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Association of Art Editors Style Guide
Copyright 2013, Association of Art Editors, All Rights Reserved
First edition (2006) compiled by Lory Frankel and Virginia Wageman. Edited by Lory Frankel
with the assistance of Phil Freshman, Chris Keledjian, and Fronia W. Simpson
Revised edition (2013) edited by Maureen Butler with the assistance of Phil Freshman
Contents
To the Reader
Abbreviations
Accents
Article (the)
Art movements,
periods, and styles
Bias-free language
Biblical references
Bibliography
Capitalization
Captions
Catalogue entries and
checklists
Catalogues raisonns
Chronology
Classical references
Collections and
collectors / Credit lines
Credits (image and
lender)
Dashes
Dates
Dimensions
Electronic media and
devices
Ellipses
Exhibition catalogues
Exhibition history
Exhibition labels, object
labels, wall labels
Exhibition titles
Extracts
Figure and plate
references
Footnotes. See Notes
Foreign languages
Honorifics
Hyphens
Illustrations. See
Photographs and artwork
Index (citing illustrations
in)
Inscriptions
Italics
Manuscript locations
Manuscript preparation
Media of artworks
Notes
Numbers
Online resources
Permissions
Photograph and
illustration credits
Photographs and
artwork
Possessives
Proofreading
Punctuation
Quotations
Reference sources
Saint
Signature. See
Inscriptions
Spelling. See Words
and terms
Theological terms
Titles
Titles of artworks
Titles of people
Words and terms
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To the Reader
The first edition of the Association of Art Editors Style Guide was produced in 2006. The
present revised edition was created in 2013 with a dual aim: to bring the Style Guide into
alignment with The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition; and to make it reflect changes that
occurred in manuscript preparation, editing, and publishing after 2006largely due to evolving
technologies.
The Style Guide is intended for authors of texts on artany kind of textand for editors of
these texts and their publishers. Its purpose is to provide guidelines for authors and editors in
the writing and redaction of manuscripts. Uniformity of usage is not the purpose of this guide.
Rather, it aims to ensure uniformity of comprehension about the issues that authors and
editors deal with.
Although it would have its practical purposes, a definitive, this-way-only manual would be
inadequate to the profession, since art history is an aggregate of many different methodologies
and fields of specialization. Nor is it likely, or expected, that all publishers (or editors) will
abandon long-cherished systems, especially when those systems adequately serve their
purposes. Rather, we offer a guide to several generally accepted styles. Authors should consult
with their publisher/editor before making final stylistic decisions; if the publisher is unknown at
the time of writing, the author very often will be responsible for revising the manuscript later
to accord with house style.
Note: "See Chicago" (appearing throughout) refers to The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th
edition.
The style manuals and publications of various institutions were also among the sources
consulted for substance and examples. We gratefully acknowledge: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.,
New York; the College Art Association, New York; The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles;
Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey; the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New
York; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; The Museum of Modern Art, New York; the
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond; the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis; and the Whitney
Museum of American Art, New York.
This revised edition of the Style Guide, like the original, is dedicated to Virginia
Wageman (19412003). A co-founder and early president of the AAE, she was an
untiring campaigner for high editorial standards. Virginias loving devotion to her
craft, fund of common sense, and sunny disposition made working with her deeply
rewarding.

Abbreviations
In general, abbreviations are appropriate in notes and parenthetical or display material but
should be avoided in straight (narrative) text. Some publishers prefer to keep abbreviations to
a minimum in text, spelling out reigned, circa, born, and so on, even in parenthetical
references. Consistency is of primary importance. If you use b. for born, for example, you
must use d. for died. A list of common abbreviations appears below.
In running text, cite books of the Bible by short title, usually one word. See Chicago 10.4650.
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Do not abbreviate journal titles in running text. (Example: Journal of the Warburg and
Courtauld Institutes, not JWCI.) If such titles are to be abbreviated in notes, provide a key to
their abbreviations.
Avoid the abbreviations etc., e.g., and i.e. in running text.
State names are spelled out in running text or when they stand alone. In references, captions,
or checklists, standard state abbreviationsMass. or Calif., for examplecan be used. Avoid
the two-letter postal-code form (see Chicago 10.2830). Note, however, that some publishers
prefer to spell out state names in all cases, an approach that makes the work more accessible
to a global audience.
In running text, spell out: figure(s), note(s), number(s), page(s), plate(s), and catalogue
number(s). These may be abbreviated in parenthetical references in text. See below for
recommended abbreviations.
In running text, spell out: "about" (do not use "around," "circa," "c./ca."), days of the week,
months of the year, and dimensions such as "inches" and "feet."
Centuries are usually spelled out (eighteenth century, twenty-first century), but it is also
acceptable to use numerals (18th century, 21st century). Whichever approach is chosen should
be used consistently.
Spell out the word Saint in names of saints, but abbreviate it in personal names where the
abbreviation is preferred. (Example: Ruth St. Denis.) See below under Saint for rules on
church names and other related details.
In place names, spell out: Fort, Mount, Mountain.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
act. Active (often preferred spelled out)
A.D.
(SMALL CAPS), precedes the
date; A.D. 61. AD is also acceptable.
B.C.
(SMALL CAPS), follows the date; 146 B.C.
BC is also acceptable.
C.E.
(SMALL CAPS), follows the date;
61 C.E. (or CE).
B.C.E.
(SMALL CAPS), follows the date;
146 B.C.E. (or BCE).
A.M., P.M.;
AM, PM;
a.m., p.m.

add addendum, addenda
app. appendix
approx. approximately (in dimensions)
b. born
bibliog. bibliography
bk. book
c./ca.
circa, about, approximately (in text
use "about"); either c. or ca. is
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correct; be consistent
cat. no. catalogue number (pl.: cat. nos.)
cf. Compare (not "see")
chap. chapter
cm
centimeter; centimeters (generally
used without punctuation)
comp. compiler (pl.: comps.); compiled by
cpl./colorpl.
colorplate (pl.: cpls., colorpls.), an
awkward abbreviation, to be avoided
d./D. died; depth
dept. department
diam. diameter
diss. dissertation
doc. document
Dr.

ed. editor (pl.: eds.); edition; edited by
e.g. for example (avoid in text)
esp. especially
est. estimated (in dimensions)
et al.
et alia, and others (note: no period
after et)
etc. et cetera, and so forth (avoid in text)
ex
coll./ex.-
coll.
ex collection (in provenance or credit)
exh. cat. exhibition catalogue
fasc. fascicle
fig. figure (pl.: figs.)
fl. floruit, flourished
fol.
folio (pl.: fols.). Sometimes f. and ff.,
but fol(s). is clearer
fr./frr. fragments
fr./frs. microfilm frames
ft. feet
h./H. height
ibid.
ibidem, in the same place (Note: this
is not synonymous with "idem," which
means "the same person" and takes
no period, as it is not an
abbreviation.)
i.e. id est, that is (avoid in text)
in. inches
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ill./illus. illustration (spell out in text)
intro. introduction
l./L.
left, length, line (pl.: ll.); line(s) is
often written out for clarity
M./MM.

Mlle (no
period)

mm (no
period)
millimeter(s)
Mme (no
period)

Mr./Messrs.

MS manuscript (pl.: MSS)
n. note, footnote (pl.: nn.)
n.d. no date
no. number (pl.: nos.)
n.p. no place; no publisher; no page
n.s. new series
o.s. old series
p. page (pl.: pp.)
par. paragraph
PhD

pl. plate (pl.: pls.)
pt. part
r. right; reigned
r./r
recto (Note: these abbreviations are
used mainly in notes and in works
specializing in manuscripts; in other
contexts, recto is spelled out.)
repr. reprint(ed)
rev. ed. revised edition
sec. section
ser. series
St. Saint (see Saint)
suppl. supplement
TV
television (in many contexts, may be
used in text)
trans. Translated or translated by; translator
v./v
verso (Note: these abbreviations are
used mainly in notes and in works
specializing in manuscripts; in other
contexts, verso is spelled out.)
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vol. volume
w./W. width
See also Chicago 10.43 for a list of scholarly abbreviations.
Accents
Unusual diacritical marks should be marked on the manuscript by hand for the
designer/typesetter/printer, either called out in the margin or marked with yellow or other
highlighter.
The most common accents (acute , grave , umlaut , circumflex , and cedilla ) are
supported by most fonts and need not be marked.
In a program or font that does not have the macron (long mark), the circumflex or tilde may
be employed to indicate it if there are no words using the circumflex or tilde in the manuscript.
If macrons are thus indicated by a different accent, a note to that effect should be given at the
beginning of the manuscript so that the designer/typesetter and printer will know to change
these to macrons.
Insert all accents given in the foreign language, including accents on capital letters. (Note that
diacritical marks are not always used on the first letter of capitalized words in French: Etude,
instead of tude, or Edouard instead of douard.)
In general, do not use vowel ligatures ( or ).
The five most commonly occurring accents can be created on Macintosh computers by pressing
the Option key along with the following keys (after pressing these two keys together, press the
letter that takes the accent):
+ e = (acute)
+ ` = ` (grave)
+ i = (circumflex)
+ u = (umlaut)
+ n = ~ (tilde)
+ c = (cedilla)

Article (the)
In running text, lowercase the preceding a museum name. This is to be done even for
museums that have the article as part of the official name and capitalize The in their own
documents and publications. Example:
A similar print is in the Museum of Modern Art, New York.
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In running text, also lowercase the preceding the name of a building, residence, business, and
the like. Examples:
the Breakers
the Red Rooster restaurant
the Empire State Building
the University of Chicago
the College Art Association Conference
In illustration captions and exhibition checklists, initial articles that are part of the museums
official name are often capitalized. (See The Official Museum Directory, or locate the given
museums Website on the Internet.)
In titles of books, an initial The is always italic. Example:
The Chicago Manual of Style.
In titles of journals, newspapers, or magazines, the preceding the name is lowercase and
roman, even if it appears in the masthead for the publication. Examples:
The article is in the Village Voice.
He reads the New York Times every day.
The Art Bulletin is published by the College Art Association.
However, the article is retained in foreign-language titles. Example:
She reads Le Monde every day.
In footnote and bibliographical references, an initial article The is omitted in titles of journals,
newspapers, and magazines. Examples:
Art Bulletin 52, no. 3
New Yorker, Feb. 14, 1998.

Art movements, periods, and styles
The question of whether to capitalize or lowercase is one of the most common in the field of
art history and one of the most difficult in which to attain any agreement. Chicago would
lowercase all art movements, periods, and styles except those derived from proper nouns.
However, many art historians and art institutions traditionally capitalize them. For this reason,
we offer an alternative to the Chicago method.
The names of art movements or periods of art can be capitalized to distinguish them as
references to a particular body of work whose visual and/or chronological definitions are
generally accepted. The art so designated may be of relatively short duration (Post-
Impressionism), or extend over a longer period characterized by a broader range of styles
(Renaissance, Baroque), or stem from self-styled movements (Cubism, Futurism).
For names of art movements that have entered the English language as an autonomous word
(for example, baroque, meaning "stylistically overwrought"), capitalization of the movement
helps to keep the distinction between word and movement clear.
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Some exceptions are made in the general system of capitalization. The word medieval is never
capitalized in designating medieval art (though the period known as the Middle Ages is always
capitalized).
Words such as modernism or postmodernism are often left uncapitalized by those who hold
that the cap should be used only when the works designated fall into a coherent visual and/or
chronological category. Since the question, "What does a modernist work look like?" cannot be
answered clearly, modernism remains in lowercase.
For those who prefer to capitalize art movements, remember that it takes time for a body of
works to achieve capital-letter statusto undergo the kind of critical ordering and analysis that
ultimately yield a definition. What we now call Conceptual art, for example, generally remained
lowercase until the concepts and the works that exemplified it had been articulated over time.
Adjectival forms: Impressionism/Impressionistic or impressionistic; Cubism/Cubist or cubist?
Some prefer to lowercase adjectival forms since adjectival forms of proper nouns generally
take the lowercase (Pope John Pauls visit to New York; the papal visit). Others prefer to retain
the initial cap to refer unambiguously to the movement, avoiding confusion with another
meaning or referent of the word. We lean toward capitalizing any adjectival form that would be
capitalized as a noun as the simpler method (thus avoiding such ambiguities as "German
expressionist painter": expressionist of German nationality or of the German Expressionist
movement?).
Equally legitimate is the lowercasing of art movements. For some, it merely reflects a tendency
to avoid capitalization whenever possible. For others, however, a lowercase baroque or cubism
represents an ideological stance, in which the history of art is not a history of great
"movements" progressing in linear fashion. But those who use a lowercase style should avoid
ambiguities such as "German expressionist painter" (alternative: a painter of the German
expressionist movement).
Names of artistic styles are capitalized unless they are used in a context that does not refer to
their specific art-historical meaning (example: His dream was surreal). Some common names:
Abstract Expressionism
Conceptualism, Conceptual Art, Conceptual art
Cubism
Dada
Minimalism, Minimalist, Minimal Art, Minimal art
Pop Art, Pop art
Surrealism
In general, sharply delimited period titles are capitalized, whereas broad periods and terms
applicable to several periods are not:
Archaic period
Baroque
Early Renaissance
High Renaissance
Early Christian
Gothic
Greek Classicism of the fifth century (otherwise, classicism)
Imperial
Impressionism
Islamic
Mannerist
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Middle Ages
Neoclassicism (for the late-18th-century movement; otherwise, neoclassicism)
Post-Impressionism
Pre-Columbian, Precolumbian
Rococo
Roman
Romanesque
Romantic period
antique, antiquity
classicism (see above)
medieval
modern, modernism
neoclassicism (see above)
postmodern
prehistoric
quattrocento
See also Words and terms.

Bias-free language
Bias-free language does not discriminate on the basis of age, physical condition, economic
status, ethnicity, gender, race, religion, or sexual orientation.
Where possible without sacrificing meaning or euphony, use language that is not gender
specific.
Avoid words and turns of phrase that exclude or are insensitive to readers of a certain gender,
race, or religion. Equally, avoid any extremes of political correctness, unless required by the
text; for example, the neologism "s/he" is to be avoided.
When appropriate, gender-neutral language can be achieved by making the subject plural.
Example: Students may register in advance if they . . .
When necessary, he or she may be used.
Commonly used words and phrases:
handmade (for man-made)
assistive-listening headset
braille
people with disabilities
hearing impaired
humankind, humanity (for mankind)
individual (for man)
motor-impaired visitors
solo exhibition (for one-person show)
visually impaired
wheelchair accessible
wheelchair user
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Biblical references
References to biblical passages (for example, Matt. 4:14) should be made in either the text or
notes rather than in the bibliography. The first citation, however, should have an endnote or
footnote that provides a full reference and the version of the Bible used (for example, 1 Kings
2:1012 [New International Version]).
Books and sections of the Bible are usually capitalized (for example, Acts of the Apostles). For
abbreviations of books of the Bible, see Chicago 10.4550.

