere% a &rea inf$uence on ancien 2ree-
hou&h. See I&id.( +>94579.
+56
See D.F;ADFEY( Arise Arjuna# +5.
+5:
See ..S.<A;AKH Ae%.B( India and the *orld( >+.
+5@
See GNCE;T ;e4inven! Hi!or'H( @. Ar'a)haa i! !ai% o have $ive% fro# :?94@57 A.D. See
..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II(::.
+59
See N.2.;AJ( G1Un%er he S-in De are African3H( +5.
+5?
See F..AVADAM( GSue!iona)$e C$ai#!H( ?+.
+65
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
K.N.<ani--ar re#in%! u! ha( #i!re"re!enaion! an% fa$!ificaion! "ro"a&ae% )' he
"ro"onen! of Hin%uva are no %ue o i&norance a$one )u are a! #uch a "ro%uc of
heir i%eo$o&ica$ "reference. Thu!( i race! he $inea&e of he naion o he ancien Hin%u
"a!( c$ai#! he Hin%u !cri"ure! a! he !ource of a$$ -no*$e%&e( he In%ian civi$i!aion
a! !u"erior o ever' oher civi$i!aion( an% ancien In%ia3! achieve#en! in !cience(
#ahe#aic! an% oher )ranche! of -no*$e%&e a! un!ur"a!!e% )' oher civi$i!aion!
+5=
.
Davi% J. Ka$u"ahana ar&ue! ha he Ar'an cu$ure *a! #un%ane in i! ou$oo- a! i!
evi%en fro# !o#e of he h'#n! e/o$$in& he soma4%rin-in&( fun4$ovin& &o%!
+5>
.
Savar-ar a%#i! ha he Ar'an! *ho *ere re!"on!i)$e for he %eve$o"#en of Ve%ic
civi$i!aion *ere e!!enia$$' cu$ivaor!. He !"ea-! of he# a! en&a&e% in rec$ai#in&
va! *a!e an% hin$' "o"u$ae% $an%!( fe$$in& of fore!! an% "racice of a&ricu$ure
+67
.
;o#i$a Tha"ar o"ine! ha he In%o4Euro"ean !"ea-er! *ere "erha"! "a!ora$i!! or
far#er! or iineran ra%er!
+6+
. Ho*ever( he In%u! Va$$e' civi$i!aion *hich *a! "re4
Ar'an( i! *i%e$' ac-no*$e%&e% a! far !u"erior o ha of he Ar'an i##i&ran!. .e!i%e!(
he conri)uion of forei&ner! o In%ian cu$ure ha! )een con!i%era)$e *hich no
co#"een !cho$ar can %en'.
Furher( he Hin%u a!ro$o&'( a! in fac a$$ a!ro$o&'( *a! %ee"$' inf$uence% )' he
Cha$%ean!( he &reae! #ahe#aician! an% a!ro$o&er! of ani0ui'. The Atharva Veda
conain! #an' curiou! er#! an% noion! ha are ari)ue% o "re4Ar'an an%
Me!o"oa#ian inf$uence!. A nu#)er of h'#n! in he Ve%a! )ri!$e *ih forei&n *or%!(
an% !cho$ar! $i-e .a$ 2an&a%har Ti$a- )e$ieve% ha he' *ere of Cha$%ean ori&in. I i!
"ro)a)$e ha he fa#ou! creaion h'#n ha *a! $aer a%%e% o he enh )oo- of he Rig
Veda( )ear! race! of Su#erian ori&in. The cu!o# of urn4)uria$ foun% in In%ia i! a$!o( in
a$$ "ro)a)i$i' a-en fro# he .a)'$onian!
+65
.
,aha&harata( A,aha&harata.yuddha 1The 2rea .a$e of he .haraa!3B one of he
*o e"ic "oe#! of he Hin%u! i! a va! anho$o&ica$ #i!ce$$an' of "re4Ar'an an% Ar'an
#aeria$. I i! )e$ieve% o have )een !are% a! a !hor )a$$a% in "ro!e an% ver!e( fir!
co#"o!e% in <ra-ri( *ih !o#e ear$' a%%iiona$ #aeria$ a$!o in <ra-ri. The $an&ua&e
in *hich i i! no* "re!erve% i! !o#ehin& )e*een Ve%ic an% c$a!!ica$ San!-ri. The
chief "roa&oni!! of he e"ic( $on& %ee#e% o )e of 1"ure Ar'an %ecen3( are no*
)e$ieve% o have )een 1#i/e% Ar'an!3 if no oa$$' non4Ar'an
+66
.
,antra i! a *or% of <er!ian ori&in an% in he Ve%ic $ieraure i #ean! ho!e "orion!
ha con!i! of he #aeria$ "!a$#! of "rai!e a! %i!inc fro# he $iur&ica$ "ro!e
+6:
.
,udra A!ea$B i! a *or% of Iranian ori&in #eanin& 1&e!ure3
+6@
. The $a(s of ,anu
A,anusmritiB ha! reference! in he enh cha"er o he Yavana! A2ree-!B( Sa-a!
ASc'hian!B an% <ah$ava! A<er!ian!B
+69
. Marahi i! a #o%ern In%o4Ar'an $an&ua&e *hich
+5=
See K.N.<ANIKKA;( GInro%ucionH( /ii.
+5>
See D.J.KAFU<AHANA( uddhist Philoso"hy( 6.
+67
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( @(+7.
+6+
See ;.THA<A;( Cultural Pasts- >=5.
+65
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( 9:49@.
+66
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( =.
+6:
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( 5@.
+6@
See .. DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( =@.
+69
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( 5?45=.
+66
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
)ear! #an' race! of Au!ric an% "re4Dravi%ian )orro*in&! #an' Chine!e *or%!( an%
even !o#e He)re* er#!
+6?
.
The Maur'a a&e( $i-e #o! In%ian civi$i!aion! %urin& i! fine! "erio%( *e$co#e%
ne* i%ea! fro# a)roa%. Chan%ra&u"a Maur'a A65745>? ..CB( ha% conac *ih 2reece.
He receive% a 2ree- e#)a!!' hea%e% )' Me&a!hene! a hi! cour( an% #arrie% one of
he %au&her! of Se$eucu!
+6=
. <aa$i"ura *a! a co!#o"o$ian o*n *ih cro*%! fro#
variou! "ar! of A!ia( 2reece( E&'" an% he Mi%%$e Ea!. In hi! a%vance De!*ar%(
Chan%ra&u"a occu"ie% erriorie! *hich ha% )een un%er <er!ian ru$e an% *hich *ere
ri"e for he ran!#i!!ion of <er!ian i%ea! o In%ia
+6>
. Hence ..Da$-er affir#!: GIn%ia
)orro*e% e/en!ive$' fro# he 2ree-!( IOJ. The 1)ar)arian3 %e) i! over*he$#in&( 'e
nohin& in San!-ri *riin& )era'! hi! fac. IOJ San!-ri an% vernacu$ar hi!orie! of he
Mu!$i# an% Euro"ean "erio%! *here he' e/i! a a$$ are con!"icuou! for he "auci' of
heir infor#aion an% for heir #ar-e% /eno"ho)iaH
+:7
.
The !ocia$ #o)i$i' of he ancien In%ian! ha! a$!o )een con!i%era)$e. There are
recor%! of In%ian #erchan!( rave$$er!( !ea#en( !cho$ar!( #on-! an% #ercenarie!
havin& )een o <er!ia( 2reece( A!ia Minor( ;o#e( E&'" an% Norh Africa( a! *e$$ a! o
Cenra$ A!ia( China( an% Ja"an( )u a$$ evi%ence of !uch #ove#en i! o)aine% fro#
ou!i%e an% no fro# In%ian !ource!
+:+
. For e/a#"$e( he ,aha&harata u!e! cerain
2ree- *or%! an% in he fir! an% he $a! )oo-! here i! #enion of he ;o#an
%enariu!
+:5
.
Thu!( u"on c$o!e e/a#inaion( he #'h of Ar'an In%ia a! he #oher of a$$
civi$i!aion! an% cu$ure! of he *or$% canno )u )e a ho$$o* c$ai# *ihou an'
hi!orica$ foun%aion.
. The myth of !induism as "eternal religion# $sanatana dharma%
Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! "ro,ec Hin%ui!# a! eerna$ re$i&ion ASanatana +harmaB
+:6
an%
#a-e a$$ c$ai#! $i-e he *or$%3! o$%e! an% #o! co#"$e/ re$i&ion3
+::
( he #oher of
#an' re$i&ion!
+:@
( he #oher of a$$ re$i&ion!
+:9
( he ori&ina$ re$i&ion of he In%ian! an%
he o$%e! of a$$ $ivin& re$i&ion! of he *or$%
+:?
( ec. To%a' even or%inar' Hin%u! free$'
u!e he e/"re!!ion Sanatana +harma *ihou -no*in& *ha i ru$' !i&nifie!. The
NCE;T !choo$ e/)oo-! each ha Hin%ui!# i! Sanatana +harma or he eerna$
+6?
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( 66.
+6=
See ;.THA<A;( The Penguin History of Early India( +??.
+6>
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld- vo$.II( @5.
+:7
..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( 6:?.
+:+
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( 6:?.
+:5
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( >.
+:6
;a# S*aru" !a'!: GIn%ia *a! he "$ace *here Sanaana %har#a f$ouri!he%. I! "eo"$e *ere ca$$e%
Hin%u! an% heir re$i&ion ca#e o )e -no*n a! Hin%u %har#aH. ;.SDA;U<( 'n Hinduism( 5:.
+::
See D.F;ADFEY( Arise Arjuna( :=.
+:@
See ;.SDA;U<( 'n Hinduism( +.
+:9
See AU;O.INDO( India%s Re&irth( 67.
+:?
See D.N.SIN2H( A Study of Hinduism( ++.
+6:
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
!"iriua$ ra%iion of In%ia. I !a'!: GHin%ui!# i! a very o$% re$i&ion. I i! a$!o -no*n a!
Sanaana Dhar#a i.e. he Eerna$ S"iriua$ Tra%iion of In%iaH
+:=
. ;a# S*aru" !ae! ha
Hin%ui!# i! a co#"araive$' recen *or% )u i i! he "o"u$ar na#e for he ancien
Sanatana +harma
+:>
#
Accor%in& o he "ro"onen! of Hin%uva( 1!anava3 i! a 0ua$i' ha )e$on&! o In%ia
a)ove a$$ oher naion!
+@7
. 1Sanava3 #ean! 1ancienne!!3( a er# !i&nif'in& he !acre%
an% uni0ue 0ua$i' of !o#ehin& ha ha! co#e %o*n fro# i##e#oria$ ani0ui' an%
!o#ehin& ha ha! in fac a$*a'! )een
+@+
. Dhen Hin%u! refer o heir re$i&ion a!
Sanatana +harma *ha i! i#"$ie% i! ha i i! he #oher of a$$ re$i&ion! an% he
founainhea% of a$$ faih!. K.Kri!hna#achar'a !a'!: GThere *a! no re$i&ion in hi! $an%
IIn%ia of o%a'J( nor *a! an' re$i&ion nece!!ar' for he In%ian!. The ancien In%ian! ha%
a co%e of $a* for #an o fo$$o*. Thi! *a! fra#e% in accor%ance *ih variou! ruh!
*or-in& in naure. IOJ. Thi! *a! ca$$e% Dhar#a IOJ. An' ae#" for re$i&ion i!
naura$$' $i#ie% an% narro*e% *hen co#"are% *ih hi!H
+@5
. Davi% Fra*$e' !a'! ha
Sanatana +harma !an%! for he univer!a$ for# of !"iriua$i' *hich Hin%ui!# !an%!
for *ih i! "erennia$ *i!%o# an% univer!a$ $i&h
+@6
. He ar&ue! ha Hin%u Dhar#a !ee!
i!e$f no a! #an4#a%e )u a! "ar of co!#ic creaion
+@:
. N.S.;a,ara#( an ;SS
i%eo$o&ue( #ainain! ha Hin%ui!# a! Sanatana +harma ha! neiher a hi!orica$
)e&innin& nor a hi!orica$ foun%er. I! &reae! fi&ure! are !a&e! an% &ui%e! *ho
%i!covere% )a!ic ruh! a)ou #an3! "$ace in he co!#o!
+@@
.
I i! o )e reierae% ha( he %e!i&naion of Hin%ui!# a! 1eerna$ re$i&ion3 i! a "iou!
noion i#"oran o he Hin%u!. In%ia ha! no in%i&enou! one *or% o %e!i&nae *ha i!
#ean )' he *e!ern conce" 1re$i&ion3. The er# ha co#e! c$o!e! o i i! dharma
*hich #ean! %u'( $a*( virue( ,u!ice( ec.( an% i refer! o )oh re$i&iou! an% !ocia$
o)$i&aion! an% )ehaviour. In fac( Hin%ui!#3! !e$f4%e!i&naion ha! )een Sanatana
+harma P 1eerna$ re$i&ion3T 1eerna$ $a*3. Ho*ever( fro# a raiona$ "oin of vie* he
noion 1eerna$ re$i&ion3 Asanatana dharmaB i! a !e#anic #i!no#er( an% he )e$ief ha
Hin%ui!# i! 1eerna$ re$i&ion3 i! a #'h( *hich canno !an% he e! of rea!on. ;ea!on
e$$! u! ha *haever i! an a!"ec of he hu#an rea$i' ha! a )e&innin&. A$$ re$i&ion! are
e#"irica$ in naure in a! #uch a! he' are reve$aion! of !o#e &rea ruh! ha occur in
i#e an% !"ace hrou&h he #e%iaion of e#"irica$ rea$iie!. Hin%ui!#( hou&h i i!
ca$$e% 1eerna$ re$i&ion3 i! no e/ce"ion o i. Therefore( Hin%ui!# canno c$ai# an'
e/ce"ion o oher re$i&ion! ,u! )ecau!e i ha! he a& of sanatana or 1eerna$3 aache%
+:=
..S.<A;AKH Ae%.B( India and the *orld( +66 AE#"ha!i! in he ori&ina$B.
+:>
See ;.SDA;U<( 'n Hinduism( := foonoe 9.
+@7
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( 6:9.
+@+
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( 6:@.
+@5
K.K;ISHNAMACHA;YA( 'ur Heritage( +9( a! cie% in K.EFST( *ho is a Hindu0- 6>.
+@6
See D.F;ADFEY( Hinduism the Eternal Tradition( >4+@(+945@.
+@:
See D.F;ADFEY( Ho( I &e)ame a Hindu( +@.
+@@
;a,ara# ar&ue! ha he ruh! of Hin%ui!# are no %ifferen fro# !cience. Co!#ic $a*! $i-e
&raviaion an% #a!!4ener&' e0uiva$ence Are$aivi' heor'B e/i!e%( )u i oo- !a&e! $i-e Ne*on an%
Ein!ein o 1!ee3 he#. Dha he' %i!covere% *ere univer!a$ ruh! ha !an% on heir o*n. The' %o no
re! on he auhori' of heir %i!coverer!E he' can )e verifie% )' an'one *i$$in& o !u%'. The !a#e i! rue
of &rea Hin%u eachin&! See N.S.;AJA;AM( GS"iriua$ Free%o#H( 5.
+6@
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
o i. Here( he 0ue!ion of Ku#-u# ;o' !ee#! "erinen: GHin%ui!# i! %efine% a!
eerna$. One *on%er! *ha i! he "$ace of a i#e$e!! "heno#enon in he #un%ane
fra#e*or- of a !choo$ hi!or' )oo-H
+@9
P a reference o he ne* NCE;T !choo$
e/)oo-!. The !a#e criici!# i! a""$ica)$e a$!o o he Ve%a!( *hich are "ro"oun%e% a!
1eerna$3( 1)e&innin&$e!!3 an% 1auhor$e!!3. Fi-e a$$ oher !acre% e/!( he Ve%a! a$!o ha%
hu#an auhor! P ofen anon'#ou! P *ho *roe in a $an&ua&e *hich *a! "reva$en in
he cu$ure of he i#e.
Fac- of hi!orica$ !en!e a#on& #an' In%ian! i! a %irec con!e0uence of he conce"
of sanatana( an% a$$ Hin%u recor%! *ere #a%e o confor# o he noion of i! !e$f4
!ufficienc'. For e/a#"$e( in he ne* NCE;T !choo$ e/)oo-! on he Ve%ic Civi$i!aion
here i! no reference o %ae!. The !u%en! are e/"ece% o )e$ieve ha he Ve%ic e/!
are i#e$e!!
+@?
. The "oor hi!orica$ !en!e i! a&ain #anife!e% in he effor of Hin%uva
hi!orian! o inven hi!or' an% race he ori&in of Hin%ui!# o "re4In%u! Va$$e' an%
In%u! Va$$e' civi$i!aion( he c$ai# ha he Ar'an! are he ori&ina$ inha)ian! of In%ia(
ec. .e$ief in he uni0uene!! of Hin%ui!# a! Sanatana +harma i! a$!o !ai% o )e
re!"on!i)$e for he e/re#e re$ucance of Hin%u! in ac-no*$e%&in& he cu$ura$ %e)
he' o*e o oher!( he rea!on )ein& ha( !uch a confe!!ion *ou$% un%er#ine heir
+harma an% viiae heir c$ai# o "riori' an% "re4e#inence
+@=
.
A! A.D.Maa# ha! !u&&e!e%( in %i!cu!!in& he re$i&ion! of In%ia *e !hou$% )e&in
*ih he re$i&ion! of he ear$ie! inha)ian! or A%i#va!i! *hich !urvive in !o#e *a'
a#on& he "re!en %a' ri)a$! or a%iva!i!( fo$$o*e% )' he re$i&ion of he Da$i!
ASche%u$e% ca!e! an% Ouca!e!B( of he Hara""an "eo"$e( re$i&ion of he Ta#i$! an%
fina$$' he Ar'a Dhar#a or Ve%ic re$i&ion
+@>
.
&. The myth that !induism is a continuation of the Vedic religion
The "ro"onen! of Hin%uva !aunch$' ar&ue ha Hin%ui!# of o%a' i! a coninuaion
of he Ve%ic re$i&ion. In fac( !renuou! effor! are )ein& #a%e o #a-e a nea an% un4
inerru"e% $in- )e*een he Ve%ic re$i&ion an% he Hin%ui!# of o%a'
+97
. In he NCE;T
Socia$ Science! e/)oo- for C$a!! VI *e rea%: GThe' Ihe Ve%a!J are a$!o ca$$e% he
Hindu religious literature an% are revere%H
+9+
. Dha i! ar&ue% here i! ha he Ar'an!
creae% he Hin%u re$i&ion an% civi$i!aion !o ha he Hin%u! of o%a' are he $inea$
ance!or! of he Ar'an!.
.u i i! a *e$$4-no*n fac ha the Vedi) "eo"le not only did not )all themselves
Hindus &ut also did not "ossess the essential )hara)teristi)s of the Hinduism of today.
Ho*ever( in or%er o $e&ii#i!e he ani0ui' of Hin%ui!#( Savar-ar ar&ue% ha he
+@9
K.;OY( GDha ha""ene% o Confuciani!#H( ?7.
+@?
See K.;OY( GDha ha""ene% o Confuciani!#C( ?7. See a$!o ..S.<A;AKH Ae%.B( India and the
*orld( +66.
+@=
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( 6:?. See a$!o J.KU;UVACHI;A( GFac! Nai$ Hin%ui!#3!
C$ai#!H( 6546?.
+@>
See A.D.MATTAM( Religions( =@4>5.
+97
See D.N.SIN2H( A Study of Hinduism( ++(+5.
+9+
..S.<A;AKH Ae%.B( India and the *orld( == AE#"ha!i! a%%e%B.
+69
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
*or% 1Hin%u3 i! %erive% fro# he Ve%ic a""e$$aion of Sa"tasindhus
+95
. S*a#i
Vive-anan%a c$ai#e% ha Hin%ui!# i! he re$i&ion of he Ve%a!
+96
. Auro)in%o )e$ieve%
ha he Ve%a! are he foun%aion of he Sanatana +harma
+9:
. Davi% Fra*$e' ar&ue! ha
Hin%ui!# i! he o$%e! re$i&ion in he *or$% *ih a ra%iion &oin& )ac- o he ver'
)e&innin& of *ha *e -no* of a! hi!or' over five hou!an% 'ear! a&o
+9@
. Fra*$e' a$!o
e0uae! he Ve%ic re$i&ion *ih Hin%u %har#a
+99
. Thi! vie* of Hin%ui!# i! a$!o
!'!e#aica$$' au&h in !choo$!. In he NCE;T !choo$ e/)oo- for C$a!! VI he
!u%en! are o$%: GHin%ui!# i! a very o$% re$i&ion. I i! a$!o -no*n a! Sanaana Dhar#a
i.e. he Eerna$ S"iriua$ Tra%iion of In%ia. On he )a!i! of #aeria$ re#ain! foun% in he
Hara""an Civi$iLaion i can )e !ai% ha #an' of he re$i&iou! a!"ec! of Hin%ui!#
)e&an henH
+9?
.
.u he a)ove e/"$anaion i! oo !i#"$i!ic an% i ne&$ec! #an' %ocrina$ an%
"racica$ %ifference! )e*een he Ve%ic re$i&ion an% #o%ern Hin%ui!#. Mo%ern
Hin%ui!# ha! %rife% #i$e! a*a' fro# he Ve%ic faih !o ha he *o !ee# o )e *o
%i!inc faih!. Dhen *e carefu$$' e/a#ine he *o faih!( i i! no %ifficu$ o %i!cover
ha here i! no noicea)$e coninui' of Hin%ui!# fro# he re$i&ion of he Ve%a!. In
oher *or%!( he %i!incive characeri!ic! of Hin%ui!# of o%a' )annot &e tra)ed in he
Ve%ic $ieraure. .e!i%e!( a$hou&h he Ve%a! are revere% a! !acre% e/!( here are #an'
in In%ia *ho %o no -no* *ha 1)e$ief in he Ve%a!3 #ean!. In #o! ca!e!( he
ac0uainance of he Hin%u! *ih he Ve%a! i! $i#ie% o he fe* h'#n! ha are recie% in
e#"$e! an% hou!eho$% $iur&ie!
+9=
.
