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Authors:
Maria Mnsson & Lena Eskilsson
Department of Service Management and Service Studies
Lund University, Sweden
Contact address:
maria.mansson@ism.lu.se
lena.eskilsson@ism.lu.se
ISBN: 978-83-938427-0-4
Editorial:
Film London and the EuroScreen Partnership
Contact address: euroscreen@flmlondon.org.uk
Publisher:
Pracownia Pomysw
Agencja Wydawniczo-Marketingowa
www.pracowniapomyslow.eu
Rzeszw, Poland, 2013
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The Attraction of Screen Destinations
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Contents
Executive Summary ....................................................................................... 7
1. Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 13
Background ........................................................................................................................ 14
Key Challenges for the Screen Sector ......................................................................... 14
Key Challenges for the Tourism Industry .................................................................... 15
Screen Tourism: Bringing the Two Sectors Together ................................................. 15
Aim and Methodology of the Baseline Study ............................................................. 16
2. EuroScreen Partners and Their Screen Tourism Experiences ................ 17
2.1 Film London/UK ............................................................................................................. 18
2.2 Apulia Film Commission (AFC)/Italy ......................................................................... 18
2.3 Bucharest-Ilfov Regional Development Agency (ADR-BI)/Romania .................. 18
2.4 Fondazzjoni Temi Zammit (FTZ)/Malta ................................................................... 19
2.5 Maribor Development Agency (MDA)/Slovenia ...................................................... 19
2.6 Malaga Regional Development Agency (Promalaga)/Spain....................................19
2.7 Rzeszow Regional Development Agency (RARR S.A.)/Podkarpackie Region
Poland .............................................................................................................................. 20
2.8 Ystad Municipality/Sweden ........................................................................................... 20
2.9 Summary: Setting the Scene of the EuroScreen Partnership ............................... 20
3. Screen Tourism Overview ........................................................................... 23
3.1 Economics ...................................................................................................................... 24
Economic Benefts of Screen Productions ............................................................. 24
Secondary Economic Benefts of Screen Productions: Tourism ........................ 26
Summary: Economics ................................................................................................. 27
3.2 Management ................................................................................................................... 28
Incentives for Attracting Screen Productions ......................................................... 28
Strategies ....................................................................................................................... 30
Partnerships .................................................................................................................... 31
Summary: Management ................................................................................................ 33
3.3 Destination Marketing .................................................................................................. 33
Criteria for Selecting Screen Products to Market ................................................. 34
Branding of Destinations ............................................................................................. 34
Marketing Campaigns and Placement Value ............................................................. 37
Summary: Destination Marketing ............................................................................. 39
3.4 Screen Tourists ............................................................................................................... 39
Destination Image ........................................................................................................ 39
Screen Tourist Motivations ........................................................................................ 40
Screen Tourist Statistics ............................................................................................... 42
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Summary: Screen Tourists ............................................................................................... 43
3.5 Tourist Product Development ..................................................................................... 43
Movie Maps, Guidebooks, Websites and Mobile Phone Applications ................ 44
Guided Tours .................................................................................................................. 46
Visitor Attractions ......................................................................................................... 48
Additional Tourism Products ...................................................................................... 49
Summary: Tourist Product Development ................................................................. 50
4.Best Practice................................................................................................. 51
4.1 Policy Initiatives .............................................................................................................. 52
4.2 Strategic Partnerships Public/Public ...................................................................... 53
4.3 Strategic Partnerships Public/Private .................................................................... 54
4.4 Destination Development .......................................................................................... 55
4.5 Commercial Operators, SMEs and Other Organisations ..................................... 56
4.6 Challenges ...................................................................................................................... 57
5. References .................................................................................................... 61
Bibliography ............................................................................................................................ 62
Appendix 1 EuroScreen Partners .................................................................................. 67
Appendix 2 Questionnaire .............................................................................................. 68
Appendix 3 List of Interviewees .................................................................................... 71
Appendix 4 Visitor Numbers at Sandomierz Attractions......................................... 72
Appendix 5 Image Credits .............................................................................................. 73
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Executive Summary
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Introduction to EuroScreen
Screen tourism demonstrates the power of flm, TV and commercials, as well as games, mobile and internet-
based content in attracting tourists to visit destinations seen on screen. It is evidenced through countless
productions shot and set in locations all over the world.
EuroScreen is a project specifcally designed to capitalise on the major economic and cultural opportunities
presented through screen tourism. The three year project, co-fnanced by the European Regional Development
Fund and made possible by the INTERREG IVC programme, aims to exploit the screen sector as a proven
catalyst for tourism development through the alignment of policies between the screen and tourism industries.
By establishing clear links between the two industries, EuroScreen aims to increase screen and tourism SMEs
understanding of the benefts of working together, thus encouraging cross sector collaboration.
The EuroScreen partnership consists of nine organisations across eight different EU regions, including regional
development agencies, flm commissions and a higher education institution:
Film London (UK), Lead Partner
Apulia Film Commission (Italy)
Bucharest Ilfov Regional Development Agency (Romania)
Fondazzjoni Temi Zammit (Malta)
Lund University, Department of Service Management (Sweden)
Maribor Development Agency (Slovenia)
Promalaga (Spain)
Rzeszow Regional Development Agency (Poland)
Ystad Municipality (Sweden)
EuroScreens Key Challenges: Bringing the Screen and Tourism
Sectors Together
EuroScreen aims to enhance tourism development through the alignment of policies between the screen and
tourism industries. A key challenge for the project is to address the current gap in relevant policy makers
understanding of the screen sectors economic benefts and positive impact on tourism. This will encourage
increased cross sector collaborations in delivering new and innovative policies and initiatives.
The study of screen tourism, or tourism induced directly or indirectly by a destination or attraction being
viewed on screen, is relatively new in tourism research. A further challenge therefore lies in the need for
credible economic impact fgures to support existing evidence. EuroScreen aims to develop a framework to
assist the participating regions to identify and measure the screen sectors economic impact on tourism.
The screen and tourism industries each face their own challenges, which have been taken into consideration
by the EuroScreen project and partners through the development of this project. The growth of the screen
industry is rapid, continually employing new technologies and playing an increasingly signifcant role in the
economy. This requires a highly competitive skills base and an investment in fscal incentives and screen
agencies, both regionally and nationally, to ensure an ability to win business in the global marketplace. The
growth of the tourism sector is also rising steadily, whilst demonstrating a wide regional variation. It is
a complex industry with its huge range of stakeholders facing increasing global competition as a result of
transportation, communication, new markets and economic recession.
In short, the key challenge for EuroScreen is to defne and develop effective partnerships between the screen
and tourism sectors to address the current potential for missed opportunities in destinations being able to
enhance their development and economic impact.
Aims and Methodology of the EuroScreen Baseline Study
The EuroScreen baseline study is an assessment and comparative study of screen tourism activity across the
projects eight participating regions. The study has several aims:
To ensure that partners understand the existing screen tourism activities, policies and experiences in all
EuroScreen regions.
To explore and analyse existing practices and policies to support the development of tourism and screen
industries as well as considering the current opportunities for SMEs within the screen tourism sector.
To identify fve good practices which can be transferred in order to enable screen tourism development
in under-exploited regions.
The methodology of the study took a qualitative approach. Questionnaires were completed by all EuroScreen
partners (apart from Lund University who carried out the research), as well as some relevant external
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organisations within the partner countries, in order to gather their experiences of screen tourism activity.
The questionnaires were complemented by interviews with stakeholders identifed by the partners (see
Appendix 3).
Setting the Scene for the EuroScreen Partnership
The EuroScreen partnership is committed to the development of strategies to encourage screen production
and tourism generated through the use of new and existing screen products. There is a shared experience
among partners that opportunities for screen tourism are at risk of being missed and that economic impact
could be boosted signifcantly by increased collaboration between the screen and tourism sectors.
The partnership comprises a diverse group of regions from both urban and rural environments across the
EU, all with the potential for growth. There is a balance between those regions with advanced policies and
experience in screen tourism and those which have not yet had the opportunity to develop policies or activity
specifcally in this area.
EuroScreen brings together regions with complementary levels of expertise with the aim of supporting the
exchange and transfer of information and best practice relating to screen tourism in order to strengthen the
economic profles and competitiveness of all participating regions.
The variation of partners experience relating to the screen and tourism sectors is analysed in the EuroScreen
baseline study. There are some regions which have extensive knowledge of the screen sector but limited
experience working on tourism development (for example London and Bucharest) and there are some regions
which have minimal knowledge of the screen sector but a lot of experience in tourism (for example Maribor).
There is additional regional variation in the extent to which tourism infrastructures already exist, all of which
demonstrates the importance of EuroScreens aim to develop both screen products and tourism products in
order to allow all regions to exploit their existing resources.
EuroScreen Baseline Study Findings
Economics:
The value of flm production, including direct revenue generation and benefcial impact on employment and the
local economy, has been demonstrated by extensive research and studies. Oxford Economics reports that in
2011 the UK flm industry had a total economic impact of over 4.6 billion (approx. 5.4 billion) to UK GDP
and over 1.3 billion (approx. 1,5 billion) to the Exchequer (gross of tax relief and other fscal support). It also
created the equivalent of 117,400 full-time jobs in the UK.
In addition to the direct value of flm production itself, the long term economic beneft provided by tourism
as a result of visits to a destination seen on screen, is also evident. A regional example of this can be found
in the case of Swedish town Ystad, well known for its Wallander productions. Since flming began in 2004 the
town has increased its tourism economic turnover by 75% to 781 million SEK (approx. 89.6 million) in 2012.
The number of full-time employees has increased by 45% and the Wallander flms have an estimated PR value
of more than 584 million SEK (approx. 67 million).
Whilst there are countless examples worldwide that illustrate a clear growth in tourism after a destination has
been seen on screen, the direct correlation and the economic impacts are consistently diffcult to measure.
Visits to a destination may increase directly after the release of a flm but more often are less immediate,
with screen products having an ongoing effect on the image of the destination, creating a motivation to visit
a place in the future and thus a delayed economic impact. Additionally, whilst it may be easy to measure the
impact at a single attraction such as a castle, chapel, museum or guided tour where tickets are issued and visits
are monitored, the measurement of the impact on towns and cities is much more complex. Tourists drawn
to those destinations cite numerous reasons for their visit, making it diffcult to distinguish the number of
additional visits created specifcally through screen products.
Management:
In order to attract screen productions to a destination, incentives such as tax reliefs and flm funds are used.
In considering screen tourism policies it is important to attract productions with the potential for tourism
development, which really showcase a destination. Such forward thinking can be valuable, with a good example
being found in Malta where the Malta Tourism Authority offers a cash incentive, as well as logistical support,
to screen productions that portray Malta as Malta on the understanding that this is highly benefcial in terms
of tourism.
In addition to tax reliefs or cash rebates the other common incentive is flm funds. In Europe there is a network
of regional flm funds called Cine-Regio: the network is constantly growing and at present it represents 41
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regional flm funds from 12 EU Member States, in addition to Norway and Switzerland.
Besides incentives, partnerships and proactive planning are crucial to the successful development of long
lasting and sustainable screen tourism. Effective strategic partnerships can take place on a regional political
level, between tourism destination marketing organisations and production companies or flm commissions.
Since all places are unique it is important to identify specifc stakeholders for the development of screen
tourism in each individual destination and the closer the contact between the different stakeholders the more
benefcial the outcomes for all involved.
Destination Marketing:
Screen products are increasingly used by tourism destination marketing organisations to market their
destination. Screen tourism, with its potential for related marketing campaigns, is a global phenomenon
and money is invested in these activities with the aim of increasing awareness of the destination brand and
converting viewers of screen products into future tourists.
The Lord of The Rings trilogy provides a strong example with the number of international visitors to New
Zealand increasing by 52% between 1999 and 2008. The largest increase occurred up to 2004, the year after
the fnal flm was released. This equated to an annual growth rate of 4.8%, which was higher than the average
global growth rate during the same period. In an international visitor study 6% cited that The Lord of the Rings
trilogy was one of the main reasons for travelling to New Zealand, proving a profound impact of the brand and
awareness of the country as a visitor destination.
A major consideration for destination marketing is the selection of the strongest screen products, usually with
a clear geographical connection in the narrative and displaying easily identifable or iconic locations which are
accessible to visitors. In order to capitalise on the exposure of a destination in a screen product it is important
to package it in an attractive way which enables tourists to access information easily and encourages them to
explore the destination.
Promotion through screen products also provides the potential to access new and specifc tourist markets.
For example, Visit Scotland reached out to the family market by investing 7 million (approx. 8.1 million) into
the promotion of Scotland via the animated Disney and Pixar flm Brave, through a campaign including a TV and
cinema advert, a new website dedicated to the flm as well as through marketing and other events.
Screen Tourists:
The perception of destinations is often infuenced by a range of products, including screen products, which
impact on tourists expectation of the place and infuence their choice of activities. The more infuences that
a tourist is exposed to, the more complex is the image created. For a smaller destination like a village or
a single attraction the screen product may be the only source of infuence, whereas for a city it is diffcult for
the tourist to pinpoint a single media product as the motivating driver.
The landscape and scenery within a screen product is one of the key factors for generating interest in visiting.
Other contributing factors include the offer of a unique, fun and quirky visitor experience, though reasons
differ depending on the type of visitor, ranging from day-trippers drawn to a specifc attraction to tourists on
extended vacations with numerous reasons for travelling to an international city.
A study of Japanese tourists image of the UK showed that popular culture such as screen products enhanced
an already perceived interest in the destination. Then when it came to infuences, 70% of Japanese tourists
stated that flm and TV were the two most important sources for information about the destination.
Tourist Product Development:
There are many products developed for screen tourists. A majority of these are developed by offcial bodies
with an apparent lack of such activities being developed by private businesses. Throughout the EuroScreen
partnership there is a recognised need for further understanding and engagement from local businesses to
develop screen tourism products.
Impact on screen tourism can be achieved through both small and large investments and it is important to
raise awareness among local businesses that developing new tourist products is worthwhile and does result in
direct economic impact.
The range of screen tourism products is getting wider, with new media platforms providing increased
accessibility to user-generated content and interactivity. British Film Locations, a free mobile phone app
launched by Visit Britain in 2009, is a good example. The app promotes British flm locations by allowing users
to upload their own location pictures and engage with their social media networks instantly through the app.
It includes 332 flm locations, of which 68% of the flm locations are in London, and has the ability to promote
certain flms that link to other promotional campaigns. The frst app received a lot of media attention and was
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the most downloaded travel app in December 2009 with 50,000 downloads. In the autumn of 2012 the app
featured Skyfall and received over 100,000 downloads.
Conclusions
Best Practice:
Based on the analysis of screen tourism experience within the EuroScreen partnership, in addition to relevant
regional, national and international examples included in the baseline study, fve best practices emerge as
essential for successful work in the development of screen tourism:
Policy Initiatives essential for creating a long-term effect since policies trigger development activities and
demonstrate a commitment to funding and resourcing work in this area.
Strategic Partnerships (public-public) in order to fulfl the developed policies there is a need for ongoing
collaboration between public organisations and stakeholders which are far more effective than short-
term partnerships for one-off projects.
Strategic Partnerships (public-private) there is a need for strategic partnerships between the public
and private sector since the private sector often delivers services to tourists. Crucially, this includes
partnerships with production companies, for example to secure access to publicity materials.
Destination Development the initiated policies and the resulting strategic partnerships create a sustained
impact on the overall destination development, including increased visitor fgures, product development
and also beneft the local community and SMEs.
Commercial operators, SMEs and other organisations private sector initiatives and the creation of new
tourist products need to be encouraged in order to capitalise on the interest for screen tourism.
Concluding Remarks:
The EuroScreen baseline study identifes that although some screen tourism policies are already in place, with
partnerships and destination development in progress, the public sector has not succeeded in engaging the
private sector in the development process. Destinations that want to develop screen tourism therefore need
further strategies.
The challenge for the future is to develop strategies that engage with the private sector and in particular SMEs.
It is vital to recognise potential stakeholders within each destination and to explore how they can be benefcial
to each other and to tourism development. Currently many of the policies and collaborations are isolated
interventions with limited overall effect as well as a lack of long-term commitment. There is therefore a need
to develop strategies that result in sustainable destination development.
It is also important to create an awareness of the screen tourism phenomenon and the potential new business
that can be gained through new products. The EuroScreen project will publish a set of case studies with the
aim of attracting the private sectors attention as well as inspiring public organisations which want to develop
their own screen tourism initiatives.
The fnal challenge that has been identifed in this report is the complex nature of measuring the impact that
screen products have on tourism and the problem that this presents in terms of engaging stakeholders with
accurate statistics. The EuroScreen project therefore proposes to assess potential tools to determine the
economic impact of a screen production, demonstrating the placement value for the destination.
To conclude, this report shows that there are many good practices already established that can be used as
inspiration for future screen tourism work. However, there are clear challenges in moving forward with this
work, with key priorities relating to engagement with SMEs and the need for an effective means of measuring
economic impact.
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1. Introduction
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Background
Rosslyn Chapel, outside Edinburgh in Scotland, is a small countryside chapel founded in the 15th century. Over
the last decade it has become a major tourist attraction due to its starring role in The Da Vinci Code. Before
the release of Dan Browns novel in 2003 the chapel had 35,000 visitors a year. This fgure reached a peak
of 170,000 in 2006, following the release of the blockbuster flm starring Tom Hanks. Today the chapel still
achieves more than 100,000 visitors annually and major investments have been made to continue to attract
and cater for all of these additional visitors. In 2011 a new visitor centre opened that hosts interactive displays
about the Chapel, a coffee shop and gift shop.
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The potential of flms, TV, commercials and other screen products such as games, mobile and internet based
content in attracting tourists to visit a destination seen on screen, is clearly evident in a huge range of products
and destinations all over the world. It can be demonstrated by a breadth of examples from across the globe
that illustrate the effect of screen products on tourism. Just a few such examples include The Sound of Music in
Salzburg, Notting Hill in London, the TV series and flm Wallander in Ystad, as well as more recent productions
such as Downton Abbey, Harry Potter and The Bridge. While anecdotal evidence about the impact of flm and
television on tourism exists, credible studies and fgures relating to crucial economic impact are often lacking.
Without this information there is often a knowledge gap among policy-makers when it comes to understanding
the screen sectors
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huge potential in terms of driving economic growth through tourism.
EuroScreen is a three year project funded by the INTERREG IVC programme which aims to align policies
between the screen sector and the tourism industry. The basis of EuroScreen is the belief in the positive spill-
over effects between the flm sector and the tourism industry. EuroScreen aspires to take advantage of the
screen industry as a proven catalyst for tourism development, undertaking an exchange and transfer of good
practice and working with businesses in the sector. The EuroScreen partnership consists of nine organisations
across eight regions in the EU (see Appendix 1). The partners have different levels of experience in screen
tourism
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and will be further presented in chapter 2.
Key Challenges for the Screen Sector
The European screen sector (broadcasting TV, radio, flm sector) largely consists of very small enterprises,
comprising 80% of SMEs
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and micro-SMEs. The screen sector has been growing faster than the wider economy,
and its importance is of ever-increasing signifcance due to the rapid shift towards a digital society, where
Internet and mobile technologies are fuelling the consumption of audio-visual content around the world.
Today, the European audio visual industry is worth an estimated 107.4bn and provides 1.2m highly qualifed
jobs in Europe. The sector is part of the cultural and creative industries which, as a whole, represent 4.5% of
EU GDP and provide 8.5m jobs.
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Screen sector agencies exist at a regional and national level to attract inward investment to their relevant
regions/nations and work closely with the local flm and TV production industry to facilitate flming on the
ground. They predominately have an economic mission relating to growth and job creation as well as talent
development but they often also play a cultural role.
The key challenges in general for the screen sector agencies, e.g. national and regional flm commissions, are:
Increasing global competition with national and regional governments offering incentives and funds to
attract productions to their territory, especially relevant to the flm industry which is mobile and able to
set up anywhere.
In the face of globalisation a lot of territories outside Europe compete for production with territories
where costs are much lower than in Europe (e.g. South Africa, Argentina, Brazil, India etc.).
With a rapidly changing flm industry in the face of digitisation and convergence, regions and nations face
challenges in terms of ensuring that their skills base remains competitive.
As a result of cut backs over recent years, most screen agencies, regional and national, have reduced
resources available to attract and facilitate productions and market or promote their offer on the global
market place.
Most screen agencies are small companies with very limited resources and dont have the capacity to
collect and analyse data and demonstrate the value of their work in terms of return on investment.
Agencies predominantly collect data with regards to production budgets and location expenditure but
1. Mnsson (2009); Rosslyn Chapel (2013) www.Rosslynchapel.com
2. The screen sector includes industries that are involved in the production of screen content such as e.g. flm, TV, animation,
commercials and games.
3. Screen tourism is tourism induced directly or indirectly by a destination or attraction being viewed on screen, including flm, TV,
commercials, video game and internet.
4. Small and medium-sized enterprises
5. Media Desk UK (2012) http://mediadeskuk.eu/assets/Uploads/Downloads/MediaSurveyA416pp.pdf
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have no data with regards to secondary economic impacts and the longer term value of productions shot
in their territories and their impact on other industries such as tourism.
Overall production budgets are decreasing, unless they are major studio productions or blockbusters.
The production industry is fairly unique in its set up, working predominantly with freelancers and
companies set up specifcally for the purpose of a production. Often this does not ft with the criteria and
methodologies of how governments expect sectors to evaluate their contribution to GDP.
Sometimes flm production is still seen as culture rather than as business and can therefore be at risk
in times of fnancial cut backs and subject to further budget reductions.
Distribution in Europe is a key challenge as flms dont travel well across European territories.
Key Challenges for the Tourism Industry
The tourism industry is generally said to be one of the best industries in the world in terms of its positive impact
on job creation. The potential of the industry is also said to be high: according to statistics from UNWTO,
average global travelling has increased by 4% yearly since World War 2. The tourism industry represents 5%
of EU GDP and generates 4.3% of all EU jobs (9.7 million) and this fgure is steadily rising.
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However, it is also
an industry which inevitably shows large regional variation. It is a very complex industry, which involves many
stakeholders, whose interests range from major infrastructure to service facilities and attractions. A further
challenge to the industry is the importance of identifying the different drivers and motives for travelling.
Public sector tourism agencies are faced with the following challenges:
Increasing global competition, partly as a result of faster and cheaper transport as well as faster
communications. New low-cost destinations, mainly outside Europe, competing with well-established
destinations.
The emergence of new tourism markets (especially China and India).
The current economic recession, with potential to slow down tourism growth and change travelling
patterns.
Increasing importance of place marketing or place development. It is important for destinations to stand
out in the (global) competition and to have clear strategies, images, brands and saleable attractions.
New windows; many internet tools have become standard for the distribution of audio-visual content.
These windows are increasingly having a substantial economic impact on tourism, as a growing number
of visitors are choosing their destinations as a result of exposure to images on a variety of audio-visual
media. People are reading less and consuming more flms, videos and television, resulting in media playing
an increasingly vital role in infuencing the behaviour of tourists.
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Emergence of the experience economy to meet changing tourism demand. There is an increasing tourist
demand for experiences, including demand for experiences based on entertainment and escapism, as well as
more active and learning holidays.
Sustainable tourism issues and the increasing demand for ecotourism and eco-friendly tourism destinations.
Screen Tourism: Bringing the Two Sectors Together
As stated above, the EuroScreen project aims to align policies between the screen and tourism industries.
The concept of screen tourism relates to tourism induced directly or indirectly by a tourist destination or
attraction being viewed on screen, including flm, TV, commercials, video game and internet.
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It attracts
consumers of audio visual media who respond to the opportunity to visit a place they have seen on screen
(either as a real production location or a fctional setting) and who wish to fnd more information about it.
For these consumers of content, their desire to visit such destinations converts them into tourists, with the
content either providing the primary driver for visiting a place or providing something which gives added value
to a region or place. The latter may result in the tourist staying longer, but it can also change the image as well
as the awareness of a place for the tourist and make destinations more competitive. For some places it might
even result in a prolonged destination life cycle as new attractions are added to the place, or it could provide
an expansion of the tourist market in the form of new visitor segments. Another effect could be the expansion
of the visitor season since screen tourism is not dependent on a specifc season.
The study of screen tourism is relatively new in tourism research. One of the key questions is how to defne
and develop effective cooperation between the screen sector and tourism sector.
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The EuroScreen project
therefore works to develop a framework to assist the participating regions to identify and, where possible,
assess the screen sectors economic impact on tourism. Tourism patterns following releases of flm and TV
productions may be measurable, especially if the location is not already an established tourism destination.
6. World Tourism Organisation (2012) http://www2.unwto.org/en
7. Butler (1990)
8. See for instance Beeton (2005) or Hudson and Ritchie (2006b)
9. The tourism sector includes industries involved with e.g. Accommodation; Food and restaurant Services; Attractions, Transportation; Activities;
Travel Services as well as public sector and government agencies such as regional tourism organisations.
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EuroScreens mission is to take full advantage of the screen industry as a proven catalyst for tourism
development in terms of economic and social regeneration, destination development, job creation, development
of tourism products and foundation of new SMEs as will be outlined in this baseline study. The EuroScreen
project aims to exchange and transfer good practices between EuroScreen partners and to ultimately improve
policies addressing screen tourism across the participating regions.
Aim and Methodology of the Baseline Study
The EuroScreen baseline study has several aims. First, the study is vital in ensuring that partners understand
the existing screen tourism activities and policies in all EuroScreen regions. In the frst instance we have
therefore gathered information about the screen and tourism sectors in the eight partner regions
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, as well as
presenting a short analysis of each region. At the end of the chapter, a concluding summary sets the scene and
examines the screen tourism challenges faced by the EuroScreen partnership.
Second, the baseline study explores and analyses existing practices and policies to support the development
of tourism and screen sectors as well as the current opportunities for SMEs within the screen tourism sector.
The second part of the baseline study is a presentation of the collected material, and an analysis based on
current research within the feld.
The third aim of the EuroScreen baseline study is to identify fve good practices amongst the participating
regions. The concluding part of the baseline study is a summary and presentation of these good practices,
providing a reference point from which to move forward.
The methodology of the study took a qualitative approach. Questionnaires with semi-structured questions
were sent to all partners (besides Lund University who carried out the research) in order to gather the
partners experiences (see Appendix 2). The questionnaire was divided into four parts, with respondents
providing information as follows: an overview and insight into each participating organisation and their
experience of screen tourism activities with a special focus on marketing and co-operation activities; a focus
on regional perspectives including examples of interesting or successful campaigns, methods and techniques
used by the region to measure screen tourism effects, as well as information on incentives and tourism
attractions; wider examples of interesting or successful campaigns within partner countries; and, fnally, good
examples worldwide.
The questionnaire was answered by partner organisations as well as some relevant external organisations
within the partner countries. The questionnaires were also complemented by interviews with different
stakeholders identifed by the partners (Appendix 3). In the baseline study, the main fndings of the survey
have been grouped under fve themes (see chapter 3): Economics, Management, Destination Marketing, Screen
Tourists and Tourist Product Development.
EuroScreen is co-fnanced by the European Regional Development Fund and made possible by the
INTERREG IVC programme. The Interregional Cooperation Programme INTERREG IVC, fnanced by the
European Unions Regional Development Fund, helps regions of Europe work together to share experience
and good practice in the areas of innovation, the knowledge economy, the environment and risk prevention.
10. Note: the partnership consists of nine organisations. Two of them, the Municipality of Ystad and Lund University, are situated in
the same region. Lund University is not directly involved in regional development and policies and has had a slightly different role
as academic experts in the project.
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2. EuroScreen Partners
and Their Screen
Tourism Experiences
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The partnership consists of some regions at the forefront of screen tourism (Apulia, London and Ystad), others
with some experience (Malaga and Malta) and three less-advanced regions (Bucharest, Maribor and Rzeszow).
2.1 Film London/UK
Film London, as the UK capitals flm and media agency, works to ensure that London has a thriving flm
sector that enriches the citys businesses and its people. The agency works with all the screen industries to
sustain, promote and develop London as a major international production and flm cultural capital, as well
as supporting the development of the citys new and emerging flm-making talent. Film London is funded by
the Mayor of London and the National Lottery through the BFI, also receiving signifcant support from Arts
Council England, UKTI and Creative Skillset. As the Mayor of Londons designated flm agency, Film London
works closely with the Mayors Offce, with a specifc remit to strengthen Londons position as a flm-friendly
region to attract investment and to promote the economic and cultural importance of flm, TV, commercials
and other audio visual content in the capital.
Each year London hosts over 18,000 flming days with Film London assisting in excess of 2,000 enquiries from
feature flm, TV, commercial and short flm projects requiring production and location support. Film London
is also a member of the Mayor of Londons Cultural Strategy Group providing advice on the promotion of
London as a world class city of culture and has therefore been directly involved in policy-making and strategy
at London regional level.
To date, Film London has not had a budget to directly invest into the marketing and promotion of flm and TV
for tourism purposes. It has therefore created projects on a micro budget or without any budget at all, focusing
mainly on a UK market due to a lack of resources for promoting to tourist markets internationally or to
targeting particular territories. Where international reach has been achieved it has been either through press
and media coverage or through partnership with Londons promotional agency London & Partners (previously
tourism body Visit London). Whilst there is huge potential for further long term strategic work with London
& Partners, such projects have so far been limited, running on an ad hoc basis as a result of different priorities
between the organisations.
2.2 Apulia Film Commission (AFC)/Italy
AFC, situated in south-east Italy, is the Apulia Regional Development Agencys vehicle for policy development
for the screen sector. AFC plays a central role in the local audio visual sector. In the last fve years more than
100 production companies have chosen Apulia as a flm location, producing both direct and indirect impacts
by promoting Apulia and raising its image. However, to date no major Hollywood productions have been
attracted to the region. The launch of an international flm fund in 2012 may attract further productions from
outside Italy and consequently give a higher exposure of Apulia across the globe. An interesting opportunity
relating to this is an increased interest in Bollywood flming in the region which could provide excellent
tourism potential for new markets.
AFC projects facilitate screen tourism through location scouting, promotional campaigns at major flm festivals,
meetings with stakeholders from both screen and tourism sectors, and promotional activities viaCineporti
(two cinema-oriented business centres dedicated to productions, directors and artists). All strategies in the
flm tourism sector (like Apulia Experience) are planned and shared with the regional authority. An important
initiative which combines flm strategy and tourism development is the Apulia Film Tourism Guide for the whole
region, which was frst published in 2009 and then in 2012.
The region clearly has a tourism infrastructure in place, but is competing with established Italian tourism
destinations. A challenge is to turn screen locations into tourism destinations and to further develop screen
products to exploit for tourism purposes. There is a track record of developing flm tourism products such as
the flm guide and a flm location app to further build upon.
2.3 Bucharest-Ilfov Regional Development Agency (ADR-BI)/ Romania
ADR-BI is an intermediate body for the implementation of the Regional Operational Programme for Regional
Development in the Bucharest-Ilfov region. The region has experience in attracting international flm
production to the capital city and has an established flm industry. Often flm productions use studios (such
as well-known Castel Film Studios) or use Romanian locations to stand in for other locations. Bucharest is
then not identifed as the destination, which can be a problem when it comes to developing screen tourism.
Tourism development has recently shifted into focus and the region does not have any experience of screen
tourism or screen tourism products.
Over the last ten years, more than one hundred studio-based international productions (especially feature
flms and commercials) have been shot in the region. These productions have generated important inward
19
investment, but the region doesnt have any clear strategy for how to use this opportunity to attract further
tourism and develop the sector. A further challenge is the lack of an established flm commission in Romania
for the tourism sector to engage with. A number of high profle flms have been shot in Romania, for example
Cold Mountain, and there is a great opportunity to explore tourism potential of flms such as this one. There is
also already existing screen tourism (Dracula) in the country, which can be seen as a competitive advantage,
although it should be considered whether this fts with the image Romania wishes to promote.
2.4 Fondazzjoni Temi Zammit (FTZ)/Malta
FTZ is a Maltese not-for-proft foundation which operates in the feld of skills development relating to
tourism and audio visual sectors, science and technology issues and research activities. In recent years, Maltas
involvement in the screen industry has seen an unprecedented level of incoming and varied productions.
According to the Minister of Finance, this steady infux of productions would contribute considerable added
value to the economy.
11
FTZs collaborative nature serves as a strategic partnership with the involvement of
a number of ministries, local authorities and national agencies.
Malta has a strong flm commission, international screen experience and has had a large number of
international screen productions. A challenge for Malta is to turn screen products and activities into tourism
products. Malta has a well-developed tourism infrastructure in place and an international tourism market.
However, locations in Malta are frequently used to stand in for other locations; Malta is therefore not
necessarily recognised as a destination on screen. To alter this there is a policy instrument which means
increased tax incentives for feature flms portraying Malta as Malta on screen, as well as other incentives for
attracting flm productions. An interesting opportunity is presented by the strong clusters in the creative
sector, which provide a potential for connecting the flm and tourism sector through business incubators.
2.5 Maribor Development Agency (MDA)/Slovenia
MDA, in North-East Slovenia, is responsible for the co-ordination of regional development activities in the
Podravje region. Beside the preparation of a regional development plan and annual action programmes, MDA
is involved in activities concerning the development of regional SMEs, tourism and innovation development
strategies, development of tourism products, innovative pilot projects and cluster-supporting activities.
The flm industry however is not developed in the region; there are limited screen production examples and
no screen tourism experience. In 2012, Maribor was European Capital of Culture, which brought attention to
the city across Europe and gave Maribor some positive media coverage. Similar media coverage is provided by
the annual world cup Golden Fox ski competition races which take place at the Pohorje Mountain. Also,
Maribor has had documentaries shot in the city region. There is an opportunity to build on this, as well as on
Bollywood flm production that has come to Slovenia for the frst time in 2012 targeting new tourism markets.
2.6 Malaga Regional Development Agency (Promalaga)/Spain
Promalaga is a public company, 100% owned by the municipality of Malaga in the South of Spain. Promalaga has
strong expertise of both tourism and flm sectors. As a development agency, it also works closely with screen
producers, the Malaga Film Commission, Malaga Convention Bureau and the Malaga Tourism Board. Promalaga
delivers the annual Malaga Spanish Film Festival as well as the International Week of Fantastic Films, hosted at
University of Malaga. Promalaga is currently delivering a wide range of economic regeneration projects in the city,
including the development of a network of incubator spaces across the city. One of the incubators is targeting
the creative tourism sector, which plays a central role for the city. Promalaga is fostering the development of
business start-ups and growth of businesses to emphasise the potential commercial opportunities between the
tourism industry and the creative sector in which the screen sector plays a key role.
Film productions have settled in the city region, and the region has an experienced audio visual service sector
which has grown as a result of the increasing number of commercial productions in the area. Focus so far is
on the advertising sector shooting on location, and there is a lack of international high-profle features. The
city region also has limited exposure, which could make it diffcult to fully take advantage of its screen tourism
potential.
The tourism industry is the main economic sector in the city as well as in the region, which means that the
tourism infrastructure is already in place. A challenge is that the destination image is not linked to screen
products for tourists. An advantage is that there are already some good national examples of screen tourism.
The region also has a good, innovative screen tourism case in the Smurf village, which we will come back to
in chapter 3.
11. Times of Malta (2012) http://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20100721/local/unprecedented-growth-for-maltas-flm-industry.318866
20
2.7 Rzeszow Regional Development Agency (RARR S.A.)/
Podkarpackie Region Poland
RARR S.A. in South-East Poland supports the development of the Podkarpackie (Sub-Carpathian) province,
and is responsible for economic development policy and implementation. They work closely with tourism
organisations, and development and strategies connected with tourism are identifed as a central priority.
RARR S.A. has a strong track record in tourism development policy and in developing actions to raise the
sectors profle but it has limited experience in the feld of audio visual production and the overall screen
industry. Currently, there is no screen strategy to support the sectors development in the region and
nobody is actively attracting productions to shoot in the region. However, the region has several potential
flm locations in the Podkarpackie area. There is also strong potential demonstrated by flm commissions in
Krakow and other Polish regions, which show the benefts of attracting productions to the country. Good
national examples of screen tourism are available as benchmarking and there is an opportunity to learn from
neighbouring flm-friendly regions and potentially work with them.
2.8 Ystad Municipality/Sweden
The Municipality of Ystad is a small local public authority situated in the very south of Sweden. Ystad City
Council has been developing activities that link flm and tourism for several years. The council works closely
with the flm commission, the university and the local banking sector, as well as co-operating with Visit Sweden
and the regional Skne Tourism Board. It has a signifcant experience of policy development to support the
screen tourism sector. After the success of the fctional character Kurt Wallander (crime books, TV and flm),
several related activities have been carried out. Among others, the following initiatives are supported by the
council: a flm museum that provides an interactive experience, several hotel packages, restaurants and coffee
bars, walking and bus tours, an iPhone app called In the footsteps of Wallander and the annual international
conference Mixed Reality.
Film production, together with related activities and the professionalisation of events have had a successful
impact on the tourism sector by attracting more visitors to the city. From 2004 to 2008 the fnancial turnover
from tourism increased by 60% mainly due to the frst of three English-language Wallander flms, which were
shot in the city in 2004. A challenge for Ystad is the dependence on the Wallander series, and relating to this,
problems of exploiting further flm tourism products based on the Wallander series due to IP restrictions of
using the name Wallander.
Another challenge for the municipality is the lack of a wider regional strategy. At the moment the regional
tourism board has shown interest in linking up with flm and to learn about Ystads experience with Wallander,
which could be seen as a step forward and a great opportunity.
2.9 Summary: Setting the Scene of the EuroScreen Partnership
As seen in the section above, the partnership gives us a broad and diverse picture. There are clearly regions
at the forefront such as Apulia, London, Ystad and to some degree Malaga and Malta but also regions without
any experience of screen tourism such as Bucharest, Maribor and Rzeszow.
Some of the regions have extensive experience and knowledge of the screen sector, but limited knowledge or
experience of screen tourism and screen tourism sector development (London and Bucharest). Two of the
regions (Rzeszow and Maribor) have little knowledge of the screen sector but good knowledge of tourism.
There is furthermore great potential to develop screen tourism in some regions, which already have existing
tourism and a tourism infrastructure in place (such as Malaga and Malta).
Moreover, the analysis of the regions demonstrates the importance of having tourism products as well as
screen products which can be developed for screen tourism and become tourism attractions. Another
challenge is how to develop screen tourism when destinations are mostly used to stand in for other locations
(like Bucharest and Malta).
An interesting opportunity is presented by the strong clusters in the creative sector, seen in Malaga and also
Malta, which provide a potential for connecting the flm and tourism sectors through business incubators.
Challenges for most of the regions are how to best develop regional screen tourism strategies which
incorporate both sectors. The best example of this among the partnership seems to be Apulia which will be
discussed further in chapter 3.
21
Among the partnership there is also an experience of lack of local authority buy-in; a lack of understanding
of the positive benefts of the screen sector and the opportunity to link in with the tourism sector. As the
potential is not fully understood, there is a risk of missed opportunities for destinations to strengthen their
development and competitiveness. Even places currently at the forefront of screen tourism and with a strong
understanding of the positive effects of flm and tourism like Swedens Ystad, could be challenged by a good-
enough attitude among the policy-makers, happy with what they have already achieved, resulting in a potential
loss of competitiveness.
We have now set the scene of the EuroScreen partnership and will now move on to the second part of the
baseline study, which is a presentation of the collected material, and an analysis based on current research
within the feld.
22
22
23
3. Screen Tourism
Overview
24
The aim of this chapter is to give an overview and analysis of the existing research literature and themes
covering screen tourism. The research fndings are exemplifed and complemented by other case studies,
statistics and examples provided by the project regions. The chapter is divided into fve sub-sections: economics
(including different forms of benefts); management (including policies, strategies and partnerships); destination
marketing (including branding, campaigns and placement value); screen tourists (including drivers, activities and
statistics); and tourist product development (including tourism products and attractions), which each present
different screen tourism perspectives. Each sub-section has a concluding section at the end where the major
fndings are presented.
3.1 Economics
This section will look at the economic benefts which could be achieved through a screen production (flm,
TV or commercial) taking place in a destination, both in a short term as well as in a long term perspective. It
will address what a destination can gain in investing in and attracting flm and TV productions to its area. The
section starts with a general background about the economic benefts of screen productions and then moves
on to different examples to illustrate the actual economic impacts in numbers.
Economic Benefts of Screen Productions
In recent years there has been a growing interest in attracting flm productions to specifc places, regions and
countries. Film commissions have existed for many years, but the growing interest has resulted in a substantial
increase in the number of flm commissions. Film commissions exist on national as well as on regional levels and
there are also an important number of city flm commissions. There are roughly 300 flm commission globally
who are members of the Association of Film Commissioners International (AFCI).
12
However, it is estimated
that twice as many exist, since not all flm commissions are members of this organisation.
13
The numbers of
flm production hubs are growing and they all aim at attracting flm production to their specifc region. In
a European context there are 82 flm commissions from 25 different countries as members of the European
Network of Film Commissions (EUFCN).
14
The number of flm commissions has grown rapidly in the last two
decades. For example in the late 1990s there were three flm commissions in Italy and since then another 27
have emerged.
15
The revenue generated by flm productions for the region, together with its benefcial impact
on employment and the local economy, has been demonstrated by extensive research and studies.
16
The
growing interest is due to flm being seen as a fast-growing creative industry that will generate revenue to the
local economies.
17
Film commissions used to have a production specifc focus, mainly trying to attract flm productions and
neglecting the effect a flm production could have on a region in a more touristic context.
18
However, that
has now changed and besides a focus on impact on jobs created, growth in local tax revenue, new business
activities and expenditure along the way, screen tourism is seen as having a long term economic beneft.
19