Bibliography
Two common styles for bibliographies are the "notes and bibliography" system and the
"author-date" system. Both are described here, accompanied by sample bibliographies of likely
entries for both systems.
In this context, references to "author" mean the name under which the work is alphabetized in
the bibliography or list of references; it may be an organization or, as in some exhibition
catalogues, the venue (such as New York for the Museum of Modern Art) or venues (New York
and Philadelphia).
If the work is accessed online, include its DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or a URL. The latter is
less reliable, as a Website may move or disappear. Printed-book publishers may require an
electronic-resource identifier in citations for which a source is hard to find.
See chapters 14 and 15 of Chicago for a detailed examination of bibliographic styles.
NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY SYSTEM
There are numerous ways to organize a bibliography under the notes and bibliography system.
It may be presented as a single list in alphabetical order, or it may be divided into categories,
separating sources of a general and a specific nature; books, exhibition catalogues, and
articles; in a monograph, works by the artist, works about the artist, and exhibition history. If
there is a suggested-reading list, sources for further readingsome of which may have been
cited in the textare given. A bibliography may include all the works cited in the text, or it
may be a selected bibliography, which will not necessarily include all the works cited.
Using a selected bibliography has the advantage of retaining the bibliographys traditional
aspect as a list of sources on the subject; tangential or unrelated citations would not need to
appear in it. Any references not given in the selected bibliography would be cited in full (in the
first instance) as a footnote or endnote in the book. Subsequent references to the work may
be shortened to the last name of the author, a short title, and page number(s). Example, 2.
Smith, Bronzino, 23.
When the source is given in full in the bibliography, shortened references in footnotes or
endnotes may be used throughout the book; make sure they are given identically throughout.
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This system also requires the single alphabetical bibliographic list.
Every note needs to have a reference number linking it to the relevant text.
BIBLIOGRAPHY (sample entries)
Archives, Abstract Art Controversy Correspondence, box H4, file 82. Whitney Museum of
American Art, New York.
Audsley, George Ashdown. The Art of Organ Building. 2 vols. 1905. Reprint, 2 vols. in 1, New
York: Dover Publications, 1964.
Barron, Stephanie, et al. German Expressionist Sculpture. Exh. cat. Los Angeles: Los Angeles
County Museum of Art, 1983.
Barthes, Roland. Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. Trans. Richard Howard. New
York: Hill and Wang, 1981.
Bibliothque Municipale, Rouen. MS fr. 938.
Binney, Ed. "Later Mughal Painting." In Aspects of Indian Art, ed. P. Pal. Leiden: E. J. Brill,
1972. http://www.jstor.org/stable/613625.
Blume, Dieter. Anthony Caro: Catalogue Raisonn. 13 vols. Cologne: Verlag Galerie Wentzel,
19812006.
Burke, Edmund. The Correspondence of Edmund Burke. Ed. Thomas W. Copeland. Vol. 3, July
1774July 1778, edited by George H. Guttridge. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961.
Conze, Edward. Buddhist Thought in India. 1962. Reprint, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
Press, 1967. [When an earlier edition is used.]
Dean, Bashford. Helmets and Body Armor in Modern Warfare. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1991,
Microfiche.
Demuth, Charles. Papers. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New
Haven. http://beta.worldcat.org/archivegrid/record.php?id=122370503.
Gairola, Krishna C. "Manifestations of Shiva." Oriental Art, 27, no. 3 (Autumn 1981). [When
page numbers cannot be specified.]
Genesis of a Novel. Tucson, Ariz.: Motivational Programming Corporation, 1969. Audiocassette.
Goldwater, Robert. Primitivism in Modern Art. 1938. Rev. ed. New York: Vintage Books, 1966.
Goodrich, Lloyd. "Essay on Abstraction." 1930. Typescript. Whitney Museum of American Art,
New York.
Gruen, John. "Michael Heizer: You Might Say Im in the Construction Business." Art News 76,
December 1977, 9699.
Hockney, David. David Hockney: Photographs. Exh. cat. London and New York: Petersburg
Press; Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou, 1982.
Jerome. Commentaria in Esaiam. Ed. Marcus Adriaen. In Corpus Christianorum Series Latina,
vol. 78. Turnhout: Brepols, 1958.
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Larsen, Susan C. "Los Angeles Painting in the Sixties: A Tradition in Transition." In Art in Los
Angeles: Seventeen Artists in the Sixties. Exh. cat. Edited by Maurice Tuchman. Los Angeles:
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1981.
Locke, Nancy Elizabeth. "Manet and the Family Romance." PhD diss., Harvard University,
1993.
Milder, Patricia. "Teaching as Art: The Contemporary Lecture-Performance." A Journal of
Performance and Art 33, PAJ 97, no. 1 (2010): 1327. doi:10.1162/PAJJ_a_00019.
Mizuno, Kogen. The Beginnings of Buddhism. Translated by Richard L. Gage. Tokyo: Kosei
Publishing Company, 1982.
Schubring, Walther. The Religion of the Jainas. Calcutta Sanskrit College Research Series, no.
52. Calcutta: Sanskrit College, 1966.
Shah, V. P. Jaina-Pupa-Mandana. Vol. 1. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1987.
Smith, Vincent A. The Oxford History of India. 3rd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958.
Solomon, Alan R. Jasper Johns. Exh. cat. New York: Jewish Museum, 1964.
Stella, Frank. "On Caravaggio." New York Times Magazine, February 3, 1985, 3960, 71.
Sun Shaoyuan. Shenghua ji (Record of paintings). Preface 1107; Shanghai: Yiwen, 1996.
Talwar, K, and Kalyan Krishna. Indian Pigment Paintings on Cloth. Vol. 3 of Historic Textiles of
India at the Calico Museum. Ahmedabad: Calico Museum of Textiles, 1979.
AUTHOR-DATE SYSTEM
In long books with many works cited, especially big exhibition catalogues that include
references for the objects exhibited, shortened references (the authors last name and the
publication date) are often used in the text. When authors have the same last name, initials
are generally added to distinguish them. When there is more than one identical short form (for
example, two for Smith, 1957) letters are added after the dates (for example, 1957a and
1957b.)
The author-date system requires a reference list of every work cited in single, alphabetical-list
form, giving the authors full name and publication date as the first items. Footnotes or
endnotes can be used to supplement the author-date system.
REFERENCE LIST (sample entries)
Alberti, Leon Battista. 2011. On Painting. Edited and translated by Rocco Sinisgalli. U.K.:
Cambridge University Press.
Arcangeli, F. 1956. "Sugli inizi dei Carracci." Paragone 7 (79): 13743.
Bohlin, Diane DeGrazia. 1979. Prints and Related Drawings by the Carracci Family. Exh. cat.
Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art.
Bonehill, John, and Stephen Daniels. 2012. "Projecting London: Turner and Greenwich." Oxford
Art Journal 35 (2): 17194. doi:10.1093/oxartj/kcs021.
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Germanisches Nationalmuseum. 1928. Albrecht Drer Ausstellung Germanischen Museum.
Exh. cat. Nuremberg: Germanisches Nationalmuseum.
Ng, David. 2012. "Will Christos Oil-Barrel Pyramid Mastaba Finally Rise?" Culture Monster,
Los Angeles Times, November 26.
Petzet, Michael, ed. 1973. Bayern Kunst und Kultur. Exh. cat. Munich: Stadtmuseum.
Siple, Ella S. 1942. "Art in America." Burlington Magazine 80: 7481.
Sotheby Parke Bernet and Company. 1983. The Thomas F. Flannery, Jr., Collection: Medieval
and Later Works of Art. Sale cat.
See also Exhibition history, Notes.

Capitalization
HISTORICAL PERIODS
Capitalize the full name but not the generic term. Example:
Holy Roman Empire, the empire
NAMES OF ORGANIZATIONS
Capitalize the full or shortened version of a proper name but not generic categories. Example:
Acadmie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, Acadmie Royale, but not the
Academy.
NAMES OF PEOPLE
When particles are used with the full name, they are often left lowercased when only the last
name is given. Example:
The late works of Vincent van Gogh
The late works of van Gogh
However, it is also accepted practice to capitalize the particle when the first name is dropped
Van Goghso long as this is done consistently. When particles are capitalized with the full
name, they should always be capitalized when the first name is dropped. Example:
Anthony Van Dyck
Van Dyck
For capitalization of particles, follow the usage of the named individual or tradition. (In
general, lowercase the particle in European names.) Examples:
de La Tour
d Hulst
de Stal
von Blanckenhagen
Der Nersessian
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Van Buren
van Gogh
van der Weyden
Titles, whether of nobility, offices, or religious, are capitalized only when they directly precede
the name: King Edward II, President Clinton, Pope John Paul II. Otherwise, lowercase them:
the duchess of Kent, the senator from Ohio, the popes entourage.
Identify people mentioned with a brief phrase (the noted collector, the critic, etc.), using full
name at first mention. Example:
The nineteenth-century writer and art critic Octave Mirbeau
Asian names: The traditional format for Chinese and Japanese names places the family name
first, followed by the given name. Unless the name is Westernized, as it often is by authors
writing in English, it should be kept in the traditional order.
Traditional order: Tsou Tang; Tajima Yumiko
Westernized: Tang Tsou; Yumiko Tajima
PLACE NAMES
Capitalize place names with distinct and titled identitiesthe Middle East, the West (referring
to the cultural-geopolitical entity), the Continent, the East Coastotherwise, lowercase:
northern Italy, southern France.
In general, capitalize a political entity when it follows the name and lowercase it when it
precedesNew York State, the state of New Yorkunless the official name happens to take
that form: the District of Columbia, the Dominion of Canada.
For place-name spellings, use the first choice given in Merriam-Websters Geographical
Dictionary.

Captions
Caption style varies according to field, period, institution, and so on, and caption forms will of
necessity vary from publication to publication, subject to subject. What follows is a sampling of
formats; for specific instructions on individual elements of captions, see Collections and
collectors / Credit lines, Dates, Dimensions, Inscriptions, Media of artworks, Titles of
artworks.
The caption normally begins with information identifying and describing the work of art. It
usually ends with collections data, often including fund or donor credit and, sometimes,
accession number.
Line-for-line style places elements of the caption on separate lines with no punctuation at the
end of each line; run-in style gives all the information sentence-style, separated by
punctuation. Checklists and catalogue entries often employ the line-for-line style. This style is
seldom used in most books that are not also exhibition catalogues and periodicals, where the
elements are placed in sequential order separated by punctuation. (This style is often used in
exhibition catalogues for captions to figure references.) The particular style that the publisher
requires should be ascertained ahead of time by the author or editor if possible.
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All or some of the following information may be included in an illustration caption, in the order
given or in a slightly different order. (For more information about each of these categories, see
under each item.)
For a work by a known artist:
figure or plate number
name of artist, artists nationality or country of origin (Germany, active United States), artists
dates
title of work, subtitle(s) or alternative title(s), translation of title
date of execution
medium, including support
dimensions, usually in inches (height precedes width precedes depth), dimensions in
centimeters (usually in parentheses following inch measurement)
signature/inscription information (rarely given in figure captions)
credit line/collection, followed by city of collection (includes, as applicable, collection to which
work belongs, donor of the work, and a museum accession number or the year in which the
work was acquired)
photograph credit, if not given in a separate section (see Photograph and illustration
credits).
Other cases:
figure or plate number
description of the work
country and/or region, dates
medium
dimensions
credit line/collection
An abbreviated caption may include:
figure or plate number
name of artist (including first name)
title of work
date of execution
credit line/collection
In general, the artists name should be given in full even in multiple captions for the same
artists work, unless the article or book is about a single artist, in which case the artists last
name is sometimes used after the first mention or the artists name is omitted altogether.
For anonymous works, if the category is not omitted altogether, "artist unknown" is generally
used.
Be sure that the titles of works as given in the text and captions match.
If the full image is not used, the caption must specify that it is a detail: Michelangelo, David,
detail; Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Rome, Vatican, detail of ceiling: ignudo; Detail of Fig. 3:
Left wing; Detail of Fig. 8 with the Flight into Egypt.
Include verified credit lines and, where appropriate, photograph credits (see Collections and
collectors / Credit lines, Permissions, Photograph and illustration credits). If the
location of the work is not known, use "location unknown" or "whereabouts unknown." If the
owner wishes to remain anonymous, use "private collection," or "private collection, name of
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city." If the artist owns the work, use "collection of the artist" or "collection the artist."
The following examples, from a variety of sources (some noted), offer a range of punctuation
and ordering of the elements:
Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 14521509). Mona Lisa, ca. 15035. Oil on panel, 30 1/4
x 21 in. (76.8 x 53.3 cm). Paris, Muse du Louvre [source: Metropolitan Museum of
Art]
Clay figurine. Japanese, latest Jomon period (ca. 1000250 b.c.). H. 2 1/4 in. (6.4
cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Jerome Koizim,
1978 (1978.346) [source: Metropolitan Museum of Art]
Louis Lozowick (18921973), Allen Street (Under the El), 1929. Lithograph: sheet,
11 5/16 x 15 13/16 (28.7 x 40.2); image, 7 9/16 x 11 3/16 (19.2 x 28.4). Whitney
Museum of American Art, New York; Purchase, with funds from the Print Committee
86.28 [source: Whitney Museum]
William Wegman (b. 1943), Ray and Mrs. Lubner in Bed Watching T.V., 1981.
Polacolor ER, 24 x 20 (61 x 50.8). University of Arizona Center for Creative
Photography, Tucson [source: Whitney Museum of American Art]
Peggy Ahwesh, The Scary Movie, 1993. Super-8 film, black-and-white, sound; 9
minutes. Distributed by Drift Distribution, New York [source: Whitney Museum of
American Art]
Cheryl Donegan, Craft, 1994. Videotape, color, sound; 12 minutes. Distributed by
Electronic Arts Intermix, New York [source: Whitney Museum of American Art]
Susan Rothenberg (American, b. 1945), Blue Head, 198081, acrylic and Flashe on
canvas, H. 114 in. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Gift of The Sydney and
Frances Lewis Foundation.
Plate 1. Egyptian, Vessel in the Form of the God Bes, Late Period, ca. 600 B.C.,
faience. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Purchase in memory of Bernard V.
Bothmer, The Adolph D. and Wilkins C. Williams Fund, 94.110.
Colorplate 22. Henri Matisse. Le Luxe, 19078. Casein on canvas, 6 10 1/8" x 4 6
3/4" (205.3 x 139 cm). Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen; Rump Collection.
Figure 1. Nancy Graves, Dingbat, 1988. Cast, patinated bronze with painted
elements, 8 5" x 34" x 6 2" (243.8 x 86.3 x 188 cm). Private collection.
Fig. 2. Commode, c. 175560, attributed to Thomas Chippendale (English, 1718
1779). Mahogany, oak, pine, and ormolu, 33 x 55 x 25 1/2 in. (83.8 x 139.7 x 64.8
cm). Philadelphia Museum of Art. Purchased with the John D. McIlhenny Fund
(photo: courtesy of the museum) [source: Princeton University Press]
Fig. 3. Seated Bodhisattva, early 8th century. Made in China (Tang dynasty, 618
907). Gilded bronze with traces of color, H. 9 in. (22.9 cm). Philadelphia Museum of
Art. Purchased with Museum and subscription funds (photo: courtesy of the
museum) [source: Princeton University Press]
7 Little Canterbury Psalter, Nativity. Paris, Bibliothque Nationale ms lat. 770, fol.
20r [source: Art Bulletin]
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6 Rogier van der Weyden, Nativity, center panel of the Bladelin Altarpiece. Berlin,
Staatliche Museen zu BerlinPreussischer Kulturbesitz, Gemldegalerie (photo: Jrg
Anders) [source: Art Bulletin]

Catalogue entries and checklists
Catalogue entries and checklists include caption information, as above, usually on separate
lines, often followed by provenance, exhibition history, and publication history. The format, like
that for captions, will of necessity vary, and there is no one set way for all publications. Here,
as in Captions, a sampling of formats is offered; for specific instructions on individual
elements, see Collections and collectors / Credit lines, Dates, Dimensions, Exhibition
history, Inscriptions, Media of artworks, Titles of artworks.
137. The Painters Family
La famille du peintre [Portrait defamille]
Issy-les-Moulineaux, spring 1911
Oil on canvas, 56 1/4 x 6' 4 3/8" (143 x 194 cm)
Signed and dated on back of subframe: "Henri Matisse 1911"
The Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg
Formerly collection Sergei Shchukin
[source: Museum of Modern Art]
14. Blindekuh (Blind Mans Buff), 194445. Oil on canvas; triptych, left and right
panels: 191 x 110 cm (75 3/16 x 43 5/16 inches), central panel: 205 x 230 cm (80
11/16 x 90 9/16 inches). The Minneapolis Institute of Arts.
[source: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum exhibition catalogue Max Beckmann in
Exile]
Isabel Bishop (19021988)
Subway Scene, 195758
Egg tempera and oil on composition board, 40 x 28 (101.6 x 71.1)
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Purchase 58.55
[source: Whitney Museum]
Joel Shapiro
Untitled, 1972
Wood and bronze
Bridge, 3 x 20 1/4 x 3 inches
Boat, 1 5/8 x 11 5/8 x 2 5/8 inches
Coffin, 1 3/4 x 7 1/16 x 2 3/4 inches
Bird, 1 3/4 x 3 1/4 x 2 3/4 inches
Private collection
[source: Whitney Museum of American Art]
10. Pair of Short Boots
Outer fabric: Weft-faced compound twill; silk tapestry (kesi)
1992.350: Top of boot to bottom of heel 32.8 cm (12 7/8 in.); toe to heel, ca. 25 cm
(9 3/4 in.)
1992.349: Top of boot to bottom of heel 34.9 cm (13 3/4 in.); toe to heel, ca. 25 cm
(9 3/4 in.)
Liao dynasty (9071125)
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The Cleveland Museum of Art. John L. Severance Fund (1992.349; 1992. 350)
[source: Metropolitan Museum of Art]
234. Medallions from an Icon Frame
Byzantine (Constantinople?), late 11thearly 12th century
Gold, silver, and cloisonn enamel
Diam. 8.3 cm (3 1/4 in.)
Inscribed: In Greek, on each medallion, an identification of the figure represented:
Jesus Christ, Mother of God, John the Precursor, Saint Peter, Saint Paul, Saint
Matthew, Saint Luke, Saint John the Theologian, and Saint George.
Provenance: [omitted here]
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y. Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan
(17.190.67078)
Literature: [omitted here]
Exhibitions: [omitted here]
[source: Metropolitan Museum of Art]
Head of a Jina
Uttar Pradesh, late 2ndearly 3rd century
Sandstone
10 x 6 1/2 x 6 3/4 in. (25.4 x 16.5 x 17.2 cm)
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, The Nasli and Alice Heeramaneck Collection, Gift of
Paul Mellon, 68.8.3
[source: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts]
Alexander Kelety, Hungarian, dates unknown
Affection, ca. 192530
Silvered and cold-painted bronze, ivory, marble
13 3/4 x 7 1/4 x 5 in. (34.9 x 18.4 x 12.7 cm)
Signed on top of base: Kelety
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Gift of Sydney and Frances Lewis, 85.328
[source: Virginia Museum of Fine Arts]
7. Bronco Buster
1895, this version cast July 30, 1906
Bronze, green over brown patina, lost-wax cast
22 5/8 x 22 3/4 x 15 1/4 in. (57.5 x 57.8 x 38.7 cm)
Signed at front, top of base at right: Copyright by / Frederic Remington
Inscribed at rear, top of base along right curve: roman bronze works n.y.
Inscribed on underside of base: 49
The Hogg Brothers Collection, gift of Miss Ima Hogg
Acc. no. 43.73
[source: Princeton University Press/Museum of Fine Arts, Houston exhibition
catalogue Frederic Remington]