The Ve%a! a! a )o%' of !cri"ure conain #an' conra%icion! an% he' are
fra&#enar' in naure. For #o! Hin%u! of o%a'( !cri"ure! $i-e he hagavadgita(
Ramayana- ,aha&harata an% Puranas are #ore aracive an% a""ea$in& han he
Ve%a!. In a%%iion( he &o%! an% &o%%e!!e! he' *or!hi" %iffer con!i%era)$' fro# he
Ve%ic one!. The co$$ecion of h'#n! ca$$e% Ve%a! *rien in "rai!e of cerain %eiie! )'
"oe! over !evera$ cenurie! %oe! no !ee# o have #uch !i&nificance for he Hin%u! of
o%a'( e/ce" for !cho$ar!( hou&h curren$' franic effor! are )ein& #a%e )' he
"ro"onen! of Hin%uva o revive he !u%' of he Ve%a! $i-e( he Ve%ic riua$!( Ve%ic
#ahe#aic!( Ve%ic a!ro$o&'( Ve%ic San!-ri( Ve%ic a!rono#'( ec.
There are a$!o oher rea!on! o 0ue!ion he heor' ha he Ve%a! are he foun%aion!
of #o%ern Hin%ui!#. Da'anan%a Sara!*ai *a! he fir! #o%ern Hin%u hin-er o
e#"ha!i!e he i#"orance of 1&oin& )ac- o he Ve%a!3 in or%er o )rin& a)ou !ocia$
refor#! in Hin%u !ocie' an% o "urif' Hin%ui!# of i! #an' a)erraion!. Much of he
#o%ern Hin%ui!# i! 1"uranic Hin%ui!#3. Ve%ic &o%! $i-e In%ra( Varuna( A&ni( So#a
an% he $i-e( *ho# he Ve%ic "eo"$e *or!hi""e%( har%$' have an' !i&nificance in
"re!en %a' Hin%ui!#. The &o%! an% &o%%e!!e! i#"oran o he Hin%u! of o%a' are
+95
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindu Sanghatan( >.
+96
See The Com"lete *orks of S(ami Vivekananda( vo$.+( 5+.
+9:
See AU;O.INDO( India%s Re&irth- >:.
+9@
See D.F;ADFEY( Ho( I &e)ame a Hindu( +7.
+99
He !a'!: GIn #' ca!e I ca#e o Hin%u Dhar#a hrou&h the Vedas- the oldest tradition of HinduismH.
D.F;ADFEY( Ho( I &e)ame a Hindu( +5 AE#"ha!i! a%%e%B.
+9?
..S.<A;AKH Ae%.B( India and the *orld( +66 AE#"ha!i! in he ori&ina$B.
+9=
See C.SHATTUCK( Hinduism( 5+.
+6?
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
;a#( Kri!hna( Ka$i( 2ane!h( Hanu#an( .rah#a( Vi!hnu( Shiva an% he re!"ecive
con!or! of he $a! hree( na#e$'( Sara!*ai( Fa-!h#i an% Sha-i. None of he!e %eiie!
fi&ure% "ro#inen$' in he Ve%ic "anheon an% !o#e of he# are c$ear$' non4Ve%ic. The
#a,or &o%! of Hin%ui!# $i-e Vi!hnu an% Shiva are non4Ar'an in ori&in
+9>
. Thou&h he'
#a' have )e$on&e% o he Ve%ic ra%iion he' "$a'e% no #a,or ro$e in he Ve%a!.
K.M.<ani--ar( !a'! ha i i! "rove% )e'on% %ou) ha he #ore i#"oran re$i&iou!
!ec! a#on& he Hin%u!( $i-e Vai!hnavi!#( Saivi!# an% !o on( %i% no have a Ve%ic
ori&in( )u ha% co#e ino e/i!ence in co#"araive$' recen i#e!
+?7
.
A&ain( here are evi%ence! ha ori&ina$$' Shiva an% he cu$ of he Moher 2o%%e!!
)e$on&e% o he re$i&ion of he In%u! Va$$e' "eo"$e
+?+
. Heinrich von Sieencron i! of he
o"inion ha he !u)!ance of he Vi!hnu an% Shiva cu$ i! a #e$in& of a $ea! *o
cu$ure!( if no hree( na#e$'( he Ar'an cu$ure( he "re4Ar'an cu$ure of he 2an&e!
Va$$e' A"ro)a)$' in%irec$'B( an% he In%u! Va$$e' cu$ure. The!e hree cu$ure! *ere
c$o!e$' -ni )' he fir! cenur' of Chri!iani' an% in he $aer "erio% un%er*en furher
%eve$o"#en!( an% "ro)a)$' a$!o a fourh ra%iion of he in%i&enou! ri)e! ha !oo%
ou!i%e he four c$a!!e! of he ca!e !'!e# a! ouca!e!
+?5
. .e!i%e!( he Ve%ic
*or!hi""er %i% no u!e e#"$e! an% i%o$! a! Hin%u! of o%a' %o. For he#( he
!acrificia$ riua$! *ere #ore i#"oran han e#"$e or i%o$ *or!hi". In a%%iion( a!
Koenraa% E$! o)!erve!( he #a,or Hin%u fea!! of o%a' are )a!e% on he e"ic fea! of
;a#a an% Kri!hna an% he <uranic $ore "erainin& o Shiva an% he 2o%%e!!
+?6
.
.e$ief in reincarnaion *hich i! cenra$ o Hin%ui!# i! no rea$$' ae!e% o in he
Ve%a!( hou&h he' hin a $ife afer %eah. ..Da$-er !a'!: GThe %ocrine of
ran!#i&raion a! e$a)orae% in Hin%ui!# ha! no "$ace in he Ve%ic h'#n!H
+?:
. C.K.;a,a
a$!o affir#! ha in he ear$' Ve%ic $ieraure( here i! no e/"re!! #enion of he %ocrine
of ran!#i&raion. I i! in he U"ani!a%! ha i a""ear! for he fir! i#e. The Rig Veda
!"ea-! of *o "ah! for he !ou$! of he %ecea!e%( na#e$'( he "ah of he &o%!
AdevayanaB an% he "ah of he faher! A"itriyanaB. Tho!e *ho &o )' he for#er en,o'
i##ora$i' an% here i! no reurn o "h'!ica$ $ife afer ha. In fac( he Ve%ic #an
$on&e% for hi! !ae of $ife. Dherea! ho!e *ho &o )' he $aer "ah( unie *ih he
faher! an% hen reurn o earh( afer havin& en,o'e% he frui! of hi! %ee%!. ;a,a furher
!ae! ha in he enire Rig Veda P con!i!in& of a)ou +7(@77 ver!e! P here i! on$'
one occa!ion *here here i! #enion of a reurn o hi! *or$% afer %eah. Dha i!
i#"$ie% here i! ha i canno )e a-en a! an i#"oran eachin& of he Rig Veda
+?@
.
..2.Ti$a- a$!o noe! ha he Ve%a! !"ea- of he 1"ah of he &o%!3AdevayanaB an% 1"ah
of he faher!3 A"itriyanaB for he !ou$! of he %ecea!e%
+?9
.
The heor' of avatara A1%e!cen%3B of &o%! *hich i! i#"oran o #o%ern Hin%ui!# i!
non4Ve%ic. ..Da$-er o)!erve!: GSi&nifican$'( he er# avatara IOJ i! no foun% in he
+9>
See A.D.MATTAM( Religions( >@.
+?7
See K.M. <ANIKKA;( GI#"ac of Euro"eH( 9.
+?+
See J.KU;UVACHI;A( GFac! Nai$ Hin%ui!#3! C$ai#!H( 6:46@.
+?5
See H.von STIETENC;ON( GHin%ui!i!che <er!"e-ivenH( :9.
+?6
See K.EFST( *ho is a Hindu0- >.
+?:
..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.I(?:.
+?@
See C.K.;AJA( GVe%ic Cu$ureH( 579457?.
+?9
See ..2.TIFAK( The 'rion( +?.
+6=
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
ear$ier Ve%ic e/!( an% i! a)!en fro# he o$%er San!-ri &$o!!arie!H
+??
. The ca!e !'!e#
*hich i! !o ine&ra$ o Hin%ui!#( *a! a$!o no "racice% in he Ve%ic i#e!. There i!
har%$' an' evi%ence of ri&i% ca!e !'!e# in he Ve%a!. I i! ar&ue% ha he
"urushasukta h'#n of he Rig Veda AQ.>7B *hich i! ofen referre% o in or%er o &ive a
re$i&iou! !ancion o ca!e !'!e#( *a! a $aer iner"o$aion. The Ve%a!( ho*ever( !"ea-
of variou! c$a!!e! of "eo"$e( *hich a""ear o have )een na#e! of "rofe!!ion!( an% he'
*ere no here%iar'
+?=
. O.<.2u"a !a'!: GThe ver' conce" of ca!e! )' )irh(
u""erT$o*er ca!e!( !u"eriorTinferior ca!e!( ouca!e!( unoucha)$e!( %a$i!( ec. are
c$ear$' "rohi)ie% )' RigvedaH
+?>
.
The a)oo on co* !$au&her an% )eef eain& *hich have )eco#e !en!iive i!!ue! for
he Hin%u! of o%a' %i% no e/i! in Ve%ic i#e!. Here he o)!ervaion of Koenraa% E$!
i! a". He !a'!: Gcrieria $i-e a)oo on )eef4eain& or )e$ief in reincarnaion #i&h !a#"
he Ve%ic !eer! a! non4Hin%u!H
+=7
. The 0ue!ion *heher he Ve%ic "eo"$e "racice% co*
!$au&her i! %e)ae% a#on& Hin%u reviva$i!! an% ra%iiona$i!!. E$! o"ine! ha i *a!
"reci!e$' )ecau!e he co* *a! a !acre% ani#a$ ha he auhor! of he Ve%a! !acrifice%
co*! an% ae )eef on !"ecia$ occa!ion!
+=+
. Thi! ar&u#en on$' !u)!aniae! he vie*
ha co* *a! not an invio$a)$e ani#a$ an% ha )eef eain& *a! not a a)oo in Ve%ic
i#e!
+=5
.
A! i! c$ear fro# he a)ove( !evera$ a!"ec! ha are inrin!ic o he Hin%ui!# of o%a'(
!uch a!( he %ocrine of re4incarnaion( avatara A1%e!cen3B of &o%!( ca!e !'!e#( a)oo
on co* !$au&her an% )eef eain& *ere a)!en in he Ve%ic re$i&ion. K.M.<ani--ar ho$%!
a !i#i$ar vie*. He !a'!: GI *a! !ho*n )' a criica$ !u%' of he Ve%a! ha he Ar'an!
ha% no %eve$o"e% i%ea of ca!e !'!e#( I.OJ The a)oo on he u!e of )eef *a! !ho*n o
)e of $aer ori&in( ha he co* *a! free$' -i$$e% for cere#onia$ an% oher "ur"o!e! in
ancien In%iaH
+=6
. On c$o!e e/a#inaion *e a$!o %i!cover ha he re$i&ion of he Ve%a!
*a! not he re$i&ion of he Hin%u!( nor *ere he Ve%ic "eo"$e Hin%u!( nor *i$$ he
Hin%u! of o%a' a""rove he re"$ace#en of he er# 1Hin%ui!#3 *ih 1Ve%ic ;e$i&ion3.
None can !a' e/ac$' *hen he Ar'an! )eca#e Hin%u! )ecau!e neiher he na#e Hin%u
nor i! #a,or )e$ief! an% "racice! e/i!e% in he Ve%ic i#e!. To hi! one #u! a%% he
#ar&ina$ "$ace he Ve%ic &o%! occu"' in o%a'3! Hin%u "anheon. In a%%iion( a! *e
have !een( he Ve%a! he#!e$ve! are no aracive o #o! of o%a'3! Hin%u! a! !acre%
e/!. The Ramayana( ,aha&harata( hagavadgita( Puranas an% ,anusmriti( #a' have
#ore o %o *ih he Hin%ui!# of o%a' han he Ve%a!. Thu!( i i! c$ear ha here i! no
dire)t an)estry of modern Hinduism tra)ea&le in the Vedas( hou&h i %oe! have !o#e
inf$uence on i. ;o#i$a Tha"ar !a'!: GThe Ve%ic cor"u! ref$ec! he arche'"a$ re$i&ion
of ho!e *ho ca$$e% he#!e$ve! aryas( an% *hich( a$hou&h i conri)ue% o face! of
$aer %a' Hin%ui!#( *a! neverhe$e!! distin)tH
+=:
.
+??
..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.I(?5.
+?=
See A.S.AFTEKA;( GVe%ic Socie'H( 55@. See a$!o ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.I( 575.
+?>
O.<.2U<TA( GE0ua$i' )' .irh U 2en%erH( +?.
+=7
K.EFST( *ho is a Hindu0- 6+.
+=+
See K.EFST( *ho is a Hindu0- 5>.
+=5
See J.KU;UVACHI;A( GOn Co* S$au&herH( =.
+=6
K.M. <ANIKKA;( GI#"ac of Euro"eH( 9.
+=:
;.THA<A;( The Penguin History of Early India( +5? AE#"ha!i! a%%e%B.
+6>
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
Hence( i fo$$o*! ha he Ve%ic re$i&ion %e!erve! o )e reae% on i! o*n a! a %i!inc
re$i&ion *ih i! o*n !acre% e/!( rie!( ru$e! of !ocia$ $ife( )e$ief! an% "racice! *ihou
iner4$in-in& i *ih #o%ern Hin%ui!#. <erha"! i i! ri&h o #ainain ha he Mi#a#!a
!choo$ *hich i! concerne% *ih he inve!i&aion of he Ve%ic e/!( heir correc
iner"reaion an% he #eicu$ou! "erfor#ance of he Ve%ic riua$! an% cere#onie!
+=@
ha!
"re!erve% an% %efen%e% a "art of he heria&e of he Ve%ic ra%iion. The Ve%ana !choo$
a$!o #a' have receive% a "art of he in!"iraion fro# he Ve%a!. For he re! of he
Hin%u "hi$o!o"hica$ !choo$! an% re$i&iou! !ec!( he inf$uence of he Ve%a! i! no#ina$.
Ho*ever( in a! #uch a! e$e#en! fro# he Ve%a! have inf$uence% !o#e a!"ec! of
Hin%ui!#( i #a' )e con!i%ere% a! one of the many fa)tors inf$uencin& #o%ern
Hin%ui!#. .u )' no #ean! can i )e #ainaine% ha Hin%ui!# of o%a' ha! i! %irec
ance!r' in he Ve%ic re$i&ion. Therefore( Hin%ui!# of Ve%ic i#e! i! an imagined
religion. Hin%ui!# of o%a' i! of a #uch $aer ori&in( an% a hi!orica$ vie* of In%ian
re$i&ion! *ou$% en%or!e a %ichoo#' )e*een Ve%ic re$i&ion an% cone#"orar'
Hin%ui!#.
Hin%ui!# %oe! no have a $on& ance!r' a! i! ofen "re!u#e% or "ro"a&ae% )' he
Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue!. In fac( hi!orica$$'( re$i&ion! $i-e .u%%hi!# an% Jaini!# can
c$ai# &reaer ani0ui' han he Hin%ui!# of o%a'
+=9
. ;o#i$a Tha"ar !ae! ha he er#
1Hin%u3 i! ori&ina$$' a &eo&ra"hica$ no#enc$aure. In!cri"ion! of he Achae#eni%
e#"ire refer o he fronier re&ion of he In%u! or Sin%hu a! HiAnB%u!h. I! #ore
co##on occurrence #an' cenurie! $aer i! in Ara)ic e/! *here he er# i! iniia$$'
u!e%( refer! o he inha)ian! of he In%ian !u)coninen( he $an% acro!! he Sin%hu or
In%u! river. A$4Hin% *a!( herefore( a geogra"hi)al identity( an% he Hin%u! *ere a$$ he
"eo"$e *ho $ive% on hi! $an%. Thu!( he er# 1Hin%u3 e!!enia$$' ca#e o #ean 1he
oher3 in he e'e! of he ne* arriva$!. I *a! on$' &ra%ua$$' ha he er# *a! u!e% o
%e!cri)e ho!e *ho "rofe!!e% a re$i&ion oher han I!$a# an% Chri!iani'. I i! a$!o
noe*orh' ha he u!e of he *or% 1Hin%u3 in non4I!$a#ic !ource! i! -no*n "ro)a)$'
on$' fro# he fifeenh cenur' A.D
+=?
. 2era$% Ja#e! Far!on ar&ue! ha he er#
1Hin%u3 )eca#e a er# of a%#ini!raive convenience *hen he ru$er! of Ara)( Tur-i!h(
Af&han an% Mu&ha$ ori&in 8 a$$ Mu!$i#! 8 ha% o %iffereniae )e*een 1he )e$iever!3
an% he re!
+==
.
Hin%ui!# )e&an o a-e a !'!e#aic for# fro# he i#e of A%i San-ara A=
h
cenur'
A.DB. In hi! !en!e( he #a' )e con!i%ere% a! he 1foun%er3 of Hin%ui!#. Ninian S#ar
affir#! ha Hin%ui!# a! *e -no* o%a' i! of recen ori&in. He !ae!: GHin%ui!# %i%
no rea$$' achieve i! !au! a! a coheren( hou&h !i$$ )aff$in&( re$i&iou! co#"$e/ uni$
afer he e!a)$i!h#en of he I.rii!hJ ;a,H
+=>
.
In %i!cu!!in& he Ve%ic re$i&ion i i! a$!o o )e re#e#)ere% ha in he cour!e of
hi!or'( #an' non4Ar'an e$e#en! enere% ino he Ve%ic re$i&ion. The Ve%ic Ar'an!
free$' )orro*e% e$e#en! fro# he cu$ure an% he !ocie' aroun% he#. .u *e canno
!a' *ih "reci!ion( *hich are he non4Ar'an e$e#en! in he Ve%ic re$i&ion. Therefore(
+=@
See DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( ?7.
+=9
See J.KU;UVACHI;A( GHi!orica$ <riori'H( 6:46?.
+=?
See ;.THA<A;( Cultural Pasts( >?=4>?>.
+==
See 2.J.FA;SON( GDi!cour!e a)ou 1;e$i&ion3H( +=6.
+=>
N.SMA;T( G;e$i&ion an% Naiona$i!#H( 5.
+:7
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
he he!i! of he %irec ance!r' of Hin%ui!# of o%a' fro# Ve%ic re$i&ion i! o )e
con!i%ere% a! a #'h "ur"ore% )' Hin%uva.
'. The myth of !induism as a single religion
To%a'( in #an' circ$e!( "eo"$e !"ea- an% *rie a)ou Hin%ui!# a! if i i! a !in&$e
re$i&ion an% $en% i he !au! of a *or$% re$i&ion. Con!e0uen$'( "eo"$e have )e&an o
)e$ieve ha !uch a re$i&ion rea$$' e/i!!. Thu! here are #an' Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! *ho
in!i! ha Hin%ui!# i! a !in&$e re$i&ion( an% heir va! $ieraure %e$i)erae$' "re!en
Hin%ui!# a! he one an% he on$' re$i&ion of he #a,ori' "o"u$aion of In%ia. For
e/a#"$e( ;a# S*aru" c$ai#!: Ghere i! one ;e$i&ion( one <erennia$ <hi$o!o"h'( one
Sanaana Dhar#a( he o$% na#e for Hin%ui!#( IOJ. Differen re$i&ion! an% !ec! ha
co#e an% &o in hi!or' are face! of he !a#e ;e$i&ionH
+>7
.
Ho*ever( here are Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! *ho vi!ua$i!e Hin%ui!# a! a fa#i$' of #an'
re$i&ion!( a$hou&h he' coninue o reain a !in&$e na#e 8 Hin%ui!# 8 o %e!i&nae a$$.
For e/a#"$e( Auro)in%o %e!cri)e! Hin%ui!# a! a re$i&ion *hich i! a$$4inc$u!ive )ecau!e
i a%#i! a$$ )e$ief!( a$$o*in& even ahei!# an% a&no!ici!# an% a$$ "o!!i)$e !"iriua$
e/"erience!
+>+
. Davi% Fra*$e' i! *i$$in& o a%#i ha here are #ore re$i&ion! in!i%e of
Hin%ui!# han ou!i%e of i
+>5
. Then he &oe! on o c$ai# ha Hin%ui!# i! he *or$%3!
$ar&e! "$ura$i!ic ra%iion an% i )e$ieve! in #an' "ah! an% reco&ni!e! #an' na#e!
an% for#! for 2o%( )oh #a!cu$ine an% fe#inine an% conain! #an' !a&e!( #an'
!cri"ure! an% #an' *a'! o -no* 2o%
+>6
. Here( he er# 1Hin%ui!#3( hou&h i
funcion! #ore c$ear$' a! an u#)re$$a er# for #an' )e$ief! an% "racice!( coninue! o
"ro,ec he i%ea ha Hin%ui!# i! a !in&$e re$i&ion.
Unforunae$'( he conce" 1Hin%ui!#3 ha! a$rea%' ac0uire% cerain connoaion! an%
i i! no ea!' for u! o &e ri% of he#. In rea$i'( Hin%ui!# i! no a !in&$e re$i&ion )u a
co$$ecion of #an' re$i&ion!
+>:
. A! Heinrich von Sieencron re#ar-!( Hin%ui!# i! $i-e a
!'nheic "$an ha %oe! no e/i! in naure
+>@
. 2.J.Far!on ar&ue! ha er#! $i-e 1Hin%u
#a,ori'3( 1Hin%u re$i&ion3 an% 1Hin%ui!#3 are $ar&e$' an 1arificia$ cae&ori!aion3
+>9
.
Di$fre% Can*e$$ S#ih o)!erve! ha he er# 1Hin%ui!#3 i! a fa$!e conce"ua$i!aion(
one ha i! con!"icuou!$' inco#"ai)$e *ih an' a%e0uae un%er!an%in& of he re$i&iou!
ou$oo- of Hin%u!( an% he er# refer! no o an eni' )u o a "ro%i&iou!$' varie&ae%
!erie! of fac!
+>?
. The i%ea of con!i%erin& Hin%ui!# a! one re$i&ion i! he creaion of he
Euro"ean!.