Screen products such as flm, documentaries and TV series are seen as triggers that could alter or develop
a new image of a region which could lead to growth in tourism.
20
Another beneft of screen products being
made in a region is the free exposure the region gets without having to pay for the promotion. This material
is perceived as highly trustworthy by the viewers since it is not seen as marketing or direct advertising that is
trying to sell the region.
21

In order to attract flm productions, flm commissions offer different services and activities to make a city
or region flm-friendly and provide incentives which can also be fnancial. This includes services to assist with
the facilitation of flming, providing locations advice, establishing partnerships with flming locations to ensure
a smooth flming process and assisting in fnding flm crew friendly accommodation.
22
This means that a range
of authorities, organisations and local businesses co-operate to facilitate flming for flm crews in the region
which is vital for a smooth production.
23
Increased usage of hotel accommodation and catering has therefore
seen positive direct economic impact of a flm and TV production.
12. The Association of Film Commissioners International (2013) http://www.afci.org/about-afci/history
13. Interview with Mikael Svensson (2013) Film Commissioner Oresund Film Commission
14. Becheri and Maggiore (2013)
15. Ibid
16. See for instance Oxford Economics (2012) or Cucco and Richeri (2011)
17. There has been a 56% growth and innovation in the audiovisual industry between 2000 and 2010: Creative Media Europe Audiovisual
content and online growth (2012) http://www.acte.be/EPUB/easnet.dll/GetDoc?APPL=1&DAT_IM=02B79F
18. Hudson (2011)
19. Cynthia and Beeton (2009)
20. See further chapter 3.4
21. Beeton (2005); Falkheimer and Thelander (2007)
22. For example Highlands of Scotland Film Commission
23. In the case of facilitating flming in the UK capital, Film London produced a code of practice, through extensive industry consultation with
the London Filming Partnership. The code of practice is a comprehensive and practical tool to help with flming in public places in London.
25 25
Being viewed as a flm-friendly destination is crucial for attracting productions and regions have to compete
with each other. As a result, there are different fnancial incentives that have been developed in different
regions to attract flm companies. These include tax credits or flm funds available to companies shooting in
the respective region or country as well as dedicated production funds. Examples of these incentives will be
addressed in chapter 3.2.
What is the actual economic impact in numbers? Below we have listed some good examples to illustrate this:
An example at national level is the UK, where the flm industry has a total economic impact of contributing
over 4.6 billion (approx. 5.4 billion) to UK GDP and over 1.3 billion (approx. 1,5 billion) to the
Exchequer (gross of tax relief and other fscal support) in 2011. It also created the equivalent of 117,400 full
time jobs in the UK while tourism generated by flms depicting the UK was estimated to have contributed
about 1bn to UK GDP.
24
A more local example is shown in a report of the economic impact of the Millennium Trilogy in Stockholm.
It was estimated that every invested Swedish krona in the project had a return of 1.5, that is for every 100
SEK (approx. 11.5) spent, 150 SEK (approx. 17,3) were returned.
25

