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Topic A: Cells & cell structures

Subtopics
Microscope & microscopy
o Conversion of units
o Properties of microscope
o Magnification, calculation of magnification
o Resolution
o Microscopy & Plan diagrams
o Micrometry
Eukaryotic cells
o Properties of cells
o Specific structures
o Size of cells & cellular structures
Prokaryotic cells
o Properties of cells
o Difference beteen eu! vs" prokaryotic cells
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Microscope & microscopy # Conversion of units
$%une &''(, P), *&+
, lysosome measures '"- .m in diameter"
/0at is t0e diameter in nm1
A - nm B -' nm C -'' nm D -''' nm
$2ov &''3, P)&, *4+
, lymp0ocyte 0as a diameter of ) 5 )'
!&
millimetres 6mm7"
/0at is t0e diameter in nanometres 6nm71
A ) 5 )'
)
B ) 5 )'
&
C ) 5 )'
4
D ) 5 )'
-
$%une &')), P)), *)+
, cell organelle measures - 5 )'
8)
mm in diameter"
/0at is t0e diameter in .m1
A - 5 )'
)
.m B - 5 )'
&
.m C - 5 )'
4
.m D - 5 )'
-
.m
$%une &''3, P), *)+
/0at are t0e appropriate units for measuring diameters of alveoli, diameters of 0ite blood cells and
t0e idt0 of cell alls1
diameters of
alveoli
diameters of
0ite blood cells
idt0 of
cell alls
A mm .m .m
B .m mm .m
C .m .m nm
D mm mm mm
13 $%une &')', P)), *)+
/0ic0 structures are measured using t0ese units1
)'
84
m )'
89
m )'
83
m
A c0loroplast ribosome nucleus
B nucleus c0loroplast :ylem vessel
C ribosome :ylem vessel c0loroplast
D :ylem vessel nucleus ribosome
Microscope & microscopy # Properties of microscope
19 $2ov &')&, P)), *(+
/0ic0 statement about t0e lig0t microscope is correct1
A
,s t0e smallest distance to see to points as distinct separate points decreases, t0e resolution
also decreases"
B ;f t0e resolution is &&' nm, t0en a bacterium '"& .m in diameter ill not be visible"
C
;f t0e avelengt0 of lig0t is 9'' nm, t0en to membranes 4'' nm apart ill be visible as to
distinct membranes"
D <sing visible lig0t of a longer avelengt0, suc0 as red lig0t, ill improve t0e resolution"
24 $2ov &''=, P), *)+
/0ic0 eyepiece and ob>ective lens combination enables you to see t0e greatest number of cells in t0e
field of vie1
eyepiece ob>ective
A :( :)'
B :)' :)'
C :( :-'
D :)' :-'
25 $2ov &')&, P)&, *)+
/0ic0 eyepiece and ob>ective lens combination of a lig0t microscope enables you to see t0e greatest
number of cells in t0e field of vie1
eyepiece lens ob>ective lens
A 5( 5)'
B 5( 5-'
C 5)' 5)'
D 5)' 5-'
31 $%une &')), P)), *&+
;n t0e folloing table, 0ic0 is t0e correct comparison beteen lig0t and electron microscopes1
lig0t microscope electron microscope
resolution magnification resolution magnification
A 0ig0 0ig0 lo lo
B 0ig0 lo lo 0ig0
C lo 0ig0 0ig0 lo
D lo lo 0ig0 0ig0
38 $2ov &''-, P), *9+ $%une &''3, P), *4+
/0at describes t0e features of an electron microscope and its use1
ma:imum magnification resolution ? nm specimen used
A : & ('' &(' dead
B : &( ''' '"( living
C : &(' ''' '"( dead
D : ('' ''' &(' living
44 $%une &')), P)), *-+ $2ov &')&, P)&, *-+
Plant cells are stained and t0en vieed t0roug0 a lig0t microscope"
/0ic0 structures ould be clearly visible at a magnification of 5-''1
A c0loroplast grana
B lysosomes
C nucleoli
D ribosomes
49 $2ov &''3, P)&, *)+ $2ov &''-, P), *&+
/0ic0 cell structure can be seen only it0 an electron microscope1
A cell surface membrane
B c0romosome
C nucleolus
D vacuole
54 $%une &')&, P)), *)+
/0ic0 group of structures is visible in a suitably stained plant cell using a 0ig0 poer 6:-''7 lig0t
microscope1
centriole c0romosomes mitoc0ondria starc0 grains
key
@ visible
@ not visible
A
B
C
D
Microscope & microscopy # Magnification & calculation
60 $2ov &''-, P), *(+
A0e diagram is a plan of a transverse section t0roug0 a leaf, dran using a : ( eyepiece and a : =