Catalogues raisonns
The format of entries for catalogues raisonns closely follows that of the exhibition entry or
checklist, with a number assigned to the work; title and variations of the title; date; medium
(usually omitted if works of a single category are listed, such as all paintings, in which, for
example, all works are oil on canvas unless noted otherwise); dimensions; inscriptions;
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collection; provenance; exhibition history; publication history; and a category, usually called
"Remarks," for other pertinent information. In a book with hundreds of such entries, it is
important to verify consistency among entries. To this end, it is helpful to check each of the
elements noted above one at a time from beginning to end. For specific instructions on
individual elements, see Collections and collectors / Credit lines, Dates, Dimensions,
Exhibition history, Inscriptions, Media of artworks, Titles of artworks.


Chronology
Also called a biographical outline, a chronology is often included in artist monographs, solo
exhibition catalogues, and catalogues raisonns. Many formats are possible. In writing a
chronology, it is important to decide on a particular approach and then use it consistently. It is
also helpful to decide what kinds of information to include and exclude. If there is limited
space, information readily at hand elsewhere in the volume (for example, in an exhibition
history) as well as material of secondary importance may easily be omitted. The intention of a
chronology is primarily to trace the artists development, not necessarily to list all of the
artists accomplishments and activities.
Most chronologies are written in either narrative style, with full sentences (usually using the
artists last name), or in telegraphic style, omitting the subject, understood to be the artist. As
in any text, where individuals are introduced, their full names should be given and a brief
identification added.
It is important to verify that information in the chronology agrees with that given elsewhere in
the publication.
Example from Diane Upright, Morris Louis: The Complete Paintings (New York: Harry N.
Abrams, 1985):
1952
Louis and his wife moved into Washington, where they purchased a house at 3833
Legation Street, N.W. Louis converted the 12-by-14-foot dining room into the studio
he was to use for the rest of his life.
Jacob Kainen, a Washington artist, helped Louis to obtain a teaching position at the
Washington Workshop Center of the Arts, which was founded in 1945 by Leon and
Ida Berkowitz. Louis taught two adult painting classes each week. He became
friendly with Kenneth Noland, also an instructor at the workshop.
Example from John Elderfield, Henri Matisse: A Retrospective (New York: Museum of Modern
Art, 1992):
1912
JANUARY 27: With Mme Matisse, departs for the first of two trips to Morocco. Mme
Matisse will stay in Tangier until the end of March, Matisse until mid-April. Paints
landscapes, including Periwinkles (pl. 147), having received a landscape commission
from Ivan Morosov; still lifes, including Basket of Oranges (pl. 148); and figure
paintings.
MARCH 14APRIL 6: First exhibition of his sculptures in America is held at the "291"
gallery in New York, organized by Steichen and selected by the artist with Steichen.
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Includes six bronzes, five plasters (probably including those of the first four
Jeannette sculptures; pls. 127, 128, 138, 139), one terra-cotta, and twelve
drawings. The show is attacked by the critics; none of the works is sold.
APRIL 14: Leaves Tangier for Marseille, en route to Paris.

Classical references
References to classical works should be cited within parentheses in the text. Examples:
(Odyssey 9.266), (Timaeus 484b). The use of Arabic rather than Roman numerals is preferred.
But as with biblical references, a footnote or endnote should be given at the first reference,
citing which translation or critical edition was used.
For classical works that exist in numerous editions, write out the names of the sections of the
work in the note, as readers might use an edition different from yours. Example: (bk. 1, sec.
3). The elements in the text can subsequently be given in Arabic numerals separated by
periods without writing out the names of the sections. Example: (1.5).
See also Chicago 14.25665. Note, however, that the rules Chicago gives apply primarily to
specialized writings; a nonspecialist audience would not know what to make of IG
2
.3274
or POxy. 1485, which are better written out: Inscriptiones Graecae, vol. 2, 2nd ed., inscription
no. 3274, and Oxyrhynchus Papyri, document no. 1485.


Collections and collectors / Credit lines
For museums, all information required by the institution should be cited. This may include
accession number and date and such information as "the Jones fund," "Gift of," and
"purchased with funds from." Credit-line information, not to be confused with copyright
information, identifies the donor or fund(s) through which the object was acquired. Some
publishers change punctuation and capitalization for consistency in style, while others
(especially museums) insist on using the form given by the museum, including punctuation
and capitalization. Examples:
The Museum of Modern Art, New York; Lillie P. Bliss Bequest
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Gift of Mrs. J. H. Jones, 1929
Muse du Louvre, Paris
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
The Frick Collection, New York
Muse des Beaux-Arts, Brussels
Although it is important that the wording given by museums and institutions be carefully
followed in the credit line, some standardization can be obtained by using the same order of
elements and the same punctuation throughout. Examples:
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Purchase 58.55
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Fletcher Fund, 1987 (1987.275)
The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Mrs. Simon Guggenheim Fund
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Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.,
Gift of the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation, 1966.
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, The Nasli and Alice Heeramaneck Collection, Gift of
Paul Mellon, 68.8.3
British Museum, London [E 289]
To help achieve consistency, it is permissible to omit the wording "courtesy" or "courtesy of" in
the collection line. For example, if Bostons Museum of Fine Arts specifies its credit line as
"Courtesy, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston," it could be given as simply "Museum of Fine Arts,
Boston." The use of "courtesy" should be reserved for signaling the role of an intermediary in
obtaining a photograph or permission, as in "Collection of the artist; courtesy Mary Boone
Gallery, New York."
Some museums require a copyright credit for having given permission to reproduce a
photograph. This should appear in the photograph credit, not the credit line. Example:
Oslo, Nasjonalgalleriet (photo: J. Lathion, Nasjonalgalleriet)
Give the full name and location of museums, unless the location is part of the name. Example:
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (not National Gallery). If an institutions title includes
the name of the city, do not repeat the city, although the state or country may have to be
included. Examples:
The Springfield Museum of Art, Illinois
Dallas Museum of Fine Art
Philadelphia Museum of Art
Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto
Kunsthalle Bremen
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond
States and countries should be given only for cities judged to be obscure or where there are
two cities with the same name, for example, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Cambridge,
England. By tradition, "Cambridge" is given for the city in England, whereas the state name is
added for the city in Massachusetts. Names of states may be spelled out. If they are
abbreviated, the standard Websters abbreviations should be used rather than postal
abbreviations. Chicago 10.28 also lists the older abbreviations.
For private collections, only the information the collector provides should be given. Do not add
a city to private collection unless the owner approves. Examples:
Private collection
Private collection, Boston
Collection John Jones, New York
Collection of Mary Black, Somerville, New Jersey
Collection of Mary Black and John Jones, Ventura, California
Collection of the artist
Collection the author (or, perhaps better, private collection)
Some collections are treated as entities. Examples:
Joseph H. Hirshhorn Collection
The Abrams Family Collection
Lehman Collection
Note that in the text, while formal collections should be capitalized (Lehman Collection),
generic terms associated with collections should be lowercased (the collection of Robert
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Lehman).
The words and abbreviations "Inc.," "Company," "Co.," "Ltd.," and the like are usually omitted
when giving names of commercial galleries. Such elements should be retained, however, when
the collection refers to a business or corporation. Example:
The IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York
In general, names of foreign museums are given in the original language for scholarly
publications. However, for books with a wide general audience, names of foreign museums
may be anglicized. Examples:
Palazzo Pitti, Florence = Pitti Palace
Galleria Nazionale dArte Moderna, Rome = National Gallery of Modern Art
Kokuritsu Kindai Bijutsukan, Tokyo = National Museum of Modern Art
In cases where the owner cannot be ascertained, use "Location unknown" or "Whereabouts
unknown." If it is known that a work has been destroyed or lost, that information should be
provided. Examples:
Formerly Berlin, Gemldegalerie; destroyed in World War II
Destroyed by the artist, 1954
Destroyed in a fire, 1963
In most books, photographers and photo agencies credits are removed from captions and
placed in a section, called "Photo credits" or "Photograph Credits," at the back of the book.
See Photograph and illustration credits.


Credits (image and lender)
Credits usually appear at the end of a book, after the index, if there is one, though if they are
short they may be on the copyright page. Pictures, extensively quoted passages of text (short
quoted passagesproperly attributed in the text or endnotesand extensive quotations in
scholarly publications are still covered by fair use), photographers, and owners of rights
(organizations such as SPADEM that own rights to an artists work but do not own the actual
work of art) must all be credited scrupulously. Many owners of artworks now request that a
credit line appear in the caption to an image. However, wherever permitted, information
beyond the location and owner of an artwork should be removed from the caption and inserted
into the credits page. Picture agencies and photographers often request that a credit line
appear with a photograph. Many publishers do not generally consent to that style and instead
place all such credits at the end of the book. Note that the credits typically are not listed in the
table of contents. For specific instructions, see Photograph and illustration credits.


Dashes
There should be no extra space on either side of dashes. Em (long) dashes may be typed as
two hyphens--or as an em dash.
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En dashes are used between inclusive numbers and between compound adjectives. These
should be either marked by the editor or inserted by the editor. Examples:
197072
pp. 3845
New YorkLondon flight
postCivil War period
quasi-publicquasi-judicial bodies


Dates
Month-day-year or day-month-year: June 6, 1988, or 6 June 1988; either is acceptable so long
as one style is consistently used in both text and notes, including in references to journals.
Note that a comma follows the year in the month-day-year style.
Month-day: January 30 (not 30th)
Month-year: January 1992 (no comma)
The name of the month should be spelled out in text; it may be abbreviated in notes,
especially for bibliographic uses.
Seasons: The fall 1992 season (lowercase, no comma)
Decades: 1950s; 1840s and 1850s (in full, no punctuation); or, when the century referred to is
unambiguous, "the thirties." Do not vary formats within one sentence or paragraph. Use "in
the 1950s and 1960s" or "in the fifties and sixties," not "in the 1950s and sixties," "in the
1950s and 60s," or "in the 1950s and 60s."
Mid: mid-1990; mid-nineteenth century; mid-nineteenth-century (adj. form)
Centuries: Spell out and lowercase in text. Examples:
twentieth-century art
a phenomenon of the nineteenth century
He is a scholar of fourteenth- and fifteenth-century art.
art of the late eighteenth century (noun form: no hyphen)
late-eighteenth-century art (adj. form: many style guides and institutions hyphenate
early- and late- in the adjective form, but several do not)
In notes and captions, figures are often used. Example:
late 2ndearly 3rd century
Century or centuries? Some institutions offer the following guide:
The style was revived during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
The movement lasted from the fifth through the eleventh century.
The movement lasted from the fifth to the tenth century.
Eras or systems of chronology: These abbreviations are conventionally set in small capitals,
separated by periods but no space. (Some publishers omit the periods.) The most commonly
used system remains B.C./A.D. The latter always precedes the year. Examples: 55 B.C., A.D. 110.
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Alternative systems that use the same time frame:
B.C.E./C.E. (before the common era and the common era)
B.P. (before the present)
Other systems:
A.H. (in the year of the Hegira, beginning A.D. 622)
A.M. (in the year of the world), precedes the year
A.S. (in the year of salvation), precedes the year
A.U.C. (from the founding of [Rome, 753 B.C.]), follows year
Use of the solidus (slash /) in dates: In birth or death date, 1878/81 means born or died in
either 1878 or 1881. In the date of a work of art or event, it also indicates either/or.
Life dates: Give in full. Examples:
19081972
Arminius (c. 17 B.C.A.D. 21)
385331 B.C. (All digits are given for all B.C. dates.)
Abbreviations may be used in text for life dates given in parentheses. Examples:
born = b. (b. 1930) Note: this is preferable to the form (1930)
died = d. (d. 1538)
about = c. or ca. (ca. 1489d. 1538)
flourished = fl. (fl. 150330) (fl. 1530s) (fl. 16th century)
date known but unverified = ? (1489?d. 1538)
active = act. (or spell out) (act. 16th century or active 171116)
Other forms:
(1683before 1737)
(after 17501799)
Other dates: 385331 B.C. (all digits are given for all-B.C. dates), 18641916, 19001902 (all
digits are given with dates ending in 00), 196265.
Reign dates: 190239; the abbreviation r. may be used for dates given in parentheses (r.
190239).
Dates of artworks: Do not use circa, c., or ca. in text, except when the date is given in
parentheses; "about" should be used instead. Dates separated by a solidus (1878/81) indicate
either/or (either 1878 or 1881). An en dash, not a solidus, should be used to indicate a range
of time: 187881 means the work was begun in 1878 and completed in 1881; ca. 187881
means the work was executed sometime between 1878 and 1881. An undated work may be
designated n.d. (no date) if the intention is not to give an approximate date. A work in
progress may be designated by the date begun followed by an en dash and a space (1994 ).
These and other possibilities are offered here:
1878/81 = work executed either in 1878 or in 1881
187881 = work begun in 1878 and completed in 1881. If it is known that no work
was done in 1879 and 1880, it could be given as "1878 and 1881" or as "begun 1878
and completed 1881"
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ca. 187881 = work executed sometime between 1878 and 1881
exh. or exhib. or exhibited 1881 = earliest record of the work is date of exhibition,
1881
n.d. = undated
1994 = work in progress, begun 1994
1924, reconstructed 1989 = originally executed in 1924 and remade, refabricated, or
reconstructed in 1989. Alternative: 1924 (1989 reconstruction)
1932, exhibition print 1995 = photograph originally printed in 1932, exhibition print
(or any later print) made in 1995. Alternative: 1932 (1995 exhibition print)
For a work in a series, the date of the series alone suffices if it includes the date of the print; if
not, both dates must be given. Examples:
Manhattan View, from the portfolio New York Skyline, 1932
Manhattan View, 1931, from the portfolio New York Skyline, 1932
See also Chicago 9.3037.