A regional example is provided by Apulia Film Commission (AFC). When AFC, through their flm fund,
invests in a flm production in the Apulia region it comes with certain conditions. The AFC supports and
co-ordinates all links in the flm and audiovisual production chain with four funding programmes (Apulia
National Film Fund, Apulia International Film Fund, Apulia Development Film Fund and Hospitality Fund)
and a variety of free services which provide immediate solutions to logistical problems such as scouting in
the region, reductions in the costs of using public areas, studios for casting and offce space. The economic
impact 2007-2010, which measured the ratio between regional fund allocation and direct expenditure,
showed that for every 1 provided through funding, production companies spent more than 6 in the
local area. TV-series had a higher level of spend due to the time spent in the region and of course higher
budgets resulted in a higher spend in the region. As previously mentioned, accommodation is important
and 22% of spending was attributed to this area. Other areas were costs for Apulian crew, transportation
as well as insurance, consultancy, permits, hire fees.
26
Ystad Municipality, has calculated that on the frst Wallander series the investment was 13 million SEK
(approx. 1.5 million) with a return to the region of 50 million SEK (approx. 5.8 million). Two Wallander
productions with the BBC had an investment of 15 million SEK (approx. 1.7 million) with a return of
a total of 46 million SEK (approx. 5.3 million). Finally Wallander 2 had an investment of 15 million SEK
(approx. 1.7 million) and had a return to the whole region of 50 million SEK (approx. 5.8 million).
27

Thus, the investment in flm projects has increased levels of spend in the Ystad region. Just like in Apulia,
employment is a fgure that is emphasized when it comes to economic impact. In the case of Ystad, the
second Wallander series provided 298 employment opportunities of which 193 came from the region. The
BBC project provided 144 employment opportunities with almost half of them of a regional background.
Local companies which have benefted from the flm productions include car rentals, food stores,
security and cleaning companies, hotels and restaurants. These were all direct economic impacts of the
productions. However, it could be concluded that the productions, most likely, had an indirect impact on
tourism too. The turnover in the tourism sector in Ystad went from 490 million SEK (approx. 56 million)
in 2002 to 720 million SEK (approx. 82.9) in 2011.
28
It cannot be assumed but it is highly likely that there is
a correlation between the exposure of Ystad in various screen products during this period and the growth
in tourism turnover of 60%. It shows in the growing number of employees in the tourism sector that the
economic turnover has increased because it has gone from 388 full time employees to 560 in 2011. The
statistics also show an infux of day visitors and hotel bookings over the same period. Thus, in addition to
having a direct economic impact, flm productions also have a wider and more indirect impact.
All of these examples are European, but the economic tourism impact is also seen elsewhere. In the Gold
Coast in Australia flm productions are almost seen as a specialized tourism segment: the long stay business
tourists. They come and stay and use facilities such as accommodation and restaurants.
29
Film productions are
in this sense already creating tourism while flming and screen tourism is just another phase of the tourism
triggered by flm and other screen products.
Productions also generate tourism during flming, with high profle flm productions functioning like mega-
events
30
and therefore attracting visitors.
31
This was clearly the case when the Bollywood flm Don 2 with the
24. Oxford Economics (2012)
25. Millennium report (2011)
26. Internal material submitted by the partner Apulia Film Commission, Italy
27. Rundqvist, Petra (2010) PPT Presentation
28. Ystad Kommun (2012) TEM report
29. Ward and ORegan (2009)
30. The defnition of a mega-event is large-scale cultural (including commercial and sporting) events which have a dramatic character, mass
popular appeal and international signifcance.
31. Ward and ORegan (2009)
26
famous Indian actor Shah Rukh Khan was flmed in Berlin, Germany. This flm was funded with 2 million,
most of which came from the German Federal Film Fund and the Berlin-Brandenburg Media Board. As with
other cases, most of the crew was German, some of the actors and almost all of the crew.
32
When the flm
was shown in India it was preceded by a one-minute advert for Berlin as a tourism destination. The advert
and the whole project of attracting the flm production to Berlin and Germany was a partnership between the
Berlin Film Commission and Berlin tourism organisation and the latter organisation paid for the commercial.
33

Thus, the aim was to attract Indian tourists to Germany and Berlin.
34
Tourism can therefore have a long term
economic impact on a destination based on previous flm productions taking place. In this particular case the
tourism had already started during flming because fans that follow Shah Rukh Khan started to travel to Berlin
when the flm was shooting.
35
As seen above, a screen product can have a direct tourism impact as early as during flming (even if flm
productions normally try to avoid publicity during flming). In the next section screen tourism is further
addressed as a secondary economic beneft.
Secondary Economic Benefts of Screen Productions: Tourism
As already introduced in the previous section screen productions have a short term economic impact as well as
a much longer economic impact. This is achieved through screen products potential as drivers for the tourism
sector. Screen products are often recognised as having a short term impact; however it is argued by researchers
such as Sue Beeton that screen tourism is like a pilgrimage (see further chapter 3.4). Thus, as with a pilgrimage,
visits might not take place immediately after viewing a screen product and could instead be years afterwards.
36

Even if the effect is not always instant, the potential value through tourism of a flm production is a highly
relevant issue for flm commissions to address.
37
However, many organisations are reluctant to get involved due
to a lack of fnancial resources for both flm commissions and tourism destination marketing organisations. As
there is a lack of raw data relating to investments and expenditures in this area, it is diffcult to measure the
return on investment which in turn makes it diffcult to attract investors.
38 39
One of the main reasons for this is
the varying lengths of time elapsing between tourists having seen a screen product and their visit, mentioned
above, making it diffcult to directly attribute the visit. Another reason is the problem of singling out screen
tourists from other tourists and identifying their specifc contribution to the local economy. Since there are
no specifc points of entry it is always diffcult to measure the number of tourists visiting cities and towns, as
opposed to gated properties for example, and this applies to screen tourists too. There is therefore a need for
a good measurement tool in order to make screen products a signifcant contributor as a generator of a tourism
destination.
40
The Oxford Economics Report, published in the UK in 2012, estimated that flms depicting the UK are responsible
for generating around a tenth of overseas tourism revenues, contributing around 1 billion (approx. 1.2 billion)
to UK GDP and 230 million (approx. 269 million) to the Exchequer in 2011. Further, it is estimated that one
in ten of the foreign visitors to the UK probably come as a result of seeing the country depicted in flm and as
a result this generates 2.1 billion GBP (approx. 2.5 billion) in additional visitor spend.
41

The Scottish Tourism Authority, Visit Scotland, commissioned research in 2012 to assess the infuence of
productions on audiences decision to visit a destination seen on screen. The research shows that 43% of
respondents agree that flm had inspired them in some way to visit a destination and 19% responded that flm
had a direct link to their visit. Moreover, 24% answered that it inspired them to fnd out more about what was
depicted on screen.
42
The respondents in this material were all from the UK which might have an impact on
the results especially if they are day visitors (see further chapter 3.5). However, it is acknowledged that screen
products have a high impact on the tourism sector. It is argued that flms can increase visitor numbers and
support investment in refurbishments and expansion at specifc attractions.
43
However, there is no substantial
quantifying data that can support this argument, as already addressed in the previous section with the case of
Ystad. The screen tourism effect can be measured on a single attraction but not on a whole destination. This is
due to a lack of instruments to measure the effects in a consistent way. At present the arguments are instead
grounded in case studies from all over the world.
32. Spiegel Online International (2010) http://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/bollywood-dreams-can-shah-rukh-khan-make-berlin-sexy-
for-indians-a-729807.html
33. Interview with Christiane Raab (2012) Film Commissioner Berlin Brandenburg Film Commission
34. Spiegel Online International (2010) http://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/bollywood-dreams-can-shah-rukh-khan-make-berlin-sexy-
for-indians-a-729807.html
35. Interview with Christiane Raab (2012)
36. Beeton (2005)
37. Lundstrm (2010)
38. Connell and Meyer (2009)
39. Hudson (2011)
40. Connell and Meyer (2009)
41. Oxford Economics (2012)
42. Visit Scotland (2012) UK Consumer Attitudes, Film Related Topic
43. Ibid
27 27
There are several different cases that can illustrate this effect on single locations. The flm Robin Hood for
example created a growth in tourism for the regions depicted in the flm after its release in 2010. Nottingham
Castle had 5.5% more visitors and Sherwood Forest had 7% more international visitors in 2010 compared to
the year before.
44
In Stockholm, Sweden, the Millennium Trilogy attracted a signifcant number of French visitors.
Although it is not possible to know for sure that there is a connection, the accommodation statistics for
Stockholm in 2008 showed that French visits had gone up by 20% compared to the year before.
45
It is reasonable
to see a correlation; however there is no clear data. Another example comes from one of the National Trusts
properties.
46
Antony House saw visitor numbers quadruple from nearly 25,000 to nearly 90,000 in the summer
of 2010 after appearing in the flm version of Alice in Wonderland. 50% of the visitors said that they were visiting
because of the fact that Antony House was used as a location for Alice in Wonderland, and 50% said that they had
children accompanying them who were interested in the connection to the flm.
47

48

Thus, the exposure of a location or destination in a screen production generated an interest for people to visit
it. A further example is the case of the novel, and later the flm, Captain Corellis Mandolin and the effect it had
on tourism on the island of Cephalonia. A growth in tourism is demonstrated when comparing arrival fgures
before and after the release of the book and the flm and it is again estimated that they are related.
49
Figure 1: Visitor arrivals to Cephalonia, from ONeill et al., 2005, p. 215.
A national example from outside of the EU shows some interesting tourism growth fgures. The popular
Korean Hallyu dramas
50
most likely created growth in tourism from markets where the dramas have been
shown. There has for example been a 32% growth, compared to the previous year, in tourism to Korea from
China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. These are the same countries where the products
are very popular. In countries that did not show Hallyu dramas, the tourism arrival growth is limited to 9%.
51
Another example comes from the UK. The British TV series Heartbeat has had an impact on Goathland, the
village in the north of Yorkshire where it is shot. Before the TV production there were 200,000 tourists per
year. Today, 1.5 million tourists come to the village as a result of increased exposure in the TV series. This
growth in visits has created more jobs in the local tourism sector, new hotels, products sales as well as an
extended season. Thus, screen products can have a major impact on marginalised rural areas.
52
Summary: Economics
The revenue generated by flm and TV productions for the region, its benefcial impact on employment
and the local economy has been demonstrated by extensive research and studies. The growing interest in
attracting flm and TV productions to different places is due to flm and TV being recognized as a growing
creative industry that will generate revenue for the local economy.
Besides a focus on impact on jobs created, growth in local tax revenue, new business activities and
expenditure along the way, screen tourism is seen as having a long term economic beneft.
Direct visible economic impacts of flm and TV productions beneft local companies; for example car
rentals, food stores, security and cleaning companies, hotels and restaurants. However, based on the
44. Visit Britain (2010) Robin Hood, Global Evaluation Report
45. Visit Sweden (2009) Annual Report
46. National Trust is a UK conservation charity, protecting historic places and green spaces, and opening them up for ever, for everyone.
47. National Trust (2012) PPT Presentation by Harvey Edgington
48. Note, though, that there was a lot of work done around this, among others: an article in National Trust magazine with Johnny Depp on the
cover and quotes from Tim Burton, press Junket for DVD release at house, DVD extras, website, themed garden for 2010.
49. ONeill, Butts, and Busby (2005)
50. Hallyu dramas are popular Korean TV dramas like for instance Winter Sonata.
51. Kim, Long, and Robinson (2009)
52. OConnor (2010); OConnor, Flanagan, and Gilbert (2010)
28
fndings above it can be concluded that flm productions, have an indirect impact on tourism too.
As seen above, there are many global cases that can illustrate a growth in tourism after a production has
been released. However, the actual correlation and the economic impacts are diffcult to measure.
One problem is the time line; it is not always the case that the visit takes place directly after the release
of a screen product. Audio-visual products can have an impact on the image of the destination, creating
a motivation to visit a place in the future rather than immediately afterwards.
It is easy to measure the impact at a single attraction such as a castle, chapel, museum or guided tour where
tickets are issued and visits are measured. This also applies to more rural location such as Goathland in the
UK and other small settlements or sparsely populated areas where it is possible to measure the screen
products impact on tourism as well as any other area with clearly demarcated boundaries.
53

In the case of cities and larger areas the measurement of the impact of a screen product is much more
complex as tourists come to large cities for numerous reasons which makes it diffcult to distinguish them
amongst everybody else, and to measure the number of additional visits created specifcally through flm
and TV.
There is therefore a need for an impact measurement tool that can work for larger places just as well as
for rural locations. To date no such tool has been developed to measure the economic impact of screen
tourism, though an attempt has been developed to measure visitor numbers by looking at the impact of
screen products.
54
3.2 Management
This chapter addresses different management aspects relating to the development of screen tourism. First,
it will discuss various incentives for attracting screen productions to a region, including both tax reliefs and
flm funds. This is highlighted as it is important for screen products to be linked to a location in order to
develop any related tourism. This is followed by a discussion of different strategies that are in play in order to
encourage the development of screen tourism. Finally, the importance of different partnerships is highlighted.
To successfully develop screen tourism the following fve factors need to be taken into consideration according
to Hudson and Ritchie:
55
Destination marketing: this is the marketing activity conducted before, during and after the release of
a screen product (addressed in 3.3).
Destination attributes: those are the specifc factors associated with the destination such as brand and
scenery.
Film specifc factors: e.g. success of the flm and identifable locations (further addressed in chapter 3.3).
Locations feasibility: for example taxes, labour and resources.
Film commission and government efforts: tax breaks, lobbying, scouting services etc. (addressed in the
next section).
Incentives for Attracting Screen Productions
This frst section will address the last factor on the list above, namely government efforts and incentives such as
tax reliefs and flm funds that are developed for attracting screen productions to a region or city. Productions
have a potential to generate screen tourism. The luring of productions is vital because without screen products
there is no material to build on when it comes to developing screen tourism. As seen in chapter 3.1 there is
a growing number of flm commissions, providing national as well as global competition in winning flm business
- and incentives are important tools in attracting screen productions. These incentives aim to encourage
investments, promoting productions, strengthening service infrastructures in the region and creating new jobs.
56

To this list could also be added a growth in tourism. However, from a screen tourism perspective it is important
to choose a specifc type of production that lends itself to tourism promotion. Primarily, productions that
showcase the destination as it is and not as a substitute for another place are particularly valuable in terms of
screen tourism (further discussed in chapter 3.3). It is much more complicated and expensive to increase brand
awareness when a destination is used as a substitute because research has shown that tourists tend to travel to
the destination portrayed on screen.
57
For example, tourists travel to Scotland in the case of Braveheart, rather
than to Ireland where it was mainly flmed. Interestingly, in the case of the flm Brokeback Mountain, the location
where it was shot actively promoted the destination and invested in a marketing campaign while the destination
portrayed on screen received a lot of associated media attention for free.
53. Busby and Klug (2001)
54. See further Young and Young (2008)
55. Hudson and Ritchie (2006b)
56. Hedling (2010)
57. Kim and Richardson (2003); Beeton (2004)
29 29
A good example of funding that focused on showcasing the destination in various ways is:
Malta, which is often used as a good example when it comes to working with incentives. They offer
for example an additional 2% credit to producers if the production is going to be valuable for tourism.
The MTA (Malta Tourism Authority) offers a cash incentive, as well as a logistical support, to screen
productions that portray Malta as Malta. Certain expenditure of the production costs is covered directly
by the Authority to ease the flming activities during principal Imagegraphy. The MTA could also give
a contribution towards the following elements of the production which also includes the initial scouting
and technical recess: fights to and from Malta; transportation of cargo where there are direct routes
served by Air Malta; and hotel accommodation for cast and crew. Productions that are evaluated for
these incentives are scrutinised by criteria including the degree to which Malta is featured in the script and
whether locations featured are authentic. It is stipulated that 60% needs to be shot locally.
58
Thus, Malta is
proactive in trying to secure that Malta is showcased as Malta and not as a substitute for another place.
59
There are also other forms of incentives that focus on national aspects.
The UK has a Creative Sector Tax Relief for Film, High-end TV and Animation offering up to 25% relief.
To qualify for this tax credit at least 25% of the qualifying expenditure must be spent in the UK and the
flm must pass a cultural test which considers the cultural content, setting, characters, use of cultural
practitioners and contribution to cultural diversity. It is the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and
Sport that certifes flms on the advice of the British Film Institute.
60
There are also similar tax reliefs in France, with productions that are French being given a 20% refund of
the money spent on production costs in the country. The aim is to support flms that show and take place
in France and could not be flmed elsewhere.
61

These three examples all show that subsidies are given to productions that somehow are connected to the
country. This forward thinking is benefcial for developing screen tourism.
In addition to the example above, Malta also has another range of incentives to attract flm productions in
which the island is used as a substitute for other locations. The Government of Malta offers a number of
fscal and fnancial incentives for audio visual productions shooting in Malta besides the aforementioned.
The incentives are a cash grant given to qualifying productions on the portion of eligible expenditure
spent in Malta. Up to 20% of this expenditure could be rebated to a qualifying production company. The
rebate to be given as a cash grant on completion of an audio visual production would be calculated on the
expenses incurred in Malta: e.g. labour, hotel bed nights, transportation equipment and hire, location fees
and catering services. Similar incentives are also given by other flm commissions in order to attract flm
productions.
In addition to tax reliefs or cash rebates there is also another common incentive: flm funds. In Europe there
is a network of regional flm funds called Cine-Regio: the network is constantly growing and at present it
represents 41 regional flm funds from 12 EU Member States, in addition to Norway and Switzerland.
62
Most flm
funds are local and here different regions within countries can compete with each other.
Ystad-sterlen in Sweden for example has a flm fund applicable to those productions that shoot at least
50% in Ystad and the neighbouring areas. To qualify for the money, at least twice the amount of money
needs to be spent on location. In the contract with the production, rights to material, end-credits and
a premiere viewing is secured.
63
Thus, by giving money to the production the local place can secure rights
to material and assets that can later be used for marketing purposes.
Apulia Film Commission has a flm fund to: attract direct and indirect investment to the Apulian audiovisual
sector; enable professional development for regional artistic and technical staff; provide opportunities for
international culture, art and business; publicise Apulian audiovisual culture through comparisons with
other productions in the feld; encourage contact between local public and private institutions with the
best international expertise; and contribute to the promotion and sharing of Apulian cultural identity. The
flm fund supports either national or international production companies with different amounts of money
whether it is a feature flm, TV series, documentary, short movie or videogame. However, they have also
created a hospitality fund which has a direct impact on the local economy in the tourism sector. The fund is
available for both national and international production companies.
64
AFC is also fnalizing a location gallery
that is a database geo-localized of the most important natural, urban and historical regional locations.
58. Internal material submitted by the partner FTZ in Malta
59. Films and TV-series not showcasing Malta as Malta are e.g. Troy, Gladiator and Game of Thrones.
60. Oxford Economics (2012)
61. Nielsn (2009) Allt rknas om rabatter och erbjudanden till flmproduktion i Europa
62. http://www.cine-regio.org/about_cine-regio/
63. Ystad sterlen flm fond (2013) http://www.ystad.se/ystadweb.nsf/wwwpages/5AFC524B4C168D96C12573E5004D8446/$File/Riktlinjer
StiftelsenYstad_OsterlenFilmfond.pdf
64. Internal material submitted by the partner Apulia Film Commission, Italy
30
There are many more examples of flm funds available but in terms of screen tourism those subsidies that
support productions which showcase the region as itself are the most benefcial for the region when it comes
to tourism. The exception to this it is a screen product based on a fctitious place, such as in the case of The
Lord of the Rings and New Zealand. Incentives as part of an overall development strategy for a region have been
discussed in this section, though there are a number of other strategies that a destination can implement as will be
discussed in the next section.
Strategies
The following section focuses on the different stakeholders that are needed in order to develop screen tourism
and the strategies involved. The key stakeholders for a destination are destination management organisations,
the flm industry, tourism businesses, the municipality and its inhabitants, tourists
65
and flm commissions
66
(as
seen in the model in Figure 2).
Figure 2: Screen tourism stakeholders, model by Heitman. With some amendments.
67

There are many partners that need to collaborate in order to successfully develop a destination. It is therefore
vital for each destination to identify who the different stakeholders are within each category. Furthermore, all
these stakeholders have different agendas with various priorities and it is important to plan properly in order
to develop screen-related tourism and adopt a meaningful strategy.
68
Strategies in the municipality should
involve both council offcials and people in the town or city. It is important that the residents are involved
because their lives can be impacted by the growth of screen tourism, especially when it comes to small
destinations.
69
For that reason, it is important to take local citizens into consideration while planning a strategy.
So, how should stakeholders work together? Firstly, there is a need for proactive work, early in the production
process, since when the flm is ready to have its premiere it is too late to capitalise on the benefts that could
be gained from a screen product. Time management is essential and planning should start in advance, ideally
when the production decides to shoot in the region or destination. For example, Visit Britain started working
on Skyfall more than a year in advance of the flms release, planning the marketing activities in conjunction with
the opening of the flm. In addition to working with the production company Sony Pictures, meetings were
arranged with a variety of key partners on the flm, including Aston Martin, Coca Cola and Globetrotter.
70
Second, in the pre-production stage it is important to organise partnerships in order to secure benefts such
as end credits and ideally to have input on which locations are chosen for shooting.
71
The closer the contact
between the different stakeholders the better are the outcomes for all involved.
One strategy for dealing with the varying agendas of stakeholders is to employ someone who works as
a liaison.
72
In Ystad the council employed a flm co-ordinator in 2008 to work as a liaison for flm related
questions and activities. This is part of the towns overall strategy to ensure that flm should impact and
65. Heitmann (2010)
66. Di Cesare, Salandra, and Craparotta (2012)
67. Heitmann (2010)
68. Cf Hudson (2011)
69. Beeton (2005)
70. Denitsa Mihova, Partner Marketing Manager, Visit Britain (2012) YouTube clip of a presentation held at a conference organised by Midtjysk
Turisme, November 20.
71. Interview with Annamari Thorell (2012) Consultant, KommuniAktion
72. Hudson and Ritchie (2006b)
31 31
infuence different levels of the town and not only on tourism specifc activities.
73
Another example of this kind
is New Zealand where they appointed a Minister to oversee the campaigns related to the release of The Lord
of the Rings trilogy.
74