Hence i i! a #i!a-e o con!i%er Hin%ui!# a! a !in&$e re$i&ion. Hin%ui!# i! a
co$$ecion of #an' re$i&ion!( *hich are in re$aion *ih each oher( an% a$$ of he# are
+>7
;.SDA;U<( 'n Hinduism( =>.
+>+
See AU;O.INDO( India%s Re&irth( +:9.
+>5
See D.F;ADFEY( Ho( I &e)ame a Hindu( +:.
+>6
See D.F;ADFEY( Ho( I &e)ame a Hindu( ++.
+>:
See H.von STIETENC;ON( GHin%ui!i!che <er!"e-ivenH( 67.
+>@
See H.von STIETENC;ON( GHin%ui!i!che <er!"e-ivenH( 59.
+>9
See 2.J.FA;SON( GDi!cour!e a)ou 1;e$i&ion3H( +=:.
+>?
See D.C.SMITH( GThe Conce" 1Hin%ui!#3H( +>>4577.
+:+
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
foun% in he !a#e &eo&ra"hica$ !"ace. The' have a$!o #an' e$e#en! in co##on *hich
in he cour!e of hi!or' have inf$uence% each oher. Furher( Hin%ui!# %oe! no !"ea- of
one officia$ "o!iion )u many "ositions P *hich are !o#ei#e! #uua$$' conra%icor'.
Thi! i! an a%%e% rea!on o #ainain ha Hin%ui!# i! no one "hi$o!o"h' aroun% *hich
are )ui$ u" variou! "hi$o!o"hica$ o"inion!( )u #an' !e"arae an% in%e"en%en
"hi$o!o"hie!( each *ih heir foun%er!( auhoriaive e/!( %ocrine! an% co##enarie!(
!choo$! an% fo$$o*er!( "ro"a&aor! an% %efen%er!. For e/a#"$e( Hin%ui!# i! co#"$e/
an% "$ura$i!ic in i! conce"ion of he naure of he a)!o$ue( "ah! o $i)eraion( naure
of he $i)erae% !ae( ec. The !i/ "hi$o!o"hica$ !'!e#! AdarsanasB are he c$eare!
e/a#"$e of i. A$$ he !i/ !'!e#! acce" he auhori' of he Ve%a! an% are con!i%ere%
a! !choo$! of Hin%ui!# P *heher he' )e ahei!ic or hei!ic( #oni!ic or %ua$i!ic(
"anhei!ic or "anenhei!ic. Their #ea"h'!ica$ !"ecu$aion! an% e"i!e#o$o&ica$
"o!iion! a$!o %iffer con!i%era)$'. Thu! heir %i!incivene!! an% %ifference!( he %e)ae!
an% he 0uarre$! a#on& he# a$$ hrou&h hi!or'( !ho* ha here are #an' "hi$o!o"hica$
!'!e#! *ihin Hin%ui!#.
;o#i$a Tha"ar o)!erve! ha( i i! no $on& a&o !ince Vai!nava!( Saiva!( Fin&a'a!
an% oher! )e&an o refer he#!e$ve! a! Hin%u! an% uni$ hen he!e ha% #ainaine% heir
#u$i"$e i%eniie!. .u he ae#" o force he# ino unchan&in&( !aic eniie! *ou$%
!ee# o conra%ic he hi!orica$ evi%ence
+>=
. Hi!or' of re$i&ion! in In%ia !ho*! ha
here have )een !eriou! conf$ic!( heo$o&ica$ co#"eiion! an% %e)ae! o a!!er he
!u"eriori' of one re$i&ion over he oher!. Severa$ re$i&ion! have a$!o #a%e e/c$u!ive
c$ai#! o he e/en of %ec$arin& he oher! a! fa$!e an% hereica$. Man' re$i&ion! have
a$!o "ro%uce% !cho$ar$' reai!e! in or%er o affir# heir !e"arae i%eni' an% o
%i!in&ui!h he#!e$ve! fro# oher!. Each of he!e re$i&ion! ha! a$!o heir o*n !e"arae
ra%iion!( %ocrina$ a!"ec!( !acre% !cri"ure!( rie!( fe!iva$!( #'h!( heo$o&ian!( ho$'
"$ace! an% fo$$o*er!. A&ain( *ihin Hin%ui!#( *e can #a-e %i!incion! $i-e 1vi$$a&e
Hin%ui!#3( 1e#"$e Hin%ui!#3( 1%evoiona$ Hin%ui!#3( 1"o"u$ar Hin%ui!#3(
1"hi$o!o"hica$ Hin%ui!#3( 1#i$ian Hin%ui!#3( an% !o forh. The!e rea!on! are
!ufficien o #ainain ha here are #an' in%e"en%en re$i&ion! un%er he na#e
1Hin%ui!#3.
If one can con!i%er Ju%ai!#( Chri!iani' an% I!$a# a! %i!inc re$i&ion!( havin& heir
o*n foun%er!( ho$' )oo-!( rie!( na#e! for he A)!o$ue( ec.( here i! rea!on o con!i%er
he variou! !ec! *ihin Hin%ui!# a$!o a! %i!inc re$i&ion!. For e/a#"$e( Saivi!#(
Vai!hnavi!# an% Sa-i!# can ea!i$' )e con!i%ere% a! %i!inc re$i&ion!. Furher( if *e
u!e he !even %i#en!iona$ ana$'!i! of re$i&ion "ro"oun%e% )' Ninian S#ar( na#e$'( he
riua$( #'hica$( %ocrina$( e/"erienia$( ehica$( !ocia$ an% #aeria$
+>>
( *e *i$$ %i!cover
ha a$$ he!e %i#en!ion! are "re!en in ea)h of he a)ove 1!ec!3 of Hin%ui!#. The
%i!cover' of he!e %i#en!ion! of re$i&ion i! an a%%iiona$ rea!on o con!i%er he# a!
!e"arae re$i&ion!.
Hence *e #a' ar&ue ha he "ro,ecion of Hin%ui!# a! a !in&$e re$i&ion i!
#i!$ea%in&( "heno#eno$o&ica$$'( hi!orica$$'( "hi$o!o"hica$$'( heo$o&ica$$' an%
re$i&iou!$'. Hin%ui!#( a! *e have !een( i! a #i/ of "$ura$iie! an% conra%icion! an% i!
a co##on %e!i&naion for #an' re$i&ion!. Con!e0uen$' i i! one of he #o! %ifficu$
+>=
See ;.THA<A;( Cultural Pasts( >>+.
+>>
See N.SMA;T( +imensions of the Sa)red( +74+5.
+:5
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
re$i&ion! o %efine. Thou&h Hin%ui!# i! &enera$$' con!i%ere% a! a re$i&ion i %oe! no
have c$ear$' %efine% %ocrine!( %o&#a!( )e$ief!( "racice! an% a cenra$ auhori' *hich
Hin%u! in &enera$ are e/"ece% o acce". In fac( hi! ha! $e% !o#e o !"ea- of
Hin%ui!# no a! a re$i&ion )u a! a *a' of $ife
577
E )u hi! i%ea i! a raher ne*
"heno#enon( an% i i! i%eo$o&ica$$' an% "o$iica$$' #oivae% P ,u! a! Hin%uva i!
%e!cri)e% a! 1a *a' of $ife3.
(. The myth of India as a !indu nation from time immemorial
Hin%u naiona$i!# u$i#ae$' ai#! a $i0ui%ain& an' cu$ure ha %oe! no fa$$ *ihin
he "urve' of Hin%ui!#. Savar-ar *roe Hindutva *ih he "re#i!e ha In%ia i! a Hin%u
naion fro# i#e i##e#oria$
57+
an% con!an$' "ro"a&ae% hi! vie* in #an' of hi!
*riin&! an% "u)$ic %i!cour!e!. He !a'!: GDo*n o hi! %a' he *ho$e *or$% -no*! u!
a! 1Hin%u!3 an% our $an% a! 1Hin%u!an3( a! if in fu$fi$#en of he *i!he! of our Ve%ic
faher! *ho *ere he fir! o #a-e ha choiceH
575
. Accor%in& o hi#( no oher naion in
he *or$% can c$ai# !uch an un)ro-en coninui'( e/ce" "erha"! he Chine!e
576
. He
ar&ue! ha in ancien i#e! he Hin%u naion *a! ca$$e% Sa"tasindhu or Sindhu.
Savar-ar !a'!: GThe #o! ancien of he na#e! of our counr' of *hich *e have a
recor% i! Sa"a!in%hu or Sin%uH
57:
. Thi! Sin%hu!an *a! no #ere$' a "iece of $an% )u a
naion an% he )e! naion of he Ar'a!( a! %i!in&ui!he% fro# he mle))hastan or he
$an% of he forei&ner!
57@
. 2o$*a$-ar a$!o "ro"a&ae% he i%ea ha Hin%u! *ere one
naion fro# ancien i#e!
579
an% ha he conce" of a Hin%u naion i! a! o$% a! he
Ve%a!
57?
.
I #u! )e reierae% ha vie*! !uch a! he a)ove are "ro%uc! of imagination *ihou
an' foun%aion in rea$i'. The hi!orica$ fac i! ha here *a! no c$ear "an4Hin%u
cu$ura$ uni' a an' "erio% )efore he In%ian renai!!ance in he +=h an% ear$' +>h
cenurie!. K.M.<ani--ar ri&h$' o)!erve! ha In%ian Naiona$i!# i! an i%ea *hich i! he
ouco#e of he i#"ac of Euro"e. He !a'!: GIIn%ianJ Naiona$i!# i! anoher i%ea *hich
i! he ouco#e of he i#"ac of he De!. IO.J I i! MaLLini *ho "rovi%e% he heor'E i
i! he Iri!h naiona$i!! ha "rovi%e% he echni0ue an% i i! French an% .rii!h
577
See D.F;ADFEY( Ho( I &e)ame a Hindu( ++. Thi! iner"reaion &ive! a ne* *i! o he 0ue!ion
of 1*ha i! Hin%ui!#C3
57+
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( +7. Savar-ar !a'! e$!e*here: GI i! a $ea! !o#e @777 'ear! a&o( o
he Vai%ic IVe%icJ a&e ha he )e&innin& of our Hin%u Naion cou$% )e hi!orica$$' an% un%enia)$' race%.
Our naiona$ ance!or! $ive% an% f$ouri!he% hen on he )an-! of he !even Sin%hu! an% *ere $a'in& he
foun%aion! of a naion ha *a! %e!ine% o &ro* $aer on ino a #i&h' Hin%u NaionH. ID.( Hindu
Sanghatan( :=.
575
V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( +@.
576
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindu Sanghatan( @6.
57:
V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( 67.
57@
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( 65466.
579
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( =5( >?(+@7.
57?
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( *e( @+.
+:6
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
$i)era$i!# in he +>
h
cenur' ha !u!aine% he !"iri of naiona$i!# in In%iaH
57=
. Then he
&oe! on o a%% ha hree facor! have inf$uence% he conce"ion of In%ia a! a naion: aB
he co#)inaion of he ne*$' creae% !e$f4i#a&e hrou&h recon!ruce% hi!or'E )B he
conce" of naiona$i!# a! a mysti/ue uniin& he "eo"$e of a !in&$e errior' ino
!o#ehin& %ifferen fro# he re! of he *or$%E an% cB he %ocrine of he !ae a! he
e#)o%i#en of he "eo"$e. A$$ he!e hree ori&inae% %ue o In%ia3! conac *ih
Euro"e
57>
.
In a )i% o acco##o%ae he non4Hin%u cu$ure! an% re$i&ion! of In%ia !o#e ne* an%
$i)era$ iner"reaion! of Hin%uva have a$!o e#er&e%. To%a' here i! an ae#" o
iner"re Hin%uva !i#"$' a! 1In%ian cu$ure3 or 1a! a *a' of $ife3. .u he!e &o )e'on%
he conce" of Hin%uva "ro"oun%e% )' Savar-ar an% 2o$*a$-ar. For e/a#"$e( !o#e
Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! $i-e F.K.A%vani !"ea- of he fo$$o*er! of I!$a# a! 1Moha##a%i
Hin%u!3( Chri!ian! $ivin& in In%ia a! 1Chri!ian Hin%u!3 an% he Si-h! a! 1Si-h
Hin%u!3
5+7
. A%vani *a! on$' re"eain& *ha he Hin%u Maha!a)ha ha% a$rea%'
%e#an%e% in +>@+. N...Khare of he Hin%u Maha!a)ha %ec$are% in hi! "re!i%enia$
a%%re!!:
The Hin%u Maha!a)ha )e$ieve! in #i$iari!in& Hin%ui!# an% Hin%ui!in& "o$iic!. I !a'( 14o a ste"
further- and Hinduise all foreign faiths# IO.J I can herefore a$!o inc$u%e in i! fo$% he four forei&n8
)orn re$i&ion! *hich are "racice% in In%ia( viL. I!$a#( Chri!iani'( Noroa!riani!# an% Je*i!#. IO.J
They must )all themselves Hindus# The' #u! a$i&n he#!e$ve! *ih he Hin%u &rou" for )eer or for
*or!e( IO.J The' #u! a)!ain fro# co*4-i$$in& an% )eef4 eain&. An% he' #u! re&ar% he 1Ancien
Hi!or' of In%ia3 a! heir o*nE an% re!"ec he heroe! of In%ian hi!or' IO.J In !hor( he!e faih! #u!
no $oo- for heir cu$ure o Ara)ia( Euro"e( <er!ia or <a$e!ine( )u #u! a%o" .harai'a cu$ure(
*hich( in e!!ence( i! no %ifferen fro# Hin%u cu$ure
5++
.
Ofen Hin%uva "erceive! Mu!$i#!( Chri!ian! an% oher non4Hin%u! of In%ia a!
1"ro%i&a$ !on! of Hin%ui!#3 *ho !hou$% reurn o heir ori&ina$ ho#e *hich i!
Hin%ui!#. Hence one of he ai#! of he re4conver!ion AshuddhiB #ove#en or he
cere#on' of 1ho#e co#in&3 Aghar va"asiB i! o c$ai# he non4Hin%u! of In%ian ori&in o
Hin%ui!#. Fa$!e noion! !uch a! he!e are *i%e$' e#"$o'e% )' Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! an%
or&ani!aion! a$$ over In%ia in or%er o in%ocrinae an% confu!e he !i#"$e an% he
i$$ierae "eo"$e.
The "o$iica$ a&en%a of Hin%uva i! o #a-e In%ia a Hin%u naion !o ha i funcion! $i-e a heocraic
Sae *ih he acco#"an'in& %enia$ of re$i&iou! free%o#( fun%a#ena$ ri&h! an% cu$ura$ "$ura$i!#. .u
!uch an ae#" o)viou!$' "au!e! a !eriou! hrea o he cu$ura$ "$ura$i' of In%ia &uaranee% in he In%ian
Con!iuion( )ecau!e Hin%uva in e!!ence a%vocae! a -in% of cu$ura$ naiona$i!# *here he conce" of
Hin%u race( i.e. Hin%u! a! %e!cen%en! of Ar'an!( occu"ie! he cenra$ "$ace an% a$$ oher! are reae% a!
!u)or%inae o he#.
.u he fac a)ou In%ia i! ha P a! <rafu$ .i%*ai ha! ri&h$' o)!erve% P In%ia *a!
never a Hin%u Naion in an' rea$ !en!e. For a)ou 5(777 'ear!( non4Hin%u! have )een
ine&ra$ o *ha i! ca$$e% In%ia P .u%%hi!!( ani#i!!( Jain!( ahei!!( Chri!ian!(
57=
See K.M.<ANIKKA;( GI#"ac of Euro"eH( +7.
57>
See K.M.<ANIKKA;( GI#"ac of Euro"eH( ++
5+7
GA%vani *an! Mu!$i#! o i%enif' *ih 1Hin%uva3H( Times of India( 67 Januar' +>>@ a! cie% in
K.EFST( +e)olonising the Hindu ,ind( :=7.
5++
N...KHA;E( Presidential Address A+>@+B( =4> AE#"ha!i! in he ori&ina$B.
+::
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
a&no!ic!( Mu!$i#!( ance!or or naure *or!hi""er!
5+5
. Kaherine K. Youn& re#in%! u!
ha he e#"eror A!ho-a a$#o! !uccee%e% in #a-in& .u%%hi!# a Sae re$i&ion in he
hir% cenur' ..C
5+6
. Ninian S#ar #ainain! a !i#i$ar vie*. He criici!e! in !ron& er#!
he en%enc' o con!i%er he !or' of In%ia a! he !or' of Hin%ui!#. He affir#!: GFor
one of our #o%ern o"ica$ i$$u!ion! i! o !ee he !or' of In%ia a! )ein& he !or' of
Hin%u!( for&ein& he !o "o*erfu$ effec! of .u%%hi!#( Jaini!# an% oher #ove#en!
%urin& he "erio%! of In%ia3! hi!or'H
5+:
.
There *a! never a "o$iica$ uni' in he In%ian !u)coninen un%er he )anner of
Hinduism P for ha #aer here *a! never a "o$iica$ uni' in he rue !en!e of he
er# a an' i#e in he "a!E In%ia of o%a' *a! a con&$o#eraion of nu#erou! "e'
-in&%o#!
5+@
. I i! !ai% ha here are hree #a,or e"och! in hi!or' *hen In%ia aaine%
!o#e %e&ree of onene!! or a $ea! #ove% o*ar%! a "an4In%ia e#"ire: he i#e of
A!ho-a Ac.5?64569 ..CB
5+9
( A-)ar A+@@94+97@B
5+?
an% he .rii!h( an% none of he!e *a!
Hin%u. There never *a! he #uch4eu$o&i!e% one Hin%u naion fro# i#e i##e#oria$.
In!ea% here *ere nu#erou! in%e"en%en -in&%o#! *ho!e vi!ion of he 1naion3 %i% no
&o )e'on% he )or%er! of heir in%ivi%ua$ -in&%o#!. .e!i%e!( he Hin%u ru$er! ha% no
i#e o "ur!ue he vi!ion of one Hin%u naion for he' *ere oo )u!' *ih *ar! an%
"e' 0uarre$! a#on& he#!e$ve! or )era'in& one anoher o he ene#ie! an% inva%er!.
Hence he heor' ha In%ia *a! a Hin%u naion fro# i#e i##e#oria$ i! a #'h.
). The myth that animists* +uddhists* ,ains and -i.hs are !indus
Koenraa% E$! in hi! )oo- *ho is a Hindu0 Revivalist Vie(s of Animism- uddhism-
Sikhism and 'ther 'ffshoots of Hinduism A5775B( ar&ue! ha he fo$$o*er of Ani#i!#(
.u%%hi!# an% Si-hi!# are Hin%u!
5+=
. There are !cho$ar! *ho in!i! ha he Jain! oo are
Hin%u!. .u he!e c$ai#! can )e cone!e%.
5+5
See <..IDDAI( GA Fon& Hau$ for Secu$ari!!H( +7=4+7>. Suoin& Fa$oo <ra!a% Ya%av( a "ro#inen
"o$iica$ $ea%er of cone#"orar' In%ia( Arun%hai ;o' *rie!: G5aun mai ka lal kehta hai ki yeh Hindu
rashtra hai0 !sko yahan &hej do- )hhati "had doongaRH ADhich #oher3! !on !a'! hi! i! a Hin%u naionC
Sen% hi# here( I3$$ ear hi! che! o"enBH. A. ;OY( GDe#ocrac'H( +65.
5+6
See K.K.YOUN2( GThe In%ian Secu$ar SaeH( 57:.
5+:
N.SMA;T( GAn Ana$'!i! of Hin%ui!#H( +7=.
5+@
K.M.<ani--ar !ae!: GThe "enin!u$a of In%ia ha% never )een un%er a !in&$e !overei&n' a an' i#e
)eforeH. K.M.<ANIKKA;( GI#"ac of Euro"eH( ++
5+9
De are o$%: GA!ho-a( he 2rea Kin& an% Mi!!ionar'( unifie% a &reaer "ar of In%ian erriorie!H.
GA!ho-aH( 5+6. ;o#i$a Tha"ar o"ine! ha( i#"eria$ i%ea foun% e/"re!!ion in In%ia for he fir! i#e
un%er A!ho-a( an% hi! cenra$i!e% i#"eria$ !rucure e#)race% a$#o! he enire !u)coninen. See
;.THA<A;( GA!ho-an In%ia an% he 2u"a A&eH( 6=.
5+?
De rea% a)ou A-)ar: GA-)ar *a! one he &rea I!ic( 1he one &rea3CJ Mu&ha$ ru$er *ho unifie%
In%ia ino a !in&$e "o$iica$ "o*erH. GA-)arH( >:. The NCE;T hi!or' e/)oo- for c$a!! VIII !a'!: GThe
Mu&ha$ e#"ire( IOJ ha% !uccee%e% in uniin& a$#o! he enire counr'H. A.DEV PI.A.DEV( ,odern
India(+@.
5+=
Noice he !u)i$e of E$!3! )oo-. I a$rea%' i#"$ie! ha ani#i!!( .u%%hi!!( an% Si-h! are Hin%u!.
+:@
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
In he fir! "$ace( he ar&u#en i! ne* an% i ca#e ino "ro#inence on$' !ince he
e#er&ence of he Hin%uva i%eo$o&'. Uni$ hen( neiher he .u%%hi!! nor he Jain! nor
he Si-h! nor he ani#i!! *ere a*are ha he' co#e un%er Hin%ui!#. No even he
Hin%u! he#!e$ve! -ne* ha !uch a "o!!i)i$i' e/i!e%( a! he' ha% a$*a'! reae% he#
a! in%e"en%en faih! havin& heir i%eniie! !e"arae fro# Hin%ui!#. For e/a#"$e
Auro)in%o !a'!: 1There *ere a$!o re$i&iou! co##uniie! $i-e he .u%%hi!!( he Jain!(
ec. Each fo$$o*e% i! o*n $a* 8 svadharmaH
5+>
. .u he c$ai# ha ani#i!!( .u%%hi!!(
Jain! an% Si-h! are Hin%u! i! i%eo$o&ica$$' an% "o$iica$$' #oivae%( an% i ha! #uch o
%o *ih Hin%uva3! concern *ih nu#)er! an% voe )an-.
I *a! Savar-ar *ho #ainaine% ha one can )e a rue Hin%u even if he %oe! no
acce" he Ve%a!( a! i! he ca!e *ih he Jain!( Si-h!( .u%%hi!! an% oher!