ob>ective lens of a microscope"
A0e actual distance across t0e leaf section is B"( mm" /0at is t0e magnification of t0e diagram1
A :( B := C :&' D :-'
62 $%une &''B, P), *)+
A0e diameter of living cells varies considerably"
Aypical diameters areC
a prokaryote, suc0 as Streptococcus ! B(' nm
a eukaryotic cell, suc0 as a 0ite blood cell ! )( .m
Diven t0ese measurements, t0e diameter of t0e 0ite blood cell is 0o many times greater t0an t0e
prokaryote1
A : & B : &' C : (' D : &''
64 $2ov &')', P)&, *-+
A0e diameter of living cells varies considerably"
A0e typical diameters are
a eukaryote, suc0 as a 0ite blood cell )"( 5 )'
)
.m
a prokaryote, suc0 as Streptococcus B"( 5 )'
&
nm
<se t0ese measurements to find t0e ma:imum number of eac0 cell type 0ic0 could fit along a line )
cm long"
number of 0ite blood cells number of Streptococcus cells
A 9"B 5 )'
4
)"4 5 )'
(
B 9"B 5 )'
&
)"4 5 )'
-
C 9"B 5 )'
)
)"4 5 )'
4
D 9"B 5 )'
'
)"4 5 )'
&
70 $%une &')), P)&, *(+
, 0uman aorta 0as a lumen idt0 of & cm"
, 0uman red blood cell 0as a diameter of B .m"
Eo many red blood cells could be laid end to end across t0e diameter of t0e aorta lumen1
A &"3 5 )'
84
B &"3 5 )'
8&
C &"3 5 )'
&
D &"3 5 )'
4
72 $%une &''9, P), *9+
A0e diagram s0os a cell surface membrane" A0e lipid bilayer 0as an appro:imate idt0 of = nm"
Eo many times 0as t0e diagram been magnified1
A &"( 5 )'
&
B &"( 5 )'
-
C &"( 5 )'
9
D &"( 5 )'
=
74 $2ov &')&, P)4, *-+
A0e diagram s0os an organelle dran at a magnification of 5&' '''"
/0at is t0e ma:imum lengt0 of t0e organelle1
A 4 5 )'
8)
.m B 4 5 )'
'
.m C 4 5 )'
)
.m D 4 5 )'
&
.m
76 $2ov &''9, P), *(+
A0e diagram s0os a 0ig0!poer draing of a plant cell"
A0e actual lengt0 of t0e cell beteen F and G as )9' .m"
/0at is t0e magnification of t0e cell1
A : (' B : )'' C : ('' D : )'''
78 $2ov &''3, P)&, *(+
A0e p0otomicrograp0 of a cell 0as a & cm scale line labelled ( .m"
/0at is t0e magnification of t0e p0otomicrograp01
A ) 5 )'
4
B & 5 )'
4
C - 5 )'
4
D ( 5 )'
4
80 $2ov &')&, P)), *9+
A0e diagram s0os t0e ultrastructure of a cell from a dicotyledonous leaf"
/0at is t0e magnification1
A 5 &=' B 5 &='' C 5 4(B' D 5 B'''
82 $2ov &''B, P), *)+
A0e diagram s0os part of a membrane around a vacuole of a plant cell"
/0at is t0e idt0 of t0e membrane1
A B"( : )'
!4
m B B"( : )'
!9
m C B"( : )'
!3
m D B"( : )'
!)&
m
84 $%une &')&, P)), *-+
A0e magnification of t0e p0otomicrograp0 is 5-'''"
/0at is t0e actual size of t0e nucleolus1
A ) Hm B & Hm C ( Hm D &' Hm
86 $2ov &''4, P), *9+
A0e diagram s0os a draing of an electronmicrograp0"
/0at is t0e appro:imate lengt0 of one mitoc0ondrion in t0is cell1
A ( to 9 .m B B to = .m C = to )' .m D )' to )( .m
88 $2ov &''=, P), *-+
A0e diagram is a draing made from an electron micrograp0 s0oing a cross!section of an alveolus
and to ad>acent capillaries"
/0at is t0e s0ortest distance travelled by an o:ygen molecule diffusing from t0e alveolar air space
into one of t0e red blood cells1
A )"' .m B 4"' .m C )'"' .m D 4'"' .m
90 $2ov &')&, P)&, *9+
A0e p0otomicrograp0 s0os some plant tissues and t0e magnification is 5&''"
/0at is t0e diameter of t0e cell marked I1
A ( .m B )' .m C (' .m D )'' .m
92 $%une &')&, P)&, *(+
A0e diagram s0os an electron micrograp0 of virus particles in a 0uman nucleus"
/0at is t0e diameter of t0e labelled virus particles1
A )"( 5 )'
'
.m B )"( 5 )'
8&
.m C )"( 5 )'
'
nm D )"( 5 )'
&
nm
Microscope & microscopy # Resolution
94 $%une &''(, P), *4+
/0at describes resolution in microscopy1
A t0e ability to distinguis0 beteen to ob>ects t0at are very close toget0er
B t0e clarity of t0e image formed by t0e microscope
C t0e number of times t0e image 0as been magnified by t0e ob>ective lens