Other strategies that should be addressed in the pre-production and production stage is the development
of marketing strategies for media coverage and post-production exposure, workforce support, destination
images, national promotion and on-going studio relations.
75

Following this, after or during the release of the flm, another set of activities can take place including guided
tours and walks, exhibitions and distribution of movie maps (these products and others are further addressed
in 3.5). For an extensive list of different activities to apply in the different stages before, during and after
release of a flm, Filmby Aarhus has developed a toolbox that lists different activities based on the agenda of the
different stakeholders.
76

Figure 3: Model by Filmby Aarhus, 2012, p. 7.
77

There are many strategies that could be adopted in order to develop screen tourism. These strategies are
dependent on each destination since they all differ from each other as well as being dependent on which
stakeholders are involved. However, a central element is collaboration between different stakeholders and
the next section will therefore address the strategies that are applied in a number of strategic collaborations.
Partnerships
Partnerships are essential in order to capitalise on the potential impact of screen products on tourism.
However these partnerships are not obvious for all stakeholders. For example, flm production companies
are primarily concerned with producing and marketing their flm and not with the potential tourism the
product could generate afterwards. They have in most cases a short term interest when it comes to the
destination. Likewise, some tourism organisations are still unfamiliar with focusing on screen products for
marketing purposes. A study of the work by destination marketing organisations in Europe revealed that even
though 67% had access to screen products in their region only 38% exploited those opportunities.
78
Thus, even
if tourist organisations have a screen product not all decide to capitalise on them. The research showed that
uncertainty of who should be doing what and a lack of knowledge of the flm sector from a tourism perspective
had a negative impact on potential partnerships. Other factors that were highlighted in this survey as having
a negative impact on the willingness of co-operation were a shortage of time, budget and personnel. For
those who actually worked with screen tourism there was substantial difference in budgets allocated for this
activity. Though the outcomes of the activities were independent of the size of budget, interest was instead
the key factor.
79
The key was an understanding that this was an opportunity worth building on, and that the
opportunity should be taken regardless of budget. By demonstrating that one of the reasons for a lack of
collaboration was a lack of understanding of the other sectors work, this study shows the importance of the
EuroScreen project since one of the key aims is to create knowledge transfers and vital understanding of the
screen and tourism sectors.
73. Internal material submitted by the partner Ystad in Sweden
74. Hudson (2011)
75. OConnor (2010)
76. Filmby Aarhus (2012) Experience flms in real-life - A handbook on flm tourism
77. Filmby Aarhus (2012) Experience flms in real-life - A handbook on flm tourism
78. Di Cesare et al. (2012)
79. Ibid
32
Visit Britain is a leading example of a national destination marketing organisation working in partnership
to exploit the link between tourism and flms. Each year Visit Britain selects one flm for a screen tourism
campaign. In addition to working with major studios such as Universal Pictures, Warner Bros and Sony
Pictures, Visit Britain collaborates with local screen commissions and international consumer brands to
leverage the locations used in flms.
80
In the case of the flm Robin Hood partners included Universal Pictures,
Visit England, Experience Nottinghamshire, East Midlands, Nottingham City Council and Nottinghamshire
County. The aim for Visit Britain with developing such collaborations is to encourage tourists to visit
destinations in the whole country, increasing the number of visitors and thereby the money spent.
81
These are examples of large-scale partnerships on a national level but there are many local examples too.
There is a lot to be gained from partnerships between a small flm company and a local tourist organisation.
Opportunities for exchange of knowledge and expertise can take place, together with the pooling of resources
and support, which can give economic benefts to both parties.
82

In the case of the Polish TV series Father Matthew, the authorities of the town Sandomierz co-operated
with the production company during all stages of the production. The town provided, for example,
organisational and logistical support as well as offering to cover the cost of accommodation of the flm
crew or the cost of aerial Imagegraphs at its own expense. In return the town received permission to
use the name of the series for promotional purposes.
83
Even though there was no formal contract the
production company negotiated the terms with the city council. Town representatives proposed locations
due to their local knowledge of the region and the city which matched the content of the script.
84
They
could therefore infuence how the town was portrayed, which was benefcial in terms of tourism. Thus, on
a local level, communication between different partners can become more productive due to the building
of relationships if the production has been flming in the area for some time. Though, this is not always
the case since it depends on the partners involved. It can therefore be helpful for a tourist destination
organisation, if there is no flm commission, to be involved in advising on locations for flm shoots and
collaborating from an early stage in order to increase the opportunity for locations to develop into tourist
attractions.
The frst two examples of partnerships were between flm companies and tourist organisations. Another
stakeholder that co-operates with destination marketing organisations are flm commissions. It can be
an advantage for these two to pool resources because one is charged with attracting and supporting flm
productions in the region and the other can capitalise on the results of that work to encourage tourists to visit
the locations used by productions. There are mutual benefts because flm commissions have knowledge which
tourist organisations do not have, relating to the productions flmed in the region and their locations. This
knowledge could easily be turned into a tourism asset such as a movie map. Equally there seems to be a lack
of understanding of tourist organisations from a flm commission perspective.
85
Despite the potential mutual
benefts, it is not always the case that they collaborate.
Film France found a useful method for collaborating with the national destination marketing organisation.
They collaborate on a project basis where they take part in the other organisations expertise and
knowhow.
86
Thus, the flm commission approaches the tourist organisation if they need their knowledge
and vice versa.
In Malta, the Malta Tourism Authority (MTA) together with tourism agencies and the Malta Film
Commission are working together in order to leverage flm tourism in the country which could lead to
economic benefts. To date the partnership has primarily had a short term focus, facilitating the work of
flm productions and concentrating solely on the immediate associated economic impacts. However, an
increasing number of flm and tourism industry stakeholders in Malta have begun to work together with
the primary goal of attracting flm productions and then capitalising on the exposure to increase visitors.
87

Another strategic partnership is Cine Tirol in Austria which was an initiative by the State of Tirol and
the Tirol Tourist Board (Tirol Werbung GmbH) in 1998 for the international promotion of Tirol as the
leading flm location in the European Alps. In this case the flm commission acts as an entity under the Tirol
Tourist Board.
88
They have a common goal while working with different tools. In return they collaborate
with other organisations such as local tourist offces, cable car companies, bus companies and the different
locations in the region while developing tourism products based on flms produced in the region.
89

80. Denitsa Mihova, Partner Marketing Manager, Visit Britain (2012) Presentation hold at a conference organised by Midtjysk Turisme,
November 20.
81. Ibid
82. Cynthia and Beeton (2009)
83. Kucharska (2012)
84. Material submitted by the partner RARR S.A. in Poland
85. Interview with Trish Shorthouse, (2012) Film Commissioner, Highlands of Scotland Film Commission
86. Interview with Patrick Lamassoure (2012) CEO, Film France
87. Internal material submitted by the partner FTZ in Malta
88. Cine Tirol Film Commission guidelines from http://www.cinetirol.com/media/16613/Guidelines09-pg.pdf
89. Questionnaire Cine Tirol Film Commission; http://www.cinetirol.com/en/flm-commission/
33 33
In Apulia, the regional departments for tourism, culture and economic development have created
a collaborative platform with the most important cultural institutions and Apulia Film Commission. The
platforms aim is to set up a creative and cultural district and to increase the synergies, improve the
impacts, sharing experiences and developing new models and tools for the creative sector in the area. It is
a process that has a strong political commitment.
90
Thus, there are close collaborations between the flm
commission and the tourism organisation. They have the same overall agenda in a regional collaboration
focusing on the creative sector such as flm to increase tourism.
The fnal example of a partnership is Movie Med which is a collaboration between six different Mediterranean
countries: France, Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia, Lebanon and Spain. It is a collaboration that aims to improve
the visibility of the six countries by focusing on flm tourism both in terms of hosting flm production as well
as capitalising after the products are fnalised. The focus is on the cultural heritage in the Mediterranean
region. To date, Movie Med has organised workshops, conferences and discussion forums that aim to
link the flm and tourism sectors in the regions. Besides increasing the amount of productions flming
in the region, the project aims to create a positive impact on the different images as well as developing
new tourism products.
91
This is an interesting collaboration because it works across borders just like the
EuroScreen project.
Summary: Management
This section has illustrated how different regions work with incentives such as tax reliefs and flm funds
in order to attract productions to flm in the region. By attracting productions there is a direct economic
beneft while flming, which continues afterwards if the screen product can be used to encourage tourism
development. It is therefore important from a management perspective to see which policies can be
developed both on a national but also on a more local level to exploit these opportunities.
A challenge from a screen tourism perspective is to attract the kind of productions that can create screen
tourism, namely productions where the locations featured represent the location in the story rather than
doubling for another destination.
Examples have been shown of subsidies given for productions that show parts of the real country on
screen. This forward thinking is benefcial for developing screen tourism.
Besides incentives, proactive work is essential in terms of planning a strategy that incorporates all relevant
stakeholders. There is work to be done at all stages of the flm production: before, during and afterwards.
Since all places are different it is important to identify those stakeholders that are relevant for the
development of screen tourism in the individual region.
Finally, a number of partnerships were highlighted which are crucial to the successful development of long
lasting and sustainable screen tourism. Partnerships can take place on a regional political level, between
tourism destination marketing organisations and flm production companies or flm commissions. There
are many opportunities to capitalise on each stakeholders strengths, delivering mutual benefts and
developing the region. Thus, partnerships are a key aspect from a management point of view.
3.3 Destination Marketing
Strategies to attract people - residents as well as tourists and visitors - to a place are an important part of
what is usually called place marketing. Place marketing consists of different territorial marketing strategies
with the ambition to attract residents, visitors and tourists to a place and also businesses and investors. It can
be viewed as an umbrella term, covering strategies in different felds and geographical levels. Usually, when it
comes to the feld of tourism the more narrow term destination marketing is used. With regards to content,
place (or destination) marketing is about how places are marketed: the selection of place-related attributes and
projects to put forward and the marketing strategies used by different organisations.
This chapter discusses destination marketing activities primarily conducted by tourism organisations. The frst
aspect to be addressed is the selection of which screen product to use for marketing purposes and the impact
they have on the overall brand of the destination. This is followed by a discussion addressing the importance of
securing rights as well as how to access screen related material for marketing purposes. Finally, the focus is set
on different marketing activities conducted by tourism organisations and their placement value.
90. Internal material submitted by the partner Apulia Film Commission, Italy
91. Interview with Richard Bower (2012) CCIMP, Moviemed, France: additional info to read: Enhancing territorial image through cinema and
flm - a good practice guide (2011) from http://www.moviemedgb.ccimp.com/les_etudes
34
Criteria for Selecting Screen Products to Market
Before starting to plan a marketing campaign it is important to think about which screen product(s) to select
for marketing purposes. For a small destination there might only be a few products to choose from, whereas
for larger destinations there will be plenty.
A UK study identifed what they considered to be the key characteristics in a screen product for it to have the
highest tourism impact:
92
The product has to have a strong narrative either in story or character.
The selected screen product ought to have a high visibility which means products with a broad appeal.
It is best if the screen product has a positive and uplifting tone.
The product needs to be linked to an already established brand. In this case it should strengthen something
already established rather than creating something new.
The setting should be a historical building or a rural location.
The place should have a key role for the story or the characters in the screen product.
In research conducted by Hudson and Ritchie the following factors are highlighted as important:
93
The success of the flm was important.
Whether the flm had identifable and accessible locations that the tourists could visit.
It was also benefcial if the flm had some iconic features that were clearly associated with the destination.
Furthermore, the story should be of relevance to the location.
The amount of time the destination was exposed on screen for is also a critical factor.
Moreover, the location ought to have an appealing image that creates an emotional attachment for the
viewers.
Some of the factors are overlapping between the two studies; if a screen product contains some of these
characteristics it is more likely to have an impact on tourism.
However, there are always exceptions to be found to these characteristics especially when it comes to the
point of screen products displaying a positive and uplifting tone. For example, crime stories are highly popular
in the Scandinavian countries and places linked to these stories are popular visitor destinations even if the
stories are dark and set in urban locations such as the Millennium Trilogy set in Stockholm. The reports show
the importance of selecting a screen product that has a strong identifcation to a place through its story or
characters as well as already linked to an established brand. The impact of screen products on a destinations
brand is discussed in the next section.
Branding of Destinations
In a research project focusing on the work related to flm tourism by European tourist destination marketing
organisations, 90% of them indicated that they thought that flms would increase the awareness of a destination.
94

Screen products are highly interesting in the branding of a destination because they could in the long run lead
to an improved brand image amongst potential visitors. The reason for this is that screen products such as flm
provide a long-term exposure of a destination which is benefcial when it comes to brand development.
95
For
example, The Sound of Music (1965) is still infuencing tourists to visit Salzburg in Austria today and in Scotland
tourist travel to the small village of Pennan continues as a result of the 1980s flm Local Hero. It is therefore
important for tourist organisations to get involved as early as possible with the creators or distributors of the
screen product in order to fully harness the potential flm has for brand development.
96
Different strategies
should therefore be developed when it comes to marketing, in order to take advantage of this possibility.
From a tourism perspective, screen products are the most powerful tool amongst non-traditional marketing
activities in having an impact on the awareness of a destination. The reason is that these products create new
or exciting twists on destinations.
97
That is, a screen product can add another layer to the understanding of
a destination with new themes not previously associated with that place. Furthermore, screen products are
also considered to be highly trustworthy products when it comes to portraying a destination because they
are not seen as marketing products by consumers.
98
What is seen on screen could therefore have a profound
impact to the overall brand of a destination because it is seen as giving an accurate picture of a destination.
However, it depends on the destination too; if it is a well-known destination a screen product might just slightly
alter or strengthen the already existing brand, for example destinations such as New York, London and Paris
92. Stately Attraction: How Film and Television Programmes Promote Tourism in the UK (2007) from http://industry.bf.org.uk/media/pdf/a/6/
Final_Stately_Attraction_Report_to_UKFC_and_Partners_20.08.07.pdf
93. Hudson and Ritchie (2006a)
94. Di Cesare et al. (2012)
95. Hudson and Ritchie (2006b)
96. Horrigan (2009)
97. Set jetting (2007) a report by Mintel Oxygen; Iwashita (2008)
98. Falkheimer and Thelander (2007)
35 35
which most people already have a certain understanding of.
Though, if it is a lesser known destination, a single product can have a signifcant contribution to the brand.
For example the novels and subsequent TV series The No. 1 Ladies Detective Agency created an awareness
of Botswana, a formerly unknown destination for many people. Tours to Botswana were developed based
around this product.
99
Screen products such as flm as well as other media products are part of peoples
everyday lives: they will have a high impact on the perception of the brand of a destination.
100
It is not surprising
that 27% of UK citizens stated in a UK study that they were inspired by something read in books or seen on
TV or screen when they travelled.
101

As stated above, it is clear that screen products can raise the profle of a destination. Two important examples
are New Zealand with the The Lord of the Rings trilogy and Sweden with the Millennium Trilogy (books and flms),
which will be presented below. These will be followed by three smaller cases to show the impact of screen
products on the branding of smaller destinations: Ystad in Sweden, Sandomierz in Poland and Jzcar in Spain.
New Zealand has used screen products persistently to impact on the countrys brand with the release
of The Lord of the Rings trilogy. This is an interesting case because it is a fantasy genre product and it is
therefore not linked to a real physical place. Nevertheless Tourism New Zealand successfully branded
the destination as 100% Middle Earth, 100% Pure New Zealand.
102
Thus, the destination marketing
organisation managed to link the fantasy realm of The Lord of the Rings to New Zealand by a consistent
marketing approach and spreading of information about where the flms were shot. This was also done
by the flm company. New Zealand received a lot of attention during the release of the trilogy and it is
reasonable to presume that this contributed to the growth in tourism over the same period. Between
1999 and 2008 the number of international visitors (both holiday, visiting friends and family, business
travellers and others) to New Zealand increased by 52%.
103
The largest increase was until 2004, the year
after the fnal flm was released. It was an annual growth rate of 4.8% which was higher than the average
global growth rate during the same period. Furthermore, in an international visitor study 6% cited that The
Lord of the Rings was one of the main reasons for travelling to New Zealand, while 1% said that it was the
only reason for coming. Since 2004 an average of 47,000 visitors has been to a flm location while visiting
New Zealand.
104
It can therefore be concluded that The Lord of the Rings trilogy had a profound impact of
the brand and awareness of New Zealand as a destination to visit. Tourism New Zealand is now trying to
repeat this success with The Hobbit.
The other example comes from Sweden with the Millennium Trilogy, which had an impact on the Swedish
brand. The Swedish brand used to be associated with more traditional values and now a new image is
appearing due to these media products. Sweden had a rather stereotypical image as something located in
the far North which did not appeal to all as a destination to visit. The Millennium Trilogy created an image
of Sweden, mainly Stockholm but also of other rural locations, as a modern and industrial country with
a focus on innovation as well as social and cultural aspects of the country.
105
For those who were already
familiar with Sweden, the Millennium Trilogy could nuance the image they already had, whereas for new
markets it created an awareness of the destination.
106
It had an especially strong impact on the French
market which could be seen as an emergent segment of tourists for Stockholm. This is clearly shown
in the statistics with French tourists visits to Stockholm going up by 20%.
107
The total guest nights in
Stockholm have increased by 6.8% across all nationalities.
108
Thus, it is reasonable to see a link between the
interest in visiting Stockholm and Sweden to the Millennium products. It obviously helped that the media
products had global reach which created a lot of media attention around the world. It is estimated that up
to 100,000 press articles in have been published due to this. The advertising value, if the same space had
been bought for PR purposes, is calculated to be worth up to half a billion SEK (approx. 57.9 million).
109

In Ystad a study was commissioned to analyse the media publicity where the town was mentioned in 2012.
The analysis aimed to provide an overview of the image of how the town was portrayed and described
in articles focusing on flm, series and flm production in editorial web media: this included both Swedish
and English speaking articles.
110
290 articles were found, of which 50% were positive towards Ystad, 5%
99. See further TEMA Resor press release (2006) from http://www.mynewsdesk.com/se/pressroom/fritidsresor/pressrelease/view/nya-b
otswanaresor-med-tema-alla-vill-resa-med-damernas-detektivbyraa-221386
100. Hjarvard (2008); Mnsson (2011b); Mnsson (2011a)
101. Set jetting (2007) a report by Mintel Oxygen
102. See further Croy (2004)
103. International visitors, New Zealand series C10 (2009) report from www.tourismresearch.govt.nz/profles.
104. New Zealand Fast Facts (2013) from http://www.tourismnewzealand.com/sector-marketing/flm-tourism/fast-facts/
105. Mediebilden av Sverige efter Stieg Larsson och Millennium (2012) Medieanalysis by Joakim Lind
106. Sweden beyond the Millennium and Stieg Larsson (2012) from http://si.se/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Sweden_beyond_the_Millen
nium.pdf
107. Visit Sweden (2009) from partner.visitsweden.com/sv/Startsida/Press/Pressmeddelanden/2009/Millenniumhype-gor-franska-journalister-
nyfkna-pa-Stockholm/
108. Millennium report (2011) from www.frsm.se/download/18.1a1b7a5b12f8a8e79f98000157/Millennium_Rapport_20110407.pdf
109. Ibid.
110. The movietown Ystad (2013) A media analysis report
36
were negative and the rest had a balanced view. Many of the positive articles connected Ystad with
tourism and flm. The most featured topics concerned casts, the author of the Wallander novels, Henning
Mankell, the flm friendliness, tourism and star of UK produced Wallander, Kennneth Branagh. The analysis
of these articles shows that Ystad has managed to brand itself as a town associated with flm and the
related tourism. Furthermore, it also shows the impact that actors and flm or TV personalities can have
on destination branding. The report found that the articles had an estimated PR value of 96 million SEK
(approx. 11.1 million).
111