557
inc$u%in&
he !o4ca$$e% a)ori&ina$ or hi$$ ri)e!
55+
. 2o$*a$-ar a$!o he$% a !i#i$ar vie* an%
con!i%ere% he!e re$i&ion! a! he variou! sam"radays *ihin he Hin%u fo$%. ;eferrin&
o a Vi!hva Hin%u conference he$% a U%u"i in +>9> 2o$*a$-ar !a'!: GA$$ he variou!
sam"radayas I!ec!J in he Hin%u fo$% 8 he Shaiva( Veera!haiva( Ma%h*a( Vai!hnava(
Jaina( .u%%ha an% Si-h 8 *ere re"re!ene% in he conferenceH
555
. Oher Hin%uva
i%eo$o&ue! !oon oo- u" hi! heor' an% &ave i *i%e %iffu!ion. For e/a#"$e( ;a#
S*aru" con!i%er! .u%%hi!# a! Hin%u in i! ori&in an% %eve$o"#en
556
. He !a'!:
G.u%%hi!# for#! an ini#ae "ar of Hin%u con!ciou!ne!!. .u%%ha *a! a Hin%u(
.u%%hi!# i! Hin%u in i! ori&in an% %eve$o"#en( in i! ar( an% archiecure(
icono&ra"h'( $an&ua&e( )e$ief!( "!'cho$o&'( na#e!( no#enc$aure( re$i&iou! vo*! an%
!"iriua$ %i!ci"$ineH
55:
. Sia ;a# 2oe$ affir#!: GThe er# 1Hin%ui!#3 i! u!e% IOJ o
cover a$$ !choo$! of Sanaana Dhar#a 8 .u%%hi!#( Jaini!#( Shaivi!#( Sha-i!# an%
Vai!hnavi!# *hich inc$u%e! he Sana4mata an% Si-hi!#H
55@
. D.N.Sin&h !a'!: GFor%
.u%%ha *a! )orn a Hin%u an% made some )hanges in he Hin%u re$i&ion. He foun%e%
*ha i! no* -no*n a! .u%%hi!#. For% Mahavira a$!o made some amendments in Hin%u
re$i&ion( an% Jaini!# in i! "re!en for# *a! )ornH
559
. Davi% Fra*$e' i! anoher
Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue *ho rea! .u%%hi!#( Jaini!# an% oher re$i&ion! of In%ian ori&in
a! "ar of Hin%ui!#
55?
.
Theoreica$$'( %efiniion of a Hin%u in Savar-ar3! Hindutva A+>56B an% M.S.
2o$*a$-ar3! *e or 'ur nationhood +efined A+>6>B *a! for#u$ae% o !ui he c$ai# ha
he a)ove re$i&ion! are "ar of Hin%ui!# !ince he' have heir Faher$an% A"itru&huB an%
Ho$' $an% A"unya&huB in In%ia. Savar-ar !a'!: GHin%ui!# i! a *or% ha "ro"er$'
!"ea-in& !hou$% )e a""$ie% o a$$ he re$i&iou! )e$ief! ha he %ifferen co##uniie! of
5+>
AU;O.INDO( India%s Re&irth( +?@.
557
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( =+. See a$!o ID.( Hindu Sanghatan( =4>(+67(+:+.
55+
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindu Sanghatan( +67.
555
M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( 6@6.
556
See ;.SDA;U<( 'n Hinduism( 97.
55:
;.SDA;U<( uddhism Vis.6.vis Hinduism( +.
55@
S.;.2OEF( History of Hindu.Christian En)ounters( vii foonoe +.
559
D.N.SIN2H( A Study of Hinduism( ++ AE#"ha!i! a%%e%B.
55?
Fra*$e' !ae!: GSince Hin%ui!# a! Sin%hu Dhar#a refer! o a$$ he re$i&ion! an% "hi$o!o"hie! of
In%ia( i naura$$' inc$u%e! .u%%hi!( Jain an% oher In%ic ra%iion!H. D. F;ADFEY( Ho( I e)ame a
Hindu( +=>. For !i#i$ar i%ea! !ee a$!o ID( Hinduism( =+4=6(=>4>+.
+:9
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
he Hin%u "eo"$e ho$%H
55=
. Sh'a#a <ra!a% Mu-her,ee a$!o #ainaine% a !i#i$ar vie*.
Mu-her,ee !a'!: GThe *or% 1Hin%u3 i! u!e% in he *i%e! !en!e "o!!i)$e( an% inc$u%e!
ever' !on an% ever' %au&her of In%ia *ho re&ar%! hi! $an% a! heir faher$an% an%
"rofe!! a re$i&ion of In%ian ori&in. Fro# hi! "oin of vie* a .u%%hi!( a Jain( a Si-h are
*e$co#e o !an% unie% for he co##on &oo% of he counr'H
55>
.
Ho*ever( he fac i! ha( a$$ he a)ove re$i&ion! are distin)t faiths an% #o! of he#
ca#e ino )ein& a! revo$! a&ain! .rah#ani!# an% i! !"iriua$ an% "hi$o!o"hica$
ra%iion!. Kaherine K. Youn& !a'! ha .u%%hi!# an% Jaini!#( for in!ance( )e&an a!
e/re#e$' criica$ aac-! on Ve%ic re$i&ion an% ca#"ai&ne% a&ain! i an% i! !u)!e0uen
for# a! Hin%ui!# for cenurie!
567
. A.D.Maa# !a'!: GJaini!# *a! he re!u$ of he
reacion a&ain! he riua$i!ic re$i&ion of he .rah#ana! an% he !u"re#ac' of he
.rah#in c$a!!H
56+
E GFi-e Mahavira he Ihe .u%%haJ oo re,ece% he Ve%a!( Ve%ic
!acrifice! an% riua$!H
565
. Orho%o/ Hin%u! $i-e A%i San-ara( Da'anan%a Sara!*ai(
Vive-anan%a an% !o on con!i%ere% .u%%hi!# an% Jaini!# a! arch riva$! of Hin%ui!#
an% %enounce% he# ouri&h in heir *riin&! an% %i!cour!e!. For e/a#"$e( A%i
San-ara3! Vedanta Sutra hasya conain! nu#erou! "a!!a&e! *hich revea$ ha he *a!
ini#ica$ o*ar%! .u%%hi!# an% Jaini!#. A)ou San-ara3! invo$ve#en in he
%i!a""earance of .u%%hi!# fro# In%ia Vive-anan%a !a'!: G.u%%hi!# %e&enerae%( an%
Shan-ara $o""e% i offRH
566
. Cha"er +5 of Da'ana%a Sara!*ai3! Satyartha Prakash( i!
eni$e% 1Ahei!ic Cu$! of In%ia Carvaca!( .u%%hi!# an% Jaini!#3( an% Da'anan%a
en&a&e! in !'!e#aic criici!# an% refuaion of he!e !choo$! of hou&h
56:
.
Vive-anan%a !a'!: G*herever he *en( .u%%ha rie% o "u$$ %o*n ever' o$% hin& !acre%
o he Hin%u! o he %u!( IOJ So %i% he Jain!( *ho $au&he% a he i%ea of 2o%H
56@
E
GEver' "a&e of .u%%hi!# i! a fi&h *ih he Ve%a!HIOJ. .u he ha% no auhori' o %o
!oH
569
E G.u%%hi!# *a! e/re#e$' iconoc$a!icE an% #uch of i! force )ein& !"en in
#ere$' ne&aive ae#"!( i ha% o %ie ou in he $an% of i! )irh( an% *ha re#aine% of
i )eca#e fu$$ of !u"er!iion! an% cere#onia$!( a hun%re% i#e! cru%er han ho!e i *a!
inen%e% o !u""re!!H
56?
.
55=
V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( +7@. He !ai%: GHin%ui!# #u! nece!!ari$' #ean he re$i&ion or he
re$i&ion! ha are "ecu$iar an% naive o hi! $an% an% he!e "eo"$e: I&id.( +7:E G#i$$ion! of our Si-h!(
Jain!( Fin&a'a!( !evera$ Sa#a,ii! an% oher! *ou$% %ee"$' re!en o )e o$% ha he' P *ho!e
faher!3I!icJ faher! u" o he enh &eneraion ha% he )$oo% of Hin%u! in heir vein! P ha% !u%%en$'
cea!e% o )e Hin%uRH I&id.( +79. I i! o )e noe% ha in Savar-ar3! *riin&! he !ae#en ha .u%%hi!!
an% hi$$ ri)e! are Hin%u! i! no ver' fre0uen( e!"ecia$$' if *e co#"are i *ih hi! reference! o he Si-h!
an% he Jain!.
55>
S.<.MUKHE;JEE( A(ake Hindustan( 5. Noe ha here( he !o4ca$$e% 1ani#i!!3 are no inc$u%e% in
he noion of 1Hin%u3.
567
See K.K.YOUN2( GThe In%ian Secu$ar SaeH( 57:.
56+
A.D. MATTAM( Religions( +75.
565
A.D. MATTAM( Religions( +7:.
566
The Com"lete *orks of S(ami Vivekananda( vo$.VI( +57.
56:
See D.SA;ASDATI( Satyartha Prakash( @=+49=+.
56@
The Com"lete *orks of S(ami Vivekananda( vo$.+. 6:=.
569
The Com"lete *orks of S(ami Vivekananda( vo$.VI(+57.
56?
The Com"lete *orks of S(ami Vivekananda( vo$.IV( 659.
+:?
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
Savar-ar a$!o %i% "a!! !o#e har!h ,u%&e#en on he .u%%hi!! !ain& ha !o#e of
he .u%%hi! Vihara! !he$ere% $oo!e( $aL' an% "ro#i!cuou! cro*% of #en an% *o#en
*ho $ive% on oher! an% !"en *ha *a! no heir! on %i!re"ua)$e "ur!ui! of $ife
56=
.
2o$*a$-ar( in !o#e of hi! *riin&!( %oe! no he!iae o ca$$ he .u%%hi!! fanaic! an%
raior! of In%ian cu$ure. He !a'!: GAfer .u%%ha( hi! fo$$o*er! here %e&enerae%. The'
)e&an o u"roo he a&e4o$% naiona$ ra%iion! of hi! $an%. The &rea cu$ura$ virue!
fo!ere% in our !ocie' *ere !ou&h o )e %e#o$i!he%. IOJ he .u%%hi! fanati)s invie%
an% he$"e% he forei&n a&&re!!or! *ho *ore he #a!- of .u%%hi!#. The .u%%hi! !ec
ha% urne% a traitor o he #oher !ocie' an% he #oher re$i&ionH
56>
E Arun Shourie
o"en$' %enounce! ..;.A#)e%-ar( one of he ou!an%in& $ea%er! of he 1unoucha)$e!3
an% a conver o .u%%hi!#
5:7
. .u o%a'( he "ro"onen! of Hin%uva !e$%o# #enion
he!e fac!( a! i can )e e#)arra!!in& o heir i%eo$o&' an% u"!e heir 1nu#)er &a#e3.
The rea!on for Hin%uva c$ai#in& ha 1ani#i!!3 are Hin%u! i! no %ifficu$ o
un%er!an%. So far( he .J<3! e$ecora$ !u""or ha! )een #ain$' fro# i! #i%%$e c$a!!
an% u""er ca!e )a!e( *hich( a! he &enera$ e$ecion! in he counr' have !ho*n
5:+
( i! no
a%e0uae o &ain a #a,ori' in he <ar$ia#en. 2iven ha he #inoriie! an% he $o*er
ca!e! are a$#o! ou of reach( he ri)a$ co##uniie! are a "o!!i)$e !ocia$ &rou" o fi$$
he &a". Dih hi! ai# he San&h <arivar ha! iniiae% !ocia$ an% re$i&iou! *or-! in ri)a$
area! hrou&h a ne*or- of or&ani!aion! -no*n a! Vanva!i Ka$'an Sa#ii!
5:5
.
Savar-ar3! far4reachin& an% inf$uenia$ %efiniion of 1Hin%u3 a! ho!e *ho con!i%er In%ia
a! heir Faher$an% an% Ho$' $an% i! effecive$' u!e% for *innin& over he ri)a$
"o"u$aion!. To%a' in #an' ca!e! he Hin%uva &rou"! are "aroni!in& he Vanava!i!
an% he Da$i! an% "ro#i!in& #an' conce!!ion! o he#( "ri#ari$' for "o$iica$ en%!.
For e/a#"$e( in or%er o #o)i$i!e !u""or of ri)a$! an% Da$i! *ho for# a #a,or voe
)an- in Chai!&arh an% Ma%h'a <ra%e!h *here a!!e#)$' e$ecion! *ere he$% in 5776(
.J< he$% a *o4%a' Da$i Morcha fro# A"ri$ in Mho* AMa%h'a <ra%e!hB( he )irh"$ace
of ..;.A#)e%-ar
5:6
. Thu!( he ri)a$! are *e$co#e% o he Hin%uva fo$% )ecau!e of he
concern *ih nu#)er! an% he "o$iica$ )enefi! accruin& fro# i an% no )ecau!e he'
are -een o en!ure u"*ar% !ocia$ #o)i$i' for he#. 2o$*a$-ar !ai%: GThe Hin%u!
!hou$% no re#ain i&noran of he "oenc' of nu#)er!. IOJ a$$ Hin%u!( o *haever !ec(
ca!e( c$an( or ri)e he' #a' )e$on&( #u! "u %o*n heir co##uni' a! 1Hin%u3
on$'H
5::
.u hi!or' e$$! u! ha( in he ear$' "erio%( here *ere *o #a,or re$i&iou! &rou"!(
na#e$'( .rah#ani!# an% Sra#ani!# *ih fun%a#ena$ %i!incion! )e*een he *o a!
re&ar%! %ocrine!( )e$ief!( riua$!( !ocia$ nor#! an% !acre% e/!. To he for#er )e$on&e%
he *ice )orn u""er ca!e! an% he' acce"e% he Ve%a!E he $aer con!i!e% of
.u%%hi!!( Jain!( A,iva-! an% oher !ec!( *hich %enie% he auhori' of he Ve%a!. Fro#
56=
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( +=.
56>
M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( ?7 AE#"ha!i! a%%e%B.
5:7
See A.SHOU;IE( *orshi"ing 7alse 4ods A+>>?B.
5:+
.J< &enera$ e$ecion re!u$! !o far: +>=:: 5 !ea!E +>=>: =9 !ea!E +>>+:+57 !ea!E +>>9:+95 !ea!E
+>>=: +=+!ea!E +>>>:+=6 !ea!.
5:5
See K.N.<ANIKKA;( GInro%ucionH( /viii4/i/.
5:6
See G.J< o ho$% Da$i MorchaH( 6.
5::
M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( 695.
+:=
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
a "heno#eno$o&ica$ "oin of vie*( *e o)!erve ha( he a%heren! of .u%%hi!#( Jaini!#(
Si-hi!# an% 1ani#i!#3 #ainain heir i%eni' a! !e"arae re$i&ion!( an% are convince%
ha he' do not )e$on& o Hin%ui!#. In a%%iion( i i! a$!o no %ifficu$ o %i!cover ha
each of he!e re$i&ion! ha! i! o*n '"ica$ re$i&iou! e/"erience!( foun%er! Ae/ce"
"erha"! he ani#i!!B( %ocrine!( "racice!( riua$! an% he $i-e( *hich are %i!inc fro#
Hin%ui!#.
Ninian S#ar ar&ue! ha( a! a re$i&ion( .u%%hi!# i! "rior o Hin%ui!#. Accor%in& o
hi#( *ha *e no* -no* a! Hin%ui!# ha% no 'e co#e ino e/i!ence a he i#e of he
.u%%ha in he !i/h cenur' ..C. Hence( i i! #i!$ea%in& o !ee he .u%%hi!! a! a -in%
of )rea-a*a' &rou" fro# Hin%ui!#. .e!i%e!( for a $on& "erio% of In%ian hi!or'( he
force! of .u%%hi!# an% oher #ove#en! !uch a! Jaini!#( $ive% !i%e )' !i%e *ih he
%eve$o"in& re$i&io!i' of he Hin%u ra%iion
5:@
. K.M.<ani--ar re#in%! u! ha he
recover' of he .u%%hi! e/!( #ain$' a! a re!u$ of he *or-! of Euro"ean !cho$ar!
!ho*e% ha he In%ian ra%iion *a! not e8)lusively Hindu( an% ha a riva$ re$i&ion(
na#e$'( .u%%hi!#( ha% f$ouri!he% in In%ia for over a hou!an% 'ear! an% ha%
conri)ue% &rea$' o Hin%u cu$ure
5:9
.
;eferrin& o he !e"arae i%eni' of he Si-h re$i&ion fro# Hin%ui!#( Nonica Daa
ar&ue! ha( hi!orica$$' he Si-h! a$*a'! #ainaine% c$ear %ifference! )e*een heir
re$i&ion an% Hin%ui!#( an% ha he Si-h con!ciou!ne!! invaria)$' fo$$o*e% an
in%e"en%en cour!e of i! o*n
5:?
. The !a#e ar&u#en can )e e/en%e% in favour of
Jaini!#
5:=
an% 1ani#i!#3 an% )oh of he# canno )e con!i%ere% a! !u)4!ec! of
Hin%ui!#.
Hence o rea .u%%hi!#( Jaini!#( Si-hi!# an% 1ani#i!#3 a! "ar of Hin%ui!# i! o
%en' he# heir ina$iena)$e ri&h o #ainain heir o*n re$i&iou! an% cu$ura$ i%eni'.
Ja*ahar$a$ Nehru !a'!: G.u%%hi!# an% Jaini!# *ere cerain$' no Hin%ui!# or even he
Ve%ic %har#a. IOJ A .u%%hi! or Jain in In%ia i! a hun%re% "er cen "ro%uc of In%ian
hou&h an% cu$ure( 'e neiher i! a Hin%u )' faihH
5:>
.
Tri)a$! of In%ia canno a$!o )e con!i%ere% a! Hin%u! )ecau!e he' have heir o*n
%i!inc re$i&iou! i%eni' *ih )e$ief!( "racice!( rie!( !acre% ra%iion!( *hich
%i!in&ui!h he# fro# Hin%ui!#( an% he' have a$$ he characeri!ic! foun% in he
#a,or re$i&ion! of he *or$% P a $ea! in a nu!he$$
5@7
. In #o%ern i#e! in!ea% of he
er# 1ani#i!!3 he' are &enera$$' %e!i&nae% a! 1ra%iiona$ re$i&ion!3. .u i can ha""en
ha un%er he "roce!! of San!-rii!aion( he enire ri)e or "ar of i can &e ine&rae%
i!e$f ino Hin%u re$i&ion or u!e cerain a!"ec! of Hin%u re$i&ion *ihou #uch
ref$ecion( !uch a! rie!( fe!iva$!( #'h!( ru$e! of "uri'( !ocia$ nor#!( ec. The!e facor!
5:@
See N.SMA;T( *orld Philoso"hies( +64+:.
5:9
See K.M.<ANIKKA;( GI#"ac of Euro"eH( 9.
5:?
See N.DATTA( GAre he Si-h! Hin%u!C( +7. Se a$!o GSi-h! are no Hin%u!: TohraH( 9E K.S.NA.HA(
G1De are no Hin%u!3H( :@94:@=.
5:=
See GJain! 2e Minori' Sau! in ;a,a!hanH( @. For a %i!cu!!ion on he !e"arae i%eni' of he
Jain! fro# Hin%ui!# !ee GThe Jain I%eni'H( +?4+>E GFor% Mahavir an% Jain ;e$i&ionH( 5745+E GTene! of
Jaini!#H( 55.
5:>
J.NEH;U( The +is)overy of India( ?@.
5@7
See 2.MA2NANI( Religione e Religioni( :?7.
+:>
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
#a-e i ea!' o con!i%er he# a! "ar of Hin%ui!# P *hich in rea$i' can har%$' )e
,u!ifie%.
.u *h' i! here !uch an in!i!ence on he "ar of Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! ha .u%%hi!!(
Jain!( Si-h! an% ani#i!! are Hin%u!C The an!*er i! o )e !ou&h in he "o$iica$ a&en%a
of Hin%uva *hich ai#! a e!a)$i!hin& a Hindu rashtra AHin%u naionB ou of !ecu$ar
In%ia for *hich 1he nu#)er3 i! a crucia$ facor. De "re!en )e$o* a !ai!ica$ !u%'
carrie% ou )' 2.J.Far!on. He !a'! ha a)ou 56 "er cen of In%ia3! "o"u$aion co#e
un%er he cae&or' of Sche%u$e% Tri)e! ASTB an% Sche%u$e% Ca!e! ASCB. If one
co#)ine! he SC! an% ST! *ih oher 1#inori'3 re$i&iou! co##uniie!( na#e$'(
Mu!$i#! A++.@ "er cenB( Chri!ian! A5.@ "er cenB( Si-h! A5 "er cenB( .u%%hi!!( A7.?@
"er cenB( Jain! A7.@7 "er cenB( an% Oher! A7.@7 "ercenB( one co#e! ver' near a oa$ of
:7 "er cen of In%ia3! "o"u$aion. Thi! !i$$ $eave! !o#e 97 "ercen for he cae&or' of
1Hin%u3 )u of he!e 97 "ercen( only 9: "er )ent con!iue he !o4ca$$e% 1for*ar%
ca!e!3 A.rah#in!( .hu#ihar!. ;a,"u!( Maraha!( Ja!( Vai!h'a .ania!( Ka'a!ha! an%
!o onB( $eavin& :7 "er cen for he un%eer#ine% cae&or' -no*n a! 1Oher .ac-*ar%
C$a!!e!3
5@+
. Far!on3! !u%' revea$!( o !o#e e/en( *h' Hin%uva i! concerne% a)ou
)rin&in& a! #an' re$i&iou! &rou"! a! "o!!i)$e un%er he u#)re$$a of Hin%ui!# P i i!
re$ae% o he !rae&' of i! nu#)er &a#e
5@5
.