D t0e poer of t0e microscope to focus on very small ob>ects
99 $2ov &''4, P), *-+ $%une &''9, P), *)+
/0at is t0e resolution, in nanometres, of an electron microscope and of a lig0t microscope1
electron microscope lig0t microscope
A '"( &'
B '"( &''
C ("' &'
D ("' &''
105 $%une &''-, P), *4+
/0at is responsible for t0e 0ig0 resolution of t0e electron microscope1
A 0ig0 magnification
B s0ort avelengt0 of t0e electron beam
C use of 0eavy metal stains
D very t0in sections
110 $%une &')&, P)&, *-+
/0at restricts t0e resolution of t0e lig0t microscope1
A t0e inability to cut very t0in sections
B t0e lo lig0t intensity of microscope lamps
C t0e lo magnification produced by glass
D t0e avelengt0s of visible lig0t
115 $2ov &''B, P), *4+ $2ov &')', P)&, *&+
, specimen is vieed under a microscope using green lig0t it0 a avelengt0 of ()' nm"
;f t0e same specimen is vieed under t0e same conditions, but using red lig0t it0 a avelengt0 of
9(' nm instead, 0at effect ill t0is 0ave on t0e magnification and on t0e resolution of t0e
microscope1
magnification resolution
A decreased decreased
B increased increased
C remains t0e same increased
D remains t0e same decreased
116 $%une &')&, P)), *(+
, microscope 0as a resolution of &'' nm" /0ic0 of t0e folloing organelles ould ot be resolved
using t0is microscope1
A c0loroplasts B lysosomes C mitoc0ondria D ribosomes
118 $2ov &''B, P), *(+
, student is asked to study to p0otograp0s, taken at t0e same magnification, of a palisade mesop0yll
cell, one using a 0ig0 Juality lig0t microscope and t0e ot0er using an electron microscope"
A0e student observed
) t0e cisternae of t0e Dolgi apparatus
& t0e grana in t0e c0loroplasts
4 t0e to membranes of t0e nuclear envelope
- t0e vacuole enclosed by a tonoplast
/0ic0 features can be seen because of t0e 0ig0er resolution of t0e electron microscope1
A ), & and 4 B ), & and - C ), 4 and - D &, 4 and -
120 $2ov &')&, P)4, *4+
A0e same plant cells ere vieed by a student using an electron microscope and a lig0t microscope"
A0e electron microscope used a magnification of 5)'''"
A0e lig0t microscope used a 5)' eyepiece lens and a 5)'' ob>ective lens"
A0e student concluded t0at t0e image of t0e plant cell obtained using t0e electron microscope as
clearer and more detailed t0an t0e image obtained using t0e lig0t microscope"
/0ic0 e:planation supports t0is conclusion1
A
A0e electron microscope 0ad a poorer resolution t0an t0e lig0t microscope, but as better able
to distinguis0 beteen to separate points"
B
A0e magnification used in t0e to microscopes as t0e same, but t0e electron microscope 0ad
a better resolution t0an t0e lig0t microscope"
C
A0e student used t0e electron microscope at a 0ig0er magnification t0an t0e lig0t microscope
0ic0 led to an improved resolution"
D
A0e to microscopes 0ad t0e same resolution, but t0e magnification used in t0e electron
microscope gave an image t0at as ten times larger t0an t0e lig0t microscope"
Microscope & microscopy # Microscopy & Plan diagrams
125 $%une &')', P)), *&+
A0e diagram belo is dran from an electron micrograp0 of an animal cell"
/0ic0 represents t0e same cell, seen under a lig0t 6optical7 microscope at 5-'' magnification1 !C"
127 $%une &''3, P), *-+
, plan diagram is made of a transverse section of a leaf"
/0ic0 features s0ould be seen in t0e diagram1
)" t0e overall distribution of tissues
&" t0e relative t0icknesses of t0e tissue layers
4" t0ose cells 0ic0 contain c0loroplasts
A ) and & only B ) and 4 only C & and 4 only D ), & and 4
129 $2ov &')&, P)), *&+
Kour students ere asked to suggest a set of four labels to add to a plan diagram of a transverse section
of a dicotyledonous leaf"
/0ic0 student, A, B, C or D, suggested a correct set of labels1