Dimensions
For two-dimensional works of art, height precedes width; depth follows for three-dimensional
works. Always compare the measurements against the photograph of the artwork to make
sure that dimensions are given in the correct order. For example, if a picture is of an obviously
horizontal artwork and this does not correspond to the order of the dimensions, check with the
owner of the artwork; the measurements may be transposed, or there may be a typo in the
numbers.
The following abbreviations may be used where necessary in captions (not in running text):
D/D./ d/d.: depth
Diam/Diam., diam, diam.: diameter
Est. diam.: estimated diameter
Max. diam.: maximum diameter
H/H./ h/h.: height
L/L./ l/l.: length
T/T./ t/t.: thickness
W/W./ w/w.: width
in./ft.: inches, feet
mm/cm/m: millimeters, centimeters, meters
sq. in./ft.: square inches, feet
A lowercase x may be used for by, or a multiplication sign, but use only one or the other.
Always use a word space on either side of the x. Editors should mark a lowercase x to be set
as a multiplication sign ().
Use the inch as the basic unit of measurement in captions and catalogue entries. Inches may
be signified with the abbreviation in., used just once per set of dimensions: 17 x 19 in.; 106 x
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27 x 8 in. It may also be indicated by inch marks. When foot and inch marks are used, repeat
the mark in a set of dimensions: 6 2" x 12 10". Editors should indicate the use of foot and
inch marks for the designer/typesetter/printer, especially if quotation marks were used in the
manuscript.
Most publishers and institutions use inches up to 99 and feet and inches thereafter.
However, if there are only a few dimensions over 99", it is best to use inches throughout.
If centimeters are given, that measurement should follow in parentheses: 96 x 96 x 24 in.
(243.8 x 243.8 x 61 cm).
In most cases, convert millimeters to centimeters: 3.5 cm, not 35 mm. Use 5 cm, not 5.0 cm,
and .5 cm, not 0.5 or 0.50 cm. (Works on paper, however, are often given in millimeters.)
1 inch = 2.54 centimeters.
To convert inches to centimeters, multiply the inch figure by 2.54.
To convert centimeters to inches, divide the centimeter figure by 2.54. If you use a conversion
table, check its accuracy by making a few conversions with a calculator.
Standard decimal-to-fraction conversions:
.125 = 1/8"
.375 = 3/8"
.625 = 5/8"
.875 = 7/8"
The following range of figures may be used in converting decimals to fractions:
.063 .125 .187 = 1/8"
.188 .250 .312 = 1/4"
.313 .375 .437 = 3/8"
.438 .500 .562 = 1/2"
.563 .625 .687 = 5/8"
.688 .750 .812 = 3/4"
.813 .875 .937 = 7/8"
.938 .999 = 1" (round off to the next highest whole number)
2/5 rounds off to 3/8
3/5 rounds off to 5/8
1/3 rounds off to 3/8
2/3 rounds off to 5/8
4/5 rounds off to 7/8
1/5 rounds off to 1/4
As a general rule, use only the half, quarter, and eighth fractions. Change all sixteenths and
thirty-seconds to the nearest rounded fractions. (Some institutions, however, go down to
sixteenths, especially for works on paper.) It is unacceptable to leave dimensions of a third
inch, a fifth inch, or a tenth inch.
It is strongly recommended to put a note on the copyright page of a book or preceding a
checklist. Example:
Dimensions are in inches (and centimeters); height precedes width precedes depth.
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If the dimensions are unfixed, use "dimensions variable."
If the dimensions are given as "life-size," no further dimensions are needed.
If the words "sight," "overall," or "each" are used to qualify dimensions, these may go at the
end of the line, in parentheses if only inch dimensions are used and without parentheses if
centimeters are used as well. Examples:
30 x 40 in. (sight)
30 x 40 in. (76.2 x 101.6 cm), sight
30 x 40 in. (76.2 x 101.6 cm), sight
If a work has more than one part, this information precedes the dimensions. Examples:
eight parts, 115 7/8 x 83 1/2 x 10 1/2 in. (294.3 x 212.1 x 26.7 cm) overall
three panels, each 50 x 30 inches
"Approximately" or "approx." usually precedes the dimensions. Example:
approximately (or: approx.) 30 x 40"
Examples of dimensions for prints:
image: 7 7/8 x 12 3/8" (20 x 31.4 cm); sheet: 10 x 14 1/8" (25.4 x 35.9 cm)
sheet, 11 5/16 x 15 13/16 inches; image, 7 9/16 x 11 3/16 inches
sheet, 12 7/8 x 9 7/8 inches; plate, 6 7/8 x 4 inches
Examples of dimensions for sculpture:
Dimensions with base, 12 x 13 x 14 in.
12 x 13 x 14 in., with base
12 x 13 x 14 in., without base
12 x 13 x 14 in. overall
Examples of dimensions for three-dimensional decorative objects:
[Bowl] h. 10.3 cm (4 in.), max. diam. 28 cm (11 in.)
[Tumbler] 3 7/8 x 3 1/16" (diam.)
In text, use numerals for dimensions, use by instead of x, and spell out the word inch and any
other dimension. Examples:
The painting is 9 by 12 inches.
She used an 8-by-10-inch canvas.
The Great Pyramid of Cheops is 482 feet high.
See also Captions, Catalogue entries and checklists, and Measurements Conversion Chart
(at Helpful Links).

Electronic media and devices
WEBSITES AND WEB PAGES
Website titles are given in roman without quotation marks and are capitalized headline style.
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Be sure that when referring to a Website, it is differentiated from print materials either by the
title, name of sponsor, author, or by a short description. Use quotation marks for titled
sections or "pages" within a Website. Website titles that correspond to books or articles can be
styled accordingly. Give revision dates for pages that are continuously updated.
Examples:
Facebook
MySpace
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
the Website of the Chicago Tribune; the Chicago Tribune online; chicagotribune.com
Google; Google Art Project; "Google Art Project Collections"
Christies Art Auctions; "Fine Art Storage Services"
A sample bibliographic Website citation:
Smithsonian Institution. "Exhibitions at the Smithsonian." Last modified January 11,
2013. http://www.si.edu/Exhibitions.
BLOGS AND PODCASTS
Cite blogs, named podcasts, and video blogs in a style similar to that used for periodical
articles. Include the author of the post; the name of the post; the blog title or description; the
name of the parent publication (if there is one); the date of posting; and the URL.
A note example:
Michael Kurcfeld, "An Artists Game of Chance on the High Seas," Arts Beat (blog),
New York Times, January 8, 2013,
http://artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/01/08/an-artists-game-of-chance-on-the-
high-seas/.
Blogs that are frequently cited can be included in a bibliography. Note that a date is not
included. Example:
Rushmore, R. J. "Raes Latest Street Sculpture." Vandalog [blog].
http://blog.vandalog.com/.14.246
A podcast note example:
Allan McCollum, "Collection of Forty Plaster Surrogates, 1982," Museum of Modern
Art, New York. May 18, 2012. Podcast.
http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/MoMAAudioExhibitions/~5/y0_pgiRs8xo/264.mp3
ELECTRONIC BOOKS
Various formats and devices can be used to download electronic books from a bookstore or
library, including PDF e-book, Amazon Kindle, Kobo eReader, Microsoft Reader, and EPUB.
They are identified at the end of a full citation. Example:
Souter, Gerry. Frida Kahlo. New York: Parkstone International, 2011. PDF e-book.
FREE ELECTRONIC BOOKS
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Books that have entered the public domain are often available online at no cost. The electronic
format should always be given for the source of the text. A full bibliographic example:
Speed, Harold. The Practice and Science of Drawing. Reprint of 1913 London edition,
Project Gutenberg, 2004.
ftp//ibiblio.org/pub/docs/books/gutenberg/etext04/practic10.txt.
MULTIMEDIA
To the extent possible, provide full publication details. Include medium information, such as
the type of source (examples: podcast, video, DVD), length, and other relevant facts about the
original source or performance. The electronic file name, or URL, should be included. Give the
date last accessed if the source has no date. Note that electronic content with no formal
publisher or sponsoring body has the status of unpublished work, but the copyright restrictions
are the same as for any published material.
A note example:
"Mona Lisas Twin Sister Discovered in Spains Prado Art Museum," YouTube video,
0:53, Asianet News, February 21, 2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=v1A6h7A9OSo.
A bibliographic example:
Luhrmann, Baz. "Commentary." William Shakespeares "Romeo and Juliet," music
ed. DVD. Directed by Baz Luhrmann. Los Angeles: Twentieth Century Fox, 1996.
Brand names for electronic devices (examples: iPod, iPhone) do not need capitalization, even
at the beginning of a sentence or a heading.

Ellipses
Three ellipsis points indicate an omission within a sentence.
Four ellipsis points indicate an omission of the last part of a sentence, the first part of a
sentence, a whole sentence or more, or a whole paragraph or more.
If three ellipsis points are used, spaces should separate the points from each other and from
the words preceding and following. The points should be typed individually; do not use
Microsoft Words unit ellipsis unless so instructed by the publisher. If four points are used, the
first point serves as a period and should not be separated from the preceding word. Example:
"A strong rhythm dominates Jos Clemente Orozcos Zapatistas. . . . Diagonal lines .
. . dominate the entire composition."
If a sentence preceding four ellipsis points ends in a question mark or exclamation point, that
punctuation replaces the period, to be followed by three ellipsis points. Example:
"Whats Hecuba to him?. . ."
Ellipses are not used to indicate missing or illegible words or parts of words. See Inscriptions.
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See also Quotations.


Exhibition catalogues
Most exhibition catalogues share a number of components particular to them. These may
include, in order (more or less) from front to back: a list of the exhibition schedule including
the travel itinerary and the exhibitions funders and sponsorswhich often appears on the
copyright page; the Contents page (in cases of multiple contributors to the catalogue entries,
this may be the only place where the full names of authors who wrote catalogue entries are
given); the sponsors statement; lenders to the exhibition (may also appear with the back
matter); list of trustees; funders (often given on the copyright page); the directors foreword;
acknowledgments, usually listing all the people who contributed money, expertise, writing, or
artwork; essay or essays; catalogue entries; chronology; bibliography (possibly including an
exhibition history); and index.
The catalogue entries themselves have several components: catalogue number; artist,
nationality, dates; title of work; where created, date; material/medium; dimensions;
signature/inscription information; credit line; accession number; text; provenance, or ex coll.;
bibliography, or references; exhibitions, or exhibited; condition; related works; remarks. If
short forms are used for the elements of bibliography and exhibitions, then the full information
will be found in the overall bibliography at the end of the catalogue. For specific instructions,
see Catalogue entries and checklists, Chronology, Collections and collectors / Credit
lines, Exhibition history, Inscriptions, Notes.
Titles of exhibition catalogues are italicized. See Chicago 8.195.
There are many ways to style an exhibition catalogue in notes, bibliography, and exhibition
history. For purposes of notes and bibliography, the most important information is the
publisher, which may be different from the venue. For exhibition histories, the venue is the
essential information. It is possible, of course, to offer all of this information, but many formats
are tailored to the purpose. Examples:
Rosenberg, Pierre. France in the Golden Age. Exh. cat., Metropolitan Museum of Art.
New York, 1982. [If the publisher is not the museum, the place of publication should
be the publishers location.]
Metropolitan Museum of Art. Franois Boucher. Exh. cat., New York, 1986.
Alain Beausire, "Le Marcottage," in La Sculpture franaise au XIXe sicle, exh. cat.
(Paris: Editions de la Runion des Muses Nationaux, 1986), 95. [This gives the
publisher rather than the venue.]
Brooks, Rosetta. "Spiritual American." In Lisa Phillips, Richard Prince (exhibition
catalogue). New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1991, 85108. [This gives
the venue as publisher, without copublisher or distributor.]
Ruth Butler, "Rodin and the Paris Salon," in Rodin Rediscovered, ed. Albert E. Elsen
[exh. cat., National Gallery of Art] (Washington, D.C., 1981), 21. [This separates the
venue and publishing information.]
Dayton Art Institute, Ohio, American Expatriate Painters of the Late Nineteenth
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Century (1976), exh. cat. by Michael Quick, pp. 100101.
Elizabeth Cropper, Pietro Testa, exh. cat., Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Mass.,
1988. [If publishing information is different, it may be added in parentheses.]
Miller, Lillian B., ed. The Peale Family. Exh. cat. New York: Abbeville Press in
association with the Trust for Museum Exhibitions and the National Portrait Gallery,
1996.
Muse National dArt Moderne, Paris. Max Beckmann. Paris: Runion des Muses
Nationaux, 1968. [In bibliography, under the heading "Exhibition Catalogues."]
Paris, Grand Palais; New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 197475. Centenaire de
limpressionnisme. English edition, Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition. [In
bibliography, under the shortened reference Paris, New York 197475.]
Paris, Muse de lOrangerie, 1933. Renoir. Catalogue preface by Paul Jamot. [In
bibliography, under the shortened reference Paris 1933.]
John Plummer, ed. The Glazier Collection of Illuminated Manuscripts. Exh. cat.,
Pierpont Morgan Library. New York, 1968. [In bibliography, under the shortened
reference New York, Glazier Collection, 1968 (to distinguish it from another entry of
New York 1968; in such cases, short titles are preferable to letters).]

Exhibition history
This refers to two different elements: a listing of an artists exhibitions in an artist monograph
or exhibition catalogue, usually preceding the bibliography; and an item in an exhibition
catalogue entry listing all the venues where the object was displayed. The latter is also called
"Exhibitions" or "Exhibited."
The first type may take many forms. Most are divided into solo exhibitions (or one-artist
shows) and group exhibitions, both arranged chronologically, from earliest to most recent. If
opening and closing dates are used, exhibitions should be arranged chronologically by opening
date. If only the year or years are used, then the exhibitions within each year may be
arranged alphabetically by venue or by location. (The latter may be more sensible than trying
to decide if Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum should be under S or G, and whether Mary
Boone Gallery is under M or B. There is no set rule. However, it may not be helpful if many
exhibitions took place in the same city.)
The listing of one-artist exhibitions may omit the titles of the exhibition, which usually consist
only of the artists name; if the title is different, it may be included. Example:
1982 Associated American Artists Gallery, Philadelphia and New York, Sittings:
Portraits by Will Barnet, Terry Dintenfass Gallery, New York.
The listing of group exhibitions should include the full title of the show. Example:
Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, A Forest of Signs: Art in the Crisis of
Representation, 1989 [or: September 4November 17, 1989]
For traveling exhibitions, the information may be indicated by the simple addition (traveled) at
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the end of the entry. Otherwise, all travel stops may be listed, usually after the opening venue,
with just the year or the entire range of dates, so long as the same information is given for
each item throughout. Some sample forms:
Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, A Forest of Signs: Art in the Crisis of
Representation, September 4November 17, 1989 (traveled to: Whitney Museum of
American Art, New York, December 15, 1989January 12, 1990).
Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, A Forest of Signs: Art in the Crisis of
Representation, September 4November 17, 1989. Traveled to: Whitney Museum of
American Art, New York, December 15, 1989January 12, 1990.
1979 Will Barnet: Twenty Years of Painting and Drawing, Neuberger Museum, State
University of New York, College at Purchase, and John and Mable Ringling Museum of
Art, Sarasota, Florida.
1977 Perceptions of the Spirit in Twentieth-Century American Art, Indianapolis
Museum of Art and subsequent tour.
If the organizing institution is not the first venue, that may be indicated as follows:
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (organizer), A Forest of Signs: Art in the
Crisis of Representation (traveled to: Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles,
September 4November 17, 1989; Whitney Museum of American Art, December 15,
1989January 12, 1990).
Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, A Forest of Signs: Art in the Crisis of
Representation, September 4November 17, 1989. Traveled to: Whitney Museum of
American Art, New York, December 15, 1989January 12, 1990 (organizer).
A Forest of Signs: Art in the Crisis of Representation, Museum of Contemporary Art,
Los Angeles, September 4November 17, 1989; Whitney Museum of American Art,
New York (organizer), December 15, 1989January 12, 1990.
If both venues are co-organizers, that term may simply be added after each venue. Example:
The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (co-organizer), A Forest of Signs,
September 4November 17, 1989; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (co-
organizer), December 15, 1989January 12, 1990.
Exhibition services, such as American Federation of Arts, Independent Curators, and SITES,
that organize but do not exhibit may be listed as follows:
1967 American MastersArt Students League, American Federation of Arts, New
York, and subsequent tour.
American Federation of Arts, New York (organizer), American MastersArt Students
League. Traveled to [give venues chronologically by opening date].
The element "Exhibitions" or "Exhibited" in an exhibition catalogue entry may also take many
forms. It may give full exhibition information (venue, location, year, title, number, plate, or
page numbers in the catalogue), or it may give shortened names, with full information found in
the bibliography. A shortened name may give the location and year only. Examples:
Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, 1910, no. 114 or no. 117; Grand Central Art Galleries,
New York, 1924, Retrospective Exhibition of Important Works of John Singer
Sargent, no. 2, as The Lady with the RoseMy Sister; Wadsworth Atheneum,
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Hartford, 1950, The Adelaide Hilton de Groot Loan Collection, no cat.; Virginia
Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, 1983, Painting in the South (trav. exh.), exh. cat.
by D. R. Smith, pp. 4850; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1987, American
Paradise, exh. cat. by J. Howat et al., pp. 4850, no. 120.
Detroit Institute of Arts, 1940, The Age of Impressionism, no. 27 (Vase of Flowers,
lent by the Bignou Gallery, New York); New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1960,
Paintings from Private Collections, no. 64; Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum Vincent van
Gogh, 1987, Franse meesters uit hand Metropolitan Museum of Art, no. 13.
Peales portrait gallery (?), Independence Hall, Philadelphia, ca. 1782, then the Peale
Museum, Philadelphia, from ca. 17861854; The Fabulous Peale Family, Kennedy
Galleries, New York, June 13July 8, 1960; The Voyage of Life, Bayou Bend Museum
of Americana at Tenneco, Houston, September 22, 1991February 26, 1993.
Paris 1931, no. 114; Antwerp 1948, no. 227; Amsterdam 1949, no. 123a; Antwerp
1954, no. 267; Essen 1956, no. 409; Edinburgh 1958, no. 102; Athens 1964, no.
63; Brussels 1982, no. Iv. 10; Cologne 1985, no. G 11.