A.D.Maa#( ha! cha$$en&e% he c$ai# of he "ro"onen! of Hin%uva ha he
#a,ori' of he "eo"$e in In%ia are Hin%u!. He ar&ue! ha he cen!u! of In%ia inf$ae he
fi&ure! of Hin%u!. The acua$ "ercena&e of Hin%u! #u! )e $e!! han :7 "er cen or !o
of he "o"u$aion of In%ia if !ric crieria are fo$$o*e%
5@6
. Maa# a$!o refer! o
V.T.;a,a!he-ar *ho #a-e! a $i! of ho!e *ho are no Hin%u! or *ere never Hin%u!(
na#e$'( Sche%u$e% ca!e! A57VBE Tri)a$! A+7VB( .ac-*ar% ca!e! A:7VB *hich #a-e! a
oa$ of ?7V of In%ia3! "o"u$aion. Then here are Mu!$i#! A+@VB( Chri!ian! A5.@VB(
Si-h! A5VB *hich a%%! u" o a oa$ of +>.@V. Hence a oa$ of >7V are no 1Hin%u3
5@:
.
Hin%uva i! e!!enia$$' an i%eo$o&' of he Hin%u u""er ca!e!( an% )ein& a #inori'
)' he#!e$ve! he' *i$$ never )e a)$e o o)ain a c$ear #a,ori' in he <ar$ia#en in
or%er o e!a)$i!h a Hin%u naion( an% #uch $e!! o ca$$ Hin%ui!# he re$i&ion of he
#a,ori' "o"u$aion of In%ia. ;ea$i!in& hi!( he a%vocae! of Hin%uva have evo$ve% a
!rae&' *ih a vie* o *in over he Jain!( .u%%hi!!( Si-h!( Sche%u$e% Cae!(
Sche%u$e% Tri)e! an% oher!( un%er he "ree/ ha he' a$$ for# "ar of Hin%ui!#. In
a%%iion( he' a$!o ae#" o re4conver "eo"$e *ho have acce"e% I!$a#( Chri!iani'(
.u%%hi!# an% oher non4Hin%u re$i&ion! )' ar&uin& ha( ori&ina$$' he' *ere a$$
Hin%u! an% ha re4conver!ion o Hin%ui!# i! noin& e$!e )u a 1ho#e4co#in&3. Hence
he enire !rae&' i! i%eo$o&ica$$' an% "o$iica$$' #oivae%( an% i! )a!e% on he 1&a#e
of nu#)er!3. I ha! nohin& o %o *ih heir inenion o a)o$i!h ca!e !'!e# or a$$o*
for &reaer u"*ar% !ocia$ #o)i$i'. I i! in he inere! of he u""er ca!e Hin%u! o have
he!e re$i&iou! &rou"! rec-one% a! Hin%u!.
5@+
See 2.J.FA;SON( GDi!cour!e a)ou 1;e$i&ion3H( +=9.
5@5
See J. KU;UVACHI;A( GThe Nu#)er! 2a#eH( 66469.
5@6
See A.D.MATTAM( Religions( +6@.
5@:
See V.T.;AJASHEKA;( Aggression on Indian Culture( .an&a$ore( +>>?( 6 a! cie% in
A.D.MATTAM( Religions( +69.
+@7
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
1/. The myth of !induism as the most tolerant religion
There i! a *i%e$' "o"u$ari!e% )e$ief ha Hin%ui!# never in%u$&e% in re$i&iou!
"er!ecuion( an% ha i i! he #o! o$eran of a$$ he *or$% re$i&ion!. For e/a#"$e(
Davi% Fra*$e' c$ai#! ha Hin%ui!# i! he !u"er o$eran re$i&ion
5@@
. Savar-ar ca$$!
In%ia he 1$an% of o$eraion3
5@9
. 2o$*a$-ar c$ai#!: GThere ha! never )een IOJ a conf$ic
or ino$erance in our counr' eiher in he "a! or in he "re!enH
5@?
. D.N.Sin&h ar&ue!
ha he !ecre of he !urviva$ of he Hin%u re$i&ion( in !"ie of he #an' inva!ion! i
encounere%( $ie! in i! o$erance of ou!i%er! an% heir )e$ief!
5@=
.
I #u! )e e#"ha!i!e% ha Hin%ui!#3! c$ai# ha i i! 1he #o! o$eran re$i&ion3( 1a
re$i&ion *hich never in%u$&e% in "er!ecuion of oher!3 an% !o on are fa$!e. In Ju$' 5776
he inernaiona$ #ini!eria$ conference on 1Dia$o&ue a#on& Civi$i!aion!3 conc$u%e%
*ih he a%o"ion of a re!o$uion *hich acce"e% 1o$erance a! a fun%a#ena$ va$ue
co##on o a$$ civi$i!aion!3
5@>
. If a re$i&ion conceive! non4vio$ence or $ove a! a
fun%a#ena$ virue( o$erance ha! o )e one of he ha$$#ar-! of ha re$i&ion. The virue
of 1o$erance3 i! i#"$ie% in he eachin&! of "racica$$' a$$ he &rea re$i&ion! of he
*or$%. In In%ia *e have e/a#"$e! of e#"eror! an% naiona$ fi&ure! *ho have )een &rea
#o%e$! of re$i&iou! o$erance: A!ho-a3! o$erance *a! foun%e% on .u%%hi!#( A-)ar3!
on I!$a#( Maha#a 2an%hi3! on Hin%ui!# an% Moher Tere!a3! on Chri!iani'.
Ho*ever( if *e &o )' evi%ence! fro# hi!or'( Hin%ui!# does not %e!erve he honour
of )ein& he #o! o$eran re$i&ion. An%rW .Wei$$e noe! ha in Hin%ui!# he "rinci"$e
of hierarch' c$a!he! *ih ha of o$eraion
597
. Hi!or' e$$! u! ha Hin%ui!# ha! )een
ino$eran o*ar%! ho!e re$i&ion!( cu$ure! an% i%eo$o&ie! ha %i% no a$$o* he#!e$ve!
o )e %o#inae% )' Hin%ui!#. Ofen( for Hin%ui!#( o$erance #ean! conce%in& o he
non4Hin%u! a !u)or%inae ro$e *ihou ri&h! an% "rivi$e&e!. A&ain( o$erance for
Hin%ui!# i#"$ie! a!!i#i$aion( ine&raion an% %o#inaion of he Oher. Thi! a!"ec of
Hin%ui!# i! c$ear$' !ae% )' Auro)in%o. He !a'!: G.u !he IIn%ia( Hin%ui!#J
a!!i#i$ae! on$' *hen her cenra$ ruh i! reco&ni!e% )' he oher "ar'( an% even *hi$e
a!!i#i$ain& !he %oe! i in !uch a *a' ha he e$e#en! a)!or)e% are no $on&er
reco&ni!a)$e a! forei&n )u )eco#e "ar of her!e$fH
59+
. In +>@5( N.C.Chaer,ee( he
"re!i%en of he Hin%u Maha!a)ha a$!o e#"ha!i!e% hi! a!"ec of Hin%ui!#:
The Hun!( he Sc'hian!( he 2ree-! *ere a$$ a)!or)e% ino he &rea Hin%u fo$%. The
&rea Dravi%ian "eo"$e *ere a$!o )rou&h un%er he inf$uence of Hin%u civi$i!aion. So
$on& a! Hin%ui!# *a! a $ivin& or&ani!#( i cou$% )oh a)!or) an% re!i!E i cou$% )oh )e
a&&re!!ive an% a he !a#e i#e i cou$% a!!i#i$ae an% e$evae o hi&her $eve$ he un4
Ar'an or non4Ar'an ri)e! or "eo"$e! *ho# i !he$ere%
595
.
5@@
See D.F;ADFEY( Arise Arjuna( :5.
5@9
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( 59
5@?
M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts- +95.
5@=
See D.N.SIN2H( A Study of Hinduism(++.
5@>
See G1To$erance Co##on o A$$ Civi$i!aion!3H( +5.
597
See A. .XTEIFFE G;e$i&ion an% Socie'H( =.
59+
AU;O.INDO( India%s Re&irth( +??.
595
N.C.CHATTE;JEE( Presidential Address A+>@5B( 6.
+@+
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
Dhen he "ro"onen! of Hin%uva ar&ue ha .u%%hi!#( Jaini!#( Si-hi!# an% ani#i!#
are "ar of Hin%ui!#( i i! an ae#" o a!!i#i$ae an% %o#inae he!e re$i&ion!. <erha"!
in he hi!or' of In%ia( he re$i&ion! ha have re!o$ue$' re!i!e% hi! "roce!! are
Chri!iani' an% I!$a#( an% hi! e/"$ain! o !o#e e/en( he ino$eran aiu%e of he
Hin%u reviva$i!! an% Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! o*ar%! he!e re$i&ion!( an% he rea!on for
)ran%in& he# a! 1forei&n faih!3 an% 1inerna$ hrea!3 o In%ia.
I i! o )e reierae% ha( ahimsa or non4vio$ence )eca#e a nor#aive va$ue of
Hin%ui!# on$' in recen i#e!. I *a! he .u%%hi!! an% he Jain! *ho #a%e hi! virue
foun%aiona$ an% a)!o$ue o heir faih. In fac( he hagavadgita *hich i! acc$ai#e% a!
he 1&o!"e$3 of Hin%ui!# "re!en! a %ifferen eachin& on he #aer. I c$ear$' en%or!e!
he u!e of vio$ence. In #o%ern i#e!( i *a! .a$ 2an&a%har Ti$a- *ho effecive$'
ui$i!e% he eachin&! of he hagavadgita o !u""or hi! e/re#i! vie*!( an% hi! 4ita
Rahasya A1he !ecre of he 4ita%B i! a *ine!! o i. In fac( *e are o$% ha con!i%erin&
he 1%'na#ie ha he 4ita conaine%3 8 a! K.M.<ani--ar "u! i P he .rii!h
&overn#en for a i#e !eriou!$' eneraine% he i%ea of "ro!cri)in& he 4ita
596
.
The hi!or' of .raha#anic ino$erance o*ar%! oher faih! i! $on&. For e/a#"$e( he
Ar'an e#i&ran! *ere ino$eran o*ar%! he in%i&enou! "o"u$aion an% re%uce% he# o
he !au! of he !ervin& c$a!!. Severa$ Hin%u -in&! in he "a! have )een ino$eran. In
fac( u" o he i#e of he 2u"a %'na!'( .u%%hi!# *a! one of he $ea%in& re$i&ion! of
In%ia( *hich a$#o! over!ha%o*e% he Ve%ic re$i&ion an% "uranic Hin%ui!#( an% !o#e
!cho$ar! even c$ai# ha a one i#e .u%%hi!# *a! he #o! "ro#inen re$i&ion of
In%ia
59:
. ;o#i$a Tha"ar re#in%! u! ha( in he !econ% cenur' ..C <u!h'a#ira Sun&a(
he .rah#in ru$er( %i!a""rove% he heero%o/ !ec! an% "er!ecue% he .u%%hi!!
59@
. In
fac he .u%%hi! ra%iion %e!cri)e! <u!h'a#ira a! a crue$ "er!ecuor of .u%%hi!#. He
i! !ai% o have %e!ro'e% #ona!erie! an% -i$$e% he #on-! in he cour!e of hi! #arch o
Sa-a$a ASia$-o in <un,a)B *here he %ec$are% a "rice of one hun%re% &o$% coin! on he
hea% of each #on-
599
.
Driin&! in he !evenh cenur' A.D( Hiuan4T!an& ae!! o he Saivie "er!ecuion of
Sra#anic !ec! in Ka!h#ir
59?
. The hi!orian Ka$hana *riin& in he *e$fh cenur' refer!
o he ear$ier %e!rucion of .u%%hi! #ona!erie! an% -i$$in& of .u%%hi! #on-! )' he
Huna -in& Mihira-u$a *ho "aroni!e% Saivi!#
59=
. Fro# he !evenh cenur' A.D
on*ar%! in Ta#i$ Na%u( he Saiva !ec! aac-e% Jain e!a)$i!h#en! an% even
!uccee%e% in %rivin& ou he sramanas
59>
. In Karnaa-a( he Vira!aiva! or Fin&a'aa!
"er!ecue% he Jaina #on-! an% %e!ro'e% Jaina i#a&e!
5?7
. The .u%%hi!! an% he Jain!
of ancien Kera$a oo e/"erience% "er!ecuion fro# .raha#inic Hin%u! e!"ecia$$' !ince
596
See K.M.<ANIKKA;( GHin%u ;eviva$H( +@.
59:
See A.D.MATTAM( Religions( +7@4+79.
59@
See ;.THA<A;( The Penguin History of Early India( 5+7.
599
See ;.D.MOOKE;JI( GThe Fa$$ of he Ma&a%han E#"ireH( >?.
59?
See ;.THA<A;( Cultural Pasts( >?@.
59=
See ;.THA<A;( Cultural Pasts( >?@. See a$!o ;.C.MAJUMDA;( GThe I#"eria$ Cri!i!H( 6?E
;.2ANDHI( Revenge and Re)on)iliation( 9?.
59>
See ;.THA<A;( Cultural Pasts( >?@. See a$!o GDha ha""ene% o Jain!H( 5@.
5?7
See ;.THA<A;( Cultural Pasts( >?@. See a$!o GDha ha""ene% o Jain!H( 5@459.
+@5
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
he e#er&ence of A%i Sana-ra
5?+
. A.D.Maa# !a'!: GThe %ec$ine of .u%%hi!# an%
Jaini!# in Ta#iLha-a# )e&an )' =
h
cenur' A.D. a! a re!u$ of he vi&orou! "ro"a&an%a
$e% )' #i!!ionarie! $i-e Sri San-arachar'a.The .u%%hi!! an% Jain! i a""ear! *ere
!o#ei#e! !u),ece% o vio$en "er!ecuion a he han%! of he fo$$o*er! of
Hin%ui!#H
5?5
. I i! !ai% ha( on he *ho$e( Saivi!i# *a! #ore "rone o "er!ecuin&
co#"eior! han Vai!navi!#
5?6
.
A%i San-ara *ho "reache% he e8)lusive religion of he A%vaia Ve%ana( *a!
"ri#ari$' re!"on!i)$e for he %i!a""earance of .u%%hi!# fro# he $an% of i! )irh. In
fac( .a$ 2an&a%har Ti$a- #a-e! no !ecre of he fac ha .u%%hi!# an% Jaini!# *ere
overhro*n )' Ku#ari$a .haa an% A%i San-ara
5?:
. The ino$eran -in& Sa!an-a )urn
an% %e!ro'e% he .o%hi4ree a 2a'a a! Hiuan4T!an& he .u%%hi! "i$&ri# fro# China
narrae!
5?@
. In Mani"ur( Norhea! In%ia( *hen he Meihei -in& <a#hei)a A2hari)
Na*aL(+?7>4+?:=B *a! convere% o Hin%ui!#( he #a%e Hin%ui!# he Sae re$i&ion.
An' re$i&iou! %i!!en *a! reae% *ih he !a#e ruh$e!! !everi' a! *a! #ee% ou o
"o$iica$ o""onen!( an% *ho$e!a$e )ani!h#en or e/ecuion force% he "eo"$e ino
acce"in& he ene! of Hin%ui!#
5?9
.
Ca!e !'!e# an% unoucha)i$i' are a$!o e/"re!!ion! of he re$i&iou! ino$erance of
u""er ca!e Hin%u! o*ar%! he $o*er ca!e! an% ouca!e!. In +>6:( *hen he .rii!h
2overn#en *ane% o inro%uce he unoucha)i$i' a)o$iion )i$$( !evera$ Hin%u
or&ani!aion! an% &rou"! o),ece% o i. For e/a#"$e( he Sanaana Dhar#a Sa)ha of
Nainia$ *roe o he 2overnor 2enera$ hu!:
Tha he unoucha)i$i' )i$$ i! a&ain! he "rinci"$e! of he Sanaana Dhar#a an% ani4re$i&iou! an% he
Sa)ha re0ue!! he 2overnor42enera$4in4Counci$ no o a$$o* i o "a!! ino $a* a! i inerfere! *ih
Hin%u re$i&ion. IO.J Sanaana Dhar#a i! Eerna$ Fa* herefore hi! Sa)ha re0ue!! he 2overn#en
ha i! re$i&ion( cu!o#!( *a'! of $ife en,oine% )' i! fo$$o*er! fro# i#e i##e#oria$ #a' )e
"re!erve%
5??
.
The #an' %i!cri#inaor' $a*!( e!"ecia$$' ho!e i#"o!e% )' The $a(s of ,anu
a&ain! *o#en are a$!o #ar-! of Hin%u ino$erance. A)ou he $a*! of Manu i ha! )een
!ai%: Ghe ,anu.smrti i! o%a' e/ecrae% )' he $o*er ca!e!( *ho re&ar% i virua$$' a! a
)$ue"rin of )rah#in %o#inaion( a f$a&ran "iece of )rah#anica$ i#"o!ureH
5?=
. In oher
*or%!( he $on& ra%iion of o$erance of #an' 1cri#e! a&ain! hu#ani'3 an% vio$aion
of hu#an ri&h! *ihin Hin%ui!# i! i!e$f a !"ecie! of ino$erance. In !"ie of a$$ hi!(
"ara%o/ica$$'( S*a#i Vive-anan%a !ae!: Gin In%ia here never *a! an' re$i&iou!
5?+
See a$!o GDha ha""ene% o Jain!H( 56459. See a$!o ;.2ANDHI( Revenge and Re)on)iliation( 9@4
9?.
5?5
A.D.MATTAM( Religions( >74>+.
5?6
See ;.THA<A;( Cultural Pasts( >?9.
5?:
See ..2.TIFAK( The 'rion- +. See a$!o GDha ha""ene% o Jain!H( 5645:.
5?@
See ;. DE SMET(. GSaivi!#H( 6+:.
5?9
See T.C.HODSON( The ,eitheis( >@.
5??
G;e!"on!e of Sanaana Dhar#a Sa)haH( :6+4:65.
5?=
..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( 5>.
+@6
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
"er!ecuion )' he Hin%u!H
5?>
. He !a'! furher: G.efore he Moha##e%an *ave ca#e
ino In%ia( i *a! never -no*n *ha re$i&iou! "er!ecuion *a!H
5=7
. Auro)in%o c$ai#!
ha Hin%ui!# i! he #o! o$eran an% rece"ive of a$$ re$i&iou! !'!e#!
5=+
.
Da'anan%a Sara!*ai in hi! conrover!ia$ *or- Satyartha Prakash c$ear$'
%e#on!rae% hi! ino$erance o*ar%! a$$ non4Hin%u re$i&ion! an% "hi$o!o"hie! in he
criici!# he $eve$$e% a&ain! he Carvaca!( .u%%hi!!( Jain!
5=5
( Mu!$i#!
5=6
an%
Chri!ian!
5=:
. Thi! *or-( even o%a'( re#ain! a! a nooriou! 1#a!er"iece3 an% e!a#en
of Hin%u ino$erance. Savar-ar( )e!i%e! "ro,ecin& Chri!iani'( Ju%ai!#( Noroa!riani!#
a! forei&n re$i&ion!( "re!ene% he Mu!$i#! a! he &reae! ene#ie! of Hin%ui!# an% of
he Hin%u naion. He ofen u!e% !uch e"ihe! a! 1Mu!$i# &oon%a!3 an% 1Mu!$i#
hoo$i&an!
5=@
in hi! *riin&! an% !"eeche!. In +>:@ ..S.Moon,e *roe o Maha#a
2an%hi ha he ha% no choice )u o re,ec he $aer3! non4vio$ence )ecau!e he Hin%u
Maha!a)ha *a! for 1vio$ence or&ani!e% an% %i!ci"$ine% on #o%ern !cienific $ine!3 a!
o""o!e% o he )harka A!"innin& *hee$B )ecau!e 1i e#a!cu$ae! #an$ine!!3
5=9
. In +>@5(
%urin& he "re!i%enia$ a%%re!! of he Hin%u Maha!a)ha N.C.Chaer,ee !ae%: GDe
#u! #a-e Hin%ui!# a&&re!!ive an% #i$ianH
5=?
. He *en on o a%%: GS*a#i
Vive-anan%a "reache% a&&re!!ive Hin%ui!#. He *ane% u! o #a-e our faih
a&&re!!ive( no on$' inernaiona$$'( )' !en%in& ou #i!!ionarie!E )u a$!o !ocia$$'( )'
!e$f4i#"rove#enH
5==
. For 2o$*a$-ar( Mu!$i#!( Chri!ian! an% Co##uni!! are inerna$
hrea! o In%ia
5=>
an% .u%%hi!! are ene#ie! of Hin%u cu$ure
5>7
.
Arun Shourie i! anoher Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue *ho ha! #anife!e% hi! ino$erance
o*ar%! he #inori' re$i&ion! an% !ecu$ar i%eo$o&ie! of In%ia in hi! nu#erou! *riin&!.
Hi! #ain ar&e! are he Chri!ian!( Mu!$i#!( Co##uni!!( Da$i!( an% he !ecu$ari!! in
&enera$
5>+
. Hin%uva *rier! $i-e ;a# S*aru"( Sia ;a# 2oe$( $ea%er! of Hin%uva
or&ani!aion! $i-e 2irira, Ki!hore( K.S.Su%ar!han( <ravin To&a%ia( A!ho- Sin&ha$( .a$
Thac-era'( "o$iica$ $ea%er! $i-e F.K. A%vani( Mur$i Manohar Jo!hi( A...Va,"a'ee( U#a
.harai( Naren%ra Mo%i an% !o on are a$!o !o#e of he ou!an%in& 1ino$eran face!3 of
cone#"orar' Hin%ui!#.
5?>
The Com"lete *orks of S(ami Vivekananda( vo$.+( 6>+.
5=7
The Com"lete *orks of S(ami Vivekananda( vo$.+( 6:=.
5=+
See AU;O.INDO( India%s Re&irth( +:6.
5=5
For Da'anan%a3! criici!# of he Carvaca!( .u%%hi!# an% Jain! !ee D. SA;ASDATI( Satyartha
Prakash cha"er QII.
5=6
See D.SA;ASDATI( Satyartha Prakash cha"er QIV.
5=:
See D.SA;ASDATI( Satyartha Prakash cha"er QIII.
5=@
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindu Sanghatan( +7:(++6E ID. Histori) Statements- 6(>(+6(5+(9@.
5=9
See Moon,e <a"er!( NMMF A#!!.!ecionB( $eer of +7 Se"e#)er +>:@( a! cie% in C.JAFF;EFOT(
The Hindu nationalist ,ovement( :9 foonoe +@5.
5=?