label ) label & label 4 label -
A loer epidermis p0loem spongy mesop0yll palisade mesop0yll
B p0loem sieve tubes upper epidermis spongy mesop0yll
:ylem vessel
elements
C spongy mesop0yll endodermis
:ylem vessel
elements
palisade mesop0yll
D a:y cuticle :ylem companion cells spongy mesop0yll
135 $%une &''B, P), *&+
;n constructing a plan diagram of a transverse section of a dicotyledonous leaf, 0ic0 feature s0ould
ot be included1
A c0loroplasts in t0e palisade mesop0yll layer
B cuticle on t0e upper epidermis
C vascular bundles in t0e leaf lamina
D :ylem in t0e vascular bundles
140 $2ov &')&, P)4, *(+
/0en draing a plan diagram of a transverse section of a dicotyledonous leaf, 0ic0 feature s0ould
ot be included1
A cuticle on t0e upper epidermis
B palisade mesop0yll layer
C vascular bundles in t0e leaf lamina
D :ylem vessel elements
145 $%une &')&, P)&, *&+
, student as asked to dra a plan diagram of t0e plant tissue s0on in t0e p0otomicrograp0 and to
annotate to observable features"
/0at are t0e correct annotations1
A epidermis darkly stained layer of cells, :ylem 0ollo vessels
B epidermis formed of single layer of cells, :ylem strengt0ened by lignin
C p0loem small cells, :ylem empty cells to transport ater
D vascular bundles arranged in a regular pattern, :ylem large dead cells
150 $2ov &''3, P)&, *-+
/0ic0 plan diagram of a transverse section of a leaf correctly s0os t0e position of :ylem and p0loem
as ell as t0e fact t0at t0e palisade mesop0yll is tice as t0ick as t0e spongy mesop0yll1 !C"
Microscope & microscopy # Micrometry
152 $%une &')), P)&, *)+
<sing a stage micrometer scale, one unit of an eyepiece graticule as calculated as '"''( mm" A0e
diameter of a spongy mesop0yll cell as counted as 4"( units on t0e eyepiece graticule"
/0at is t0e estimate of t0e diameter of t0e cell1
A '")= .m B )"= .m C )="' .m D )=' .m
154 $%une &')', P)), *4+
A0e diagram s0os a stage micrometer, it0 divisions '") mm apart, vieed t0roug0 an eyepiece
containing a graticule"
/0at is t0e area of t0e field of vie of t0e microscope at t0is magnification1 6L @ 4")-7
A L 5 )&"( 5 )&"( @ -"3 5 )'& .m
&
B L 5 (( 5 (( @ 3"( 5 )'4 .m
&
C L 5 )&( 5 )&( @ -"3 5 )'- .m
&
D L 5 &(' 5 &(' @ &"' 5 )'( .m
&
159 $2ov &''9, P), *)+ $2ov &')), P)), *(+ $2ov &')), P)&, *(+
A0e diagram s0os a stage micrometer on 0ic0 t0e small divisions are '") mm" ;t is vieed t0roug0
an eyepiece containing a graticule"
A0e stage micrometer is replaced by a slide of a plant cell"
/0at is t0e idt0 of a c0loroplast1
A ( .m B )' .m C (' .m D )'' .m
161 $%une &''B, P), *-+
A0e diagram s0os a graduated slide, it0 divisions of '") mm vieed using an eyepiece graticule"
Pollen grains ere gron in a sugar solution and vieed using t0e eyepiece graticule" Diagram )
s0os t0e pollen grains at first and diagram & s0os t0em after four 0ours"
/0at is t0e grot0 rate of t0e pollen tubes1
A ( .m0
8)
B )' .m0
8)
C ( mm0
8)
D )' mm0
8)
163 $2ov &')', P)&, *)+
/0ic0 steps are needed to find t0e actual idt0 of a :ylem vessel vieed in transverse section using a
5-' ob>ective lens1
)" Convert from mm to .m by multiplying by )'
84
"
&" Calibrate t0e eyepiece graticule using a stage micrometer on 5)' ob>ective lens"
4" Measure t0e idt0 of t0e :ylem vessel using an eyepiece graticule"
-" Multiply t0e number of eyepiece graticule units by t0e calibration of t0e eyepiece graticule"
A ), &, 4 and -
B &, 4 and - only
C ) and & only
D 4 and - only
Eukaryotic cells # Properties of cells
168 $2ov &')&, P)&, *4+
A0e folloing are all features of eukaryotic cells"
) c0loroplast
& Dolgi apparatus
4 lysosome
- mitoc0ondrion
( nucleus
/0ic0 of t0ese 0as a single membrane1
A ) and & B & and 4 C 4 and - D - and (