Exhibition labels, object labels, wall labels
Every exhibiting institution has its own style for the identifying labels that appear with the
objects displayed in its galleries. Essentially, they repeat the information given in the checklist
or catalogue entry, often following the same or a similar format. Labels with text, sometimes
called chats or didactics, usually follow the same rules as any other kind of text.
Some exhibition labels are so extensive they have been cited in notes. The following format
may be used:
See Michael Kauffmann, "Typologythe Old Testament," wall label for Rubens and
the Bible, curated by Helen Braham, Courtauld Institute Galleries (Somerset House),
London, 199093.

Exhibition titles
Titles of exhibitions are italicized in upper- and lowercase. Examples:
The Glory of Byzantium
Primitivism in Twentieth-Century Art
Some types of exhibitions, howeversuch as expositions, worlds fairs, or recurrent shows
are usually cited in roman type, upper- and lowercase, as for a title. Examples:
Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia
Documenta
Exposition Universelle, Paris
International Exposition of Fine Arts, Barcelona
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Salon of 1864
Salon des Refuss
Whitney Biennial
Be sure to cite as titles only the official names of exhibitions. For example, the first
Impressionist exhibition is a description, not a title.
Titles of exhibition catalogues are italicized.

Extracts
Extended quotationsthe length varies, from more than fifty words to more than one hundred
words to more than ten typed linesare set off from the text with a line space above and
below the quotation, indented one-half inch from the left margin, and double-spaced. Extracts
should not be enclosed in quotation marks, and any quotations within them should be enclosed
with double, not single, quotation marks. An extract placed before the text begins is known as
an epigraph.
See Chicago 13.2122.
See also Quotations.

Figure and plate references
Most texts use the words figure and plate spelled out in text and the abbreviations fig. and pl.
in parenthetical references and captions. Examples:
For a painting by Matisse, see figure 2.
Matisses Harmony in Red (fig. 2) shows the influence of the rich fabric designs of
North Africa.
Fig. 2. Henri Matisse, Harmony in Red, . . .
Some museums and publishers prefer capitalizing figure and plate. Example:
In Kienholzs Ozymandias Parade (Fig. 72), unlike State Hospital and John Doe (Figs.
43, 65), we find . . .
For cross-references to illustrations within the book, use a blind reference (see plate 00) and
indicate in pencil, circled in the margin, the tentative illustration number or title referred to.


Footnotes
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See Notes.


Foreign languages
Foreign-language quotations are set out and punctuated in the same way as English-language
quotations. If an English translation would be useful to readers, place it either before or after
the original quotation. If avoiding clutter is desirable, place the original-language text in an
endnote or footnote rather than in the text. If the author of the text has not provided the
translation, the translator/source must be given. Foreign-language quotations should not be
put in italics or underlined.
Capitalization of publication titles, in notes and bibliographies as well as in text: For the most
part, adhere to the rules of sentence-style capitalization for the language in questionthat is,
capitalize the initial word of the title and subtitle and any words that would normally be
capitalized in prose. An English translation can follow in parentheses. Example:
Gustave Flauberts L'ducation sentimentale (A Sentimental Education) was
published in 1869.
Some publishers follow an alternative rule of capitalizing all words up to and including the first
substantive. Example:
La Jeune Femme
Whichever rule is adopted, follow it consistently. It should be noted that title pages in the
original language are not reliable guides in this respect.
Foreign titles of artworks are capitalized in the same way as literary titles. In a title, any
periods, guillemets ( ), or extra spaces can be changed to reflect standard use. When an
artwork is best known by its foreign title, that title should appear first, with the English
translation following in parentheses. Example:
Le djeuner sur lherbe (Luncheon on the Grass) or (Luncheon on the grass)
However, titles of well-known foreign works should be given in English, with the original title
(following in parentheses) when the writer thinks it worth including. Example:
A Modern Olympia (Une moderne Olympia)
Use the original language for building names unless they are commonly anglicized. Examples:
Sistine Chapel
Arc de Triomphe, Paris
Most institutions and publishers follow English-style capitalization for the names of foreign
journals, buildings, institutions, and similar categories. Examples:
Beihefte der Historischen Zeitschrift
le Palais du Louvre
The use of foreign-language words in text should be minimized. Where it is essential, the
English translation should be added within parentheses or quotation marks.
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Foreign words and phrases that are likely to be unfamiliar should be in italics; translations
following the foreign language are in parentheses, or quoted, but not both.
Many foreign words and phrases have entered the English language and are no longer
italicized. Examples:
fin de sicle
trompe loeil
Zeitgeist
A good guide to their status is whether they appear in the latest version of Merriam-Websters
Collegiate Dictionary. Also, most proper nouns that are not titles are not italicized. Examples:
the Curia
the Stanza dEliodoro
the Piazza del Fonte Moroso.
Traditional English names for foreign places should be used: Florence (not Firenze); Munich
(not Mnchen). In general, publishers and institutions rely on the first-choice spelling given
by Merriam-Websters Geographical Dictionary. Foreign publishers names are not translated.
Example:
Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag, 2012
For a detailed examination of foreign-language style matters, see Chicago, chapter 11.


Honorifics
Omit honorifics except when thanking a person for help. In general, omit honorifics when citing
debts of published or older sources; give honorifics when citing current unpublished ones, such
as letters or oral communications. Examples:
Dr.
Professor
M., Mme, Mlle
Sig., Sig.ra, Signorina
Dott., Dott.ssa
Rev.
Msgr


Hyphens
To determine current usage for compound words and words with prefixes and suffixes,
consult Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary or Websters Third New International
Dictionary. Also, see the guidelines in Chicago 7.7785. If a compound is not hyphenated in
any of these sources, it probably should not be hyphenated. Use a hyphen only if the sentence
might be ambiguous or confusing without it.
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Hyphens are not used with most prefixes, such as non-, post-, or semi-. Exceptions are before
capitalized words, as in post-Kantian; to separate repeated vowels, as in semi-industrial; or to
distinguish homonyms, as in re-creation/recreation. For a list of examples, see Chicago 7.85.
Most compounds with like are closed (that is, do not need a hyphen) unless confusion or
misreading would result, for example, when the first element ends in the letter l, consists of
three or more syllables, or is a compound word or a proper noun. Examples:
doglike, seal-like
elephant-like
Picasso-like
Note: A -like compound formed with a proper name (Matisse-like) is incorrect when the
comparison is to the artists work or style, not the artist personally. In these instances, use
Matissian, Disneyesque, Rousseauvian (or Rousseauesque)or better yet, recast the sentence.
Use hyphens before the noun in color terms. Examples:
blue-black ink
black-and-white print (but: the print is black and white)
dark-green background
bluish-gray tone
Use hyphens with compound adjectives when they precede the noun but not when they follow
it. Examples:
well-planned event
the event was well planned
Do not use hyphens with adverbs ending in ly. Examples:
dimly lit painting
poorly described text
highly regarded scholar
Century designations used as adjectives should be hyphenated. Examples:
fourteenth-century Japanese art
mid-sixteenth-century art
300-year-old painting
The designations early and late, however, do not require hyphens. Examples:
early twentieth-century art
late nineteenth-century art
Use a hyphen (not a solidus) to link descriptive nouns preceding a name or the title of a work.
Examples:
artist-monk Mokuan Reien
artist-poet Marcel Broodthaers
French given names are usually hyphenated (example: Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres), a
practice begun in the nineteenth century. It is probably safe to hyphenate all French given
names from the late eighteenth century on.
Hyphenate the terms e-mail, e-book, and e-pages.
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Illustrations
See Photographs and artwork.


Index (citing illustrations in)
It is useful to employ italics in citing pages on which illustrations appear. For a large index, it
might be helpful to use small capital letters for the names of artists or places. (Note that when
using small caps for this purpose, full caps should be used for those letters that would
normally be capitalized. Example: DE KOONING, WILLEM.)
At the beginning of the index, the following key should appear:
Pages on which illustrations appear are in italics.
Names of artists and places are in SMALL CAPITAL LETTERS.
For indexes limited in space, note that the use of passing references of proper names is less
helpful than using themes that run through a text.
See Chicago, chapter 16.


Inscriptions
Inscriptions of any typesignatures, labels, stamps, marksare usually specified for artworks
in the catalogue entry or checklist, transcribed word-for-word, line-for-line, along with their
location. Letters or words lost through damage are usually indicated by empty brackets (one
em space in length) or sometimes simply by a (one em) space. Parentheses indicate letters
omitted as the result of abbreviation in the inscription. Words in capital letters are usually set
in small capitals. Line divisions are indicated by a solidus/ (with a spaceideally, a hair space
on either side of the solidus). Note that full capital letters are used in the examples below.
However, small capital letters may be advisable in some cases.
Examples for paintings:
Signed lower left: C. H. Davis
Signed and dated upper right: W. M. Harnett [in monogram] 1885
Signed and dated lower right: Anna E Klumpke / 1898. Canvas stamp on reverse: 54
Rue N. D. DES CHAMPS PARIS / PAUL FOINET / TOILES COULEURS FINES.
Inscribed (on verso): AEt. 50 / 1749; Mrs. Margt. Nicholls of New York, N. America /
Grandmother to Mrs. Frances Montresor (below in another hand).
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Inscribed lower right: "les btes de la mer . . . / H. Matisse 50"
Signed and inscribed lower left: G. Courbet / Bruxelles / 1851
Some institutions distinguish between printed and cursive signatures by underlining the cursive
signature.
For sculpture, the following terms may be used to indicate locations: base or base top, base
front, base rear, base side, rim of base, base edge, under base, side, corner, back, above
base. Examples:
Markings: ROMAN BRONZE WORKS NY (base, proper left rear); Paul Manship /
1916 (proper right base top)
Inscribed (on back): E.D. PALMER SC. 1861.
The following example uses three separate lines to convey all the marks:
Signed at front, top of base at right: Copyright by / Frederic Remington
Inscribed at rear, top of base along right curve: ROMAN BRONZE WORKS N.Y.
Inscribed on underside of base: 49
Examples for prints:
Inscribed (below image): VICTORIOUS BOMBARDMENT OF VERA CRUZ. / by the
united forces of the Army and Navy of the U. S. March 24
th
. and 25
th
. 1847.
Examples for decorative art objects:
[silver cup] Marked: BELL & BRO'S / SAN ANTONIO / TEXAS (incuse, base).
Engraved: Florence [Florence Eager Roberts] (side).
[ceramic coffee urn] Marks: FENN'S PATENT NO. 2 / NEW YORK NO. 2 (stamped on
spigot)


Italics
Use roman type for scholarly Latin words and abbreviations. Examples:
a priori, ca., cf., e.g., etc.
However, italics should be retained for sic, which is always placed in roman brackets: [sic].
Italicize words used as words. Example:
The term artist here refers to the designer of the object rather than to the
manufacturer.
Italicize words and phrases in a foreign language that are likely to be unfamiliar to readers.
Examples:
cire perdue, modello (pl. modelli), ricordo
A full sentence or more in a foreign language should be set in roman type. Familiar words and
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phrases should be in roman type; such words are likely to be found in the latest edition of
Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary. Common examples:
a priori, cause clbre, lan, facade, in situ, mea culpa, oeuvre, papier-mch,
pentimento (pl. pentimenti), plein air, repertoire, trompe loeil.
See also Foreign languages, Titles, Titles of artworks, Words and terms.

Manuscript locations
In notes, an abbreviation may be given with the first citation of a manuscript location and used
thereafter. Some common examples:
Archives Nationales, Paris (hereafter Arch. Nat. or AN)
Archivio di Stato, Rome (ASR)
Archivio di Stato, Venice (ASV)
Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan (Bibl. Ambr. or BA)
Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana (Bibl. Vat. or BAV) Barb. lat.
Biblioteca Nazionale, Florence (Bibl. Naz.)
Biblioteca Riccardiana (Bibl. Ricc.)
Bibliothque Nationale de France (BNF) ms gr., ms lat.
Bodleian Library (Bodl. Lib.) Laud ms Misc.
British Library (Brit. Lib.) ms Royal, ms Add., ms Cotton
British Museum (Brit. Mus.)
Vat. Lib. (Vatican Library) ms Reg. lat. [Reg. probably means "registro."]

Manuscript preparation
Publishers have precise guidelines about the submission of book or journal manuscripts, and it
is important to be familiar with their instructions regarding use of software and fonts.
Manuscript files may be submitted to publishers as e-mail attachments, or a large number of
files may be best submitted on a USB or into a cloud-based application site used by the
publisher (example: Dropbox). A PDF version may be required, and a hard copy will usually be
required as well. Each file should include the authors name, the title of the article/book, the
software used, and the file name (example: J. Jones, Art of the 1950s, Microsoft Word 2010,
manuscript.docx). All files and printouts should be dated, so as to avoid confusion between
different versions of the same material.
The following recommendations satisfy the requirements of most institutions:
Each chapter should be a separate file. The front matter (table of contents, preface,
acknowledgments, and foreword) takes up a single file, as does the back matter (appendix,
glossary, bibliography, and image-reproduction credits). Complex and lengthy back-matter
elements are better treated as separate files. Captions, too, should be in a separate file.
Footnotes and endnotes are placed in the same file as the relevant chapter. Notes in electronic
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manuscripts can be hyperlinked to the text by the publisher. When a publisher requests that
footnotes or endnotes not be embedded in the text, it is sometimes helpful to create a
separate file for them. One university press uses embedded notes in endnote function in both a
text and a separate notes file, so that notes can be added or deleted as necessary. Note
numbers in text should be superscript. In the notes themselves, note numbers should be on
the line, not superscript.
All text elements must be fully double-spaced (not 1.5), including quotations, notes,
bibliography, and captions, even if the computer program defaults to single spacing for notes
and extracts. Such defaults can be overridden.
All copy should be flush left, ragged right. Do not justify the right-hand margin; do not center
heads. Do not break words (hyphenate) at the ends of lines. Turn off any automatic-
hyphenating program.
Allow 1-inch margins at left, right, top, and bottom. (Sometimes a 1 1/2-inch margin at right
or at left is helpful.)
Indent prose extracts (block quotations) by changing the margins rather than by using tabs or
spaces. Add an extra line space above and below extracts.
Tabsnever spacesshould be used for paragraph indents. Do not leave an extra line space
between paragraphs unless instructed by the publisher to do so.
Use italic type or roman type underscored for words to be set in italics. Punctuation following
italic words is set roman, including parentheses enclosing a word or words completely in italics.
Type em (long) dashes, or use two hyphens. Close up space on either side of the dash.
There should be one space after punctuationincluding periods and colonsnot two.
Do not place endings of ordinal numbers in superscript (17
th
); leave them on the line (17th).
Override the feature in your computer program that automatically changes ordinals to
superscript.
Do not use the lowercase "ell" for the numeral 1.
If a manuscript is submitted in separate files, each chapter can begin its page numbering at 1,
provided it is clear which chapter each page belongs to (examples: "chapter 5:1," "chapter
5:2"). A manuscript comprising just one file may have consecutive numbering.
Publishers instructions will vary on header and footer information in a manuscript. The
authors name, chapter number, and page number should appear in either the header or
footer, unless the author has been instructed to keep the authors name off the manuscript
(for example, if it will be sent out for peer review).
Give headings in upper/lowercase headline style (never in all caps) and in roman type (never
boldface or italics). Fancy or unusual typefaces are to be avoided. Use an easily readable font
in 11- or 12-point type. Some institutions request 12-point Courier. Avoid the use of centering
and all-capital letters. Text may be in bold if it is to be so in the final version.
Include on the first page (cover sheet) of the manuscript:
your name and address (office and home), telephone/fax numbers (office
and home), and e-mail address;
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name of the article/book; number of words for each element (text,
footnotes, captions, etc.); total number of words, including notes, captions,
and all other elements;
computer system used (PC, Macintosh), software and version (example:
Microsoft Word 2010) or cloud-based application site (example: Google
Docs), and the file names for all documents.
If images are submitted as scans, submit printouts at full size, fully labeled with illustration
number and a brief description of the work. Give the file name of each image on the printout
or on an accompanying illustration list, along with instructions regarding preferred illustration
locations in the manuscript (see Photographs and artwork).
The hard copy should contain the complete manuscript exactly as it appears in the files, with
no handwritten additions and nothing missing. If last-minute changes are made to the files,
there must be a new printout of the relevant pages. If handwritten corrections cannot be
avoided, they should be brought to the attention of the designer/typesetter/printer with a flag
and an arrow in the margin (or other such signal).
The author and editor should keep backups of the electronic files. The author also needs to
keep a record of relevant copyright and intellectual-property materials.