N.C.CHATTE;JEE( Presidential Address( A+>@5B( :.
5==
N.C.CHATTE;JEE( Presidential Address( A+>@5B( :.
5=>
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( +??457+.
5>7
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( ?7.
5>+
See for in!ance hi! The 'nly 7atherland A+>>+B( A Se)ular Agenda A+>>6B( ,issionaries in India
A+>>:B( The *orld of 7at(as A+>>@B( *orshi""ing 7alse 4ods A+>>?B( Harvesting our Souls A5777B.
+@:
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
Dhen Naren%ra Mo%i he Chief Mini!er of 2u,ara vi!ie% En&$an% in Au&u! 5776
!o#e of he "roe!er! in Fon%on carrie% "o!er! *ih !uch ca"ion! a!: 1Naren%ra Mo%i
he )ucher of 2u,ara3( 1Mr.Mo%i 'ou are #ur%erer no frien% of 2u,ara3( 1Arre! an%
,ai$ Mo%i3( ec
5>5
. The 4uardian "$ace% Mo%i in he ra%iion of Hi$er an% Mi$o!evic an%
carrie% a i$e 1He i! )$a#e% for he %eah of 5(777 Mu!$i#! in In%ia. So *h' i! hi! #an
in De#)$e'C3
5>6
. In A"ri$ 577: in a Su"re#e Cour ver%ic he ,u%&e! %e!cri)e% Mo%i
one of he #o%ern4%a' Nero!
5>:
. So#e have even !u&&e!e% ha Mo%i !hou$% !ee a
"!'chiari! for he !ee#! o )e #ena$$' i$$
5>@
. In !"ie of hi!( !o#e of he .J< $ea%er!
"ro,ece% Naren%ra Mo%i a! a "o!!i)$e can%i%ae o !uccee% he for#er <ri#e Mini!er
A...Va,"a'ee an% *i%e$' u!e% hi# for he "ar'3! e$ecion ca#"ai&n!. To hi! $i! one
can a%% he nu#erou! Hin%uva or&ani!aion! ha "rofe!! ino$erance o*ar%! non4
Hin%u! an% !ecu$ar i%eo$o&ie! $i-e he ;SS( VH<( .J<( Shiv Sena( .a,ran Da$ an% he
San&h <arivar a! a *ho$e.
Hi!or' ha! recor%e% #an' in!ance! of .u%%hi!#( Jaini!#( Chri!iani'( I!$a# an%
ri)a$ re$i&ion! re!i!in& Hin%u %o#inaion. Ye( .u%%hi!#( *hich *a! once a "o*erfu$
re$i&ion in In%ia( !uccu#)e% o he co#)ine% aac-! of Hin%u re$i&iou! $ea%er! an%
Hin%u ru$er!. Thi! e/"$ain! o a &rea e/en he rea!on for he 1%i!a""earance3 of
.u%%hi!# fro# In%ia. Hin%uva i! no* *a&in& a !i#i$ar )a$e a&ain! Chri!iani'(
I!$a# an% !ecu$ar i%eo$o&ie!( an% i %oe! no #a-e !ecre of i! o),ecive of o)$ierain&
he# fro# In%ia( !o ha he Hin%uva "$an of e!a)$i!hin& a Hin%u naion )eco#e! a
rea$i'.
The .rah#anica$ i%eo$o&' of 1!*a$$o*in& u"3 oher re$i&ion! i! a$!o a !i&n of Hin%u
ino$erance. A$rea%' in #an' Hin%uva *riin&!( .u%%hi!!( Jain!( Si-h! an% 1ani#i!!3
are %ec$are% a! Hin%u!. Even he $e&a$ !'!e# of In%ia !u""or! i. In fac( $e&a$$'
.u%%hi!( Jaina an% Si-h re$i&iou! &rou"! are con!i%ere% Hin%u
5>9
. In cerain Hin%uva
circ$e! he ae#"! a a!!i#i$aion of he 1Oher3 con!i!! in na#in& he In%ian
Chri!ian! a! 1Hin%u4Chri!ian!3 an% In%ian Mu!$i#! a! 1Moha##a%i'a Hin%u!3. There
i! a$!o a a$- of creain& a Chri!ian hierarch' conro$$e% )' he Hin%uva &overn#en
afer he #o%e$ of he Chine!e Church. I #a' a$!o )e reca$$e% ha in Souh In%ia( he
Chri!ian! *ere "er!ecue% an% S.Tho#a! he A"o!$e *a! -i$$e% )' he .rah#in! in ?5
AD
5>?
. A$$ he!e fac! cha$$en&e he c$ai# of Hin%ui!# ca$$in& i!e$f a o$eran re$i&ion.
The %e#o$iion of he .a)ri #o!0ue a A'o%h'a )' he Hin%u karsevaks A+>>5B
5>=
( he
)urnin& a$ive of 2raha# Saine! an% hi! *o #inor !on! in Ori!!a A+>>>B an% he
nu#erou! oher inci%en! of aac-! a&ain! he Chri!ian co##uni' an% he "o!
2o%hra even! of 2u,ara a&ain! he Mu!$i# co##uni' A5775B rai!e !eriou! 0ue!ion!
a&ain! Hin%u o$erance. So#e i#e a&o( he VH< $ea%er <ravin To&a%ia ca$$e% he
5>5
See M.2.KHAN( GUK Mu!$i#! <roe!H( 6.
5>6
See S.SU;I( GNo* De Dai for he Fi&hH( 65.
5>:
See G;io ;eria$H( +.
5>@
See GMo%i !hou$% See a <!'chiari!H( ?.
5>9
See <.D.MATHED Constitution of India( aric$e 5@.
5>?
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld- vo$. I( 56=. I i! a$!o !ai%: GThe enviou! .rah#in!( *ho ha% )een
%i!cre%ie% )efore he -in& )' he virue of S Tho#a! *en o -i$$ hi#H. A.M.MUNDADAN( History of
Christianity( vo$.+( :@.
5>=
See A.K.SAHAY Ae%.B( The Re"u&li) esmir)hed ; +e)em&er 9<<= An.%B.
+@@
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
Mu!$i# #a%ra!a! ahei! !e#inarie! ha hae 2o%
5>>
. The ;SS chief K.S.Su%ar!han
"u)$ic$' !ae% in Na&"ur ha he Je!ui! have )een -no*n for heir vio$en( a&&re!!ive
an% e/c$u!ivi! re$i&iou! )e$ief!. Hence he ur&e% he "re!en In%ian <re!i%en A.<.J
A)%u$ Ka$a# o %e!i! fro# aen%in& he inau&uraion of he !i/h Dor$% Con&re!! of
he Je!ui A$u#ni( in Ko$-oa on 5+ Januar' 5776
677
. Su%har!han !ai%: GI i! our
con!i%ere% o"inion ha fanaica$ re$i&iou! &rou"! $i-e he Je!ui! !hou$% no )e a$$o*e%
o &ain $e&ii#ac' in hi! $an% uni$ he' c$arif' heir "o!iion on "$ura$i!# an% re!"ec
for oher re$i&ion!H
67+
.
To he a)ove( *e #a' a%% he a&&re!!ive re4conver!ion aciviie! carrie% ou )' he
Hin%uva acivi!! an% or&ani!aion! in #an' "ar! of In%ia( he "a!!in& of he !o4ca$$e%
1Free%o# of ;e$i&ion3 .i$$ in !o#e of he Sae! *hich %enie! "eo"$e heir ri&h o
free%o# of con!cience( he !e$ecive ine$$ecua$ aac-! on Co##uni!! an% oher
!ecu$ari!!( he innu#era)$e *a'! in *hich he #inoriie! in In%ia are #a$i&ne% an%
"er!ecue% an% !o on are a$!o e/a#"$e! of Hin%u ino$erance. Here he o)!ervaion of
Ku!h*an Sin&h i! "erinen. He !a'!: GThe' )urn )oo-! he' %i% no $i-eE he' )ea u"
,ourna$i!! *ho *roe a&ain! he#E he' aac-e% cine#a hou!e! !ho*in& fi$#! he' %i%
no a""rove ofE he' !#a!he% he e0ui"#en of fi$#4#a-er! rea%' o !hoo fi$# !cri"!
c$eare% )' he &overn#enE he' van%a$i!e% he !u%io an% "ainin&! of In%ia3! $ea%in&
ari! IOJE he' "ervere% e/! fro# hi!or' )oo-! o #a-e he# confor# o heir
i%ea!H
675
.
On 59 March 577: 7rontline re"ore% !o#e of he *riin&! foun% on he *a$$! in
Ori!!a. The' rea%:
GHan& ho!e *ho are r'in& o conver "eo"$e fro# Hin%ui!#H
GA*a-enin& of Hin%ui!# i! he a*a-enin& of he counr'H
G.e*are R Conver!ion *i$$ no )e o$erae% in he $an% of Ja&annahH
G.e*areR Tho!e *ho are converin& are ani4naiona$!H
GSo" conver!ion. Our !acre% %u' i! o "re!erve Hin%ui!#H
676
.
A&ain in Ori!!a on +7 Fe)ruar' 577: !i/ Da$i Chri!ian *o#en an% he "a!or of he
vi$$a&e *ere %ra&&e% ou of heir ho#e! )' oher re!i%en! an% "u)$ic$' on!ure%. A!
he' !have% heir hea%! he' -e" aunin& he# !a'in&: 1Ca$$ 'our Je!u! no*. He *i$$
co#e an% !ave 'ou3
67:
. A Chri!ian 'ouh of he vi$$a&e !a'!: GMo! of u! fee$ !care% o
#ove a)ou a$one. An' i#e *e can )e aac-e% for our re$i&ionH
67@
.
In he face a$$ he!e an% #an' oher fac!( he ar&u#en ha Hin%ui!# i! he #o!
o$eran re$i&ion !an%! *ihou foun%aion. I #a' )e reca$$e% here ha( hou&h he
"re!ence of Chri!iani' in In%ia %ae! )ac- o he 'ear @5 A.D( an% I!$a# o he ei&hh
cenur' AD( )oh he!e re$i&ion! are !i$$ con!i%ere% a! forei&n faih! )' Hin%uva. In
5>>
See <.TO2ADIA( GHin%uva S'#)o$i!e! Har#on'H( >.
677
See GJe!ui! !hou$% no )e a$$o*e%H( :.
67+
GJe!ui! !hou$% no )e A$$o*e%H( :.
675
K. SIN2H( The End of India( +=4+>.
676
GSaffroni!in& he Tri)a$ Hear$an%H( 5:.
67:
See GSaffroni!in& he Tri)a$ Hear$an%H( 59.
67@
GSaffroni!in& he Tri)a$ Hear$an%H( 59.
+@9
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
#an' Hin%uva *riin&! Ju%ai!# an% Noroa!riani!#( in !"ie of heir "re!ence in In%ia
fro# ancien i#e!( are a$!o reae% a! forei&n re$i&ion!. Such an aiu%e a$!o !#ac-! of
he ino$erance of Hin%ui!#.
;a,#ohan 2an%hi o)!erve! in hi! )oo- Revenge and Re)on)iliation ha reven&e an%
reconci$iaion i! a &ran% !*ee" of In%ian hi!or'. I! fun%a#ena$ "re#i!e i! ha In%ia3!
"a!( far fro# )ein& o$eran an% "acific( !u&&e!! a hi!or' an% coninuin& cu$ure of
!e$in& !core!
679
. Arvin% Shar#a o)!erve! ha( Hin%ui!# en%! o )e o$eran of
%ocrine! an% "racice! *ihin i !o ha i can )e ca$$e% internal toleran)e. .u
Hin%ui!# en%! o e/ra"o$ae hi! inerna$ o$erance *hen i co#e! in conac *ih
oher re$i&ion!
67?
. Thu!( i i! c$ear ha he #uch aine% noion of Hin%u o$erance i! in
rea$i' a #'h
67=
.
11. The myth of taboo on co0 slaughter in Vedic times
The a)oo on co* !$au&her i! one of he "i$$ar! of he Hin%uva i%eo$o&'. In he "a!(
!evera$ fui$e ae#"! have )een #a%e )' "ro"onen! of Hin%uva o "a!! a $a* o )an
he !$au&her of co*! a he naiona$ $eve$. In Au&u! 5776 an ae#" *a! #a%e o
inro%uce in "ar$ia#en a )i$$ eni$e% 1<revenion of Crue$' o Co*! .i$$ 57763.
Inere!in&$'( he )i$$ covere% a$!o a )an on )u$$! an% )u$$oc-!. The )i$$ *a! inen%e% o
"reven crue$' o co*! an% heir "ro&en'. He ca$$e% for a )an on he e/"or of co*! an%
"rohi)iion of !a$e of )eef. I *ane% o #a-e cau!in& in,ur' o or -i$$in& of co* a
co&ni!a)$e an% non4)ai$a)$e offence. I a$!o !ae% ha an'one *ho -i$$! or a)e! in he
-i$$in& of a co* !ha$$ )e a*ar%e% ri&orou! i#"ri!on#en for a er# ha #a' no )e $e!!
han *o 'ear! an% #a' e/en% u" o !even 'ear! an% "a' a fine u" o ;! +7(777 on each
co*. For cau!in& in,ur' o a co* a "er!on *ou$% )e $ia)$e o "a' a fine u" o ;! @(777.
.u criic! of he )i$$ ar&ue% ha here *a! an o)viou! co##una$ !$an o he )i$$ *hich
*a! a rea!!erion of Hin%uva "o$iic! of he .J<. In fac !o#e !ron&$' !u!"ece% ha i
*a! a&ain! cerain co##uniie!
67>
.
To%a' 4au Seva i! con!i%ere% a! one of he &reae! *or-! of chari' an% hu&e fun%!
are !e a!i%e )' !o#e Sae! for he *e$fare of co*!( for e/a#"$e Ma%h'a <ra%e!h
6+7
. In
he NCE;T !choo$ e/)oo- for C$a!! VI *e rea%: GA#on& he ani#a$! he co* *a!
&iven he #o! i#"oran an% !acre% "$ace. In,urin& or -i$$in& of co* *a! "rohi)ie% in
he Ve%ic "erio%. The co* *a! ca$$e% A&hn'a Ano o )e -i$$e% or in,ure%B. Ve%a!
"re!cri)e "uni!h#en for in,urin& or -i$$in& co* )' e/"u$!ion fro# he -in&%o# or )'
%eah "ena$'( a! he ca!e #a' )eH
6++
. Accor%in& o 2o$*a$-ar( co* !$au&her in In%ia
)e&an *ih forei&n %o#inaion. The Mu!$i#! !are% i an% he .rii!her! coninue% i
6+5
.
679
See ;.2ANDHI( Revenge and Re)on)iliation A+>>>BE A.MAFIK( GFoo- )ac- in An&erH( ?6.
67?
See A. SHA;MA( GOn To$erain& he Ino$eranH( 67.
67=
See J.KU;UVACHI;A( GHo* To$eran i! Hin%ui!#CH( 6646>.
67>
See T.K.;AJAFAKSHMI( G<o$iic! of Co* S$au&herH( 5?45=.
6+7
GM.<. Enforce! .an on Co* S$au&herH( 6.
6++
..S.<A;AKH Ae%.B( India and the *orld( =>.
6+5
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( :>9.
+@?
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
The heor' ha in Ve%ic i#e! here *a! no co* !$au&her i! hi!orica$$' inaccurae.
A$hou&h co* *a! revere% an% reae% a! !acre%( )eef *a! offere% a! foo% o &ue!! an%
"er!on! of hi&h !au!
6+6
. .e!i%e!( in ancien i#e! non4vio$ence AahimsaB *a! cenra$
focu! of Jaini!# an% .u%%hi!# an% no of oher re$i&iou! !ec!( an% !acrifice of ani#a$!
*a! e!!enia$ o he Ve%ic re$i&ion
6+:
. ;o#i$a Tha"ar o)!erve! ha o %en'( for e/a#"$e(
ha on cerain occa!ion! he Ar'an! ae )eef an% %ran- a$coho$ i! o %en' he evi%ence
of )oh $ierar' an% archaeo$o&ica$ !ource!
6+@
. Accor%in& o Kun-u# ;o'( he c$ai# ha
in,urin& or -i$$in& of co* *a! "rohi)ie% an% he Ve%a! "re!cri)e "uni!h#en for
in,urin& or -i$$in& co* )' e/"u$!ion #a' no )e accurae. The Ve%ic e/ A*hich )' he
%efiniion of he NCE;T e/)oo- inc$u%e! he Ve%a( .rah#ana!( Aran'a-a! an%
U"ani!ha%!B are no "re!cri"ive. Hence( he' %o no #enion "uni!h#en for vio$aion!
of nor#!. Thi! *a! inro%uce% #uch $aer in he shastri) $ieraure. In a%%iion( here are
"$en' of archaeo$o&ica$ evi%ence fro# a nu#)er of !ie!( inc$u%in& Ha!iana"ura( o
!u&&e! ha ca$e *ere !$au&here% for #ea in ancien In%ia
6+9
. ..Da$-er !a'!: GThe
co* i! !"o-en of in he Rig.Veda a! aghnya( 1no4!$a'a)$e3( )u hi! "rohi)iion *a!
chief$' %irece% a&ain! he -i$$in& of he #i$ch4co*( an% %i% no "rec$u%e he !$au&her
of )u$$! an% co*! for a varie' of re$i&iou! an% co##una$ rea!on!H
6+?
.
Con!u#"ion of )eef *a! c$ear$' "reva$en a#on& he Ve%ic Ar'an!. K.N.<ani--ar
ar&ue! ha he !cho$ar!hi" on he !u),ec of Ar'an! eain& )eef i! a)un%an P )oh
$ierar' an% archaeo$o&ica$ 8 an% i ha! )een conc$u!ive$' !ho*n ha )eef *a! "ar of
he foo% of he Ar'an!( "aricu$ar$' on riua$ occa!ion! an% *hen enerainin& i#"oran
&ue!!
6+=
. .. Da$-er o)!erve!: GSevera$ Ve%ic !acrifice! %e#an%e% he !$au&her of )u$$!(
afer *hich a "iece of he f$e!h *a! eaen )' he !acrificer. .eef in ho!e %a'! for#e%
"ar of he re&u$ar %ie of he Hin%u( rishis A!a&e!B an% .rah#in! e/c$u%e%H
6+>
.
Co* #ea ca#e o )e "rohi)ie% )ecau!e ca$e "rovi%e% )oh $a)our an% feri$iLer(
)e!i%e! #i$-( in an a&ricu$ura$ !ocie'. ;iua$ reco&niion of he co* a! a ho$' ani#a$
)e&an !"rea%in& %urin& he 9
h
cenur' ..C. un%er he inf$uence of Jaini!#. Ho*ever( i
*a! on$' in he )rah#anica$ "erio% in he ear$' cenurie! of he "re!en era ha he
*or!hi" of he co* oo- on he a!"ec! of a )a!ic )e$ief in Hin%ui!#
657
. So#e !cho$ar!
even !a' ha *hen Hin%ui!# !ou&h inerna$ reinforce#en! in he *a-e of he Mu&ha$
inva!ion( he co* )eca#e a !'#)o$ of re$i&iou! an% cu$ura$ !e$f4a!!erion. To%a'( a! an
i!!ue( co*4"roecion i! !ron& #ain$' in norhern In%ia( an% hi! i! one of he rea!on!
for con!i%erin& ha "ar of In%ia a! he 1co* )e$3
65+
.
6+6
See ;.THA<A;( The Penguin History of Early India( ++@.
6+:
See ;.THA<A;( Cultural Pasts( =9=.
6+@
See ;.THA<A;( Communalism and the *riting of An)ient Indian History( +5.
6+9
See K.;OY( GDha Ha""ene% o Confuciani!#CH( 9>.
6+?
..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.I( 5@@.
6+=
See K.N.<ANIKKA;( GInro%ucionH( ///ii noe +:. For !i#i$ar i%ea! !ee a$!o K.M. <ANIKKA;(
GI#"ac of Euro"eH( 9.
6+>
..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.I( 5@@. For !i#i$ar i%ea! !ee a$!o V.MAN2AFDADI( ,issionary
Cons"ira)y( +57.
657
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.I( 5@9.
65+
See T.J.S.2EO;2E( The En/uire +i)tionary( :+>. See a$!o D.N.Jha3! revie* of he )oo- )'
Dhar#a"a$ an% T.M.Mu-un%an eni$e% The ritish 'rigin of Co( Slaughter in India. Here( Jha
+@=
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
12. The myth that proselytisation is alien to !induism
Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! ofen ar&ue ha Hin%ui!# i! he on$' re$i&ion in he *or$% ha
%oe! no en&a&e in "ro!e$'i!aion. 2o$*a$-ar !a'!: GOur re$i&iou! #i!!ionarie! *ho
reache% %i!an $an%! in ancien i#e! %i% no force heir re$i&ion on oher "eo"$eH
655
.
<.Venu&o"a$ *rie! in he ;SS *ee-$' 'rganiser: GHin%u re$i&ion IOJ %oe! no )e$ieve
in conver!ion or &o o oher counrie! o #ar-e heir re$i&ion. Hin%ui!# %oe! no
"reach conver!ion. Hin%ui!# i! he on$' re$i&ion in he *or$% ha %oe! no &o for
conver!ionH
656
.
.u he a)ove c$ai# i! far fro# rue. In +>@5( N.C.Chaer,ee he hen "re!i%en of he
Hin%u Maha!a)ha !ae%: GThere i! no &reaer hi!orica$ ruh han ha he Hin%u
re$i&ion ha% )een a "ro!e$'i!in& re$i&ionH
65:
. In +>9:( N.N..aner,ee "re!i%en of he
!a#e or&ani!aion !ai%: GThe Hin%u In%ia in her &$oriou! %a'! u!e% o !en% her co$oni!!
an% #i!!ionarie! o <e&u( Sia#( Co#)o%ia( China( Ti)e( Ja"an( .orneo( S'ria( E&'"(
2reece an% ;o#eH
65@
. In he +>9@ revi!e% con!iuion of he Hin%u Maha!a)ha *e rea%
he fo$$o*in& a#on& i! ai#!( o),ecive! an% ru$e!: GTo e!a)$i!h cu$ura$ conac!( an%
cohe!ion *ih he Hin%u! a)roa% an% o inen!if' Hin%u Mi!!ionar' *or- a$$ over he
*or$%H
659
. A&ain( in +>99 N.N. .aner,ee 8 o *ho# *e have a$rea%' #a%e reference P
e/hore% he Hin%u! !a'in&: GDe #u! rain in I!icJ hou!an%! of ener&eic an%
ine$$i&en 'oun& #en an% *o#en an% !en% he# a$$ over he *or$% a! ra%er!( eacher!(
echno$o&i!!( ouri!! ec. *ho !hou$% )e our 1e/"er!3 on forei&n counrie!H
65?