170 $%une &')&, P)), *4+
A0e folloing are all features of eukaryotic cells"
) c0loroplast
& endoplasmic reticulum
4 lysosome
- mitoc0ondrion
( nucleus
/0ic0 of t0ese 0ave a double membrane1
A ), & and - B ), 4 and ( C ), - and ( D &, 4 and (
172 $%une &')', P)), *(+
/0ic0 observation suggest t0at a cell is eukaryotic1
cytoplasm includes
endoplasmic
reticulum
protein molecules are
associated it0 t0e
D2,
ribosomes distributed
t0roug0 t0e
cytoplasm
key
@ found in
eukaryotes
@ not found in
eukaryotes
A
B
C
D
178 $%une &')), P)), *4+
/0ic0 structures are present in a typical plant cell1
centrioles cilia mitoc0ondria vacuole
key
@ present
@ absent
A
B
C
D
184 $%une &')', P)), *-+
/0ic0 structures are found in bot0 animal and plant cells1
) centriole
& lysosome
4 nucleolus
- vacuole
A ) and 4 only B & and - only C &, 4 and - only D ), &, 4 and -
186 $2ov &''(, P), *&+
/0ic0 structures are found in plant cells but ot in animal cells1
A centrioles
B mitoc0ondria
C nucleoli
D plasmodesmata
191 $%une &''3, P), *(+
A0e table s0os some of t0e structural features present or absent in four different cell types"
/0ic0 identifies t0e cell type for eac0 column of features1
@ feature present @ feature absent
cell all
centrioles
c0loroplast
Dolgi apparatus
large vacuole
A
ciliated epit0elial
cell
prokaryotic cell root corte: cell
spongy mesop0yll
cell
B root corte: cell
spongy mesop0yll
cell
prokaryotic cell
ciliated epit0elial
cell
C prokaryotic cell
ciliated epit0elial
cell
spongy mesop0yll
cell
root corte: cell
D
spongy mesop0yll
cell
root corte: cell
ciliated epit0elial
cell
prokaryotic cell
192 $2ov &''9, P), *4+
A0e diagram s0os an electron micrograp0 of a plant cell"
/0at do structures #, $ and % contain1
# $ %
A air c0lorop0yll protein
B mineral ions starc0 D2, and R2,
C ater mineral ions starc0
D starc0 D2, and R2, mineral ions
Eukaryotic cells # Specific structures
198 $%une &')', P)), *)9+
Membranes it0in and at t0e surface of cells 0ave different roles"
A0e diagram allos t0e identification of t0e various organelles it0in t0e cell, by describing t0e
membrane structure and function"
/0ic0 of t0e outcomes s0on belo correctly identifies t0e organelles t0at possess t0e membrane and
function concerned1
) & 4 - ( 9
A c0loroplast vesicle smoot0 ER roug0 ER nucleolus mitoc0ondrion
B nucleolus roug0 ER vesicle smoot0 ER nucleus mitoc0ondrion
C nucleus roug0 ER vesicle smoot0 ER mitoc0ondrion c0loroplast
D nucleus smoot0 ER mitoc0ondrion roug0 ER vesicle c0loroplast
204 $%une &')), P)), *(+
/0ic0 type of cell ill contain t0e 0ig0est proportion of single membrane!bound structures1
A ciliated epit0elial cell
B goblet cell
C red blood cell
D smoot0 muscle cell
209 $%une &''4, P), *&+
/0ic0 pair of organelles 0as internal membranes1
A c0loroplasts and mitoc0ondria
B c0loroplasts and nuclei
C mitoc0ondria and ribosomes
D nuclei and ribosomes
214 $%une &''9, P), *&+
A0e diagram s0os a draing of an electron micrograp0 of a cell"
/0ic0 structures are surrounded by double membranes1
Dolgi apparatus lysosome mitoc0ondrion nucleus cytoplasm
A
B
C
D
220 $2ov &')&, P)4, *&+
/0at leaves t0e nucleus t0roug0 t0e pores in t0e nuclear envelope1
) D2,
& mR2,
4 ribosomes
A ) only B & only C ) and & D & and 4
222 $2ov &''-, P), *)+ $2ov &''=, P), *&+
A0e diagram s0os t0e ultrastructure of a eukaryotic cell"
/0ic0 organelle does ot contain nucleic acid1 !A"
224 $2ov &')', P)&, *4+
/0ic0 cell organelle does ot contain nucleic acid1
A c0loroplast
B Dolgi apparatus
C lysosome
D ribosome
229 $%une &''4, P), *)+ $%une &''-, P), *(+
,n actively groing cell is supplied it0 radioactive amino acids"
/0ic0 cell component ould first s0o an increase in radioactivity1
A Dolgi body
B mitoc0ondrion
C nucleus