A similar study has been conducted by PRESS-SERVICE Monitoring Mediw on the impact of TV-series for
Polish cities.
112
They explored the value of media coverage for a range of Polish cities through a quantitative
analysis including publications from 1,100 press items, 5,000 websites and 100 television and radio channels
(without TV and radio scheduling) during 2012. The research agency analysed the results of the presence
of 11 cities in the context of 12 selected Polish TV-series titles. The best ranked was Sandomierz, shown
in the TV series Father Matthew (Ojciec Mateusz). The name of the city was mentioned nearly 900 times
in 2012, and the reach of these issues stood at 550 million people. The economic value for this media
presence is estimated to be worth the equivalent of 10.8 million PLN (approx. 2.5 million). The table
below shows the interrelationship between the Advertising Value Equivalency (economic value of media
coverage), reach (potential individual contacts) and number of issues.
Figure 4: A benchmarking map by PRESS-SERVICE Monitoring Mediw that shows the level of media coverage for each
location with regard to three factors: Advertising Value Equivalency, reach and number of issues.
113
A different case is the small village of Jzcar in Spain (250 inhabitants) which was contacted by an advertising
agency to use the village as a stage to promote the release of the flm The Smurfs.
114
Besides its picturesque
features, the village was selected for its connection with the world of mushrooms, since it holds an annual
Mycological Conference. The village agreed to paint all the houses, including the church, blue for the
promotion and release of the flm. The flm company, Sony, offered to paint all of the houses white again
after the campaign but a couple of months later the people in the village voted for keeping it blue. The
promotion of the flm, by painting the village blue, helped to brand the village as the Smurf Village which
created a lot of media attention. All marketing was achieved by the promotion of the flm and the village
invested nothing of its own resources into this. Sony estimated the promotion value between the start of
the campaign on June 16, 2011 until the flms release in August 2011 as 800,000. This level of marketing
and branding had a direct effect on the village despite the location being used only for promotional
purposes rather than for flming. The increase in visitors was instant. The small village received between
1,000 and 3,000 visitors per day. The place was not prepared for this infux in visitor numbers and initially
lacked suffcient infrastructure such as restaurants, hotels and activities. A number of new employment
opportunities were created due to all these new visitors. The only hotel in the village increased its
staff, as did the local pub, the tea house and the gift shop.
115
Thus, for a small village the impact has been
tremendous in creating new jobs as well as branding the village and making it a place of interest to visit.
As illustrated in the aforementioned cases above, a screen product can have an impact on the brand of
a destination and can reach out to new groups of visitors. In Scotland families with young children suddenly
started to visit Tobermory on the Island of Mull. The reason for this was that Balamory, a childrens TV
programme, was flmed in the town. The town was selected for its colourful houses and each character in the
111. Ibid
112. PRESS-SERVICE Monitoring Mediw (2013) W roli gwnej miasto
113. PRESS-SERVICE Monitoring Mediw (2013) W roli gwnej miasto
114. Material submitted by the partner Promalaga, Spain; Questionnaire and interview with Mayor David Fernndez conducted by the partner
Promalaga, Spain
115. Ibid
37 37
program lived in one of the houses.
116
Thus, a screen product can create brand awareness or alter an already
existing brand. It is therefore important to develop various marketing initiatives in order to take control of the
given opportunity: the topic for next section.
Marketing Campaigns and Placement Value
In this section marketing strategies are highlighted in order to show how a tourist organisation can capitalise
on the screen product to enhance the awareness of the destination. First a few words on how to access and
secure rights to screen content, which is vital for marketing purposes. For those who have formal contracts
through various incentives or flm funds there is the opportunity to negotiate access to material such as
stills, interviews and clips with stars, locations used for flming and Images beforehand.
117
However, it is more
complicated if there is no formal agreement. There seems to be a general diffculty in accessing material
depending on the production company. It is therefore important to start negotiating clearances at an early
stage, establishing an agreement while the production company is still at the destination. When they have left
it is far more complicated to secure any rights and there is less incentive for production companies to provide
access.
118
The frst example of a marketing campaign is Visit Britains work with the flm Sherlock Holmes in 2009. This
was a global marketing campaign run by a national destination marketing organisation in collaboration with
a flm company, in this case Warner Bros Pictures. Visit Britain is a national promotional tourism agency
and the productions they select for marketing purposes therefore need to showcase a range of regions.
119

In this case, Visit Britain collaborated with other partners within the country such as Visit London and Film
London. There were several different marketing activities taking place, including an international online
media campaign targeting users through social media, travel, lifestyle and entertainment sites, driving
online traffc to a Sherlock Holmes microsite on Visit Britains website. The site hosted a competition
linking back to regional tourist boards such as Visit London. Hosting a competition is a common tool used
by destination marketing organisations. It is a way to create a buzz around the destination. Those who
win will have a unique adventure and thereby create a positive word of mouth. The results of the Sherlock
Holmes campaign showed that the different marketing activities had reached 156 million people in 30
countries.
120
Furthermore, Visit Britain organised 44 press trips which generated 738 articles. Press trips
are therefore a useful method to generate press coverage. The placement value
121
of the overall Sherlock
Holmes campaign was estimated to be over 3.4 million (approx. 3.9 million).
122

In terms of flm tourism the question is whether it had any impact on potential tourist interest to visit
London, which was one of the main destinations of the campaign. Visit London asked a number of visitors
if the campaign had had any impact on their decision to travel to the capital. The data showed that the
marketing had an impact on the willingness to visit the destination. 38% of respondents had also seen
the Sherlock Holmes flm before visiting but they were in many cases not sure if it had any impact on their
interest to visit London.
123
However, people are not always aware of what has triggered their decision
to choose a specifc destination. Films can have a more subtle impact on a destinations image because
tourists create an understanding based on several sources at the same time.
Another example of a national marketing campaign based on a single screen product comes again from
outside of the EU: Tourism Australias work with the flm Australia. The flm was selected because of
its locations, characters, storyline and depictions aligned with the core values of Tourism Australias
destination brand.
124
Tourism Australia therefore decided to work in a partnership with the flm company
Twentieth Century Fox as well as with the director Baz Luhrmann. The flm was seen as an opportunity to
showcase to a global audience, experiences that were available in Australia. The themes were adventure,
romance, culture and the transformative power of such experiences.
125
In this partnership Tourism Australia developed 160 supporting and integrated marketing programmes. The
tools they worked with were trade marketing, advertising, media relations, affnity partners, digital marketing
and advocacy.
126
Many of these activities were similar to activities run by other tourist destination organisations.
What differed was that they also decided to produce two advertisements in collaboration with the director Baz
Luhrmann in the style of short flms that would stand alone separate from the flm. The short flms captured the
116. Joanne Connell (2005)
117. Cf e.g. Malta
118. Cf Questionnaires from Film London, Ystad and Promalaga; Interview with Annamari Thorell concerning Gotland
119. Visit Britain (2010) Sherlock Holmes, Global Evaluation Report; Denitsa Mihova, Partner Marketing Manager, Visit Britain (2012) YouTube
clip of a presentation hold at a conference organised by Midtjysk Turisme, November 20.
120. Visit Britain (2010) Sherlock Holmes, Global Evaluation Report
121. Placement value is the economic value of the media coverage.
122. Visit Britain (2010) Sherlock Holmes, Global Evaluation Report
123. Visit London Sherlock Holmes - Visit Britain Campaign Evaluation (material submitted by the partner Film London)
124. Baker (2011)
125. Tourism Australia (2008) Tourism Australias destination campaign by Baz Luhrmann
126. Ibid
38
same themes as in the flm. Furthermore, the concept of walkabout
127
was used as something truly Australian.
An invitation to come walkabout was issued in the commercial by one of the actors from the flm Australia to
the main character in the advertisement and thereby linking the flm and the commercial.
128
This intertextuality
was an innovative way to create something new in marketing by producing ads in collaboration with the director
that were separate from the flm but still closely related thematically. Tourism Australia invested around 40
million AUD (approx. 28.5 million) in the ad campaign and around 10 million AUD (approx. 7.1 million) on
promotional opportunities around the movie.
129
The aim was to increase the number of international visitors by
3.2% in 2009 and to stop the decline in domestic travelling. Thus, the campaign targeted both international as
well as domestic travellers. The results of the campaign were below expectation as there was a general global
decline due to economic recession and it did not reach its targets in visitor fgures. However, it is estimated
that 270 million (approx. 314 million) worth of publicity was generated through theses campaigns, reaching
a large global audience.
130
Moreover, Tourism Australia concluded that 22% of those who had taken part in
the marketing campaigns were more likely to visit the destination. It should therefore be seen as a long-term
prospect and not just in terms of failing to create immediate effects.
The two cases above are both examples of large marketing campaigns run by national destination marketing
organisations in order to promote the whole country. Two cases with a more regional approach are highlighted
below. These two cases, both Polish, also differ in the sense that the screen products are TV series that target
the domestic tourist market. In these two cases the locations play a central role, almost like characters of their
own:
The frst case is the city of Lodz where the series Komisarz Alex has been shot, since the summer of 2011.
Viewers perceive the location almost as one of the main characters of the TV series, an element which has
helped to rebrand the city. The city has been known for its industrial heritage and in Poland it has been
perceived as an unattractive and sometimes dangerous city.
131
The city is shown as a modern, dynamic and
neat city, full of green spaces and fower beds as well as original architecture. Thus, the TV series shows
the city in a much more favourable way and it has a positive image.
132
The city becomes interesting to visit,
both for tourists but also for the inhabitants to rediscover their own city again. The authorities in Lodz used
the TV series for online promotion via offcial sites, www.lodzflmcommission.pl and www.uml.lodz.pl, as
well as social media including Facebook. Other marketing activities included organising the frst episodes
ceremonial premiere in Lodz and organising press conferences and press days on the set.
133
The other case is the town of Sandomierz where the TV series Father Matthew is shot. The frst episodes
were mainly shot on location in the town but the latter ones showcased more of the region as a whole.
The reason for this expansion was the partnership between the regional tourist organisation and the
producers of the TV series.
134
The result of this collaboration was the flming of 20 episodes of the series
in different locations within the region; the locations were incorporated as a natural element to the story.
The TV series was used as a strategic marketing tool to showcase what the region had to offer. To provide
visibility of the location so that the viewer could see where it was shot, each episode started with front
credits presenting recognisable places within the town as well as the name of the town and the region. The
aim was that viewers could connect the region to the land of Father Matthew.
135
In this way the regional
tourist organisation had an impact on the places that would be seen in the TV series which helped them
to promote the overall region. However, the authorities were aware that more needed to be done to
promote the town and the region and different activities were developed.
136
Several marketing activities
were undertaken including billboard campaigns, promotional events in shopping centres, press trips, radio
adverts and digital campaigns. The town also collaborated in cross promotion, promoting a music album
with one of the actors in the TV series in return for the singer promoting the town when he performed
with his music. People now connect the town of Sandomierz to the region and they have an increased
familiarity.
137
Thus, the TV-series worked as a tool to enhance the awareness and knowledge of the region.
The number of tourists visiting the town has increased, with visitor fgures demonstrating that the number
has doubled between 2006 and 2011.
138
It was during this period that the TV series started to be aired so it
is very likely that there is a connection between the increase in tourism and the TV series.
127. The concept of Australian Walkabout refers to someone who returns to the bush for a short period of time to reconnect to the land and
the traditional way of life; Baker (2011)
128. Baker (2011); Tourism Australia (2008) Tourism Australias destination campaign by Baz Luhrmann
129. Tourism Australia (2008) News release Tourism Australia launches Luhrmanns transformation tourism campaign
130. Baker (2011)
131. Young and Kaczmarek (1999)
132. Material submitted by the partner RARR S.A. Poland
133. Ibid
134. Kucharska (2012)
135. Kucharska (2012)
136. Material submitted by the partner RARR S.A. Poland
137. Kucharska (2012)
138. See appendix 4
39 39
It is important to have a clear strategy for exploiting the full potential of marketing activities. There are additional
destination marketing opportunities beyond the flming locations which may include extra information with
regards to culture, shopping, local history and food.
139
The screen product can be used as a marketing tool
through which to showcase many different aspects of the destination.
Summary: Destination Marketing
In this chapter the following conclusions can be drawn:
Screen products are increasingly used by tourism destination marketing organisations to market their
destination. Screen tourism, with its potential for related marketing campaigns, is a global phenomenon
and money is invested in these activities. The aim is to increase the awareness of the destination brand and
to convert viewers of flms to become future tourists. Screen tourism is seen as a new way to market the
destination; it adds a new aspect to the destination which might attract more tourists.
It is essential to select the right screen product to market if there are several to choose from. Screen
products are most effective if they have a strong geographical connection in the narrative or with the
characters.
The destination needs to be easily identifable by viewers, preferably with some recognisable or iconic
locations accessible to visit.
Marketing through screen products provides the potential to reach out to new tourist segments. For
example, Visit Scotland has invested 7 million (approx. 8.1 million) into the promotion of Scotland via
the animated Disney and Pixar flm Brave. The marketing campaign intends to showcase every corner of
Scotland through a TV and cinema advert, a new website dedicated to Brave as well as through marketing
and other events. The aim is to reach out to the family market since it is a family oriented flm.
140
The investment in marketing activities can be very effective in terms of the placement value of all the
publicity given. For example, the Wallander flms are expected to have given Ystad and the region of Skne
in Sweden a placement value of 2.5 billion SEK (approx. 289 million).
141

It is important to have a clear marketing strategy in order to capitalise on the exposure of a destination
in a screen product. Viewers need information about where to fnd the locations in real life and this is
where the marketing is required. The destination needs to be packaged and presented in a way which is
attractive to tourists and easy to explore.
3.4 Screen Tourists
This section will highlight the tourist perspective, the importance of screen products for tourists image
of destinations as well as tourists motivation for visiting these destinations. Finally a number of places are
highlighted that had an impact in visitor numbers after being exposed in a screen product.
Destination Image
An image is defned as all the impressions that a person has of a destination and it is created by many different
sources.
142
In many cases this image is infuenced by a range of media products especially if it is the image of
a whole country.
143
Media such as flm and other screen products are part of peoples everyday lives. The impact
of these products is expected to be even greater due to the many channels through which it is now possible
to access them.
144
However, medias infuence on tourism is nothing new and tourists have been inspired by
popular culture for hundreds of years starting with paintings and literature.
145
Screen products have now
replaced older forms and become a key motivator and source of inspiration. Tourists now select places to visit
based on sources such as flm, TV, magazines and music.
146
For example, a study of Swedish tourists image of
the Swedish archipelago has shown that it was stimulated by art, Swedish writers such as August Strindberg,
flm and TV-series as well as by music.
147
That is to say, tourists image, and thereby interest to visit destinations
or attractions, is in many cases associated with some kind of media product.
139. For example Gotland (Interview with Annamari Thorell) and Ystad (Internal material submitted by Ystad)
140. Visit Scotland (2012) Brave from http://www.visitscotland.org/media_centre/visitscotland_disney_partners.aspx and http://forargyll.
com/2012/06/brave-scottish-tourism-development-strategy/
141. Cloudberry Communications (2006) Kan man slja Skne med Wallanderflmer? from http://www.flmiskane.se/images/stories/fler/
wallanderanalys.pdf
142. Jenkins (1999)
143. Iwashita (2006)
144. Hjarvard (2008)
145. Butler (1990)
146. Urry and Larsen (2011)
147. Heldt Cassel (2007)
40
Screen products are therefore highly relevant when it comes to tourists perception of a destination and it
is important to understand tourists images of a place since they are a key factor in choosing a destination.
If the destination has a positive image it is more likely to be visited. Furthermore, image is also vital when it
comes to the actual visit since it determines how the tourist views as well as acts at the destination.
148
A study
of Tibet revealed that tourists image before visiting was primarily infuenced by two flms, Kundun and Seven
Years in Tibet.
149
The content of these flms was therefore what the tourists expected to see when they visited
the country. In this case a limited amount of screen products had a great impact on tourists image of the
destination due to it being a rather unknown destination. This was also the case with the Italian flm Basilicata
Coast to Coast; it showed a rather unknown region in the south of Italy to a wider audience.
150
Whereas for
a destination such as London, the range of screen products is so wide that their impact on tourists destination
image are much more complex.
The results of some research studies, focusing on peoples image and perception of a destination before and
after seeing a flm, revealed that the viewed destination became more appealing and the willingness to visit
was increased.
151

A study of Japanese tourists image of the UK showed that popular cultures such as screen products
enhanced an already perceived interest for the destination.
152
In terms of infuences, 70% of Japanese tourists
stated that flm and TV were the two most important sources for information about the destination. The
two flms that were most infuential were Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone and Notting Hill, followed
by Shakespeare in Love and My Fair Lady. In TV it was the Sherlock Holmes series broadcast 1985-95 that
was most infuential. The image they had of the UK before visiting was similar to the content of the media
products they had watched. Even for those who had visited the UK their images were similar to those
with less experience. This shows that the impact of media products on images remained strong even after
tourists had experienced and visited the destination. The research concluded that popular cultures such
as screen products create an awareness of a destination and make people interested to see it in reality.
153

Thus, screen products might have a high impact on tourists image of destinations. Even if flms were viewed
a long time ago they can still be infuential because screen products can create long lasting memories and
awareness of places.
154
Film and TV series seen as a child can therefore still have an impact when people are
travelling as adults. Moreover, media products are seen as trustworthy by people, showing the real location,
and not as a glossy marketing product. The impact of screen products on a destination can generate a new
range of visitors if a new product appeals to a new group of people for example families or teenagers.
Screen Tourist Motivations
The section above discussed the importance of image and this section will look further into screen tourists
motivation for travelling to a screen destination and their activities on site. Screen tourists are attracted to any
of the following factors in the flm: the scenery and setting of the flm; the storyline; the characters in the flm,
an image people want to explore and fnally exciting events within the flm.
155
It could also be the opportunity
to take part in a fantasy world that motivates the screen tourist.
156
Another study emphasised that it is the
landscape, actors and attractions within the flm that motivate tourists.
157
Macionis listed the following factors
in her research on screen tourists motivations:
158

Place: location, scenery, destination attributes.
Performance: storylines or plot, themes, genres.
Personality: cast, celebrity, characters.
Some of these elements were also addressed in chapter 3.3, such as place and to some extent performance,
but here is also showed the importance of the cast and the celebrity profle of the actors in the flms.
Furthermore, the theme and genre of a flm are also important factors contributing to tourists motivation to
visit a destination. Thus, there are different elements that attract tourists to visit a destination, all connected
to a screen product. Besides the factors mentioned above that are related to the flm itself, elements such as
pilgrimage, escape and nostalgia can also be important for the tourist.
159
Pilgrimage is to visit a place with
an almost religious pretext as the location is seen as something sacred and imbued with special meaning for
the tourist. Escape is travelling that is connected to escapes from the ordinary chores in life to something
extraordinary such as visiting locations seen on screen. Nostalgia is related to things that bring memories
148. Jensen and Waade (2009)
149. Mercille (2005)
150. Bencivenga, Chiarullo, Colangelo, and Percoco (2012)
151. Hudson, Wang, and Gil Sergio (2011); Kim and Richardson (2003); Soliman Mohammad (2011)
152. Iwashita (2008)
153. Iwashita (2006)
154. Riley and van Doren (1992)
155. Riley, Baker, and van Doren (1998)
156. Carl, Kindon, and Smith (2007)
157. Hudson and Ritchie (2006a)
158. Macionis (2004, p. 96)
159. Riley and van Doren (1992)
41 41
from older times. It could be a visit to a location connected to something viewed as a child.
These are the reasons for visiting movie locations according to Busby and Klug:
160

To follow in the footsteps of their favourite actors.
To position themselves in the location of the flm.
To visit properties purely for their historic signifcance after seeing a flm.
Visiting locations included in adaptations of literary classics, e.g. Pride and Prejudice.
Overseas tourists are impressed by attractive backdrops and want to visit them.
Popular TV series have very loyal followers.
Macionis and Sparks on the other hand conducted a survey that identifed the following motivational factors
as key for screen tourists:
161
To see the scenery and landscape in real life.
To have fun and feel entertained.
To add something special to the holiday.
To experience something novel and new.
To have a unique experience.
Busby and Klugs motivational factors are closely related to the screen products tourists have seen, including
the desire to see the scenery or travel in the footsteps of a particular character. Macionis and Sparks on the
other hand, besides seeing the landscape in real, highlighted motivational factors that could be relevant for
all kinds of travel and not necessarily screen tourism. Furthermore, Macionis and Sparks research on tourists
motivational factors for screen tourism showed that 24% indicated that the reason for visiting a flm location
was because they were on holiday and it was part of their overall holiday experience. Thus, it was not the main
reason for going to the destination. However, 15% said that they wanted to travel to where the flm was made.
Their results showed that only 30% of the respondents had visited a screen location and in this group only 15%
had it as a main reason for selecting a destination. If all the respondents are taken as a whole it means that only
4% were pure screen tourists and for the others the screen product was only a secondary motivator. These
tourists just happened to be at a destination connected to screen products.
However, other research shows that 8 out of 10 tourists think about planning a holiday based on a screen
product and 1 in 5 will actually make that trip.
162
Furthermore, in a survey conducted amongst tourists in
Salzburg, 50% stated The Sound of Music as a reason for visiting.
163
This research also concluded that the interest
to visit the destination grew stronger depending on how many times people had watched the flm. However,
tourists are not always aware of what has infuenced them in travelling to a particular destination. There are
many sources that can infuence their image and motivate them to travel and it can therefore be diffcult to
give reasons for the choice of destination.
164
In other cases tourists travel to a country or a region that was
inspired by a flm but they will not visit a designated screen location.
165
This applied to tourists visiting Rosslyn
Chapel in Scotland. In interviews, when asked for media infuences when travelling to Scotland, older flms
such as Rob Roy and Braveheart were mentioned as infuential sources but no locations connected to those
products were planned to be visited.
166
However, these infuences were not always immediately apparent to
tourists and it was only when asked a direct question that they started to think about infuential media sources.
It is therefore diffcult to state, even for tourists themselves, whether or not they are a screen tourist when
they have been exposed to multiple media infuences and some of them a long time ago. Furthermore, even if
they were fully aware of a connection between The Da Vinci Code and Rosslyn Chapel, since the interview took
place at the premises, it did not mean that they considered themselves to be screen tourists. Screen products
as a motivational factor also differ in many cases depending on whether you are a day visitor or travelling for
a longer period of time. To give an example, for a day visitor a screen product can be the main reason for
visiting an attraction such as Rosslyn Chapel. Whereas for those tourists who travel for a week in Scotland
a visit to Rosslyn Chapel may be of a secondary reason, still part of the itinerary but not the main reason for
the choice of destination.
167

160. Busby and Klug (2001)
161. Macionis and Sparks (2009, p. 96)
162. Hudson and Ritchie (2006b)
163. Im and Chon (2008)
164. Roesch (2009)
165. Iwashita (2008)
166. Mnsson, unpublished interview material
167. Ibid
42
Film/TV series Destination Before release After release
Alice in Wonderland Antony House,
England
20,000 visitors in 2008 83,000 visitors in 2011
Arn Different
locations in
Skaraborg,
Sweden
150,000 visitors in 1999 360,000 visitors in 2009
Balamory Tobermory,
Scotland
400,000 visitors/year 550,000 visitors/year
Braveheart National Wallace
Monument,
Scotland
40,000 visitors 126,000 visitors in 2009
Miss Potter Hilltop Farm,
England
64,500 visitors in 2006 103,000 in 2009
Captain Corellis
Mandolin
Kefalonia, Greece 80,000 passengers arriving
on charter fights/year in
1993
170,000 passengers arriving on
charter fights/year in 2002
Harry Potter Alnwick Castle,
England
60,000 visitors/year 132,000/year
Heartbeat Goathland,
England
200,000 visitors in 1991 1.2 million/year
Pride and Prejudice
TV version
Lyme Park,
England
32,852 visitors in 1994 91,437 visitors in 1995
Screen Tourist Statistics
It is diffcult to measure the impact of a screen product on a destination. The table below (fgure 5) shows
a range of destinations and the number of visitors before and after a place has featured in a screen product.
The fgures show the total number of visitors to the destination so these are not all screen tourists. However,
the difference between the fgures illustrates that it is highly likely that there is a connection between the
exposure and the increase in visitor numbers. In some of the cases such as Alice in the Wonderland and Antony
House the effect was almost immediate. Prior to the flm they had a steady number of 20,000 visitors per year
but after the exposure they had a sudden infux of 83,000 visitors. The table also shows a longer term effect
such as in the case with Braveheart and National Wallace monument outside Stirling in Scotland. The place had
just 40,000 visitors before the flm depicting the story of William Wallace. In 2009 the monument still received
126,000 visitors which remains a substantial increase compared to fgures before the flm. It is likely that
people have, in many cases, become aware of William Wallace through Braveheart and therefore want to visit
the monument. Thus, there seems to be a clear correlation between the increase in visitors to a destination
and the exposure of the destination in a screen product. However, in the case of cities and larger areas it is far
more diffcult to measure this effect. In Forks in the USA, which is a small town, the numbers of visitors show
only those who visited the Visitor Centre which may only be a fraction of all the visitors to the town. However,
this number is still interesting because it is then possible to presume that the overall number of visitors have
increased in the same way. This table has only given some examples of the potential correlation between the
exposure of a destination in a screen product and the increased interest amongst tourists to visit.
168