E GDe
nee% Hin%u #i!!ionarie!( o *or- in he!e area! IA!!a#( NEFA( .ihar( Ma%h'a
<ra%e!h( Kera$a an% oher "ar! of In%iaJ. To rain he!e #i!!ionarie!( o #ainain heir
fa#i$ie! A)ecau!e #o! of he# #a' no )e !an'a!in!B an% hen in re#oe area!( o o"en
an% run "ro"er$' !choo$!( ho!"ia$! ec. in he!e area!( hu&e fun%! are re0uire%H
65=
.
Hin%ui!# i! un%ou)e%$' en&a&e% in he conver!ion of Chri!ian!( Mu!$i#!(
.u%%hi!!( ri)a$! an% oher!. The on$' %ifference i! ha he' ca$$ i )' %ifferen na#e!(
!uch a!( shuddhi A1"urificaion3B( ghar va"asi A1ho#e co#in&3B( 1"aravartan A1urnin&
)ac-3B( 1rec$a#aion3( ec. For e/a#"$e( on 5> Fe)ruar' 577: in .a&h"ura vi$$a&e of
;a,a!han 9@7 Chri!ian ri)a$ "eo"$e *ere 1re4convere%3 o Hin%ui!# hrou&h he
1ho#e co#in&3 cere#on'. The' *ere !"rin-$e% *ih 2an&e! *aer an% &iven an ',
in!cri)e% $oc-e an% ca$en%ar! an% #a%e o a-e a "$e%&e in he na#e of Maharana
convincin&$' ar&ue! a&ain! he *o auhor! ha co* -i$$in& *a! a fac in ancien i#e!. See Seminar @55(
Fe)ruar' 5776( =?. See a$!o J.KU;UVACHI;A( GOn Co* S$au&herH( =.
655
M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts-+=>.
656
<.VENU2O<AF( GDh' Ani4Conver!ion Fa* nee%e%4 IIH( >.
65:
N.C.CHATTE;JEE( Presidential Address A+>@5B( 6.
65@
N.N..ANE;JEE( Presidential Address A+>9:B( =.
659
Hindu ,ahasa&ha Constitution A+>9@B( ar :( !ecion +6. .
65?
N.N..ANE;JEE( The 4olden 2u&ilee Session A+>99B( 66.
65=
N.N..ANE;JEE( The 4olden 2u&ilee Session A+>99B( 6?46=.
+@>
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
<raa"
65>
. The "hi$o!o"h' )ehin% a$$ he!e aciviie! i! ha a Hin%u convere% o anoher
re$i&ion i! no on$' a frien% $o! )u a$!o an ene#' an% a raior creae%
667
.
Su)$e for#! of a!!i#i$aion of oher cu$ure! ino Hin%ui!# i! a$!o a #eho% of
"ro!e$'i!aion. Thi! "roce!! i! ofen -no*n a! 1!an!-rii!aion3. To%a'( "racica$$' a$$
over In%ia( Hin%u #i!!ionarie! an% he San&h <arivar vo$uneer! *or- a#on& he
i$$ierae an% he i&noran ri)a$! an% he !o4ca$$e% $o*4ca!e!( in or%er o !an!-rii!e
he# an% hu! a)!or) he# ino Hin%ui!#. In fac( #an' ;SS4affi$iae% or&ani!aion!
are *or-in& in ri)a$ area! *ih he !a#e inenion. The Vanavasi 5alyan Ashram
aciviie! i! a '"ica$ e/"re!!ion of i. For in!ance( )e*een A"ri$ +64+@ 5776( in he
na#e of "ro#oin& cu$ura$ ra%iion of Norhea!ern Sae! of In%ia( Sanskar harati
or&ani!e% a funcion in 2u*ahai( A!!a#( o ce$e)rae he A!!a#e!e ne* 'ear 8 ;an&a$i
.ihu 8 un%er he i$e 1Our Cu$ure 8 Our i%eni'3
66+
. Fro# +64+@ Dece#)er 5775( a
conference for "re!ervaion of he cu$ure an% ra%iion! of he ri)e! in he Norhea!
*a! he$% in 2u*ahai( A!!a#( in *hich 5:@ re"re!enaive! fro# :? ri)e! coverin& a$$
he !even Norhea!ern Sae! an% Si--i# *ere "re!en
665
. In Januar' 5776 a Vanavasi
Sangamam *a! or&ani!e% in Manana*a%i( Kera$a
666
. The Vanavasi 5alyan Ashram an%
he Hem"hu ,ukrang Amei ,oin$' or&ani!e% a Hindu Aikya Sammelen in Kar)i
An&$on& %i!ric( A!!a#( for he Kra)i! an% Vanava!i! in *hich over :@(777 "eo"$e are
!ai% o have "arici"ae%
66:
. A&ain( in!"ire% )' he "ro"onen! of Hin%uva( a hu&e
&aherin& of Kha!i4Jainia 'ouh *ho fo$$o* heir ra%iiona$ re$i&ion *a! he$% a
Ma*!'nra# vi$$a&e in Me&ha$a'a )e*een +=457 A"ri$ 5776
66@
. Ho*ever( i #u! )e
reierae% ha he %ifference in he $a)e$! u!e% )' Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! %oe! no chan&e
he !u),ec #aer. In fac( he !o4ca$$e% 1"urificaion3( 1rec$a#aion3( 1ho#e co#in&3
1!an!-rii!aion3( 1"re!ervaion of ri)a$ cu$ure3 an% !o on are !u)!iue a&! for *ha i!
&enera$$' ca$$e% 1re$i&iou! conver!ion3 )' oher!. Su#i Sar-ar. a $ea%in& hi!orian(
ar&ue! ha fro# he $ae nineeenh cenur' on*ar%!( Hin%ui!# %eve$o"e% a *ho$e
)aer' of er#! P rec$a#aion( "urificaion( re4conver!ion( ho#eco#in&( urnin& )ac-
ec P a! i! e/"an!ion %irece% o*ar%! #ar&ina$ &rou"! an% ri)a$! )eca#e #ore
or&ani!e%. Co##on o a$$ he!e $a)e$! i! an in!i!ence ha a$$ ha i! )ein& ae#"e% i!
o )rin& "eo"$e )ac- o heir 1naura$3 !ae( *hich for a$$ he ar&ee% &rou"! i! a$*a'!
a!!u#e% o )e )ein& Hin%u
669
.
Su#i Sar-ar a$!o "o!e! !o#e "erinen 0ue!ion! o he Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! *ho
c$ai# ha Hin%ui!# %oe! no "ro!e$'i!e. I i! &enera$$' acce"e% ha one can )eco#e a
Hin%u )' )irh a$one( !ince ca!e i! crucia$ o Hin%ui!#( an% accor%in& o he $a*! of
Manu one3! ca!e !au! i! here%iar'. Ho*ever( Sar-ar a!-!( for in!ance( *here %i% a$$
65>
GSaffronin& he Tri)a$ Hear$an%H( 55.
667
See V.<..HATIA GA Fi$# Focu! on I!$a#ic Conver!ion!H( +6.
66+
See GOur Cu$ure 8 Our i%eni'H( 57.1
665
See GEar$' So$uionH( @.
666
See GEar$' So$uionH( @.
66:
See GCo#)ain& <ro!e$'i!er!H( +>.
66@
See G2ro*in& Unie%H( 57.
669
See S.SA;KA;( GHin%uva an% he Sue!ion of Conver!ion!H( =+.
+97
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
he .u%%hi!! of ancien In%ia &oC Ho* %i% Hin%u icon! an% #'h! !"i$$ over ino $ar&e
"ar! of Souh Ea! A!iaC
66?
.
En&a&e#en in %irec conver!ion aciviie! i! a$!o "ar of he a&en%a of Hin%ui!#. In
fac hi!or' i! re"$ee *ih #an' !uch in!ance!. In ancien i#e!( here *a! #uch
#o)i$i' of he In%ian! a! ra%er!( #erchan! an% co$onia$i!!( an% ofen he' *ere
acco#"anie% )' #i!!ionarie! of .rah#anic re$i&ion. Thu!( he .rah#anica$ re$i&ion
*en fro# In%ia o Ma$a' <enin!u$a( Ca#)o%ia( Anna#( Su#ara( Java( .a$i an%
.orneo an% !o on an% f$ouri!he% in he!e re&ion!. There i! a$!o #uch hi!orica$ %aa
a)ou he !"rea% of !"ecific varieie! of Hin%u ra%iion!( $i-e for in!ance( Chaian'a
&hakti fro# cenra$ an% *e!ern .en&a$ ino Ori!!a an% he u"$an%! of Jhar-han%.
66=
.
The Aho#! of A!!a# *ere convere% o Hin%ui!# %urin& he rei&n of ;u%ra Sin&ha
A+9>94+?+:B hrou&h he "ro!e$'i!in& en&a&e#en! of .rah#in! fro# De! .en&a$. I
i! !ae%: GThe re$i&iou! $ea%er! re!"on!i)$e for he i#"or of he Hin%u rie! an% riua$!
Io Ka#aru"aJ *ere he .rah#in!H
66>
. Man' of ;u%ra Sin&ha3! "re%ece!!or! ha% a-en
Hin%u a! *e$$ a! Aho# na#e!( an% ha% !ho*n &rea re!"ec for he .rah#in!. .u
;u%ra Sin&h *a! he fir! o announce "u)$ic$' hi! inenion o )eco#e a %i!ci"$e of a
Hin%u .rah#in
6:7
. .u *e are a$!o o$%: GThe chan&e *a! %i!a!rou!: i invo$ve% he $o!!
of he o$% #aria$ !"iri an% "ri%e of race *ih *hich Aho#! ha% i$$ hen )een ani#ae%E
heir "arioic fee$in&! henceforh )eca#e #ore an% #ore !u)or%inae% o !ecarian
ani#o!iie! an% inerna$ %i!!en!ion! an% inri&ue!( an% heir "o*er !oon )e&an o
%eca'H
6:+
.
The Meihei! of Mani"ur )eca#e Hin%u! %ue o he $ar&e !ca$e "reachin& aciviie! of
Hin%u #i!!ionarie!. A)ou he 'ear +?+? -in& <a#hei)a A2hari) Na*aLB acce"e%
Vai!hnavi!# fro# 2uru 2o"a$ Da!. He a$!o #a%e Hin%ui!# he Sae re$i&ion. Since
hen $ar&e !ca$e "reachin& of he ne* faih *a! carrie% ou )' a!ceic!( "i$&ri#! an%
.rah#in! *ho arrive% here in $ar&e nu#)er!. A cerain Shana Da! fro# S'$he
re#aine% a he cour a! a ro'a$ &ue! an% %irece% he "ro!e$'i!aion aciviie!
6:5
. The
Tri"uri! a$!o ha% heir ri)a$ re$i&ion #o%ifie% )' Hin%ui!#. In Tri"ura *e fin% #an'
ri)e! inf$uence% )' Hin%ui!#. An over*he$#in& #a,ori' a#on& he i#"oran ri)e!
!uch a!( he Tri"uri!( ;ean&!( Ja#aia!( Noaia!( Ha$a#! an% !o on are o a$$ inen! an%
"ur"o!e! Hin%u
6:6
.
Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! c$ear$' each ha i i! nece!!ar' o "ro!e$'i!e( an% i i! "ar of
heir effor o #a-e Hin%ui!# a univer!a$ re$i&ion. Savar-ar !a'!: GThe Hin%u! a$!o
#u! coninue o reconver he Chri!ian! an% carr' on he Shu%%hi #ove#enH
6::
.
2o$*a$-ar !"o-e of he Hin%u! a! a 1&rea "eo"$e char&e% *ih a Dor$% Mi!!ion *hich
ha! he %u' of )rin&in& ho#e o he enire hu#ani' he !u)$i#e ruh! e#)e%%e% in
66?
See S.SA;KA;( GHin%uva an% he Sue!ion of Conver!ion!H( =+.
66=
See S.SA;KA;( GHin%uva an% he Sue!ion of Conver!ion!H( ==4=>.
66>
H.K .A;<UJA;I Ae%.B( The Com"rehensive History of Assam( vo$. +( 67@4679.
6:7
See Im"erial 4a>etteer of India Provin)ial Series Eastern engal and Assam- 6:.
6:+
Im"erial 4a>etteer of India Provin)ial Series Eastern engal and Assam- 6@.
6:5
See 2.KA.U( History of ,ani"ur( vo$. +( 5@545@6.
6:6
See S.N.2(THAKU;TA( Tri"ura( :64::.
6::
V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindu Sanghatan( >+.
+9+
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
Hin%u dharma
6:@
. D.Fra*$e' affir#! ha Hin%u! !hou$% creae e%ucaiona$ #ove#en!
a$$ over he *or$% "ro#oin& Yo&a( Ve%ana( A'urve%a( J'oi!h( San!-ri( In%ian #u!ic(
an% a$$ a!"ec! of he cu$ure of Hin%ui!#
6:9
. Hin%uva or&ani!aion! $i-e he ;SS( VH<(
San&h <arivar have #an' fu$$i#e #i!!ionarie! *ho are en&a&e% in conver!ion
aciviie! e!"ecia$$' a#on& he ri)a$!. There are in!ance! of heir u!in& ever' %evice
"o!!i)$e( inc$u%in& force( frau% an% in%uce#en!. Davi% Fra*$e' in hi! "reface o hi!
)oo- Ho( I &e)ame a Hindu !ae! ha he "ur"o!e of hi! *riin& he )oo- i! ha oher!
#a' a$!o )e in!"ire% o a-e a !i#i$ar "ah
6:?
. Ever'one -no*! ha Mar&are No)$e a$ia!
Si!er Nive%ia *a! convere% o Hin%ui!# )' S*a#i Vive-anan%a. ;o#ain ;o$$an%
*rie! ha Mar&are No)$e *a! *en'4ei&h 'ear! o$% *hen !he #a%e u" her #in% o
"$ace her fae in S*a#i3! han%. He #a%e her co#e o In%ia( force% her o )eco#e a
Hin%u( o Hin%ui!e her hou&h!( her conce"ion!( her ha)i! an% o for&e even he
#e#or' of her o*n "a!. She oo- he vo* of &rahma)harya Ace$i)ac'B
6:=
.
Man' of he Hin%u or&ani!aion! an% gurus in he De!ern counie! are en&a&e% in
"ro!e$'i!aion aciviie! an% he' con!i%er he noion ha Hin%ui!# %oe! no
"ro!e$'i!e a! !o#ehin& oa$$' ri%icu$ou! an% a Chri!ian con!"irac' a&ain! he#
6:>
.
To%a'( "erha"! he Inernaiona$ Socie' for Kri!hna Con!ciou!ne!! AI.S.K.CONB i! he
)e! !'#)o$ of Hin%ui!# en&a&e% in "ro!e$'i!aion in he De!. The I.S.K.CON i! an
a&&re!!ive$' "ro!e$'i!in& Hin%u or&ani!aion an% i! ver' #uch acive in he USA(
Euro"e an% oher coninen!. For e/a#"$e( he I.S.K.CON reache% Ia$' in +>?6 an% i
ha! cenre! in !uch ciie! a!( A!i( .ari( .er&a#o( .o$o&na( F$orence( Mi$an( Na"$e!(
<a%ova( <a$er#o( ;o#e( Siena( Turin( VicenLa( ec. I e#"$o'! #an' creaive
echni0ue! o "ro!e$'i!e( !uch a!( o"en "reachin& e!"ecia$$' hrou&h *ha he' ca$$
1Cenri %i <re%ica3( !i&nin& an% %ancin& in "u)$ic !0uare!( !a$e an% %i!ri)uion of )oo-!
an% )oo-$e! Aofen freeB ha e/"$ici$' %ea$ *ih heir !ocie'( he ce$e)raion of he !o4
ca$$e% $a 1Fe!a %e$$a Do#enica3 Arece"ion of he "u)$ic on Sun%a'! in or%er o
inro%uce he "eo"$e o he hou&h an% !'$e of $ife of he Hare Kri!hna Move#enB(
1free3 inviaion o ve&earian #ea$!( ce$e)raion of he 1Maraona %i Naa$e3 Aa "erio% in
*hich a$$ he Hare Kri!hna cenre! en&a&e in %i!ri)uion an% !a$e of )oo-! an% )oo-$e!
on he #ove#enB( ce$e)raion of 1Fe!iva$ %e$$3In%ia3( or&ani!aion of Rath Yatras( u!e
of e$ecronic #e%ia e!"ecia$$' he 1;a%io Kri!hna Cenra$e3( a!!i&nin& o %evoee! area!
of )oh counr'!i%e an% ciie! A!ree!( rai$*a' !aion!( in%u!ria$ Lone!( )eache!( ecB
an% oher "$ace! *here he' can fin% "ro!"ecive conver!
6@7
.
Su)$e for#! of "ro!e$'i!aion &oe! on a$!o hrou&h #an' oher Hin%u4affi$iae%
or&ani!aion!. For e/a#"$e( he Ananda ,arga a!!ociaion i! acive in a)ou +57
counrie! of he *or$%( e!"ecia$$' in he counie! of Souh4Ea! A!ia( Euro"e( Norh
A#erica( Souh A#erica( ec. In Ia$' he' have cenre! in Verona( Trevi!o( Treno(
.o$Lano( .o$o&na( Mi$an( <ar#a( Ca!a$#a&&iore( <i!a( .ari( Neuno( Vi)o Va$enia(
6:@
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts( 6:=.
6:9
See D.F;ADFEY( Hinduism the Eternal Religion( 56?.
6:?
See D.F;ADFEY( Ho( I &e)ame a Hindu( ?.
6:=
See ;.;OFFAND( The $ife of Vivekananda and the !niversal 4os"el( >6.
6:>
See Hinduism Today Oco)er +>=?( = a! cie% in J.F.MAYE;( GUna rina!cia %e$$3OrieneH( 5?=.
6@7
See C..A;TOFI( GSoria( <rofi$i e Mena$iK %e$$a I.S.K.CONH( +@+(+@64+@=. See a$!o
V.MAN2AFDADI( The *orld of 4urus( 9?4=9.
+95
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
ec. The' re&u$ar$' ho$% !'#"o!iu#!( !e#inar!( roun% a)$e conference!( ran!$aion!
an% "u)$icaion of heir $ieraure( !ocia$ an% hu#aniarian aciviie! an% e%ucaion. In
!o#e counrie! he' have ie4u"! *ih he &overn#en or&ani!aion! $i-e he hea$h
#ini!r' an% he #ini!r' for "u)$ic in!rucion
6@+
.
The Se$f ;ea$i!aion Fe$$o*!hi" AS;FB foun%e% in Ca$ifornia in +>57 i! no* "re!en
in := counie! of he *or$%. In Ia$' i!e$f i ha! !o#e +7(777 re&i!ere% #e#)er! an% i
run! 5> #e%iaion cenre!. I! fa#ou! cenre! in Ia$' are foun% in 2enova( Mi$an(
<a%ova( ;o#e( <a$er#o an% Turin. I %iffu!e! i! #e!!a&e hrou&h he "u)$icaion of
)oo-!( !a$e of au%ioca!!ee!( hu#aniarian aciviie!( "ra'er &rou"!( "erio%ic
or&ani!aion of conference!( !e#inar!( ec. There i! a$!o a for#a$ iniiaion cere#on' for
ho!e *ho *i!h o ,oin he or&ani!aion
6@5
.
Sanatana +harma Samgha *a! officia$$' reco&ni!e% in Ia$' a! $%!nione Induista
Italiana in +>>9. Curren$' i i! en&a&e% in a varie' of aciviie!( !uch a!( eachin& of
Yo&a( A'urve%a( or&ani!aion of conference!( con&re!!e!( !e#inar!( %e)ae!(
"u)$icaion!( ec. on Hin%u re$i&ion an% In%ian cu$ure
6@6
. The Sai .a)a #ove#en ha!
!o#e 97 cenre! in Ia$' a$one *ih hou!an%! of acive #e#)er!
6@:
.
Durin& he 2$o)a$ Dhar#a Conference he$% in Ne* Jer!e'( USA( in Ju$' 5776( Mur$i
Manohar Jo!hi( he for#er Union Hu#an ;e!ource Deve$o"#en AH;DB Mini!er o$%
he In%ian A#erican! o ui$i!e heir heria&e fro# he Ea! an% resour)es from the *est
o !ho* a ne* "ah o he *or$%
6@@
Dha Jo!hi acua$$' inen%e% )' hi! !ae#en i!
ever')o%'3! &ue!!. Then here are Yo&a an% Tran!cen%ena$ Me%iaion cenre!( he
;a#a-ri!hna Move#en( co##uniie! of .ra#a-u#ari!( Auro)in%o cenre!( ;a,ne!h
A!hra#!( an% he $i-e *hich a$!o carr' ou "ro!e$'i!aion in !u)$e *a'!. In !hor(
o%a' he Hin%u #i!!ionarie! are "racica$$' a$$ over he *or$%( an% heir "re!ence i!
e!"ecia$$' noice% in Norh A#erica an% Euro"e
6@9
Ku!h*an Sin&h re#ar-!: GHin%u
!avan! $i-e S*a#i Vive-anan%a( Sri Auro)in%o( Ji%%u Kri!hna#uri( S*a#i
<ra)hu"a%a( O!ho I;a,nee!hJ an% he !a%hu! of he ;a#a-i!hna Mi!!ion oo- he
#e!!a&e of Hin%ui!# a)roa%( )ui$ e#"$e! an% #a%e #an' conver! o Hin%ui!#H
6@?
.
Ye( "ara%o/ica$$'( Hin%ui!# c$ai#! ha i %oe! no "ro!e$'i!e. .u( a! *e have !een(
fac! "rove oher*i!e.
13. The myth of Indian culture as synonymous 0ith !indu culture
6@+
See 2.MASSEFFA( GAnan%a Mar&aH( +7:4+7@.