D roug0 endoplasmic reticulum
234 $%une &''3, P), *&+
Cells 0ic0 do not 0ave nucleoli die because t0ey do not 0ave
A centrioles and cannot divide"
B mitoc0ondria and cannot release energy"
C mR2, and cannot transcribe D2,"
D ribosomes and cannot synt0esise protein"
235 $2ov &')), P)&, *-+
/0ic0 cell components contain mR2,1
) c0loroplast
& mitoc0ondrion
4 nucleus
- roug0 endoplasmic reticulum
A ), &, 4 and - B ), & and 4 only C &, 4 and - only D 4 and - only
237 $2ov &')&, P)), *-+
/0ic0 ro correctly identifies all t0e locations of ribosomes in a eukaryotic cell1
free in
cytoplasm
in
mitoc0ondria
attac0ed to
ER
attac0ed to
nuclear
envelope
in nucleus
key
@ present
@ absent
A
B
C
D
243 $2ov &''(, P), *-+
, piece of mammalian tissue as 0omogenised and centrifuged" A0e bioc0emical activity of four
subcellular fractions as investigated"
/0ic0 diagram indicates t0e fraction it0 ma:imum synt0esis of messenger R2,1 !B"
245 $S,M databank+
;f liver cells are separated into nuclei, mitoc0ondria and cytoplasm components, and t0ese components
ere analysed for protein, R2, and D2,, t0e results obtained ould be s0on in t0e table"
&ercet'(e o) *+A, D+A or protei -./
*+A D+A &rotei
# )& 33 )(
$ =- ' 9B
% - ) )=
A0e correct identity of F, G and I are
# $ %
A nucleus mitoc0ondria cytoplasm
B mitoc0ondria cytoplasm nucleus
C nucleus cytoplasm mitoc0ondria
D mitoc0ondria nucleus cytoplasm
251 $2ov &')), P)&, *4+
Ribosomes e:ist as separate subunits t0at bind toget0er during protein synt0esis"
/0at do t0ese subunits consist of1
A mR2, and protein
B mR2, and tR2,
C rR2, and protein
D rR2, and tR2,
256 $2ov &')), P)), *&+
/0ic0 cell components contain ribosomes1
) c0loroplast
& mitoc0ondrion
4 nucleus
- cytoplasm
A ), &, 4 and - B ), & and 4 only C ) and & only D 4 and - only
258 $2ov &''9, P), *&+
A0e diagram s0os an electron micrograp0 of a typical animal cell"
/0at is t0e function of t0e membrane system labelled F1
A carbo0ydrate metabolism
B lipid synt0esis
C protein synt0esis
D protein synt0esis and transport
263 $2ov &''4, P), *4+ $2ov &''B, P), *&+
A0e diagram is taken from an electron micrograp0 of a cell 0ic0 secretes digestive enzymes"
/0ere are t0ese enzymes made1 !C"
265 $2ov &')&, P)), *)+
A0e diagram is a draing from an electron micrograp0 of a cell"
/0ic0 structure indicates t0at t0is is a secretory cell1 !B"
267 $%une &''(, P), *-+ $2ov &''3, P)&, *9+
/0at is a function of t0e smoot0 endoplasmic reticulum1
A aerobic respiration
B intracellular digestion
C synt0esis of steroids
D transport of proteins
272 $2ov &''(, P), *)+
A0e diagram s0os t0e ultrastructure of a typical animal cell"
/0ic0 structure synt0esises and transports lipids and steroids1 !C"
274 $%une &''9, P), *4+
;n 0ic0 animal cells ould Dolgi apparatus be most abundant1
A ciliated epit0elial cells
B goblet cells
C red blood cells
D smoot0 muscle cells
279 $%une &''B, P), *4+ $%une &')), P)&, *&+
Membranous sacs containing products of metabolism are formed by t0e endoplasmic reticulum in
cells"
/0ere are t0ese products used1
A inside and outside t0e cell
B inside lysosomes only
C inside t0e cell only
D outside t0e cell only
284 $%une &''=, P), *&+
/0en mucus is secreted from a goblet cell in t0e trac0ea, t0ese events take place"
)" addition of carbo0ydrate to protein
&" fusion of t0e vesicle it0 t0e plasma membrane
4" secretion of a glycoprotein
-" separation of a vesicle from t0e Dolgi apparatus
/0at is t0e seJuence in 0ic0 t0ese events take place1
A ) M - M & M 4
B ) M - M 4 M &
C - M ) M & M 4
D - M ) M 4 M &
285 $S,M databank+
/0ic0 one of t0e folloing seJuences of cell structures correctly describes t0e pat0ay t0at leads to
t0e production, transport, and secretion of t0e protein t0yro:ine by t0yroid gland cells1