Media of artworks
The medium of most artworks takes the form of "medium on support": oil on canvas; pencil on
wove paper (some institutions prefer "graphite" to "pencil"); pen and brown ink with brown
wash on paper, and so on.
The materials used to create an object should be listed in a consistent fashion; both "tempera
on wood" or "tempera on panel" are acceptable, but only one form should be used within a
single publication. Similarly, if there are two different ways to cite the same medium (gelatin
silver [or gelatin-silver] print and black-and-white photograph), just one should be used
throughout.
For decorative arts and textiles, it is preferable to list the principal material(s) first, then the
decorative elements. Examples:
porcelain with enamel and gilt decoration
silk with metallic thread embroidery
Trademarked names must be capitalized (example: Masonite); it may be preferable to
substitute generic terms where possible (example: fiberboard).
Here are some examples of media and supports. Trademarked names are noted with TM,
followed by a generic version of the given term.
beech (not beechwood)
bister (preferred to bistre)
Bondo (TM)
boxwood
cont/cont crayon
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Cor-Ten steel (TM)
Dacron (TM; polyester)
faience
felt-tip pen
Fiberglas (TM; fiberglass)
Formica (TM; laminated plastic)
fruitwood
gilt bronze (noun), gilt-bronze (adjective)
guilloche
handscroll
india ink/ink
limewood
Lucite (TM; acrylic resin or plastic)
Liquitex (TM)
Masonite (TM; fiberboard)
Mylar (TM; polyester film)
ocher (preferred to ochre)
papier-mch
photocollage
photoengraving
photomontage
pietra dure
Plexiglas (TM; acrylic plastic or acrylic sheet)
Polaroid (TM)
posterboard
silkscreen/screenprint, screenprinted
silver gilt (n.), silver-gilt (a.)
silverpoint
soft paste (n.), soft-paste (a.)
terra-cotta (n. and a.)/terra cotta (n.), terra-cotta (a.)/terracotta (n. and a.)
tusche
woodblock
woodcut
wood engraving
Xerox (TM; photocopy)

Notes
Two terms are used for notes: footnotes, which are notes placed at the bottom of a page, and
endnotes, which appear at the end of an article, chapter, or book. The terms footnotes and
endnotes are essentially interchangeable.
Note-reference numbers in the text should be clearly designated by means of superior figures
placed at the end of a clause or after punctuation. Note-reference numbers in the notes
themselves should be on the same line as the text, followed by a period and one space.
Example: 1. John Shearman, . . .
Journal article titles and subheadings in a book chapter may have note-reference numbers.
Chapter titles, however, should not have note numbers.
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The authors name should be given exactly as it appears on the title page of the book or article
cited. Chicago 14.72, however, allows replacing initials with the full first name to help identify
the author correctly (example: John R. Martin rather than J. R. Martin). If the name appears in
different versions, use the fullest version. Be sure to specify "ed." where applicable. When no
author or editor is specified, the institution sponsoring the publication is cited as the author.
With four or more authors, list the first author followed by "et al." (example: Chappell et al.,
"Humanizing Creativity,". . . )
A colonnot a period, comma, or semicolonis used to separate the main title and the
subtitle, no matter how it appears on the title page. If there is a second subtitle, it is separated
by a semicolon and starts with a capital letter (example: Rothko: Intimacy and Humanity;
Painting on the Large Scale). A dash in the title, however, should be retained (example: "Self-
Portraitan Account of the Artist as Educator"). All titles should be given either headline-style
or sentence-style capitalization. It is also permissible to spell out abbreviated words and
numerals. Some editors find it useful to impose standard punctuation as well, such as serial
commas and hyphens. See Titles.
Exhibition catalogues are indicated by the abbreviation "exh. cat." Only the year the catalogue
is published need be cited, not the exhibitions range of dates. If the exhibition opened in one
year and closed in the next, the opening date is used for the year of publication. Only the
sponsoring institution need be given, not the entire list of venues. When the publisher is
different from the sponsoring institution, that information may be (but need not be) included.
Example: Lise Duclaux et al., Ingres, exh. cat., Petit Palais, Paris, 1967 (Paris: Runion des
Muses Nationaux, 1967). Note that some institutions substitute the publisher for the venue.
Example: Lise Duclaux et al., Ingres, exh. cat. (Paris: Runion des Muses Nationaux, 1967).
If the catalogue is cited as a book, that is, omitting the mention "exh. cat.," then only the
publishers name is needed. If the catalogue is a copublication between sponsoring institution
and publisher, that information, as specified on the title page, should be given. Example:
David B. Warren et al., American Decorative Arts and Paintings in the Bayou Bend
Collection (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts in association with Princeton University Press, 1998).
Include the city of publication as cited on the title page or copyright page. If more than one
city is given, only the first need be cited. Include the state or country if the city of publication
is not well known; use your judgment. Chicago prefers the two-letter postal code, but the
standard state abbreviations are acceptable. See Chicago 10.28.
In publishers names, ampersands may be retained or may be changed to "and" so long as
consistency is maintained. Examples: New York: Harper and Row. London: Routledge & Kegan
Paul.
Publishers names may be shortened to exclude "and Co.," "Inc.," "Ltd.," "Publishers," and the
like, so long as they are treated consistently. Avoid truncating a publishers name: Alfred A.
Knopf, not Knopf. For journals, if the month is included in the date of publication, spell it out or
abbreviate it consistently. If seasons are used, uppercase them (Spring, Summer, Fall,
Winter).
For journals, distinguish between vol. and no. If the issue number is given, it is not necessary
to give the month of publication (although it is not incorrect to include it). Example: Art
Bulletin 81, no. 3 (1999). Unless the publications pages run consecutively throughout the
volume, an issue number or month must be given.
Chicago recommends using figures only for volumes and page numbers. Example: (3: 466).
Many institutions, however, prefer to identify one or each element. Example: vol. 3, 466, or
vol. 3, p. 466.
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Lowercase all references to parts of a book, in text as well as in notes. Examples:
See chapter 6.
The bibliography appears at the end of the article.
16. Hannah Arendt, introduction to Illuminations, by Walter Benjamin . . .
Page numbers should precede references to illustrations. Example: [page] 412, fig. 57.
A shortened form for references may be used to reduce the size of documentation. If there is a
complete bibliography, the short form may be used even at the first mention. Example of a full
citation in a note:
Jean-Michel Rabat, "A Constellation of Modernist Historiography: Woolf with
Benjamin," Journal of Modern Literature, 36, no. 1 (Fall 2012): 16365.
Example of the short form, which contains the authors last name, key words from the main
title, and the page or page numbers:
Rabat, "Constellation of Modernist Historiography," 16365.
For notes that supplement the author-date system, source citations appear as they do in the
text. Example: (2012, 24).
Do not use op. cit. or loc. cit.
Use ibid. (not italicized) only in consecutive references (without intervening citations) to the
same work. If note 3 contains two references and note 4 refers to the second reference cited
in note 3, use a short form of the reference rather than ibid. in order to avoid ambiguity.
Abbreviations for frequently cited journals, archives, series, and the like may be used in the
notes if the key to the abbreviations is given at the head of the notes section or bibliography.
Notes and note numbers can be hyperlinked in electronic works.
BOOKS AND EXHIBITION CATALOGUES
Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography, trans. Richard
Howard (New York: Hill and Wang, 1981), 4.
Alan R. Solomon, Jasper Johns, exh. cat. (New York: Jewish Museum,
1964), 6, pl. 3.
Walker Art Center, Tyler Graphics: The Extended Image (Minneapolis:
Walker Art Center, 1987), 16, fig. 2.
Robert Skelton, The Indian Heritage (London: Victoria and Albert Museum,
1982), 12324.
Edward Conze, Buddhist Thought in India (1962; repr., Ann Arbor:
University of Michigan Press, 1967), 2145.
George Ashdown Audsley, The Art of Organ Building, 2 vols. (1905; repr.,
2 vols. in 1, New York: Dover, 1964), 14.
Robert Goldwater, Primitivism in Modern Art (1938; rev. ed., New York:
Vintage Books, 1966), 28.
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Bashford Dean, Helmets and Body Armor in Modern Warfare (1920;
microfiche ed., Boston: G. K. Hall, 1991), p. 23.
William Alexander Lambeth and Warren H. Manning, Thomas Jefferson as
an Architect and a Designer of Landscapes (Boston: Houghton, 1913), 45
60.
Kogen Mizuno, The Beginnings of Buddhism, trans. Richard L. Gage
(Tokyo: Kosei, 1982), 6789.
Vincent A. Smith, The Oxford History of India, 3rd ed. (Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1958). V. P. Shah, Jaina-Pupa-Mandana, vol. 1 (New Delhi: Abhinav,
1987), 90105. [Note that for multivolume works, only the year of the
volume cited need be given. If inclusive years are given, the year of the
volume cited should be given as well.]
K. Talwar and Kalyan Krishna, Indian Pigment Paintings on Cloth, vol. 3
of Historic Textiles of India at the Calico Museum (Ahmedabad: Calico
Museum of Textiles, 1979).
Edmund Burke, The Correspondence of Edmund Burke, ed. Thomas W.
Copeland, vol. 3, July 1774July 1778, ed. George H. Guttridge (Princeton,
N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1961), 7578.
Robert Willis and John Willis Clark, The Architectural History of the
University of Cambridge, 3 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press,
1988), 2: 268.
Walther Schubring, The Religion of the Jainas, Calcutta Sanskrit College
Research Series, no. 52 (Calcutta: Sanskrit College, 1966).
Jerome, Commentaria in Esaiam X.xix.1, XI.xix.24, ed. Marcus
Adriaen, Corpus Christianorum Series Latina [often abbreviated as CCSL],
vol. 78 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1958), 72.
Catalogue of the Library, sale cat., Christies, New York, July 29, 1925.
ARTICLES AND CHAPTERS IN A BOOK
Susan C. Larsen, "Los Angeles Painting in the Sixties: A Tradition in
Transition," in Art in Los Angeles: Seventeen Artists in the Sixties, ed.
Maurice Tuchman, exh. cat. (Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of
Art, 1981), 2123.
E. Binney, "Later Mughal Painting," in Aspects of Indian Art, ed. P. Pal
(Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1972), 9295.
Bruce Glaser, "Questions to Stella and Judd," in Minimalist Art: A Critical
Anthology, ed. Gregory Battcock (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1968), 10124.
[Give inclusive pages for essays or chapters in a book.]
"Sasanians," in The Encyclopedia of Islam, vol. 7 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1934),
178.
D. J. [Louis de Jaucourt]. "Muse," in Encyclopdie. . . .;
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Dictionnaire. Paris, 1802. s.v. "musum," 247.
Isidore, Etymologiae, ed. Wallace M. Lindsay (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1911), 13.10.3.
ARTICLES IN JOURNALS, PERIODICALS, AND NEWSPAPERS
Lawrence Alloway, "Michelle Stuart: A Fabric of Significations," Artforum 12
(January 1974): 6465.
Catherine Glynn, "Early Painting in Mandi," Artibus Asiae 44, no. 1 (1983):
4548.
Krishna C. Gairola, "Manifestations of Shiva," Oriental Art, n.s., 27, no. 3
(Autumn 1981): 59.
William Robbins, "Big Wheels: The Rotary Club at 75," New York Times,
Sunday, February 17, 1980, sec. 3. ["Sunday" may be omitted.]
Pierre Marcel, "Une oeuvre de Watteau au muse de Dijon," Gazette des
Beaux-Arts 94 (May 1904): 37278. [For capitalization of foreign titles and
periodicals, see Foreign languages.]
UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL
Nancy Elizabeth Locke, "Manet and the Family Romance" (PhD diss.,
Harvard University, 1993), 41. [or, (masters thesis, New York University,
Institute of Fine Arts, 1961), 41.]
ARCHIVAL MATERIAL
Charles Demuth Papers, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale
University, New Haven, http://beta.worldcat.org/archivegrid/record.php?
id=122370503.
Georgia OKeeffe Papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, D.C.
Lloyd Goodrich, "Essay on Abstraction," 1930, typescript, 5, Whitney
Museum of American Art, New York.
Abstract Art Controversy Correspondence, archives, box H4, file 82,
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.
MS fr. 938, fols. 13r14v., Rouen, Bibliothque Municipale.
Camerale 111, Anagni, busta 80, Computa Depositaria Munimimis Ananiae,
3, Archivio de Stato, Rome.
OTHER MATERIALS
Jim Sharman on Andy Warhol, interview by Phillip Adams, Late Night Live,
Podcast audio, ABC, March
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5, 2012, http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/rn/podcast/2012/03/lnl_20120305_2240.mp3.
Dylan Thomas, Under Milk Wood, performed by Dylan Thomas and others,
Caedmon Dkls, 2005, compact disc.
See also Abbreviations, Bibliography, Exhibition catalogues, Exhibition history.

Numbers
Numbers from one through one hundred and round numbers (six hundred, two thousand) are
spelled out in text. Use numerals for numbers 101 and above, except for round numbers. Use
numerals when numbers in the same paragraph range both below and above one hundred. Use
numerals when odd numbers over one hundred are mixed with round numbers. Examples:
At the age of seventy-eight
Some fifteen hundred spectators
Among the 1,561 guests there were 200 boys.
The same rules apply to ordinal numbers. Examples:
In his seventy-eighth year
The fifteen hundredth anniversary
Haydn wrote his 103rd symphony thirty-six years after his first.
Approximate numbers are spelled out. Example: The collection contained approximately five
thousand works on paper. However, approximate numbers in the millions or more use figures
and words. Example: He made a profit of $4 million on the painting.
Spell out any number that begins a sentence.
Use numerals with a.m. and p.m. (traditionally, a.m. and p.m. have been set in small caps,
but increasingly they are set in full caps, without periods); spell out with "oclock."
Use numerals for percentages, decimals, ratios, dates, most units of measure and distance,
and parts of a book. Examples:
12 percent (not %)
3.2 million
5:6
June 16
22 ounces
128 kilometers
chapter 6
Centuries are spelled out in running text and often are abbreviated in captions and notes.
Adjectival forms are hyphenated. Examples:
The fifteenth-century Bible
A late-twentieth-century structure (or: a late twentieth-century structure)
In four-digit numbers, except in dates and page numbers, use a comma. Example: 1,786.
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In all other instances, follow Chicago. Examples:
19151989 (birthdeath dates)
188085
19001906 (any instance beginning with a number ending in zero)
19045 (any instance of a number with 0 plus a single digit)
Inclusive numbers: Use all digits for numbers below 100 (that is, all two-digit numbers). Use
all digits when the first number ends with 00. Use the changed part only, omitting unneeded
zeroes from 101 through 109, 201 through 209, etc. For B.C. dates, repeat all digits. All digits
are usually given for birth and death dates as well. For all other dates, repeat the last two
digits only. For inclusive page numbers and other uses, repeat the last two digits only.
Examples:
310
7172
100109
1078
10047
32125
153638
Arabic numerals are used for series, volume, part, section, or chapter numbers, even if roman
numerals are given in the cited source. Roman numerals (lowercased) are used only for front-
matter pages and illustrations/plates so numbered.
See also Dates, Dimensions.

Online Resources
For a list of useful Internet resources, click on Helpful Links. Suggestions for additional Web
resources are always welcome, as is feedback on the present set of links. Send e-mails to
pfreshman@mnmicro.net.