169

170

171

172

173

174

175

176

177
178
168. See further examples in: Hudson & Ritchie, (2006b) and Riley, Baker, & van Doren, (1998)
169. National Trust (2012) PPT Presentation by Harvey Edgington
170. Praesto, Anja (2011) PPT presentation Med fantasin som vapen, slaget om turisterna from http://www.slideshare.net/anjpr/tillvxt-klar
lven; Arnturismen 2004 (2005) report by Turismens Utredningsinstitut from http://www.vastsverige.com/Documents/vastsverige/2004_
Arnturismen.pdf
171. Connell (2005)
172. Stately Attraction: How Film and Television Programmes Promote Tourism in the UK (2007) from http://industry.bf.org.uk/media/pdf/a/6/
Final_Stately_Attraction_Report_to_UKFC_and_Partners_20.08.07.pdf
173. Visit Scotland (2010) The 2009 Visitor Attraction Monitor
174. National Trust (2012) PPT Presentation by Harvey Edgington
175. ONeill, Butts, & Busby (2005)
176. Stately Attraction: How Film and Television Programmes Promote Tourism in the UK (2007) from http://industry.bf.org.uk/media/pdf/a/6/
Final_Stately_Attraction_Report_to_UKFC_and_Partners_20.08.07.pdf
177. Mordue (2009)
178. Stately Attraction: How Film and Television Programmes Promote Tourism in the UK (2007) from http://industry.bf.org.uk/media/pdf/a/6/
Final_Stately_Attraction_Report_to_UKFC_and_Partners_20.08.07.pdf
43 43
Film/TV series Destination Before release After release
The Da Vinci Code Rosslyn Chapel 36,635 visitors in 2002 138,849 visitors in 2009
The Lord of The Rings New Zealand 1.61 million international
visitors in 1999
2.5 million international visitors
in 2008
Tomb Raider Angkor, Cambodia 100,000 visitors in 1999 1.5 million visitors in 2011
Twilight Forks, USA 18,736 visitors in 2008 69,975 in 2009
Winter Sonata Nami Island,
Korea
In 2003, 111,415 foreign
visitors
In 2005, 295,000 foreign
visitors


179

180

181


182

183

184

185
186

187
Figure 5: Table showing different flm/TV series and the number of visitors to portrayed locations.
Summary: Screen Tourists
Tourists image of destinations is in many cases infuenced by a range of media products such as screen
products. This image will have an impact on tourists expectation of the destination and infuence their
choice of activities.
The more media infuences that a tourist is exposed to, the more complex is the image created. For
a smaller destination like a village or a single attraction like an estate the screen product may be the only
source of information whereas for a big city it is diffcult for the tourist to pinpoint a single media product
as the motivating driver.
A screen product can alter an already existing image or create a new one. A destination can therefore
receive new target groups of visitors if the new image attracts another type of visitor.
There are many factors in a screen product that can infuence tourists; some of them are connected to
the screen product whereas others are related to the individual tourist. It seems to be common that the
landscape and scenery of the flm is one of the key factors for creating an interest in visiting. Having fun
and doing things that are a bit out of the ordinary are other contributing factors.
The statistics show in many cases that only a limited amount of visitors state that flm is the primary
reason for visiting a destination. However, tourists are not always aware of what inspired them in the
frst place because there might be multiple sources and since we live in a media saturated world screen
products are most likely an inspirational source.
188
The reason for visiting differs whether you are a day visitor or a tourist. A day visitor might refer to
a screen product as the main reason for choosing to visit a certain castle, house or village whereas it is
just one reason amongst others for tourists.
3.5 Tourist Product Development
This chapter will highlight different products that have been developed in order to capitalise on screen
products potential effect on tourism. These products are developed both by offcial organisations, for example
destination marketing organisations, and by flm commissions, whereas other products are developed with
a commercial interest from private companies. There are also other initiatives that come from other types of
organisations, for example the National Trust in England, a conservation charity.
The frst section will look at movie maps, in printed and digital form, guidebooks and the use of websites for
flm tourism as well as apps for mobile phone use. This will be followed by guided tours and dedicated flm
tourism attractions. The fnal section addresses additional tourism products that have been developed for
exploiting the potential that screen products can offer.
179. Visit Scotland (2003) The 2002 Visitor Attraction Monitor
180.Visit Scotland (2003) The 2002 Visitor Attraction Monitor
181. International visitors, New Zealand series C10 (2009) report from www.tourismresearch.govt.nz/profles
182. Winter (2002)
183. http://www.traveldailynews.asia/news/article/50312/angkor-wat-and-the-management
184. The number of visitors to the visitors centre
185. Leigh Smith, Barbara. (2010) The Twilight Saga and the Quileute Indian Tribe: Opportunity or Cultural Exploitation? The Evergreen State
College from http://nativecases.evergreen.edu/docs/Smith%20The%20Twilight%20Saga%2012%2022%2011.pdf
186. No data is available before on international visitors, but this is in the beginning
187. Kim, Long, & Robinson (2009)
188. Mnsson (2011a)
44
Movie Maps, Guidebooks, Websites and Mobile Phone Applications
One of the most common marketing tools relating to flm tourism is movie maps. They provide a very accessible
way of promoting both the destination as well as the selected flm(s) in order to raise awareness of the locations
and encourage an interest in visiting the portrayed places.
189
The movie map is a method of packaging a destination
to make it attractive to tourists. In many cases these marketing tools are funded by public money, for example by
destination marketing organisations and flm commissions.
190
Movie maps started to appear in the 1990s and one
of the frst to be released was a British movie map by BTA (British Tourist Authority)
191
which portrayed 60 years
of British flm and TV. The purpose of the map, according to the campaign manager, was to increase the seasonal
spread of visitors to heritage locations, city destinations as well as to other areas of the British countryside.
192
It
is interesting to note that this frst movie map campaign only focused on overseas markets with no intention on
targeting domestic tourists. Movie maps are products with a high impact on tourists, demonstrated by a UK study
which revealed that 46% of respondents took a short break after receiving a movie map at home and 87% of them
visited new areas.
193
The map was also used for planning the trip by 43%. There are now numerous movie maps
produced all over the world, available both in print and digital format, as will be seen in the examples below.
Between 2003 and 2009 Film London collaborated with Visit London to produce a range of movie maps,
some in print and all available online for download, featuring flm locations across the UK capital.
194
Whilst
some of the movie maps focused on themes such as London on Film, Southbank Movie Trail and Bollywood others
concentrated specifcally on individual flm titles including Love Actually, Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason and
Thunderbirds. The maps were distributed in cinemas, cafes, bars and tourist information outlets across London
and each map was publicised with a press release highlighting the locations and exploiting the opportunity to
profle the work of Film London. Film Londons Bollywood movie map, which achieved signifcant regional,
national and international press coverage when released in 2006, remains popular today with 1632 downloads
in 2011 and 2330 in 2012. Film London worked closely with a range of partners to produce and promote
each map, teaming up with relevant locations and businesses to include interesting information about the flm
and promotional offers to attract visitors to their destinations. The movie map for the flm Closer contained
vouchers with deals to attractions featured in the flm such as the National Portrait Gallery and the London
Aquarium, both of which appeared in the flm. These maps are interesting in that despite some of the flms
being released over 8 years ago they are still being downloaded, demonstrating that flms have a lasting effect
from a tourist point of view.
In Spain, a range of movie maps have been produced covering different regions and cities in the country.
In Andalusia, the frst Spanish movie map was produced in connection with the flm Alatriste (opened in
2006).
195
60,000 copies of the map were printed and distributed to tourist offces nationwide. Another map
was produced in relation to the flm Summer Rain (120,000 copies were printed as well as being available
digitally) in both Spanish and English due to the director being well-known actor Antonio Banderas. The map
promoted flm locations in Malaga and was distributed to 4,000 cinemas, flm festivals and other markets. As
extra promotion, Andaluca Film Commission managed to get Banderas to pose with the movie map at a flm
festival thereby attracting extra attention for the product. Tourism Andalusia supported the flm because
it was seen as a postcard of Malaga. The map highlighted the featured locations further and the aim was to
create awareness of Malaga as a flm destination for the tourist industry, flm producers, directors and key flm
decision-makers as well as tourists.
196
Another interesting example comes from Almeria, also in the region of
Andalusia, where the Commission of Almeria with the Tourism Foundation, The Rural development group
of Filabres Alhamilla and the Cultural Council produced a movie map which is more like a guidebook called
Landscapes of Cinema, featuring locations from older flms such as For a Few Dollars More and Indiana Jones.
197

Thus, even older releases, can be used to package and showcase the destination. All of the examples above
focus on using flms to showcase a destination but Barcelona has also produced movie maps that concentrate
on the work of a single director. There are two different maps available: one on Woody Allen and the other
on Pedro Almodovar.
198
Though Almodovar is perhaps more connected to Madrid, no movie map is available
there. Instead there is a designated page on the Madrid tourism website which lists places of interest to
explore in Madrid.
199
So whilst a movie map or website can use flms and locations to profle a destination it is
also possible to focus on other elements related to screen products such as the director. However, currently
there seem to be less of these kinds of products in circulation.
189. Beeton (2005); Busby and Klug (2001)
190. Busby and Klug (2001)
191. Since 2003 the organisations is named Visit Britain
192. Busby and Klug (2001)
193. Set jetting (2007) a report by Mintel Oxygen
194. Internal material submitted by the partner Film London
195. Questionnaires responded by Andaluca Film Commission and Malaga Film Offce
196. Questionnaire Malaga Film Offce
197. Collection: cinema y tourism in the province of Almera (2008) Landscapes of cinema download guide from http://www.tabernasdecine.
es/publicaciones/paisajes-de-cine.pdf
198. http://www.barcelonadepelicula.com/rutes.aspx
199. http://www.esmadrid.com/en/portal.do?TR=C&IDR=532
45 45
In chapter 3.3 looking at marketing, two Polish cases were illustrated. Movie maps were produced for
both, one showing places connected to the TV series Father Matthew in Sandomierz and the other a virtual
tourist trail called Follow the footsteps of Komisarz Alex in Lodz showcasing places of interest based on the
TV character. This is only available in Polish as the TV series is only broadcast in Poland, however, the
English pages on the city of Lodzs website highlights the well-known directors that are connected to the
city.
200
All of the previously mentioned examples are produced by flm commissions or tourism organisations.
However, organisations such as the National Trust in England also produce movie maps to show where
their estates have been used as locations for flms. The National Trust has created a generic movie map
but also a themed map in collaboration with Universal focusing on costume drama as part of Universals
100th anniversary. On the National Trusts website there is also more information available about different
estates that have been used for flm shoots.
201
These movie maps show the range of locations owned by
the National Trust whilst also demonstrating where people can view these locations both physically and
on screen. The National Trust has also published three movie maps distributed by Visit Britain, each one
in three languages, and with distribution of 500,000 copies to its members. These screen locations might
attract quite a lot of domestic visitors since it is an English organisation; however it also has a signifcant
amount of international members. Interestingly they currently have 35,000 German members due to
interest in Rosamunde Pilcher whose books have been adapted into many programmes for German TV,
featuring West Country properties owned by the National Trust.
202
Besides movie maps, more elaborate guide books have also been developed. Apulia Film Commission has
produced a stylish guide which aims to attract screen writers and producers as well as tourists to their
region. It contains different itineraries that showcase screen locations in various parts of the region. The
guide works both as a promotional tool before travelling, and as a practical guide while travelling.
203
AFC
also organised a flm location exhibition, Scatti di cinema, presented at Venice Film festival in 2010 and
also within the Apulia Region with an accompanying catalogue.
Most of the guides mentioned above were primarily printed but with the increasing accessibility of
technology, more and more consumer products are now only produced digitally. Film London has
developed an interactive Google map that showcases different locations in London, based on a range of
different genres (including romance, cult and horror) and themes (including Hitchcock and Dickens). In
2011 this map received 6,724 page views.
204
Visit Malta has produced an online movie product of a series
of podcasts where it is possible to listen to stories about different screen locations and see images at the
same time in order to help the tourists to plan their own itinerary. It is also possible to download a map.
205

In Andalusia, the Ministry of Tourism, Trade and Sport of the Junta de Andalusia and Andalusia Film
Commission collaborated in creating a digital platform, www.rutasdecine.com, that showcases screened
locations in the region. This platform can be accessed on the web, mobile and through social media. The
platform is also a community where users can contribute and share experiences on flm tourism.
206
Thus,
instead of creating everything for the potential tourist, tourists can now be active in creating content that
can be used by others.
207
Visit Scotland collaborated with Disney Pixar for the release of the flm Brave in 2012. Visit Scotland
created a dedicated website to the flm Brave. It included different itineraries that could be downloaded
in the following themes: Clans and Scottish Culture, Wildlife, Scottish Castles, Myth and Legends,
Inspirational Landscapes and Ancient Scotland. The website also included opportunities to learn more
about attractions and activities related to the theme of the flm as well as various video clips. The website
also included a Library of Scotland. This was a more playful and interactive part of the website that let
the users learn more about Scotland and its attractions through an animated Library.
208
The Brave website
and marketing campaign is interesting because what is offered are tourists experiences that already exist
in Scotland, packaged in a new way that was linked to the themes of the flm such as Myth and Legends
which included Loch Ness as one of the attractions. This shows that it is not only new attractions that can
be interesting for tourists; it is a matter of presenting attractions in new and innovative ways.
Ystad frst started to produce maps focusing on the character Wallander in the beginning of the 1990s,
initially based on the books. Initially it was not a strategic tool; it was created as a response to visitors going
to the tourist offce to ask for the locations in the books.
209
Later, locations from the flms and TV series
200. Material submitted by the partner RARR S.A. Poland
201. National Trust (2012) PPT Presentation by Harvey Edgington; http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/visit/days-out-and-itineraries/page-1/
202. National Trust (2012) PPT Presentation by Harvey Edgington
203. Apulia A flm tourism guide (2012)
204. Internal material submitted by the partner Film London
205. Visit Malta (2013) from http://www.visitmalta.com/en/podcast-movie-locations
206. Questionnaire responded by Andaluca Film Commission
207. Mnsson (2011b)
208. Brave website (2013) from http://www.visitscotland.com/brave/
209. Internal material submitted by the partner Ystad Municipality
46
were also included. These maps showcase different places associated with the character and they have
been very popular. They have been produced in different languages to target specifc markets, for example
the German market. Since 2009 the maps have been combined with a dedicated Wallander website.
210
This site has been developed in collaboration with the author of the books, Henning Mankell. A mobile
phone application is also linked to the site which is possible to download for free and provides similar
content to the website. The application was downloaded 178 times between July and September 2012.
The municipality of Ystad has also produced another mobile app called The Walk of Film highlighting
different screen locations in Ystad: it was downloaded 886 times between July and September 2012.
211
Visit Britain launched a free mobile phone app in 2009 called British Film Locations.
212
The app is a generic
platform that promotes British flm locations and allows users to upload their own location pictures and
engage with their social media networks instantly through the app. It includes 332 flm locations, of which
approximately 68% are in London.
213
The app also has the ability to promote certain flms that link to other
promotional campaigns. The frst app received a lot of media attention and was the most downloaded
travel app in December 2009 (50,000 downloads). It initially featured Sherlock Holmes, a flm that Visit
Britain promoted at the time, and later rebranded with a focus on Robin Hood. In the autumn of 2012 it was
the Bond flm Skyfall that was featured, the app receiving over 100,000 downloads and entering the top
ten of most downloaded travel apps.
214
The app is downloaded approximately 250-300 times per week,
mainly by domestic consumers.
215

This section has shown the importance of movie maps as a marketing tool and their function of packaging
the destination for tourists. Initially they were predominantly available in print while currently they are mainly
presented digitally, in many cases available to download for potential tourists. Additionally new media platforms
are also created, including mobile phone apps and interactive websites where the tourists can communicate
with each other as well accommodating consumer generated content.
Guided Tours
Guided tours are one of the most common activities related to screen tourism and a frequent feature of
tourism in general. Screen products are a new way to show or package a destination. Screen products can in
most cases be used as a marketing tool and movie maps can be a tool for marketing and packaging a destination.
However, to develop a guided tour there needs to be a steady fow of visitors which gives larger destinations
and visitor attractions an advantage. A relevant issue is also whether these tours run as a private business or
whether they are organised by a tourism organisation, museum or similar organisation since a museum for
example can include a tour in their ordinary business whereas a private business has to make a living out of it.
Seasonality is also a key factor in the development of guided tours for smaller destinations as there is a lack of
visitors in certain parts of the year.
216

The frst example of a guided tour following a flm release is the Millennium Tour in Stockholm which
also includes locations from the books. Run by the Stockholm City Museum, it is a two hour walking
tour that blends the locations from the books and the flms with the story of the city of Stockholm. The
tours began in 2008 and eight tours were conducted throughout the year. In 2009 there were 222 tours
and in 2010 it increased to 284 tours. Thus, there has been a growing interest for this guided tour that
runs throughout the year, mainly presented in English. This tour particularly attracted French and British
visitors to Stockholm
217
and a French travel agent even included the tour into their travel package of
Stockholm.
218
The next case study is also Swedish and comes from Ystad. Since 1997 the town has guided tours with
an old fre brigade that drives through the town to locations associated with Wallander. This tour has
remained popular and in the summer of 2012, 737 people took part. The tour is revised when new
episodes related to Wallander are broadcast. However, guided walking tours are also offered in the town
as well as guided bus tours in the landscape that shows locations outside of the town.
219

The two Swedish cases illustrate the impact of a single flm or TV series (Millennium and Wallander) in the offer
of guided tours in a town or a city. However, for a city like London the number of guided tours is tremendous,
both within and outside the city. They are offered as walking tours as well as bus trips and boat trips.
210. http://www.wallander.ystad.se
211. Internal material submitted by the partner Ystad Municipality
212. Visit Britain (2010) Sherlock Holmes, Global Evaluation Report
213. Material submitted by the partner Film London
214. Denitsa Mihova, Partner Marketing Manager, Visit Britain (2012) YouTube clip of a presentation hold at a conference organised
by Midjysk Turisme, November 20.
215. Material submitted by the partner Film London
216. Interview with Annamari Thorell (2012)
217. Millennium report (2011) from www.frsm.se/download/18.1a1b7a5b12f8a8e79f98000157/Millennium_Rapport_20110407.pdf
218. Visit Sweden (2009) from partner.visitsweden.com/sv/Startsida/Press/Pressmeddelanden/2009/Millenniumhype-gor-franska-journalister-
nyfkna-pa-Stockholm/
219. Internal material submitted by the partner Ystad Municipality; Questionnaire responded by Ystad Tourist Offce
47 47
There are 32 listed businesses in London offering movie tours. Most businesses offering movie tours are
small to medium sized tourism businesses, mostly run as a family business or individually-run business.
The types of tours offered are walks, bus tours, chauffeur driven tours, and private tours and they are run
throughout the whole year. Many of the businesses offer similar tours. The most popular ones according
to the number of tours offered are Harry Potter-themed, followed by period drama and James Bond
related tours. Some offer a mix of old and new flms in more generic tours whereas others focus on one
flm or TV series. The latter are more frequent.
A London based movie tour company established in 2009 started up their business due to personal
motives when they could not fnd a Bond location tour that they wanted to take part in.
220
The company
started with eight tours, including James Bond and Harry Potter. Today they run 30 different tours across
the country. Since the start they have had more than 30,000 participants on their tours. They all attract
slightly different participants largely dependent on whether flm or TV productions have been released and
broadcast nationally or internationally. A tour that has become highly popular lately is the Downton Abbey
tour which is particularly sought-after by American tourists but is also perceived very well domestically.
The owner of the company states that generally tours are popular because visitors want to get inside
information of their favourite shows and want to see the locations in real life. The company works with
different partners such as Visit Britain and other tourist boards as well as relevant partners including
location managers who help them match the places seen on screen, in order to co-ordinate these trips.
Thus, in order to run these tours a diverse network of partnerships is needed to tie it all together.
Another UK company started in 2007 out of a passion for the 1995 BBC version of Pride and Prejudice
starring Colin Firth and Jennifer Ehle.
221
It runs more specialised and exclusive tours of England to flm
locations connected to period dramas such as Pride and Prejudice, Downton Abbey and flms related to Jane
Austen. Production experts work as their guides and hotels are chosen to be as close as possible to the
period drama. The tour caters for small groups of participants. Their aim is to offer access to places that
are off limits to the regular visitors and provide details of when the flming took place.
These were just two of the numerous companies that offer guided tours in and around London. In Vienna,
Austria, there is a slightly different tour package offered focusing on The Third Man, a black and white flm with
Orson Welles in a lead role from 1949.
The tour in Vienna around The Third Man is a package of four different activities, marketed in a single
booklet, but can be bought either as a package or as single activity. There is a guided walking tour that
has been running for nearly 20 years, a The Third Man Museum, The Burg Kino that still shows the flm
and fnally the Kanal tour that takes the visitors into the sewers of Vienna.
222
The Kanal tour started
in 2007 by Wien Kanal, which is run by Vienna City Council, and this tour takes visitors into the sewer
systems of Vienna in the footsteps of Harry Limes character in the flm. In addition to being a tourism
offer for the city of Vienna the guided tour is also an opportunity for the city administration to present
and talk about their work in the canal system and inform visitors about the canal itself (beyond The Third
Man locations). Visitor numbers have steadily increased since 2007 and a total of 80,000 visitors (as seen
in fgure 6 below) have participated in The Third Man Tour offered by Vienna Canals.
223