A nucleus ribosomes endoplasmic reticulum Dolgi body cell membrane
B nucleus ribosomes vesicle endoplasmic reticulum cell membrane
C ribosome mitoc0ondria Dolgi body vesicle cell membrane
D ribosome endoplasmic reticulum nucleus Dolgi body cell membrane
290 $S,M databank+
A0e p0otomicrograp0 belo s0os an organelle from an eukaryotic cell"
A0is organelle is t0e site of
A starc0 formation"
B p0otosynt0esis"
C ,AP synt0esis"
D glycogen storage"
295 $2ov &')), P)), *4+
/0ere ould cristae be found in a cell1
) endoplasmic reticulum
& Dolgi apparatus
4 mitoc0ondrion
A ) and & B ) and 4 C & and 4 D 4 only
297 $2ov &''(, P), *(+
A0e action of 0ic0 cell depends on large numbers of lysosomes1
A ciliated epit0elial cell
B goblet cell
C lymp0ocyte
D p0agocyte
302 $%une &''-, P), *-+ $%une &''=, P), *(+
, piece of mammalian tissue as 0omogenised and sub>ected to differential centrifugation to yield
four subcellular fractions" A0e activity it0in eac0 fraction, of four different types of enzyme, A, B, C
and D, as investigated"
/0ic0 bar c0art s0os t0e results of investigating 0ydrolytic enzyme activity1 !C"
Eukaryotic cells # Size of cells & cellular structures
304 $2ov &')), P)&, *)+
/0at is t0e diameter of a typical plant cell1
A )"' 5 )'
&
nm
B -"' 5 )'
&
nm
C -"' 5 )'
'
.m
D -"' 5 )'
)
.m
309 $%une &')&, P)&, *)+
/0ic0 range of sizes ould include most eukaryotic cells1
A ) 5 )'
&
nm to ) .m
B ) .m to ) 5 )'
)
.m
C ) 5 )'
)
.m to ) 5 )'
&
.m
D ) 5 )'
&
.m to ) 5 )'
4
.m
314 $%une &''-, P), *)+ $2ov &''(, P), *9+ $%une &''=, P), *)+
/0at is t0e order of size of cell components1
largest NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNM smallest
A mitoc0ondria ribosomes starc0 grains nuclei
B nuclei c0loroplast mitoc0ondria ribosomes
C ribosomes mitoc0ondria c0loroplast starc0 grains
D starc0 grains mitoc0ondria c0loroplast ribosomes
Prokaryotic cells # Properties of cells
320 $2ov &')&, P)&, *(+
/0ic0 size range ould include most prokaryotic cells1 !B"
322 $2ov &')), P)), *)+
/0at is t0e diameter of a typical prokaryote, suc0 as Streptococcus1
A B"( 5 )'
)
nm
B B"( 5 )'
&
nm
C B"( 5 )'
'
.m
D B"( 5 )'
)
.m
327 $S,M databank+
/0ic0 one of t0e folloing alternatives is icorrect1
Prokaryotic organisms
A lack a discrete nucleus"
B are all 0eterotrop0ic"
C s0o little cellular structure even 0en vieed under an electron microscope"
D contain ribosomes"
332 $%une &')&, P)), *&+
/0at are 'l0'1s present in prokaryote cells1
A capsules B flagella C pili D ribosomes
334 $2ov &''-, P), *-+
/0ic0 components are present in prokaryotic cells1
A c0loroplasts, D2,, nuclear envelope
B c0romosomes, mitoc0ondria, nuclear envelope
C cytoplasm, D2,, mitoc0ondria
D cytoplasm, D2,, ribosomes
339 $%une &''9, P), *(+ $2ov &''3, P)&, *&+
/0ic0 is a feature of all prokaryotic cells1
A absence of cell surface membrane
B division by mitosis
C presence of mitoc0ondria
D presence of ribosomes
344 $2ov &')&, P)&, *&+
/0at are t0e c0aracteristics of a prokaryotic cell1
endoplasmic reticulum genetic material
A absent D2,
B absent R2,
C present D2,
D present R2,
350 $%une &')), P)&, *-+
/0ic0 of t0e structures are found in p0otosynt0etic prokaryotes1
) cell surface membrane
& cellulose all
4 mesosomes
- ribosomes
( c0loroplasts
A ), &, 4 and - only B ), &, - and ( only C ), 4 and - only D &, 4 and ( only
352 $%une &''4, P), *4+ $2ov &''=, P), *(+
/0ic0 combination is found in a prokaryotic cell1
endoplasmic
reticulum
D2, R2, nucleus
key
present
absent
A
B
C
D
358 $2ov &')), P)), *-+
/0ic0 cell components are present in 'll prokaryotic cells1
cell surface
membrane
cell all
endoplasmic
reticulum
flagellum
key
@ present
@ absent
A
B
C
D
364 $%une &''(, P), *)+