Permissions
It is usually the authors responsibility to obtain written permission to reproduce images of any
kind. This may include permission from the owner of a work of art, from a photographer for his
or her photograph of a work of art, from a photo agency, from the artist or artists agent, from
an institution that holds copyright to the object or the image, or from others. Publishers may
require that editors make sure all necessary permissions have been obtained and that any
required credit form has been supplied.
The reprinting of text extracts of more than a few lines or so, unless covered by "fair use,"
requires permission from the copyright holder, either the author or publisher or both.
(Permission is generally requested from the publisher.)
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The reprinting of poetry or song lyrics of any length requires permission from the copyright
holder or, in the case of song lyrics, usually an agency that handles such matters, such as
ASCAP.

Photograph and illustration credits
A separate section listing photograph credits might begin in the following ways:
"Most of the photographs of works of art have been provided by the owners. The
following list acknowledges photographs from other sources."
"The author and publisher wish to express their appreciation to the following
individuals and institutions, who kindly provided photographs."
"We gratefully acknowledge the following people and institutions for the photographs
and illustrations in this book."
Text credits might begin:
"Grateful acknowledgment is made for permission to quote from the following
works."
Some books list such credits page by page, a method that takes up a great deal of space. A
more usual procedure is to make a list in alphabetical order, giving the name of the
photographer, institution, or agency followed by page numbers and directionals (top, above,
center, below, bottom, left, right) to specify the illustration when more than one appears on a
single page. If directionals are abbreviated, a key should be given. The names and pages may
be given in list form or run in, separated by semicolons.
The placement of the photograph or illustration credit in a caption rather than in a separate
credits section is used primarily by periodicals. It usually appears at the end, following the
credit line of the owner of the artwork, and is usually given in parentheses.
It is usually unnecessary to credit the museum or collection that owns the artwork as the
supplier of the reproduction, unless the institution requires a special form of credit. Example:
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. [credit line for owner of artwork] (photo: Board of
Trustees, National Gallery of Art). A credit usually must be given if the photo was supplied by a
photograph archive or agency or by an institution other than the owner or if the
photographers name is required. Examples:
Muse du Louvre, Paris [owner] (photo: Runion des Muses Nationaux)
Palazzo Pitti, Rome (photo: Alinari)
Private collection (photo: courtesy of Christies, New York)
Palazzo Bianco, Genoa (photo: Frick Art Reference Library)
San Giovanni dei Fiorentini, Rome (photo: Davis Lees, Rome)
(photo: University of Durham; photographer: T. Middlemass)
If the illustration was reproduced from a book, that information must be given, with the full
facts of publication and the page and/or plate number. Example: (from Spiro Kostof, A History
of Architecture [New York: Oxford University Press, 1985], p. 195, fig. 9.4.)
Drawings, diagrams, computer reconstructions, and other original illustrations should give the
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artists names in a photo credit. Example: (drawing: Liz Lauter).

Photographs and artwork
DIGITAL
Publishers generally request that photographic material and artwork be submitted in digital
formats. They will recommend their preferred types of art files, and will need to know details
of the software programs the author has used.
Usually, each digital illustration will have its own file, separate from the text files. Use file
names that clearly identify the illustration, its point of insertion in the text, and whether it is
black-and-white or color. A complete list of artwork-file names should be submitted as well as
a list of all captions, keyed by numbers and/or letters in some clear way to the images.
Besides the electronic submission, a hard copy of each artwork showing its file name is usually
required. A publisher should be able to identify and cross-reference an artworks hard copy, its
file, and its position within a manuscript or electronic text.
At the place in the text where an image is to be inserted, an electronic work may display a
thumbnail image, along with its file name and the hyperlink to the file of the full-size image.
Placement references (example: <fig. 00 here>) may be unnecessary, as a software program
may have its own keying system for illustrations.
Digital works in the public domain may be used without permissionwith the owner
acknowledged, as a courtesy, in the article/bookbut the quality of Internet pictures or
artwork created using the Microsoft Office suite may be too poor for use in a publication.
PRINT
Electronic transmission is quickly becoming the preferred mode for submitting photographic
material and artwork, but in some cases actual photographs, transparencies, and the like are
acceptable.
Authors are usually responsible for obtaining photographs and transparencies and for obtaining
permissions to reproduce them. Usually, authors pay for their own photographs. The question
of who pays reproduction fees depends on the publisher. For journal articles, the author is in
almost all cases responsible for this. For books and exhibition catalogues, however, the
publisher may pay some or all of the reproduction fees. Many museums will waive reproduction
fees for photographs to be used in scholarly periodicals.
Generally, photographs must be in hand when an article/book is submitted for publication. If
illustrations need to be scanned, publishers usually prefer to do this themselves in order to
ensure quality control. If you do not have a photograph of a particular artwork and want to
wait to order the photograph until after publication decisions are made, you may be able to
include a photocopy made from a book or other publication.
Black-and-white glossy prints on fiber-based paper made directly from the work of art are
preferable in those cases where original rather than electronic submissions are required. The
preferred size is 8 by 10 inches, with a white border on all sides, at least 1/4 inch wide on each
side. If there is no white border, up to 1/4 inch of the image will be cropped in production.
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Each print should be submitted in a separate glassine envelope or plastic sleeve. If this is not
possible, make sure the prints are in a protective plastic sleeve or folder with no edges
protruding. Prints should be handled on the edges; avoid touching the photographs surface, as
doing so can leave fingerprints.
Color photographs (in cases where original rather than electronic submissions are required)
should be submitted as 4-by-5- or 8-by-10-inch transparencies. Good-quality slides are often
acceptable, although they cannot be reproduced large. Color photographs (prints) may be
acceptable. Slides and transparencies should be originals, not duplicates, and should not be in
glass mounts, which often break and ruin them. Color transparencies should be in individual
clear-plastic sleeves or envelopes. Slides should be in 8 1/2-by-11-inch slide sheets to avoid
their being mislaid. Do not remove transparencies from their plastic sleeves or slides from their
cardboard mounts. If transparency sleeves are mounted in cardboard, however, the cardboard
may be carefully removed. Each illustration should be clearly marked with the authors name,
the artist, the title or description of the illustration, and the figure or identification number
corresponding to the caption number or, if no numbers have yet been assigned, its intended
location (example: chap. 1).
Marking should be done on a separate label. Write on adhesive labels before attaching them.
Attach the identification label on a pressure-sensitive sticker or label to the back of the black-
and-white photograph, to the plastic sleeve covering the transparency, or directly to the slide
mount. If it is necessary to write directly on the back of photos, it should be done lightly with a
soft-lead (no. 1) pencil. Hard pencils and ballpoint pens can ruin the surface of the
photograph, whereas felt-tip pens can bleed or, if used on a group of photographs that are
then stacked, transfer to the photographic surface underneath it. Do not use paper clips,
staples, rubber bands, or other plastic or metal fasteners on or in contact with photographs.
Never use Scotch tape on photographsfront or back.
If there might be a question as to which is the top of the illustration, write "top" at the
appropriate edge or use an arrow to indicate the top edge. Similarly, the front of a
transparency may need to be indicated in order to avoid having it printed in reverse (flopped).
In the absence of other clues, the artists signature can be used to establish the correct
orientation.
If only part of the illustration is required, the area to be reproduced should be clearly indicated
on a photocopy or printout of the photograph. If the image contains writing, such as a caption
in a print, indicate if the writing should be cropped out or if it is essential to retain the writing.
If color transparencies are to be printed in black-and-white, or if a print needs to be cropped,
silhouetted, touched up, or cleaned, that information should be noted on the envelopes
enclosing them and/or on an illustration or photo list supplied with the illustrations.
The submission of illustrations should be accompanied by an illustration or caption list,
sometimes called a photo log or illustration-transmittal list, with numbers corresponding to the
identification numbers on the illustrations. The desired size of each illustration should be
indicated (large, medium, small; A, B, C; full page, half page, quarter page), those to be
reproduced in color so marked, and any illustrations that belong together noted, as well as any
other instructions for the designer, such as cropping, silhouetting, converting from color to
black-and-white, touching up, cleaning, or making a detail. It may be useful to note the format
of the illustration submitted (b/w, transparency, slide, and so on), as this information is
essential for the production list, which will contain all the above information with final numbers
and the final order of all illustrations being used.
If illustrations are to be interspersed with the text, they must be keyed to the text. If editing
with pencil on paper, indicate placement of illustrations at the ends of paragraphs where they
should approximately appear, with: <fig. 00 here> or just <fig. 00>. (Remember to remove
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these references later if the typesetter or designer does not.)

Possessives
For possessives, add an apostrophe and an s to all names, including those ending in s or a
sibilant (examples: Keatss; Degass; Eakinss; Marxs).
For Greek names of more than one syllable ending in -es, add an apostrophe and an s
(example: Xerxess). See Chicago 7.1723.
Use a singular possessive for animal adjectives (examples: lions-head decoration; bulls-eye
window) and entities such as corporations and organizations, except when the name is a plural
form ending in s (example: Springboard for the Arts workshop).

Proofreading
Depending on the publisher and the schedule, an author may be involved in several rounds of
editing before a manuscript is finalizedand is responsible for carefully proofreading the
agreed-upon finished edit. The author should be permitted to read the first set of page proofs
in order to fix gross errors but should not be permitted to rewrite on proofs, and can be
charged for corrections that the publisher deems excessive. The standard correction allowance
before charges are applied is 10 percent.

Punctuation
COMMA
Use a comma before and and or in a series of three or more elements. Example:
The collection contains paintings, drawings, and prints.
In introductory phrases, follow what appears to be the authors comma-use preference. A
comma is not necessary, but it may be used. Examples:
In the beginning, she studied architecture.
In 1965 she had her first solo exhibition.
By 1972, she was exhibiting regularly.
Use a comma after introductory dependent clauses. Example:
If you build it, they will come.
Use a comma before which when it introduces a nonrestrictive clause (one that adds
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information but that if omitted would not change the meaning of the sentence). Example:
She wrote an article about action painting, which was the subject of a recent
exhibition, for a Sunday news magazine.
Use a comma for absolute appositives only. Example:
He introduced his second wife, Clare. Her daughter Joanne joined them. [She has
more than one daughter.]
In compound sentences, use a comma (not a semicolon) if the second independent clause is
introduced by a conjunction, such as and and but. Example:
The artists came from similar backgrounds, but their painting styles were quite
different.
In general, no comma is needed if the two phrases share the same subject; this is a compound
predicate. Example:
The artists came from different backgrounds but painted in a similar style.
If the second clause is introduced by a conjunctive adverb such as however and therefore, use
a semicolon (not a comma). Example:
The artist has worked in several media; however, she now prefers acrylics.
If the second clause follows the first without a conjunction or a conjunctive adverb, use a
semicolon (not a comma). Example:
The exhibition will open May 1; the members reception will be April 30.
SEMICOLON
Use semicolons to separate items in a series of items that have their own commas (internal
punctuation). Example:
His work has been shown at the Art Students League, New York; the Museum of Fine
Arts, Boston; and the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond.
SOLIDUS/SLASH
Use a solidus instead of an en dash to convey "either/or" rather than like elements. Examples:
b. 1246/48 (born in either 1246 or 1248) but 18981966 (lived from 1898 to 1966);
designer/typesetter but painter-sculptor. In such uses, no extra space is called for before and
after the solidus. A thin space (from a hairline to an en dash) is usually added when separating
multiple elements (Princeton University Press / Museum of Fine Arts, Houston) and in
indicating ends of lines in poetry or inscriptions (Signed: Copyright by / Frederic Remington).
PUNCTUATION WITH QUOTATION MARKS
By convention, Americans place periods and commas inside quotation marks and semicolons
and colons outside. Exclamation points and question marks go in or out, according to sense.
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SUPERSCRIPTS FOR NOTE NUMBERS
These should be placed outside commas, colons, periods, and closing parentheses but inside
dashes (on the left side of the dash).
PUNCTUATION FOLLOWING ITALIC WORDS
This is usually set roman, including parentheses enclosing a word or words completely in
italics. It is not incorrect to make punctuation and parentheses italica more traditional style
so long as it is done consistently.

Quotations
Quotations must be absolutely accurate and carefully transcribed. An ellipsis (three spaced
dots) indicates words omitted within a sentence. A period and three spaced dots indicate a
deletion between sentences or paragraphs.
Unless the quoted material is governed by fair use, the author must obtain permission to quote
published material. For guidelines of fair use, see Chicago 4.7787.
If a translated quotation comes from a published source and not the author of the manuscript,
that source must be given (usually in a note).
Extensive quotations (varying from more than fifty words to more than ten lines) should be
typed as extracts, that is, without opening and closing quotation marks and set off from the
text with a block indent. Shorter quotations should be run into the text.
To mark a block quotation for the typesetter or printer, write "extract" or "EXT" in the margin
next to the quotation, with a vertical marginal line to indicate the full block.
Lines of poetry run into text are separated by a solidus (slash /) with a thin space on either
side. Several lines of poetry are usually set in a block, marked "poetry extract."
"Emphasis added" indicates the authors addition of italics to quoted matter.
Brackets in quoted material indicate the authors interpolation.
The interpolation [sic] indicates a misspelling or mistake in the original quotation. Chicago 13.7
finds it permissible to correct a simple typographical error in printed materials. In a document
filled with grammatical errors and misspellings or antiquated spellings, [sic] is unnecessary. It
is best used sparingly, to avoid confusion. Note that the word sic is always in italics, inside
roman brackets.
The only other change to quotations permitted is of quotation marks, to conform to the system
used in the manuscript (usually American, that is, with double quotation marks inside the
quote for the first time, then single quotes inside those double quotes).
A short quotation placed at the beginning of text is an epigraph, and it should always be set as
a block indent. It is usually followed by an em dash, the name of the author, the title of the
work the quotation comes from, and a note number, which will provide publication information
about the source from which the quotation was taken. If it is desired that no note number be
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used in the epigraph, the source can be given in an unnumbered note that precedes the
numbered note and may be indicated by the word epigraph in italics, followed by a period, or a
sentence stating the source of the epigraph.
See also Extracts.

Reference sources
Listed here are reliable reference books and Websites for publishing and style matters.
For all aspects of publishing and style, see The Chicago Manual of Style, referred to herein
as Chicago.
For spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, and word division, see Websters Third New
International Dictionary (unabridged) or Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary. Websters
2nd (unabridged) may be used for words not found in Websters 3rd. The Oxford English
Dictionary is a good source for obscure words and for the roots of words generally.
For proper names, see Websters Biographical Dictionary. The American Heritage
Dictionary includes proper names and usage notes.
For artists names, see The Grove Dictionary of Art and the Bnzit Dictionary of Artists:
www.oxfordartonline.com/public/
For museum names, The Official Museum Directory is the standard source for museums in the
United States and Canada; see www.officialmuseumdirectory.com. Also check the individual
museums Website.
For international museum names, see the International Directory of Arts:
www.degruyter.com/view/product/178346. Also check the individual museums Website.
For preferred spellings of place names, see Merriam-Websters Geographical Dictionary. Also
useful for place names is The Times World Atlas (1992, or later edition), using the first
(preferred) listing.
For a reliable book on grammar and style, see The Handbook of Good English, by Edward D.
Johnson (1991). Words into Type (3rd ed., 1974) has a section providing correct prepositions
to use with many words. The Little Red Writing Book, by Brandon Royal (2012), offers a
concise overview of structure, style, and readability in expository (nonfiction) writing.
For special terminology pertaining to art, The Harper Collins Dictionary of Art Terms and
Techniques, 2nd ed. (1991) is quite useful.
For a list of useful Internet resources, click on Helpful Links. Suggestions for additional Web
resources are always welcome, as is feedback on the present set of links. Send e-mails
to pfreshman@mnmicro.net.

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Saint
Use Saint and the standard form of the name in English when referring to saints.
In an individuals name, follow the bearers usage. Examples:
Susan Saint James
Ruth St. Denis
For places, churches, etc., use the local forms. Examples:
St. Louis, Mo.
St-Denis
Ste-Chapelle
S. Apollinare
S. Lucia or Sta. Lucia
SS. Annunziata
In manuscripts dealing heavily with church names, abbreviations may be used.
Saint Peters (the Vatican) in Rome is always given in English form. French forms with Saint
and Sainte are usually hyphenated, with no period. Examples:
Saint-Denis
St-Exupry
The city names St. Paul, Minnesota, St. Louis, Missouri, and St. Petersburg, Russia, may be
spelled out or abbreviated, so long as one or the other style is used consistently.