6@5
See Si!er NAMITA( GFa Self.Reali>ation 7ello(shi" %i Yo&anan%aH( 5+@(5+?45+=.
6@6
See S.H.2I;I( GUnione In%ui!a Ia$ianaH( 56?456=.
6@:
See I.;OSATI 8 S.SO;CE 8 ;.SATO;I( GI$ Movi#eno %i Sai .a)aH( +6?.
6@@
See S.CHA;I( GIn%ian A#erican!H( +74++.
6@9
For a )rief accoun of he aciviie! of !o#e of he Hin%u gurus an% or&ani!aion! in Norh A#erica
!ee T.A.TDEED 8 S.<;OTHE;O( Asian Religions in Ameri)a# 5:+4597E for heir en&a&e#en7 in he
Euro"ean counrie! !ee M.INT;OVI2NE 8 J.F.MAYE; Ae%!.B( $%Euro"a delle 3uove Religioni( +@4+>7(
See a$!o V.MAN2AFDADI( The *orld of 4urus A+>>>B.
6@?
See K.SIN2H( The End of India( +@.
+96
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
There i! a !ron& en%enc' in Hin%uva o a""ro"riae he enire cu$ura$ "a! of In%ia
for i!e$f an% o %ec$are i a! Hin%u. The e$ecronic #e%ia( "a#"h$e!( ,ourna$i!ic
*riin&! an% "u)$ic %i!cour!e! are u!e% o %i!!e#inae hi! i%ea. Thu!( c$ai#! are #a%e
ha In%u! Va$$e' civi$i!aion *a! Ar'an Aherefore Hin%uB( #e%ieva$ #onu#en! $i-e
he Ta, Maha$( Sua) Minar an% ;e% For are Hin%u )ui$%in&!
6@=
. Savar-ar( *ih he
inenion of "ro"a&ain& hi! conce" of In%ia a! a Hin%u naion ar&ue% ha In%ian
cu$ure i! Hin%u cu$ure fro# i#e i##e#oria$
6@>
. 2o$*a$-ar *a! a$!o never ire% of
!ain& ha In%ia i! one counr'( one "eo"$e( an% one naion
697
P o)viou!$' Hin%u
69+
.
For hi#( an In%ian *ho i! no a Hin%u i! eiher a &ue! or an inva%er. For 2o$*a$-ar he
Je*! an% he <ar!i! are &ue!! an% he Mu!$i#! an% he Chri!ian! are inva%er!
695
. The
NCE;T !choo$ e/)oo- on Ancien In%ia "ro,ec! he In%ian civi$i!aion a! havin& i!
!o$e founainhea% in he 1Ve%ic civi$i!aion3 !o ha he' %i!a$$o* an' arni!hin& of he
.rah#anca$ !'!e#
696
. .u i i! oo naYve o hin- ha %i!ci"$inin& he #e#orie! of
'ouh hrou&h !affroni!e% e%ucaion %oe! no affec he e/ure of In%ia in he fuure. In
fac( criici!# of he cour ver%ic in favour of inro%ucin& he NCE;T !choo$ e/)oo-!
ha! )een "un&en. <rafu$ .i%*ai !a'!: GThe ver%ic ha! #a,or i#"$icaion! for he
;i&h! of he Chi$% o un)ia!e% infor#aion( an% for he i!!ue of o$erance an% re!"ec
for %ifference in In%ia3! "$ura$( #u$i4cu$ura$( #u$i4re$i&iou! !ocie'. I rai!e! a
fun%a#ena$ 0ue!ion: %o *e *an our chi$%ren o )e au&h a viciou!$' "re,u%ice%
ver!ion of hi!or' *hich "rivi$e&e! In%ia3! 1Hin%u "a!3 *hi$e )erain& i! 1non4Hin%u3
"erio%!CH
69:

Accor%in& o Hin%uva *rier!( Rig Veda an% ;i&ve%ic San!-ri are fu$$' in%i&enou!
o In%ia an% c$a!!ica$ San!-ri i! a %irec %e!cen%en of ;i&ve%ic or Ve%ic San!-ri.
Hence neiher he "roo nor he evo$ve% San!-ri can )e ca$$e% an In%o4Euro"ean
$an&ua&e. Furher( San!-ri *en De! o he$" evo$ve De!ern an% In%o4Euro"ean
$an&ua&e! of o%a'
69@
. Accor%in& o S.<.Mu-her,ee( *haever i! of a)i%in& va$ue in
In%ian cu$ure i! "re!erve% in San!-ri
699
. For Arun Shourie( San!-ri *a! he one a$$4
In%ia $an&ua&e an% .rah#in! *ere he one a$$4In%ia ca!e. The' *ere a$!o he &rou"
*hich "re!erve% he cu$ura$ e$e#en! of In%ia
69?
. So#e even &o o he e/en of #a-in&
he au%aciou! c$ai# ha he *ho$e *or$% fro# he )e&innin& of i#e u" o he ri!e of
Chri!iani' !"o-e San!-ri an% fo$$o*e% he Ve%ic *a' of $ife
69=
.
6@=
See K.N.<ANIKKA;( GInro%ucionH( /ii.
6@>
See V.D.SAVA;KA;( Hindutva( +7.
697
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts- 559( 55=#
69+
2o$*a$-ar !a'!: GThe fac i! ha he hi!or' of .hara i! one $on& Hin%u <erio%( !o#ei#e! in a free
an% &$oriou! con%iion an% !o#ei#e! !ru&&$in& *ih he forei&n inva%er! in he cau!e of naiona$
free%o# an% honourH. M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts- +694+6?.
695
See M.S.2OFDAFKA;( un)h of Thoughts- +6=.
696
See ..S.<A;AKH Ae%.B( India and the *orld( ==4>+. See a$!o GNCE;T ;e4inven! Hi!or'(
En&$i!hH( @.
69:
<..IDDAI( HEvi%ence of Sron& Hin%uva .ia!e!H( 6.
69@
See S.;AJE( GI! San!-ri 1In%o4Euro"eanCH( =.
699
See S.<.MOOKE;JEE( $eaves from a +iary( +9@.
69?
See A.SHOU;IE( A Se)ular Agenda( 5?45=.
69=
See GDor$% Ve%ic Heria&eH( @.
+9:
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
Ho*ever( i #u! )e re#e#)ere% ha *hen e/a&&erae% e#"ha!i! i! &iven o
San!-ri( i ne&$ec! in he "roce!! oher c$a!!ica$ $an&ua&e! of In%ia *hich have a$!o
#a%e !i&nifican conri)uion o In%ian cu$ure. Ta#i$ for e/a#"$e( i! one of he #o!
ancien $an&ua&e! of In%ia an% he #o! cu$ivae% of he Dravi%ian $an&ua&e! *ih rich
an% varie% voca)u$ar' an% a refine% #e%iu# of co##unicaion *ih e/raor%inar'
!u)$e'( "reci!ion an% !en!e of $o&ic
69>
. K.M.<ani--ar o)!erve!: GTa#i$ for e/a#"$e
ha% a c$a!!ica$ $ieraure riva$$in& ha of San!-ri an% i! %eve$o"#en covere% over *o
hou!an% 'ear!H
6?7
. A&ain( <ra-ri! *ere u!e% )' .u%%hi!! an% Jain! for heir *or-!. In
fac <a$i( *hich i! he ear$ie! of he $ierar' <ra-ri! i! he $an&ua&e in *hich he
.u%%hi! canon *a! "re!erve%. I i! a$!o re#ar-a)$e ha here *ere a$!o vi&orou!
!ecu$ar "oeic ra%iion in <ra-ri!
6?+
. To hi! *e #u! a%% he !o far un%eci"here%
Hara""an !cri" A1$an&ua&e3B( an% S'riac *hich *a! he cu$ic $an&ua&e of he
S.Tho#a! Chri!ian! of Souh In%ia for !evera$ cenurie!
6?5
. .e!i%e! he!e( here are
a$!o oher ancien In%ian $an&ua&e! ha have #a%e &rea conri)uion o In%ian
cu$ure
6?6
. Here A.D.Maa# re#in%! u! ha he ance!or! of he Dravi%ian! or A%iva!i!
or Mon&o$oi%! %i% no !"ea- San!-ri or <ra-ri
6?:
. In hi! cone/ i i! o )e re#e#)ere%
ha one canno !"ea- of an' uni0ue ro$e San!-ri e/ere% on In%ian cu$ure *ihou
i#"$'in& a hi&h %e&ree of .rah#anica$ he&e#on'.
The c$ai# ha In%ian cu$ure i! !'non'#ou! *ih Hin%u cu$ure iron! ou %iver!i'
an% in!i!! on confor#i' an% %i!or! hi!orica$ fac!. The heor'( )e!i%e! )ein& c$ear$'
co##una$( i#"o!e! he Hin%u cu$ure over he oher!. I a$!o %ec$are! a! nu$$ an% voi%
he conri)uion! of .u%%hi!#( Jaini!#( Maeria$i!!( Chri!iani'( Noroa!riani!#(
Ju%ai!# an% I!$a# o In%ian cu$ure. The fac re#ain! ha In%ian cu$ure i! "$ura$ an% i
i! he co##on "ari#on' of a$$ In%ian!( an% no of one race or one ca!e or one re$i&ion
a$one. Ja*ahar$a$ Nehru !a'!: GI i!( herefore( incorrec an% un%e!ira)$e o u!e 1Hin%u3
or 1Hin%ui!#3 for In%ian cu$ure( even *ih reference o he %i!an "a!H
6?@
.
69>
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( :?=4:?>. See a$!o A.F..ASHAM( The *onder that (as
India- 6>646>:E K.M.<ANIKKA;( GI#"ac of Euro"eH( 9.
6?7
K.M.<ANIKKA;( GI#"ac of Euro"eH( 55.
6?+
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.II( 5654566. See a$!o A.F..ASHAM( The *onder that (as
India- 6>+46>6.
6?5
.ene%ic Va%a--e-ara o)!erve! ha S'riac *a! u!e% )' he S.Tho#a! Chri!ian! in heir $iur&'
fro# he ear$' cenurie! of he Chri!ian era. The Ne* Te!a#en *a! "rine% in S'riac an% "rie!! rea%
f$uen$' fro# i. So#e of he# cou$% a$!o conver!e in S'riac a! if i *ere heir #oher on&ue. A re"or
)e$on&in& o he +9
h
cenur' A.D. #enion! a S'riac 1univer!i'3 a An&a#a$' *here he Scri"ure *a!
au&h in S'riac. Ti$$ $ae i u!e% o )e he #o%e a#on& he ecc$e!ia!ic! o !i&n heir na#e! in S'riac.
Their u!e of S'riac for "ra'er an% *or!hi" )eca#e !o characeri!ic of he S.Tho#a! Chri!ian! ha(
hou&h erroneou!$'( he' have co#e o )e *i%e$' -no*n a! S'rian Chri!ian!. See ..VADAKKEKA;A(
'rigin of India%s St Thomas Christians( 5:45?.
6?6
See ..DAFKE;( Hindu *orld( vo$.I( @=:4@=@.
6?:
See A.D.MATTAM( Religions( =7.
6?@
J.NEH;U( The +is)overy of India( ?@.
+9@
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
14. The !indutva myths and the Indian masses
M'h! )' heir ver' naure have an innae "o*er o a""ea$ o he e#oion! of "eo"$e.
The "ro"onen! of Hin%uva *ho have a !u%ie% -no*$e%&e of he "!'cho$o&' of he
In%ian #a!!e! have "ro"oun%e% he #'h! in or%er ha he' #i&h i&nie heir
i#a&inaion( !en!e of "ri%e an% i%ea$i!#. Thu!( #'h! are u!e% !'!e#aica$$' in or%er
o in%ocrinae he #a!!e! hrou&h heir *i%e %iffu!ion u!in& heir 1"ro"a&an%a
#achine!3. Man' Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! have a%o"e% he NaLi conce" of 1"ro"a&an%a3
in or%er o in%ocrinae he #a!!e!. The Hin%uva 1"ro"a&an%a #achine!3 inc$u%e i!
va! ne*or- of "rin #e%ia( e$ecronic #e%ia Ara%io( e$evi!ion( inerneB(
%e#on!raion! an% "roce!!ion! "aricu$ar$' #anife!e% in he for# of Rath Yatras( #a!!
ra$$ie!( !affroni!e% !'$$a)i in he e%ucaiona$ in!iuion!( cour!e! an% !e#inar! for !e$ec
&rou"! of "eo"$e( or&ani!aion! for 'ouh( *o#en( *or-in& c$a!!( ine$$ecua$!( ec. In
fac( here i! a "ro$iferaion of Hin%uva #'h! in he "rin an% he e$ecronic #e%ia( in
he !choo$ e/)oo-! an% he curricu$a for hi&her e%ucaion. In a%%iion( he "u)$ic
%i!cour!e! of Hin%uva i%eo$o&ue! re$en$e!!$' re"ea an% convincin&$' narrae he
#'h! uni$ he #a!!e! en% o )e$ieve he# a! fac!. Con!e0uen$'( $ar&e !ecion! of he
In%ian "o"u$aion P *hich are unforunae$' !ee"e% in i$$ierac' P 1%evour3 he!e
#'h! *ih a re$i&iou! fervour( una)$e a! he' are o !u)#i he# o a %i!"a!!ionae
!cruin' an% !cienific inve!i&aion. Therefore( he #'h! of Hin%uva are !o %e!i&ne%
ha he' have he &reae! a""ea$ *here he #a!!e! are #o! i$$ierae.
Inere!in&$'( Hin%uva ha! achieve% &reae! !ucce!! in ho!e re&ion! of In%ia *here
he rae of i$$ierac' i! hi&h 8 an% ever'one -no*! ha i$$ierac' #a-e! "eo"$e ea!i$'
vu$nera)$e o #ani"u$aion )' oher!. In fac( Hin%uva *ie$%! &reae! !*a' over he
"eo"$e of Norh In%ia *here he %e#o&ra"h' of i$$ierac' i! he hi&he! in he counr'.
The $ae! !ai!ic! !ho* ha In%ia ha! 675.@ #i$$ion i$$ierae "eo"$e *hich i! ha$f of
he *or$%3! i$$ierae!
6?9
. In Sae! !uch a! .ihar( Chai!&arh( 2u,ara( Jhar-han%(
Ma%h'a <ra%e!h( Maharah!ra( Ori!!a( ;a,a!han( Uar <ra%e!h( Hin%uva ha! &rea
!*a' over he #a!!e!. On he oher han%( ho!e Sae! *here he $ierac' rae i! hi&h
$i-e( Kera$a( MiLora# an% Hi#acha$ <ra%e!h( he Hin%uva "ro"a&an%a ha! #a%e
har%$' an' hea%*a'. Thi! fac( e!a)$i!he! once a&ain ha( here i! a c$o!e re$aion!hi"
)e*een e%ucaiona$ )ac-*ar%ne!! an% he acce"ance of he Hin%uva "ro"a&an%a )'
he #a!!e!.
The #'h! of Hin%uva have #uch a""ea$ o ho!e In%ian! *ho con!i%er he#!e$ve!
o )e he %e!cen%en! of he ancien Ar'an!. In fac( !o#e #'h! are creae% "reci!e$' o
reinforce heir racia$ !"iri. Thi! e/"$ain!( o !o#e e/en( he rea!on for he co#"araive
$ac- of acce"ance of he #'h! in Souh In%ia *here he "o"u$aion )' an% $ar&e i! of
he Dravi%ian !oc-( an% in Norhea! In%ia *here he #a,ori' of he "eo"$e )e$on& o
he Mon&o$oi% race. Furher( he #'h! have &rea effecivene!! in ho!e "ar! of In%ia
*here he u""er ca!e e$ie! conro$ he !ocia$( econo#ic( "o$iica$ an% re$i&iou! $ife of
he "eo"$e. I #a' )e noe% ha in re&ion! *here ca!e !rucure! are *ea-( he
inf$uence of he #'h! over he #a!!e! i! a$!o fee)$e.
The #'h! of Hin%uva have #a%e inroa%! ino ho!e &rou"! of "eo"$e *ho are
1e/ce!!ive$'3 re$i&iou! o he e/en of )ein& 1!u"er!iiou!3 an% naYve. In oher *or%!(
6?9
See S.AYA;( GIn%ia3! Dor!H( :6.
+99
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
*here he Hin%u re$i&ion funcion! $i-e he 1o"iu#3 of he #a!!e!( he conen! of he
#'h! have he !au! of 1revea$e%3 ruh!. On he conrar'( he #'h! have he $ea!
acce"ance a#on& ho!e cae&orie! of "eo"$e *ho have a raiona$ an% !cienific ou$oo-
o $ife. Thi! a$!o i#"$ie! ha( ri&h rea!on( !cienific !"iri an% Hin%uva can rare$' &o
o&eher. Thu! Hin%uva i! %e!ine% o )e a "o*erfu$ "arner in "er"euain& i$$ierac'(
i&norance( !u"er!iion( !eni#ena$i!#( irraiona$i' an% un"ro&re!!ive hin-in&. Hence
a! $on& a! a &oo% "er cen of he In%ian #a!!e! coninue o )e i$$ierae( i&noran an%
une%ucae%( Hin%uva *i$$ a$!o coninue o #ainain i! conro$ over he #a!!e!( an% i!
#'h! *i$$ have #an' a-er!.
1onclusion
De have !een ho* Hin%uva ha! invene% #an' #'h! an% *ih *ha %i$i&ence he'
are "ro"a&ae% in or%er o in%ocrinae he In%ian #a!!e! *ih fa$!e noion! an% uo"ia!.
.a!ica$$' he' are %e!i&ne% o #a-e he Hin%uva i%eo$o&' "erco$ae o he #a!!e! )'
a""ea$in& o heir e#oion!. The for#! of he #'h! ha are circu$ae%( he #e!!a&e!
he' conve'( he i%ea$! he' "ro,ec an% he increa!in& nu#)er of "eo"$e *ho
uncriica$$' acce" he# a! ruh( revea$ ha #an' "er!on! in In%ia are a$rea%'
1convere%3 o Hin%uva )oh ine$$ecua$$' an% !"iriua$$'. .u he rea$i!aion ha he
#'h! of he Hin%uva are fa)ricaion! inen%e% o )rain*a!h he #a!!e!( e!"ecia$$' he
i&noran an% he i$$ierae for he "o$iica$ a%vana&e of he u""er ca!e Hin%u e$ie(
*ou$% a!!ure ha *e have *on ha$f he )a$e a&ain! he %u)iou! i%eo$o&' of Hin%uva.
M'h! are he foun%aion on *hich Hin%uva re!!. Throu&h nu#erou! #'h! i ha!
re!urrece% #an' o)!o$ee !'#)o$! an% )e$ief! of Hin%ui!# in or%er o )ure!! he
i%eo$o&'( !uch a!( )e$ief in an i#a&inar' Ve%ic 2o$%en a&e( a "ure Ar'an race( Ar'an
cu$ure a! he founainhea% of a$$ civi$i!aion!( Hin%ui!# a! he eerna$ re$i&ion( San!-ri
a! he #oher of a$$ on&ue!( In%ia a! a Hin%u naion fro# i#e i##e#oria$( In%ian
cu$ure a! #ono$ihic Hin%u cu$ure. an% !o on. Unforunae$'( he &overn#en! *ih
!ron& Hin%uva !'#"ahie! &ive o hi! )ac-*ar%4$oo-in& i%eo$o&' "o$iica$ an%
financia$ !u""or. .u a! *e have a$rea%' !een( he &ran%io!e c$ai#! of he #'h! have
$i$e foun%aion in hi!or'.
The #'h! of Hin%uva have he "o*er o !i#u$ae "a!!ion!( %iffu!e hare% an%
a*a-en he vi$$ain %or#an a#on& cerain !ecion! of In%ian!. Hin%uva3! u$i#ae ai#
i! he creaion of a Hin%u naion )a!e% on a #ono$ihic Hin%u cu$ure( an% he
#eho%o$o&' for achievin& hi! en% i! !u##e% u" )' F.K. A%vani *ho 0uoe! *ih a
rare -no*$e%&e of A%o$f Hi$er an% hi! NaLi i%eo$o&'( *hen he !ai%: GSucce!! i! he !o$e
earh$' ,u%&e of ri&h an% *ron&3H
6??
.
Dih he !"rea% of he #'h! of Hin%uva( #an' ruh! concernin& In%ian hi!or' an%
cu$ure have a$!o )een %i!ore% or era!e%. .u *ha In%ia nee%! o%a' i! an en$i&hene%
"u)$ic ha can %i!in&ui!h )e*een #'h an% rea$i'( fac an% ficion( ruh an%
fa$!ehoo%( Hin%u re$i&ion an% Hin%uva. A! $on& a! In%ian! coninue o )e$ieve in he
#'h! of Hin%uva he naion *i$$ never ri!e o he hei&h! )ecau!e he )ac-*ar%4
$oo-in& i%eo$o&' of Hin%uva ha! nohin& in i ha can a-e In%ia for*ar%. On he oher
6??
F.K.ADVANI( A Prisoner%s S)ra".ook( 99.
+9?
CH:IV THE MYTHS OF HINDUTVA
han%( if he "eo"$e of In%ia are $i)erae% fro# he narro*4#in%e%( co##una$i!(
naiona$i!( #i$ian an% fun%a#ena$i! i%eo$o&' of Hin%uva( In%ia ha! ever' chance of
"ro&re!!. Hence( *ha In%ia nee%! o%a' i! "er!on! *ih raiona$ an% criica$ #in% an%
!cienific e#"er *ho have he coura&e o e/"$o%e he #'h! of Hin%uva an% e/"o!e
he fa$!ehoo% he' "ro"a&ae. Are here "er!on! *ih a vi!ion for a !ecu$ar( "$ura$i!ic
In%ia *ho "o!!e!! !uch ca$i)re an% coura&eC Uni$ !uch "eo"$e co#e o he fore(
Hin%uva *i$$ coninue o fa)ricae #ore #'h! an% ui$i!e he# o en!$ave an%
in%ocrinae he i$$ierae( he cre%u$ou! an% he naYve( uni$ a ne* for# of !$aver' i!
fu$$' e!a)$i!he% in In%ia( na#e$' slavery to Hindutva.
+9=