/0at identifies a cell as a prokaryote1
A A0e D2, is associated it0 protein"
B A0e D2, is in a circular form"
C A0e D2, is in t0e form of a double spiral"
D A0e D2, is surrounded by a membrane system"
369 $S,M databank+
A0e presence of 0ic0 one of t0e folloing substances in a cell structure provides evidence for
identifying t0e cell as eukaryotic ?? prokaryotic1
A C0lorop0yll in a c0loroplast"
B Oipids in t0e cell membrane"
C mR2, in t0e cell"
D , circular D2, in t0e cells"
374 $S,M databank+
/0ic0 one of t0e folloing combinations correctly identifies a cellular structure, its function, and t0e
type of cell in 0ic0 it is found1
cellul'r structure )uctio t1pe o) cell
A circular loop of D2,
contains information for t0e
synt0esis of proteins
eukaryotic
B ribosome t0e site of protein synt0esis prokaryotic
C linear D2,
contains information for t0e
synt0esis of mR2, molecules
prokaryotic
D endoplasmic reticulum
t0e site for t0e packaging and
secretion of proteins
eukaryotic
380 $2ov &''=, P), *4+
Mitoc0ondria are t0oug0t to 0ave evolved from prokaryotic cells t0at ere ingested by an ancestral
cell"
/0ic0 feature 0ave t0e prokaryotes lost during t0eir evolution into mitoc0ondria1
A cell all
B circular c0romosome
C endoplasmic reticulum
D ribosomes
381 $%une &''B, P), *(+
;n )3=(, a giant bacterium, Epulopiscium fishelsoni, as discovered"
/0ic0 cell structure6s7 ould be present in Epulopiscium enabling biologists to classify t0is organism
as prokaryotic1
A a cellulose cell all outside t0e plasma membrane
B a pair of centrioles close to t0e nuclear area
C circular D2, lying free in t0e cytoplasm
D smoot0 endoplasmic reticulum t0roug0out t0e cytoplasm
Prokaryotic cells # Difference beteen eu! vs" prokaryotic cells
386 $2ov &')', P)&, *(+
Cells consist of a number of different components"
/0ic0 ro s0os t0e components present 67 in bot0 a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell1
lysosomes Dolgi apparatus ribosomes cell membrane
A
B
C
D
392 $2ov &''9, P), *-+
/0ic0 organelles are found in t0e cells of bot0 eukaryotes and prokaryotes1
A c0loroplasts
B Dolgi apparatus
C mitoc0ondria
D ribosomes
397 $2ov &')&, P)4, *)+
/0ic0 feature is found in bot2 prokaryotic and plant cells1
A cell all
B D2, bound to protein
C endoplasmic reticulum
D Dolgi apparatus
402 $2ov &')&, P)), *4+
/0ic0 of t0e folloing are found in bot0 eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells1
) cellulose
& deo:yribose
4 lipids
- ribose
A ), & and 4 B ), & and - C ), 4 and - D &, 4 and -
404 $%une &''-, P), *&+
A0e diagram s0os t0e structure of a typical plant cell"
/0ic0 cell component is also present in prokaryotes1 !A"
406 $2ov &')), P)&, *9+
/0ic0 processes occur in eukaryotes and prokaryotes1
) 0ydrolysis
& mitosis
4 transcription
- translation
A ), & and 4 B ), & and - C ), 4 and - D &, 4 and -
408 $S,M databank+
/0ic0 one of t0e folloing combinations is correct"
components of bot0 eukaryotic and
prokaryotic cells
components of eukaryotic but not prokaryotic
cells
A mitoc0ondria cell membrane
B cell membrane D2,
C cell membrane mitoc0ondria
D D2, cell membrane
414 $%une &''=, P), *-+ $%une &')&, P)&, *4+
/0ic0 structure is present in 'll eukaryotic cells but ot present in prokaryotic cells1
A B'S ribosome B cell all C c0romatin D plasmid
416 $S,M databank+
/0ic0 one of t0e folloing statements best describes one difference beteen eukaryotic and
prokaryotic cells1
A Prokaryotic cells do not 0ave t0e cellular components for autotrop0ic nutrition"
B Prokaryotic cells do not 0ave a nuclear membrane"
C Prokaryotic cells 0ave membrane!bound organelles different from t0ose of eukaryotic cells"
D Prokaryotic cells 0ave a 0ig0er degree of specialization t0an eukaryotic cells 0ave"