Year Visitor numbers
2007 7,358
2008 11,198
2009 12,464
2010 15,809
2011 16,820
2012 17,077
TOTAL 80,726

Figure 6: The table shows the increase of visitors from 2007 to 2012.
224
The Third Man Tour is an interesting example as it was initiated by the Vienna Canals as a tool to communicate
their work in a more positive light, whilst also managed to create a popular tourist activity. This package of
tours also shows that in order to develop screen tourism is it not necessary only to focus on the latest screen
product released. The examples mentioned in this section show the popularity of taking part in these kinds
220. Interview and material concerning a movie tour company in London is collected by the partner Film London
221. Material collected by the partner Film London
222. 3 Mann Tour Vienna booklet (2013) Wien Kanal
223. The material of The Third Man Tour is collected by the partner Film London
224. Ibid
48
of tours from a tourist perspective but also in terms of operating such a service. Movie tours offer a new
perspective compared to tours that primarily focus on history and old buildings and therefore might attract
a new audience. Research conducted with visitors taking part in a two week Lord of the Rings tour of New
Zealand, revealed that some of the participants had not read the books or seen the flms that the whole tour
was based on.
225
This research shows that it is not even necessary to be a fan to fnd it interesting to take part
in movie locations tours as they offer a new way to explore a destination.
Visitor Attractions
The third category of tourist product that is addressed in this chapter is constructed visitor attractions. These
are attractions that are created specifcally in order to interest screen tourists. In general, it is argued that
places connected to the story of a destination are more likely to be interesting for tourists. However, that is
not always a necessary prerequisite as some of the examples will show below.
In Malta the flm Popeye was shot in 1980 at Anchor Bay. The story of the flm takes place in a fctional
location in the US. In order to get permission to build the set, the producers made a huge investment that
involved 165 men working for more than seven months to put together the 19 wooden buildings and the
200ft-plus breakwater built to protect the set from the sea. The flm set still remains and it has grown
to be a major tourist attraction on the island. Thus, it is possible to visit the village in the flm, Sweet
Haven village. The flm set is incorporated into a fun park that offers a range of activities such as boat
rides, trampolines and slides. This is an interesting case as it shows the longevity of screen tourism and
demonstrates that the authenticity of the locations is not always the most important aspect.
226
A far more recent themed attraction opened in April 2012: the Warner Bros. Studio Tour London The
Making of Harry Potter. It is a permanent behind-the-scenes walking tour which takes its visitors into
the world of flm-making and the sets of the Harry Potter flm series.
227
The tour offers authentic sets,
costumes and props as well as showcasing British crafts, technical crew and talent behind the production
of these flms. Visitors get a behind the scenes perspective on the making of the flms. The tour is located
on the site where Warner Bros. studio flmed the Harry Potter series for over 10 years. Thus, this is
a location already connected to the flms which makes it an authentic place. The same applied to visitors
at the set of Coronation Street who considered the set as an authentic place and therefore deemed it an
important place to visit.
228
The Harry Potter Tour has been popular since opening to the public and even
with a capacity of 5,000 visitors per day tickets are often sold out months in advance.
In Ystad the municipality has developed a flm museum which is run by the Council to combine exhibitions,
two guided tours and different visitor activities. The museum also provides guided tours to the flm
studios in Ystad. It is an arena for those interested in flm-making in general and particularly flms made in
Ystad. Between April and August 2012, 2,627 people took part in the guided tours which are getting more
popular amongst international visitors to the town. This could be linked to the fact that the BBC produced
English versions of Wallander, attracting a whole new group of audiences in a range of countries.
As seen in these cases it is possible to develop some kind of attraction based on the making of a flm. However,
there are more risks related to this since the investments are higher. There is an example of this in Sweden
where Gtene municipality invested 7 million SEK (approx. 0.8 million) in a theme park called Medeltidens
vrld (A Medieval world).
229
It was triggered by the interest in the fctional medieval character Arn based on
Swedish popular books and flms. The foundation was a set from the movie and then a whole medieval park
was developed to become a tourist attraction. The park opened in 2008, only half fnished and receiving
25,000 visitors, a fgure which was sustained the following year. However, they had aimed to receive 50,000
visitors per year so the attempt has thus far failed and the municipality has lost a lot of money, having invested
74 million SEK (approx. 8.5 million) since 2007. There are many reasons for its failure including a lack of
visitors and also management problems.
230
As Medeltidens vrld shows, it is diffcult to determine in advance
what will succeed as a flm tourist attraction like the set of Popeye and what will be an economic failure from
a touristic point of view.
225. Buchmann, Moore, and Fisher (2010)
226. Material submitted by the partner FTZ, Malta
227. Harry Potter (2013) from http://www.wbstudiotour.co.uk/
228. Couldry (2005)
229. Gtene kommun (2012) http://www.gotene.se/kommunochpolitik/bolagochfastigheter/medeltidensvarldab/medeltidensvarld/medeltiden
svarldisammandrag.10735.pdf?properties=70.f0a1be1126623062d27ffe2722; Gtene kommun (2007) http://www.gotene.se/kommu
nochpolitik/bolagochfastigheter/medeltidensvarldab/kommunfullmaktigebeslut2007.156.pdf?properties=70.f0a1be1126623062d27f
fe2722
230. Ibid
49 49
Additional Tourism Products
There are many other products that can be developed around screen products. These are a range of initiatives:
Film London developed a London Underground Film Map in collaboration with London Underground
and Transport for London. Film London was responsible for researching the content of the flm map and
leading on the content development. This work involved researching over 300 Underground stations for
flm, TV and movie star references. The BFI (British Film Institute) provided additional research material
and helped promote the London Underground map as part of the BFI London Film Festival in 2010 which
gave the project a signifcant promotional platform. The product is a creative example of taking something
familiar such as the London Underground map and replacing the stations with names of movie stars or
flms relating to the locations. The product has been popular and it is still for sale on the Transport for
London website. It is an opportunity for Film London to showcase that the city is full of flm history and
locations offering potential as visitor attractions.
231
For tourists it is a fun memento that can be taken
home as a souvenir.
Another example of product development is Film Londons Imagegraphy exhibition Love from London:
A City of Stars which was developed in collaboration with Getty Images. Getty Images has a range of iconic
pictures of London locations and flm legends and Film London negotiated a partnership to use these
images to run postcards with flm stars at famous London locations. An exhibition displaying large prints
of the iconic images was organised in partnership with Getty who provided the gallery space and managed
the fundraising and launch event. The collaboration was based on a branding partnership between Film
London and Getty Images: Getty provided free use of images in return for prominent branding on associated
marketing materials including postcards and posters which provided free advertisement value for Getty
Images. Film London also partnered with London Underground who provided free advertisement space
for Love from London posters, thus promoting the exhibition as well as Film London and Getty Images.
The impact of this campaign was signifcant: achieving press coverage including pieces in Italian Vogue and
references in Lonely Planet. This is an example of creating something new out of material which already
exists, in this case the images of Londons long history as a flm cultural city and flm production centre.
232
The village of Jzcar, Spain, took the opportunity to develop a range of products in the wake of its
promotion as the Smurf Village. Prior to the promotion, the village had diffculties selling its products
to tourists; since the promotion everything that contained the word Smurf sold automatically, for
example dried chestnuts.
233
Today they are known as Smurf Village dried chestnuts and all tourists
passing through the village buy this local product. This also applied to other merchandise associated with
the movie such as shirts and souvenirs. The village has also co-ordinated their efforts in order to develop
more products and opportunities for tourists, like opening of a sandwich shop, gift shop, handcrafts, hotel,
tea bar, restaurants and products from the village (e.g. mushrooms, honey). Thus, the Smurf promotion
created an entrepreneurial drive in the village. Special activities are now run at the weekends for visitors
and empty houses are planned to be used as holiday rentals. This case illustrates the impact that screen
products can have on a small location even if the destination does not feature in the flm and is only used
for promotion.
There are many other tourist activities that have been developed in Ystad based around screen products,
including:
234
Open air screenings at the main square in Ystad 2009 and 2010.
Crime flm festival in Ystad 2009.
Film conference, Mixed Reality, in Ystad 2009, 2010, 2011and 2012.
Imagegraphy exhibitions with Imagegraphs from flms in Ystad.
Walk of Film in Ystad to show that flms are being produced in the town.
Hotel packages in Ystad, with a stay in a hotel, dinner at a restaurant where the fctional character
Wallander has a coffee and pastry at the local caf.
The development of a special pastry called Wallander.
Developed merchandise products with the slogan So this is where the killings took place.
Similar activities are found in other places with exhibitions of props or still shots from the flms, flm conferences,
hotel packages, activity packages and also the use of a flm festival to create an awareness of the destination.
235

Thus, there are many different activities that can be developed in a destination. For a single attraction a screen
product can have a huge impact on visitor numbers.
Highclere Castle is a privately owned estate that is used for the flming of the TV series Downton Abbey.
Before the use of the location in the TV series they received around 500 tourists but that has all changed
231. Internal material submitted by the partner Film London
232. Ibid
233. Interview with David Fernndez, Meyor in Jzcar, and the other material are collected by the partner Promalaga, Spain
234. Questionnaire completed by Ystad Tourist Offce
235. See for example Millennium - Stockholm, Lodz - Komisarz Alex, Apulia, Tirol, Malta
50
now. Since the start of the series in the autumn of 2010 they receive 1300 guests a day, despite the fact
that the house is only open to the public for a limited time each year because it is a private estate. Another
reason for the limited access is that flming still takes place. The castle is now running a successful gift
shop, promoting itself as a venue for weddings and corporate events besides day visits for guided tours.
236

Summary: Tourist Product Development
There are many products developed for screen tourists. However, it seems that a lot of the products are
developed by offcial bodies but it seems like there are a lack of screen tourism activities developed by
private businesses. This lack of understanding or interest from local businesses to develop products is
a diffculty addressed by Ystad
237
and Cine Tirol.
238
Seasonality is an aspect that might have a negative impact on the willingness for local entrepreneurs to
develop products because there are only a few months to make the investment worthwhile.
It is therefore important to raise the awareness amongst local businesses to show the importance of
screen tourism for developing new tourist products.
239

Printed movie maps were the original tool for marketing screen destinations but the range of products
is getting wider with new media platforms such as mobile phone applications and also platforms for user
generated content.
This section has shown that both small investments and large investments can trigger an interest in screen
tourism.

236. http://www.highclerecastle.co.uk/; http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/travel/destinations/article7211873.ece; http://www.sfgate.com/
travel/article/Downton-Abbey-s-setting-open-for-tours-4221140.php#ixzz2JwH8yEXV
237. Questionnaire and material supplied by the partner Ystad Municipality
238. Questionnaire completed by Cine Tirol
239. Cf Ystad and Tirol
51