Signature
See Inscriptions.

Spelling
See Words and terms.

Theological terms
There are no set rules on the capitalization of theological terms. Chicago (8.90110)
and Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary are useful sources.
In texts dealing primarily with religious images, objects, or issues, generally capitalize
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Christian theological terms. Examples: Apostles, Archangel Gabriel, the Baptist, Benediction,
Christ Child, Church Fathers, the Crucifixion, Eucharist/Eucharistic, Evangelists, God the
Father, Gospel Book, Heaven, Holy Communion, Immaculate Conception, Incarnation,
Judgment Day, Judgment of Solomon, Man of Sorrows, Mass, Massacre of the Innocents,
Mother of God, Nativity, Original Sin, Passion Play, Prophets and Sibyls, Scripture, Three
Marys, Virtues and Vices (capitalize individual ones, example: Envy). In other
texts, Chicago recommends lowercasing most such terms.
In general, capitalize formally named theological terms and lowercase those referred to
generically. Examples: archangels, birth and death of Christ, breviary, canon tables,
communion, disciples, his birth (no capitalized pronominal adjectives), prayer book,
sacrament. Other examples:
Book of Job, the Law, Psalm 22, Pentateuchal
The prophet Muhammad, the Prophet; the Quran, Quranic, Hegira
Bhagavadgita, Rig Veda, sutra, Upanishads, Vedas, Vedic, Dharma or dharma,
mandala

Titles
Titles of exhibitions, works of art, books, online publications, periodicals, pamphlets, movies,
television and radio series, video works, plays, long poems, operas, and compact discs are
usually given in italic type. Titles and other elements that are normally italicized within titles
are enclosed in quotation marks (examples: Virtue and Beauty: Leonardos "Ginevra de Benci"
and Renaissance Portraits of Women; The Raft of the "Medusa"). Standardize capitalization in
the titles of books and periodicals rather than following title pages or design logos
(example: Art News). Some editors find it useful to impose standard punctuation as well, such
as serial commas and hyphens. A word that is normally lowercase in a title remains lowercase
when it follows a dash (example: De Sadea Memoir).
Titles of short poems, articles, songs, short stories, essays, individual episodes of television or
radio series, conferences, symposia, and lectures are generally enclosed in quotation marks.
If the official title begins with an article, the article should always be retained, capitalized and
italicized (example: A Treatise on Painting Written by Cennino Cennini in the Year 1437; The
Gross Clinic), except when it is in a sentence whose syntax calls for its omission. Examples:
Henry Jamess Turn of the Screw (but Henry Jamess novella The Turn of the Screw).
A colon precedes subtitles (example: Emulation: Making Artists for Revolutionary France). If
there is more than one subtitle, semicolons are used to separate them (example: Lpoque de
Lucas de Leyde et Pierre Bruegel: Dessins des anciens Pays-Bas; Collection Frits Lugt). Titles
of European books are often given with a period instead of a colon for the subtitle, but if this
system is used, it should be used for all books. (Note that Chicago 14.97 recommends only a
colon.)
Series titlesof lectures, films, performances, works of art, or of continuing exhibition
programsare often capitalized, are set in roman (not italic) type, and are not enclosed in
quotation marks (examples: Frank Stellas Black paintings; Picassos Bathers; the A. W. Mellon
Lectures in the Fine Arts). Note, however, that Chicago 8.193 recommends setting series of
artworks in italics.
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Generic titles of musical works are usually given in roman (not italic) type and are capitalized
(examples: Beethovens Symphony No. [or no.] 9; Symphony in G Major; Sonata in E-flat;
Bachs B Minor Mass). Non-generic titles should be italicized (example: Handels Messiah) or, if
the composer has not given a descriptive name, treated as nicknames, in roman type and
enclosed in quotation marks (example: Beethovens Piano Concerto no. 5, the "Emperor").
In titles of publications in English, capitalize the first word, the last word, all nouns, pronouns,
adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinate conjunctions. Lowercase articles, coordinate
conjunctions, prepositions, and the to in infinitives. Follow these rules regardless of the
capitalization used on the books title page. (Note that Chicago 8.155 says cited titlesaside
from its own exceptionsare usually given headline-style capitalization. See Chicago 11.3 for
the capitalization of foreign titles. Since editors frequently cannot check original titles, that
means relying on the authors transcriptions. It might make more sense to standardize
capitalization in editing book titles.)

Titles of artworks
Italicize titles of artworks (see Titles).
Traditional names for artworks and official names of buildings or other architectural
monuments are usually capitalized but not italicized. Examples:
Albani Tomb
Baptistery of Pisa
Cathedral of Saint John the Divine
Isenheim Altarpiece
Piazza San Marco
Roman Forum
Sforza Monument
Venus de Milo
Generic and descriptive words for artworks and buildings are generally lowercased. Examples:
cathedral of Milan (but Milan Cathedral)
church of Notre-Dame
Lottos Louvre altarpiece
tomb of Cardinal Albani
Works of art are often known by more than one title or in more than one language. There can
be no fixed general rule for titles of artworks, but the following principles may be a guide:
Any work in an English-language museum or collection should usually be titled as the museum
or owner titles it. However, a well-known variant title is sometimes acceptable. In such cases,
it might be useful to give the name the owner uses in parentheses following the variant. Since
the institution normally requires that its title be used in the caption, that title should appear
first. In general, when alternative titles are used, the primary or principal title is given first,
with the variant (or a title from earlier usage) following in parentheses.
Works in foreign-language museums or collections are often given in English (using an
established name, if one exists), unless the foreign title is difficult to translate or the work is
well known by its original title, such as Henri Matisses Le bonheur de vivre, which is in an
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American collection. Some artworks are universally known by their foreign-language titles,
such as Michelangelos Piet. If the collection uses a foreign title, the English translation, if
desired, normally follows in parentheses and in italics after the titles first use in the text and
perhaps in the caption, too. Alternatively, the translation may be given in roman type,
capitalized sentence style (only the first word and any proper nouns).
In general, the English title is sufficient for books aimed at a popular audience, but in books of
a more scholarly nature titles are often given in both the original language and in an English
translation.
Not to be considered titles are categories of subject matter, which are capitalized but not
italicized. Example: He was commissioned to paint an Annunciation and ended up painting an
Adoration of the Magi as well. Likewise, names acquired by tradition are not to be considered
titles, as in the Friedsam Annunciation. (Friedsam is not part of the title of the work.) The
distinction between the subject and the title should be respected. Examples: He made a
painting of the Battle of Cascina; he made a painting, The Battle of Cascina. She executed a
portrait of the artist in her studio; her Portrait of the Artist in Her Studio.
Names of objects are usually capitalized and not italicized. Examples:
Unicorn Tapestries
Lindisfarne Gospels
the Hours of Catherine of Cleves
the Warren Cup
See also Foreign languages.

Titles of people
Except in acknowledgments, professional titles used without the name appear in lowercase.
Many institutions insist on capitalizing them in acknowledgments; if this is the case, they
should not be preceded by an article, and they should immediately precede or follow the name.
Example:
[Name], Director, National Gallery of Art
[Name], the director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art
[Name], curator of American Painting.
A named chair or position, however, is always capitalized. Example:
[Name], Tucker-Boatwright Professor of Humanities, [Institution].
Titles of nobility and civil and ecclesiastical titles should be capitalized only when they
immediately precede the name. When the title is in apposition before a name, used as a
descriptive element, it is lowercased. Examples:
Alfonso, duke of Ferrara; the duke of Ferrara; the dukes of Ferrara; Duke Alfonso of
Ferrara
the king of Spain; King Philip IV; the king Philip IV of Spain (used in appositive)
the pope said; Popes Leo and John; Pope Leo said
Mayor Daley; the mayor
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Words and terms
Below is a selection of words and terms that appear frequently in art-related writing. Note that
trademarked names must be capitalized. In cases where more than one version of a word or
term is currently used, both are listed, separated by a solidus; the order does not reflect a
preference.
16-mm/35mm
3-D
a priori
Abstract
Expressionism,
Abstract Expressionist
(specific style)
abstract geometric
style
Abstraction-Cration
group
academy (drawing)
acknowledgment
Action Painting/Action
painting/action
painting
aesthetic
African American
(noun and adjective,
per Chicago), African-
American (n. and adj.,
per Merriam-Websters
Collegiate Dictionary)
agitprop
All-over/all-over (n.
and adj.)
Amazon Kindle/Kindle
Amerindian
antiquity/Antiquity
filmmaker, filmmaking
film noir
firsthand
floor plan
focusing
forego (to go before,
precede); forgo (to
abstain from, do
without)
foreseen
foreword
formalism
Formica
(trademarked)
freelance
freestanding
frescoes
frottage
full-bleed
Futurism, Futurist
(specific style)
genre art, genre
painting
Geometric Abstraction
gilt bronze (n.), gilt-
bronze (adj.)
glasswork
online
on-screen/onscreen (adj.)
Op Art/Op art/op art
open-bite
oriental/Oriental
overpainting
Pacific Rim
paintbrush
Panavision
papier-mch
parcel-gilt (n. and adj.)
pasteup
PDF
PDF e-book
pen-and-ink (adj.)
pen work
pentimento (pl. pentimenti)
Performance Art/Performance
art/performance art, performance
artist
per se (not italic)
photo-construction
photoengraver
photolithography
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appendixes/appendices
archaeology
Art Brut
Art Deco/art deco
ARTnews (magazine)
Arte Povera
art historical/art-
historical (adj.)
Art Informel
artist-in-residence
art making/art-making
Art Nouveau
Arts and Crafts
movement/Arts and
Crafts Movement
Art Students League
artwork
Ashcan school/Ashcan
School
Asian (instead of
Oriental)
assemblage
atelier
Aubusson manufactory
avant-garde (noun and
adj.)
B movie/B-movie
bce (b.c.e.)/bc/(b.c.)
Baroque period
(specific style)
bas-relief
Bauhaus
beatus initial
golden mean, golden
section
Gothic (Early, High,
Late)
graffito (singular)
Great Depression, the
Depression (referring
to the Great
Depression)
grisaille
ground plan
guerrilla theater
Hague, The
halftone
halos
hand-colored
hand-cut
hand-pulled
hand-rocking
handscroll
handwork
Happening
hard edge (n.), hard-
edge (adj.)
hard paste (n.), hard-
paste (adj.)
Hellenism, Hellenistic
hermeneutics
hippie
history painting
horse-head amphora
House of the
Centenary (Pompeii)
photomechanical reproduction
photomontage
photomural
photo-offset
Photorealism, Photorealist (specific
style)
Photostat (n., trademarked),
photostat (verb), photostatic
picture making/picture-making
pice de rsistance
pice doccasion
piet/Piet
pietra dure
platemaker, platemaking
plein air, plein-air (adj.), pleinairist,
pleinairism (but en plein air)
Plexiglas (trademark)
pochoir
podcast
Pop Art/Pop art/pop art
Post-
Impressionism/Postimpressionism
Postmodernism/postmodernism/Post-
Modernism
Post-Painterly Abstraction
poststructuralism
PowerPoint (trademark)
Pre-Raphaelite
Process art
public art
putto, putti
Rayograph
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benday/Benday
Beuys, Joseph (not
Josef)
Bible historiale
Bible moralise
Biennial, the (Whitney)
Biennale, the (Venice)
Biomorphic Abstraction
black (as in black
American, black artist,
etc.)
black-and-white (adj.)
black-figure (only as
adj.)
blanc-de-chine (adj.)
blog
Body Art/Body
art/body art
book signing/book-
signing
brush mark
brushstroke
brushwork
by-product
c.e. (ce) /a.d. (ad)
catalogue/catalog
catalogue raisonn,
catalogues raisonns
cause clbre
Central Europe
charge mark
chiaroscuro
chine coll
Hudson River school
Hyperrealism
idem (not italic)
image making/image-
making
Imagism
impastoed
Imperial Rome
Impressionism
indexes
Industrial Revolution
information age
inquiry (but ensure)
in situ (not italic)
Instagram
Installation art
intaglio
Internet
iPad
iPhone
iPod
japonisme
Jubilee year
Kindle
Kinetic Art/Kinetic
art/kinetic art
knowledgeable
labeling
Land Art/Land art
letterbox format
ready-made (n. and adj.)
Realism (19th-century movement)
re-creation
regionalism
Renaissance (Early, High, Late)
repertory/repertoire
ricordo
Rococo/rococo
Romanesque
Romantic period, Romantic(ism)
So Paolo Bienal/Bienal de So Paolo
school (New York school)/School
(Paris School)
school of Leonardo
Scotch tape (trademarked)
screenprint, screenprinted
sculpmetal
self-portrait
sfumato
silkscreen/silk-screen (n., v.)
silverpoint
site-specific
sketchbook
smartphone
Social Realism (specific style)
Socialist Realism
soft-ground (adj.)
soft paste (n.), soft-paste (adj.)
soundtrack
Southern California
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chop mark
CinemaScope
cinema verit
circa (abbrev. c. or
ca.)
cire perdue
cityscape
civil rights movement
classical music
Classical period (of
ancient Greece)
CoBrA (Copenhagen,
Brussels, Amsterdam)
co-commissioned
co-curated/cocurated
column-kraters
co-organized
codices
Colonial period
Color Field
painting/color field
painting/color-field
painting
colorplate
compact disc/CD
Conceptual
Art/Conceptual
art/conceptual art
concrete art
Constructivism,
Constructivist (specific
style)
cont crayon
copresented
letterform
life class
life drawing
limited-edition (adj.)
Lucite (trademark)
Luminism
maest
manifestos
Mannerism
Masonite (trademark)
mass media
mea culpa
Medici, de (Lorenzo
de Medici)
medieval
medium, media
Mesoamerica
Middle Ages
middle ground
mid-fourteenth
century
Midwest
millennia
Minimal Art/Minimal
art
Minimalism, Minimalist
(specific style)
mise en abme
mise-en-page
mise-en-scne (not
italic)
modeled, modeling
spitbite
Stanza dEliodoro
still life, still lifes (n), still-life (adj.)
structuralism/Structuralism
Styrofoam (trademark)
Suprematism
Surrealism, Surrealist (specific style)
Symbolism (specific style)
Synchromism
Tachisme, Tachiste
tchotchke (not italic)
Technicolor
terra cotta (n.), terra-cotta
(adj.)/terracotta (n. and adj.)
ticket holder
time frame
time line
tonalism
torsos
Triennial (California-Pacific)
trompe loeil
T-shirt
tusche
TV/television
under way (adverb)
United States (instead of U.S.A. or
America); possessive: the United
States position
Vanitas
video
videodisc
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copublish, copublisher,
copublication
Cor-Ten steel
(trademarked)
cross-hatching (n.),
cross-hatch (v.)
Cubism, Cubist
cutout/cut-out
Dada/Dadaism
Day-Glo
(trademarked)
deconstruction(ism)
de Stijl
dialogue
digital videodisc/DVD
direct-metal process
Doric
draftsman (not
draughtsman)
Dsseldorf
Dynasty 18/XVIII
Dynasty/Eighteenth
Dynasty
Early Christian
East, the (eastern
United States or Asia)
Eastern Europe
e-book
Eight, the
e-mail
endpoint
enfant terrible
Eros
modello (pl. modelli)
modernism/Modernism
molding
moviemaking
multi-instrumentalist
multimedia
Mylar (trademark)
MySpace
naive art
Native American
Neoclassic(ism),
Neoclassical (specific
style)
Neo-Impressionism
new wave (but French
New Wave)
New York school/New
York School
non-actor
non-art
nonobjective
nontraditional
Northern California
northern
Europe/Northern
Europe
northern Italian
object maker/object-
maker
oeuvre
old master
(sometimes Old
Master)
Vingt, Les/Les XX
vis--vis
wall painting
watercolor
Website
well-being
West, the (western United States)
Western Europe
Western world
World Wide Web
wide-screen (adj.)
wood-carver
wood carving
wood engraver, wood engraving
woodblock
workforce
work in progress/work-in-progress
World War I, World War II
Xerox (n., trademark), xerox (v.),
xerography
X ray (n.), X-ray (adj.)
YouTube
Zurich
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et al. (no comma
preceding it)
expressionism,
Expressionism,
expressionist
facade (no cedilla)
Facebook
faience
Fauvism
Federal period
felt-tip pen
fiberglass/Fiberglas
(trademark)
fieldwork
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Links
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