4. Best Practice
52
52
Chapter 3 has given a broad picture of the experiences within the partnership as well as introducing some
other relevant examples from additional regions and countries in Europe and the rest of the world. The
previous chapter highlighted the benefts of flm and TV production for a destination - during as well as after
flming - and the economic benefts gained from these activities from a tourism perspective. However, in order
to achieve economic benefts it is important for the destination to control the process from a management
perspective and scrutinise which strategies need to be implemented as well as defning the relevant partners
for collaboration. The next step is to identify and develop the relevant marketing activities which can vary
from traditional marketing to digital strategies. The aim is to create an attractive and positive image of the
destination, appealing to potential tourists. Finally, several tourism products have been discussed in the
previous chapter. Initially it was movie maps that were the most common items to be produced, leading to
further ideas developing into what is now a wide range of products available.
When analysing the different examples in chapter 3 some cases of best practice emerge as essential for
successful work. Based on the previous fndings, the following fve practices, for the development of screen
tourism were revealed which will all be further developed in this chapter.
Policy Initiatives this is the key for development since policies are in many cases the trigger for
development activities (4.1).
Strategic Partnerships (public-public) in order to fulfl the developed policies there is a need for
collaboration between different public organisations (4.2).
Strategic Partnerships (public-private) there is a need for strategic partnerships between the public and
private sector because it is often the private sector who deliver service to tourists (4.3).
Destination Development the initiated policies and the different strategic partnerships will then have an
impact on the overall destination development (4.4).
Commercial operators, SMEs and other organisations private sector initiatives (4.5).
These practices impact on various aspects of the tourism industry of the destination. Thus, in this chapter the
focus lies on the relationship between a practice and the potential outcome and the activity that triggered the
effect. Five main areas of interest have been identifed:
Destination awareness the impact of a practice on creating an awareness of the destination amongst
tourists.
Infuence a brand the impact on the branding of a destination.
Creative marketing activities different practices that can create new ways of marketing.
Organisation a practice impact on managerial and organisational aspects.
Product development the impact of a practice on the development of tourist products.
The fve areas of interest will all be analysed in relation to all fve practices previously mentioned. Each section
ends with a small table that highlights different cases that are included in this report. The full table is then
displayed in section 4.6 which also includes page numbers indicating where to read more about each case in
the table.
4.1 Policy Initiatives
Policy initiatives are essential to create a long-term effect. Polices are the foundation for all future work. Thus,
in order to capitalise on the potential effect of screen tourism it is important to start the development process
on a policy level. The reason is that the policies have an overall impact on a destination and set the agenda for
strategies and partnerships as well as future development of tourist products. Policy-makers create policies
that initiate change and a positive impact. Policies also demonstrate a commitment to funding and resourcing
work in this area (public organisations), which is not otherwise prioritised. Furthermore, initiated policies will
have a trickledown effect on the destination. The policy level is therefore vital as the starting point for future
development.
A good example of a strategic policy initiative is Maltas policy with regards to incentives for production.
According to the policy those flms portraying Malta as Malta receive higher funding as well as additional
assistance in comparison to those who only use it as a substitute location. It is a pro-active strategic policy
which can create long-term and higher destination awareness amongst potential tourists of Malta as a place to
visit. Therefore a policy can have an effect on a destinations overall image.
Another policy effect could be the infuence on the destination brand. In Apulia there has been a policy
development on a government level where it was decided to establish a creative cluster that aims to boost the
region. In this case organisations from different sectors had to collaborate in order to develop the brand of
53 53
a creative region and to fll it with content. A policy can also affect organisational perspectives. It defnes how
different organisations are connected and ought to work together both internally as well as externally. Ystad
Municipality decided that flm should be integrated into all levels of the councils work. Film in this sense is not
only the interest of the flm co-ordinator or the tourist offce but also affects other departments within the
council. In New Zealand they even appointed a minister during the shooting of The Lord of The Rings in order to
capitalise on the interest for New Zealand as a destination and to create a sustainable level of ongoing interest.
The case of Cine Tirol is another good example where the policy has an impact on how they are organised. It
was a strategic policy decision that the flm commission would be part of the tourist destination organisation
which connects the two sectors at an organisational level.
Establishing policy initiatives is consequently the frst step in order to develop screen tourism. There are many
policy examples which have demonstrated an effect on a range of areas. Each destination therefore has to
focus on the most appropriate policies in terms of their regional and local context. Some good examples of
existing policies identifed by this report are shown in the table below.
Destination
awareness
Infuence
a brand
Creative
marketing
activities
Organisation Product
development
Policy
initiatives
Maltas tax
incentive policy
Apulia regional
collaboration
with focus
on creative
industry
Apulia
partnership
(Apulia Film
Commission
and Puglia
Promozione)
Apulia regional
collaboration
with focus
on creative
industry
Cine Tirol Film
Commission
Ystad
Municipality
New Zealand:
Minister
Figure 7: Table showing different policy initiatives.
4.2 Strategic Partnerships Public/Public
The second example of best practice to be addressed in this chapter is strategic partnership, especially
between public agencies (see examples below in the table). These strategic partnerships could be implemented
as a result of a policy as discussed in the previous section. Thus, instead of waiting for a collaboration to
occur by itself, initiating collaborations can be a chosen strategy for further development. This is the ideal
situation when it is a decision on a policy level that has initiated collaboration because it includes a long-term
commitment. However, only a few of the cases in the table are grounded on policy level since most of them
are short term tactical partnerships for a single occasion.
A collaboration strategy can be on an organisational level, if the flm commission works with the tourism
destination organisation. When organisations are linked to each other it is much easier to identify and use each
others strengths. Furthermore, it is a matter of capitalising on the competencies of each organisation, creating
a larger impact by co-ordinating the efforts. An example of collaboration for a single activity was when the
tourism destination organisation of Berlin established a partnership with Berlin Film Commission in order to
secure the shooting of a Bollywood flm, Don 2, in the city. It was necessary to combine resources, know-how
and fnances, in order to ensure that the flming took place. It was a mutually benefcial partnership, working
for the organisations as well as for the destination since it created a higher awareness of the city and country
as a tourist destination.
Strategic partnerships could also have a high impact on the brand of a destination. In the case of The Lord of
the Rings trilogy, and more recently The Hobbit, several partnerships evolved in New Zealand. In order to have
a high impact on the brand, different marketing activities are essential. These collaborative marketing activities
might not be grounded on a policy level. It might instead be a tactical strategic collaboration where all involved
organisations see a mutually benefcial situation and stand to gain from these activities. Collaborations between
different public bodies could also be a method to develop tourism products. It is a matter of combining
resources and competencies which was the case in the development of the London Underground Film Map as
well as with the Apulia Film Guide.
54
54
Strategic partnerships between different public partners are necessary in order to develop screen products
for tourism activities but as seen above most of these partnerships are not on a policy level. However, if
collaboration is grounded on a policy level the likelihood of long term results is higher since it is a long term
commitment from all involved parties. When collaboration only occurs on a project basis the risk is that these
efforts only will have short term effect.
Destination
awareness
Infuence
a brand
Creative
marketing
activities
Organisation Product
development
Strategic
partnerships
(public-public)
Bollywood
phenomenon:
Don 2 in Berlin
Visit Malta
and Malta Film
Commission
Apulia Film
Commission
and Puglia
Promozione
New Zealands
LOTR/Hobbit
campaign:
100% Middle
Earth, 100%
pure New
Zealand
Vienna Canals
- Third Man
Tour
Cine Tirol Film
Commission is
hosted by Tirol
Tourist Board
Film Londons
movie maps &
Underground
Film Map
Apulias Film
Location Guide
Third Man
tours Vienna
Ystads
Wallander App
Figure 8: Table showing the impact of strategic public-public partnerships.
4.3 Strategic Partnerships Public/Private
The third example of best practice is strategic partnerships between public and private partners. While some
of the collaborations between public-public organisations are a result of policy initiatives, many of the public-
private partnerships are instead of a strategic nature. Organisations collaborate when both can gain from the
partnership: a mutually benefcial situation for both partners. One example is when a tourism destination
organisation collaborates with a production company. This is a common partnership type and it is benefcial
as it is expected that viewers of the flm will be attracted to the destination and tourists in return might be
interested in seeing the flm. This collaboration is also a way of accessing each others know-how and resources.
From a destination point of view it could for example be a way of securing rights to publicity material. These
partnerships could therefore enhance the awareness of the destination and in turn infuence the overall brand.
The UKs national tourism agency, Visit Britain, collaborates with a flm company for destination marketing
purposes on one flm per year. It is a tool to create awareness and enhance the brand of the UK as a tourist
destination. Other good examples of creative marketing activities emerged from partnerships as highlighted
in chapter 3. The painting blue of the houses in the village of Jzcar for the promotion of The Smurf flm was
triggered by an advertising agency and accepted by the village mayor. In Sandomierz the strategic collaboration
went so far that the local council could infuence which locations to select for flming. In this case the marketing
became highly integrated into the screen product which is very effective as it is considered as more trustworthy
from a tourist point of view. Another example of strategic collaboration on a more organisational level is the
case of Ystads flm co-ordinator who works for the council and acts as a liaison between the flm sector and
the public bodies. The policy undertaken by the council determines the internal organisation of their work
and at the same time creates partnerships with different organisations. Public-private collaborations could also
lead to product development. Visit Britain developed a flm location app as well as a Skyfall competition which
is also a game to mention just some products that could emerge from public-private partnerships. Further
examples can be seen in the table below.
Strategic collaborations between public-private organisations are primarily chosen from a tactical point of
view. Some of the partnerships are ongoing while others only occur once for a special occasion. It is therefore
important for a destination to identify the public or private key stakeholders with which to collaborate and
the purpose of the collaboration.
55 55
Destination
awareness
Infuence
a brand
Creative
marketing
activities
Organisation Product
development
Strategic
partnerships
(public-private)
Visit Britains
Skyfall
campaign
National Trusts
work
Father Matthew,
Sandomierz
Municipality
Visit Britains
Skyfall
campaign
Brave campaign,
Scotland
Australia
campaign,
Australia
Father Matthew,
Sandomierz
Municipality
Getty Images
exhibition with
Film London
Smurf village,
Jzcar
National Trusts
work
Visit Britain
flm campaigns
Father Matthew,
Sandomierz
Ystad
Municipality:
flm
co-ordinator
Visit Britain
Film Location
app
Visit Britain
Skyfall game/
competition
Figure 9: Table showing the impact of strategic public-private partnerships.
4.4 Destination Development
The fourth example of best practice deals with different processes of destination development. When the frst
steps have been taken to identify different policy initiatives and it has been followed by the identifcation of
various key stakeholders (public or private) for different partnerships, this will hopefully result in destination
development in various areas. Thus, the aim for the different policies and collaborations is also to create
a positive destination development which could have an effect on tourism and potential tourists but also on
the local people as well as SMEs and other local businesses. In other words, in order to achieve long term
development it is in most cases necessary frst to establish policies and partnerships and then the development
will emerge as a result of these efforts.
The development process varies from destination to destination. In Ystad the municipality agreed on a strategy
that flm should be an overall focus for the town. In this case it is important that the results should not only
have an impact on visitors but also on the local residents. However, these efforts enhanced the destination
awareness as well as the brand of Ystad. A similar effect is also seen in the case of Sandomierz with the use
of the TV-series Father Matthew as the trigger for development. The TV-series has a vital role in branding
and creating an awareness of the town and region which is seen in the growing number of visitors. Finally it
is important to mention that a destination development process could also have a positive effect on product
development. The more there is to offer for the tourist the more interesting it will be to visit the destination.
These can be new products like the newly established guided tours in Stockholm after the Millennium Trilogy or
a re-packaging and marketing of what already exists as in the case of Scotland and the flm Brave.
A focus on setting up policies and establishing collaborations is the key to develop destinations that are
sustainable in the long run.
56
56
Destination
awareness
Infuence
a brand
Creative
marketing
activities
Organisation Product
development
Destination
development
Ystad flm
strategy,
Wallander
Father Matthew,
Sandomierz
Komisarz Alex,
Lodz
Municipality
Downton Abbey
- Highclere
Castle
Ystad flm
strategy,
Wallander
Father
Matthew,
Sandomierz
Municipality
Komisarz Alex,
Lodz
Municipality
Korean Hallyu
dramas
Smurf village,
Jzcar
Millennium
Trilogy,
Stockholm
Ystad
Municipality
Brave campaign,
Visit Scotland
Father Matthew,
singer
New Zealand:
Minister
Smurf Village,
Jzcar
Brave campaign,
Visit Scotland
Ystad
Municipality
Millennium
Trilogy tours -
Stockholm
Figure 10: Table showing different successful destination development processes.
4.5 Commercial Operators, SMEs and Other Organisations
The fnal example of best practice set out in this chapter deals with the processes of product development
initiated by commercial operators, SMEs and other organisations in order to capitalise on the interest for
screen tourism. Ideally in a destination there is a policy that leads to the creation of strategic partnerships
which then contribute to the development of the destination via new tourism products. There are however
many obstacles on the way for a product development to occur as will be discussed in the next sections.
It is relevant to assign ownership of the product development because screen tourism development depends
on getting both the private and public sectors engaged. Either the tourist marketing organisation or a flm
commission can initiate the screen tourism development, but it is also necessary to engage the local businesses
since it is mainly those that offer products directly to tourists whether it is a guided tour or products such as
the Warner Bros Studio Tour - The Making of Harry Potter. However, this is a step where a weakness has been
identifed in the work so far. The problem is that there seems to be a lack of engagement and commitment
to screen tourism from private businesses no matter whether they are large commercial businesses or SMEs.
One reason could be the lack of knowledge about screen tourism as a phenomenon. It is therefore vital for
public organisations to inform and collaborate with local stakeholders such as tourism businesses in order
to achieve future tourism development. Other reasons for the lack of commitment could also be a scarcity
of human or fnancial resources as well as the issue of seasonality. This is especially relevant in destinations
that have a short tourist season because these products have only a few weeks in which they can operate.
However, these products could also be the means to prolong the season.
There are successful examples of product development to be found such as the Harry Potter Studio Tour
in London or the guided tours that have been developed at Highclere Castle in the wake of the TV series
Downton Abbey. However, besides some good examples of product development this is an area were further
development and engagement needs to take place.
57 57
Destination
awareness
Infuence
a brand
Creative
marketing
activities
Organisation Product development
Commercial
operators,
SMEs and
other
organisations
London guided tours
Harry Potter Studio Tour,
London
Popeye Village, Malta
Highclere
Castle -
Downton Abbey
Figure 11: Table showing different successful tourism product development.
4.6 Challenges
The previous sections in this chapter have identifed and discussed the fve best examples of good practice
that are the outcome of this report: policy initiatives, partnerships (public-public or public-private), destination
development and fnally screen tourism product development. The table below summarises the practices with
main illustrating cases and page numbers informing on where to read more about it in chapter 3.
Destination
awareness
Infuence
a brand
Creative
marketing
activities
Organisation Product
development
Policy
initiatives
Maltas tax
incentive policy
(p.29)
Apulia regional
collaboration
with focus on
creative industry
(p.25,29)
Apulia
partnership
(Apulia Film
Commission and
Puglia
Promozione)
(p.33)
Apulia regional
collaboration
with focus
on creative
industry
(p.25,29)
Cine Tirol Film
Commission
(p.32)
Ystad
Municipality
(p.25,30,35)
New Zealand:
Minister (p.31)
Strategic
collaboration
(public-public
partnership
Bollywood
phenomenon:
Don 2 in Berlin
(p.25)
Visit Malta
and Malta Film
Commission
(p.32)
Apulia Film
Commission
and Puglia
Promozione
(p.33)
New Zealands
LOTR/Hobbit
campaign: 100%
Middle Earth,
100% pure New
Zealand (p.35)
Vienna Canals
- Third Man
Tour (p.47)
Cine Tirol Film
Commission is
hosted by Tirol
Tourist Board
(p.32)
Film Londons
movie maps &
Underground
Film Map
(p.44,45,49)
Apulias Film
Location
Guide (p.45)
Third Man
tours Vienna
(p.47)
Ystads
Wallander App
(p.45)
58
58
Destination
awareness
Infuence
a brand
Creative
marketing
activities
Organisation Product
development
Strategic
collaboration
(public-private
partnership)
Visit Britains
Skyfall campaign
(p.30)
National Trusts
work (p.27,45)
Father Matthew,
Sandomierz
Municipality
(p.32,36,38,45)
Visit Britains
Skyfall campaign
(p.30)
Brave campaign,
Scotland
(p.39,45)
Australia
campaign,
Australia (p.37)
Father Matthew,
Sandomierz
Municipality
(p.32,36,38,45)
Getty Images
exhibition with
Film London
(p.49)
Smurf village,
Jzcar (p.36)
National Trusts
work (p.27,45)
Visit Britain
flm campaigns
(p.32,37)
Father Matthew,
Sandomierz
(p.32,36,38,45)
Ystad
Municipality:
flm
co-ordinator
(p.30)
Visit Britain
Film Location
app (p.46)
Visit Britain
Skyfall game/
competition
(p.46,54)
Destination
development
Ystad flm
strategy,
Wallander
(p.35)
Father Matthew,
Sandomierz
(p.32,36,38,45)
Komisarz
Alex, Lodz
Municipality
(p.38,45)
Downton Abbey
Highclere Castle
(p.47,49)
Ystad flm
strategy,
Wallander (p.35)
Father Matthew,
Sandomierz
Municipality
(p.32,36,38,45)
Komisarz
Alex, Lodz
Municipality
(p.38,45)
Korean Hallyu
dramas (p.27)
Smurf village,
Jzcar (p.36)
Millennium
Trilogy,
Stockholm (p.35)
Ystad
Municipality
(p.25,30,35)
Brave campaign,
Visit Scotland
(p.39,45)
Father Matthew,
singer (p.38)
New Zealand:
Minister (p.31)
Smurf Village,
Jzcar (p.49)
Brave
campaign,
Visit Scotland
(p.45)
Ystad
Municipality
(p.48,49)
Millennium
Trilogy tours
- Stockholm
(p.46)
Commercial
operators,
SMEs and
other
organisations
London
guided tours
(p.47)
Harry Potter
Studio Tour,
London (p.48)
Popeye Village,
Malta (p.48)
Highclere
Castle -
Downton Abbey
(p.47,49)
Figure 12: Table showing the main 5 practices and the potential outcomes with illustrating cases.
As seen in the full table there are a number of good cases within the frst four categories though when it comes
to tourist product development there is a shortage of good examples. It shows that even though some policies
are in place and partnerships and destination development have started, the public sector has not succeeded
59 59
in engaging the private sector in the development process. Thus, destinations that want to develop screen
tourism need further strategies.
One of the challenges for the future is therefore to develop strategies that engage with the private sector and
in particular SMEs. This could be done through various kinds of collaborations as previously mentioned in this
chapter. Processes of collaborations are already initiated for some of the partners involved in EuroScreen. The
results of these initiatives of collaboration will be possible to take part of in the fnal stages of this three year
project. It shows that it is important to acknowledge potential stakeholders within a destination and then to
explore how they can be benefcial to each other and to the tourism development.
Another challenge is to create a trickledown effect from a policy to a strategy to destination marketing.
Currently many of the policies and collaborations are only isolated tactical interventions with limited overall
effect as well as a lack of long-term commitment. There is therefore a need to develop strategies that have
a trickledown effect for a sustainable destination development.
Merchandising is also relevant since part of the tourism experience is to take home some kind of souvenir
from a visit. This could be challenging due to the copyright of names and visual features of a movie or TV series
but is an area which is worth exploring, especially in terms of fnancial benefts to the private sector. In Ystad
however it is the public organisation that developed a range of products with the slogan So this is where
the killings took place. This is an example where a creative solution has been found to get around copyright
issues as the destination was not allowed to use the name of the Wallander movie or anything linked to it. The
new product name therefore referred to the crime theme of the flm that is so crucial to the branding of the
specifc destination.
Furthermore, it also important to create an awareness of the screen tourism phenomenon and the potential
new business that can be gained through merchandise or new products. The EuroScreen project will publish
a set of case studies with the aim of attracting the private sectors attention as well as inspiring public
organisations which want to start or develop their own screen tourism.
A good case study from Finland that can be used as a source of inspiration for future work on engaging local
businesses is the work done by the two cities Rovaniemi and Turku.
240
The city of Rovaniemi is known for being
the last urban stop for tourists going on Arctic safaris. Turku is known for its university and as a flm and media
city. The municipality of Rovaniemi agreed that the production company Anima Vitae could use their successful
animation movie and brand Nico and the Way to the Stars as part of their tourist promotion. Ever since, Nico is
part of the citys Santa Claus Park at the Arctic Circle and several guided tours and merchandising have been
created around the core story of the little reindeer searching for his father. In order to build independence
from the product name owned by the production company, but to still beneft from the now well established
brand, a story designer was hired to create new stories for the municipality of Rovaniemi. Tours were created
for families as well as other new products and services around the story in a joint creative process with the
story designer and several tourist and safari companies in Rovaniemi who paid for the story designer.
The city of Turku took another approach around a TV crime series which was to be produced in their city.
The city collaborated with the production company to be able to use the series for advertising Turku as
a flm tourism destination. Original places in the series such as coffee shops, restaurants and buildings are
part of the campaign showcasing Turku as an exciting place to visit. Elaborate merchandising was created
around the TV series. However, in this case it was diffcult to bring the local SMEs behind the idea of creating
new products and services. The reason for this was that they found it diffcult to be as creative as the story
designers. Workshops were therefore organised to brainstorm, share and develop new ideas for products and
services. However, the SMEs needed ongoing active support, practical assistance and coaching to actually use
the opportunity they were offered. This case shows that in order to engage SMEs to the development process
a number of support systems need to be established in order for it to be fully achieved.
The fnal challenge that has been identifed in this report is the diffculty relating to the measurement of
the impact that screen products have on tourism. This is due to the very complex nature of the impact
measurement, which includes multiple factors such as viewing fgures, brand perception, translation into
direct visitors and additionality, rather than a simple measurement such as ticket sales at gated attractions.
Furthermore, tourists might not be aware of what inspired them in the frst place to visit a certain destination.
How then can an impact be measured since it is vital to have solid proof when it comes to engaging new
partners? The EuroScreen project proposes to assess potential tools to determine the economic impact of
a screen production, the placement value, for the destination. This is one vital aspect in demonstrating the
relevance of screen tourism but it cannot show the full picture.
To conclude, this report has shown that there are many good practices and cases already established that
can be used as inspiration for future work. However, there are also future challenges to address, particularly
in relation to engaging the local businesses such as SMEs and the diffculties in measurement and economic
impact.
240. The material is collected and submitted by partner Film London
60
60
61
5. References
62
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66
www.acte.be/EPUB/easnet.dll/GetDoc?APPL=1&DAT_IM=02B79F
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67 67
Agenia pentru Dezvoltare Regional
Bucureti - Ilfov
Film London/UK
Lead Partner
Apulia Film Commission (AFC)/Italy
Bucharest-Ilfov Regional Development Agency
(ADR-BI)/Romania

Fondazzjoni Temi Zammit (FTZ)/Malta

Lund University/Sweden
Maribor Development Agency (MDA)/
Slovenia
Malaga Regional Development Agency
(Promalaga)/Spain

Rzeszow Regional Development Agency
(RARR S.A.)/Poland
Ystad Municipality/Sweden

Appendix 1 EuroScreen Partners
68
Appendix 2 Questionnaire
EuroScreen Baseline study
This questionnaire is divided into four parts: frst your own experiences, then regional to be
followed by good cases from your own country as well as any good screen tourism cases you
know about from the rest of the world. However, also examples of unsuccessful projects are of
interest throughout this questionnaire.
We are aware that a lot of information might only be available in your own language, however
please still send/scan brochures, marketing material etc. and just provide a short summary in
English.
Please respond and submit your answers to maria.mansson@ism.lu.se and lena.eskilsson@ism.
lu.se by the 31st of August 2012. If you have any questions do contact us by e-mail, phone is
trickier during the summer.
Part 1 your own organisation
1.How do you defne your organisation, which sector would you characterise it belongs to? Film
commission, tourism, regional development etc.
2.What is your organisations experience of screen tourism activities? If you have experience,
how were they conducted and what were the target groups? Use as much space as you need. If
you have many examples please provide the most striking examples but also if you have been
involved in activities that didnt achieve the wanted results. List as many activities as you like.
Name of activity.
When took it place?
What type of screen product triggered this activity? For example movie, TV movie, TV series, documentary,
commercial and so forth. Please also name the title of the movie etc.
What has been done?
Who was involved?
Who was targeted?
What was the outcome of activity?
What was the most important lesson learned from this activity?
3.Which activities has your organisation been involved in relating to marketing activities focusing
on screen tourism? If you have many examples choose the most prominent marketing activities.
Name of marketing activity.
Output of the campaign.
Target groups.
Which material did you use in communication to which target group?
Impact to the brand of the destination.
Did you stay in touch with target groups after campaign, if so, how?
4. What are your experiences of cooperation between the flm/screen and tourism sector?
Furthermore, what were the outcomes of these collaborations.
Name and type of collaborating organisation.
What kind of co-operation?
69 69
Aim.
Outcome.
For how long did the collaboration run?
What was the most important lesson learned from this collaboration?
5. A practical question about material rights to screen content.
How did you clear the rights for using production companies materials?
What did you require of the content production company, i.e. material to be supplied, stills from the flm set, promo
material, star interviews, video clip, etc.?
PART 2 regional perspectives
6. Which good examples of businesses, tourism or flm/screen sector, do you have in your region
working with screen tourism i.e. walking tours, bus tours, mobile applications and so forth? Also
list if you have examples of less successful businesses.
Name of business
Which services and products do they provide?
How long have they lasted?
Popularity of the business.
Is it linked to any specifc screen product?
7. Which methods and techniques are used to measure the screen tourism effects of content
productions at your destination (i.e. nights at hotels, restaurant bookings, sold tickets at historic
& tourist sites, etc.)? If available, please provide a link to statistics or the source of information.
8.Please describe other activities related to screen tourism which are not already mentioned!
9. Incentives: are there incentives provided to the flm/screen or tourism sector in your region
regarding screen tourism? If you have, what are they?
Name of incentive
What it provides
Aim of incentive
10. What kinds of tourism attractions are available for screen tourists in your region? Natural
attractions such as flm location or build attractions such as flm museums, flm studio tours
etc. Please provide tourist statistics if possible to show the tourism impact and fow of tourists.
Name and type of attraction
Location
Featured in what kind of Film/TV etc
Statistics available. If so, what and where is the source?
70
Part 3 country perspectives
11. What are the experiences of screen tourism in your country? Provide examples of good as
well as bad cases. Both flm commission and tourism perspective.
Name of activity, organisation or business etc.
What has been done?
What Film/TV or other screen content?
When took it place?
Who was involved?
If possible, outcome.
Part 4 the rest of the world
12. Provide information of other good cases, if you know, from other parts of the world! It
could be related to successful collaborations between flm and tourism sector, growth of
tourists to regions or specifed attractions, marketing campaigns, growth of SMEs, growth of
brand awareness etc.
Name of activity, organisation or business etc.
What has been done?
What Film/TV or other screen content?
When took it place?
Who was involved?
If possible, outcome.
Additional questions
13. Additional information about screen tourism: links or scanned newspaper articles covering
screen tourism, research reports and evaluations as well as any other documents that could
be of interest for us.
14. Finally, in preparation for next years work.
What are your expectations of the economic impact tool?
Are you aware of or have you come across any economic impact tools, if so what are they and what did you fnd useful
about them?

71 71
Appendix 3 List of Interviewees
The following people were interviewed by the partner Lund University in addition to interviews conducted
by the other EuroScreen partners:
Richard Bower, CCIMP, Moviemed, France (phone interview) 20121004
Angelica Cantisani, Film Commission Torino Piemonte, Italy (phone Interview) 20121002
Patrick Lamassoure, CEO, Film France (phone interview) 20120713
Christiane Raab, Film Commissioner, Berlin Brandenburg Film Commission, Germany (phone interview)
20121105
Trish Shorthouse, Film Commissioner, Highlands of Scotland Film Commission (phone interview) 20121001
Mikael Svensson, resund Film Commission, Sweden (personal interview) 20120918
Annamari Thorell, Consultant, KommuniAktion, Sweden (phone interview) 20121105
72
Appendix 4 Visitor Numbers at Sandomierz Attractions
Number of tourists
Tourist
attraction
Year
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
01.01-
31.08.2012
Underground
Tourist Route
70,600 78,000 80,006 110,403 79,102 137,341 134,429
Opatowska Gate 32,002 63,000 67,934 99,851 74,216 127,433
(01.01-
31.10.2012)
Regional
Museum
32,616 69,705 70,023 101,390
34,981
(without
taking into
account
the num-
ber of the
tickets to
the Castle
courtyard -
Museum)
55,965
Diocesan
Museum
Dlugosz House
15,689 17,479 18,000
62,592
(overstated
fgures)
25,055 29,259 37,285
Museum of
History of the
Polish Peasant
Movement
5,953 19,427
Knight Armory 12,146 3,751
73 73
Appendix 5 Image Credits
Cover (flm strip from left):
Image 1 - London - Palace of Westminster - Courtesy of Film London - James Dewar
Image 2 - Romania - Courtesy of Castel Film Romania
Image 3 - Sweden - Courtesy of Fredrik Ekblad
Image 4 - Maribor - Shooting of Bollywood movie on Bled Lake, Slovenia - Courtesy of Mankica Kranjec
Image 5 - Sandomierz - Father Matthew Courtesy of Municipality in Sandomierz
Image 6 - Juzcar village - Courtesy of Paulino Cuevas
Image 7 - Not applicable
Image 8 - Popeye Village - Courtesy of Jean Pierre Borg
Image 9 - Mattinata - Housefull - Courtesy of Apulia Film Commission
Page 7 (from top):
Image 1 - Malta - Fungus Rock - Courtesy of Clive Vella; viewingmalta.com
Image 2 - London - Sherlock - Courtesy of Hartswood Films
Image 3 - Mattinata - Housefull - Courtesy of Apulia Film Commission
Image 4 - London - Millennium Bridge (Movie: I See You) - Courtesy of Eros International
Image 5 - Malaga - Playa Mlaga Malaga Film Offce James Souza
Image 6 - London - The National Gallery (Movie: Salaam-e-Ishq: A Tribute to Love)
Image 7 - London - The Thames Barrier Courtesy of Film London/Jamie Lumley
Page 13 (from top):
Image 1 - London - Covent Garden - Courtesy of Film London/Jamie Lumley
Image 2 - Wallander set - Courtesy of Jonas Thun
Image 3 - Juzcar village - Courtesy of Paulino Cuevas
Image 4 - Maribor - Shooting of Bollywood movie in Postojna Cave, Slovenia - Courtesy of Mankica Kranjec
Image 5 - Lecce - Mine Vaganti - Courtesy of Apulia Film Commission
Image 6 - Sandomierz - Father Matthew Courtesy of Municipality in Sandomierz
Image 7 - London - My Week with Marilyn Trademark Films Ltd 2011, Image Credit: Laurence Cendrowicz
Page 17 (from top):
Image 1 - Maribor - Shooting of Bollywood movie on Bled Lake, Slovenia - Courtesy of Mankica Kranjec
Image 2 - Malta - Popeye Village - Courtesy of Jean Pierre Borg
Image 3 - London - 28 Days Later Courtesy of Fox Searchlight
Image 4 - Ystad - Courtesy of Fredrik Ekblad
Image 5 - Massafra - Amiche da morire - Courtesy of Apulia Film Commission
Image 6 - Malta - Popeye Village - Boat Ride - Courtesy of Popeye Village
Image 7 - Ystad Wallanders Door - Courtesy of Fredrik Ekblad
Page 23 (from top):
Image 1 - London - Tower Bridge and City Hall - Courtesy of Film London - James Dewar
Image 2 - Lecce - Allacciate le cinture - Courtesy of Apulia Film Commission
Image 3 - Jzcar village - Courtesy of Paulino Cuevas
Image 4 - Third Person - Taranto - Courtesy of Apulia Film Commission
Image 5 - London - The Counselor Twentieth Century Fox Film Co
Image 6 - London - Palace of Westminster - Courtesy of Film London - James Dewar
Image 7 - London - Borrowed Time - Courtesy of Film London - James Dewar
74
Page 51 (from top):
Image 1 - Sweden - The Bridge series - Courtesy of Ola Kjelbye
Image 2 - London - Lilting - Courtesy of Film London
Image 3 - Sandomierz - Father Matthew - Courtesy of Municipality in Sandomierz
Image 4 - Malta - Valletta Coast - viewingmalta.com
Image 5 - London - Shard - Courtesy of Film London - Kent Lyons
Image 6 - Malaga - Rodaje Puente de San Luis Rey 2002 Diario SUR
Image 7 - Sweden - Courtesy of Fredrik Ekblad
Page 61 (from top):
Image 1 - Sandomierz - Father Matthew - Courtesy of Municipality in Sandomierz
Image 2 - London - Ill Manors - Courtesy of Film London - James Dewar
Image 3 - Lecce - Mine Vaganti - Courtesy of Apulia Film Commission
Image 4 - Malaga - Rodaje Puente de San Luis Rey 2002 Diario SUR
Image 5 - Romania - Courtesy of Castel Film Romania
Image 6 - Malta St. Johns Co Cathedral - Image Credit: Chen Weizhong; viewingmalta.com
Image 7 - London - London Eye Courtesy of Film London/Jamie Lumley
75
76
76