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Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E.

(LRFD: Bending Members) Page 1 of 12















4
F
b
= F
y

Plastic
Plastic hinge
1
PL/4
MOMENT
L
P
L/2
2
3
F
b
< F
y

F
b
= F
y

F
b
= F
y

Elastic
Elastic
Elastoplastic
A Simply supported beam with a concentrated load at mid-span:
Loading Stages
Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E. (LRFD: Bending Members) Page 2 of 12














































NA
Bending Stress and Stain: ELASTIC
<
y

f
b
< F
y

Strain < Yield Strain
Stress < Yield Stress
y
f
y

f
b
= (M c) / I = M/S
f
y
= (M y) / I
1
Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E. (LRFD: Bending Members) Page 3 of 12


































NA
Bending Stress and Stain: YIELD
=
y

f
b
= F
y

Strain = Yield Strain
Stress = Yield Stress
y
f
y

f
b
= (M c) / I = M/S
f
y
= (M y) / I
2
Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E. (LRFD: Bending Members) Page 4 of 12
NA
Bending Stress and Stain: Elasto-Plastic
(Partially Plastic)
>
y

f
b
= F
y

Strain > Yield Strain
Stress = Yield Stress
3
Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E. (LRFD: Bending Members) Page 5 of 12
NA
Bending Stress and Stain: Plastic
(Fully Plastic)
>
y

f
b
= F
y

Strain > Yield Strain
Stress = Yield Stress
4
Plastic Moment: M
p
= F
y
Z
Where
Z = Plastic Section Modulus
Plastic N.A.
Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E. (LRFD: Bending Members) Page 6 of 12
































EXAMPLE 1:

Compute the plastic moment, M
p
for a W16 X 57 of A992 Steel.

Solution:
From AISC Table, for W16 X 57,

A= 16.8 in
2
; Z
x
= 105 in
3

For A992 Steel, F
y
= 50 ksi

M
p
= F
y
Z = (50)(105) = 5250 k-in = 5250/12=437.5 k-ft.
4
F
b
= F
y

Plastic Stage
Plastic hinge
Plastic N.A.
C=A
c
F
y

a
T=A
t
F
y

From equilibrium of forces:

C = T
A
c
F
y
= A
t
F
y

A
c
= A
t


Plastic Moment,
M
p
= F
y
(A
c
) a = F
y
(A
t
) a = F
y
(A/2) a = F
y
Z

Where
A = Total Area; A
c
= Compression Area; A
t
= Tension Area
a = distance between the centroids of the two half-areas
Z = (A/2) a = Plastic section modulus
Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E. (LRFD: Bending Members) Page 7 of 12

AISC Classification of Shapes as (1) Compact (2) Non-compact, and (3)
Slender depending on width to thickness ratios.
(See AISC Table B 4.1)


Flange Criterion:






























If the flange is continuously connected to the web, and





the shape is COMPACT
E
F
y

0.38
b
f

2 t
f


The shape is NONCOMPACT
E
F
y

0.38
b
f
2 t
f


E
F
y

1.0
The shape is SLENDER
b
f

2 t
f


E
F
y

1.0
Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E. (LRFD: Bending Members) Page 8 of 12
Web Criterion:





























NOTES:

The web criterion is met by all standard I- and C- shapes listed in the
AISC Manual, so only flange criterion needs to be checked.
The shape is COMPACT






E
F
y

3.76
h
t
w


The shape is NONCOMPACT
E
F
y

3.76
h
t
w


E
F
y

5.70
The shape is SLENDER
h
t
w


E
F
y

5.70
Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E. (LRFD: Bending Members) Page 9 of 12



EXAMPLE 2: Check compactness for W16 X 57 A992 Steel.

A 992 Steel, F
y
= 50 ksi

AISC Table W16 X 57

b
f
/(2t
f
) = 4.98;

0.38 (29000/50) = 9.15 > 4.98, Hence, the flange is COMPACT

h/t
w
= d/t
w
= 33.0; 3.76 (29000/50) = 90.55 > 33.0, Hence, considering web,
section is COMPACT [NOTE for all shapes in the AISC Manual, section is
compact considering web.

Therefore, W16 X 57 is COMPACT.

Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E. (LRFD: Bending Members) Page 10 of 12
LRFD: Bending Member




Where
= Resistance factor = 0.90 (LRFD)
M
u
= Factored Moment
M
n
= Design Moment Strength


LATERALLY SUPPORTED COMPACT
BEAMS


M
n
= M
p

Where
M
p
= F
y
Z <= 1.5 M
y


The limit of 1.5 M
y
is to prevent excessive
working load deformations, and is satisfied when
F
y
Z <= 1.5 F
y
S

or Z/S <=1.5

NOTE:
For C-, I and H shapes bent about the strong axis (x-x), Z/S
will always be <= 1.5.
For I and H shapes bent about the weak axis (y-y), Z/S will
never be <= 1.5.


M
u
M
n


Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E. (LRFD: Bending Members) Page 11 of 12


EXAMPLE 3: The beam shown in figure is a W16 X 57 of A992 steel. It supports
a reinforced concrete slab that provides a continuous lateral support of the
compression flange. Is the beam adequate?










SOLUTION:

Wu = 1.2(0.45 + 0.057) + 1.6(0.55) = 1.4884 k/ft

Mu = wu L
2
/8 1.4884 (30)
2
/ 8 = 167.445 k-ft.

Check compactness for W16 X 57 A992 Steel.

A 992 Steel, Fy = 50 ksi
AISC Table W16 X 57

bf /(2tf) = 4.98;

0.38 SQRT( 29000/50) = 9.15 > 4.98 Hence, the flange is COMPACT

h/tw = d/tw = 33.0; 3.76 SQRT(29000/50) = 90.55 > 33.0, Hence, considering
web, section is COMPACT [NOTE for all shapes in the AISC Manual, section is
compact considering web.

Therefore, W16 X 57 is COMPACT.

Because the beam is compact and laterally supported,
Mn = Mp = FyZx = 50(105) = 5250 k-in/12 = 437.5 k-ft.

Check for Mp <= My

Zx /Sx = 105/92.2 = 1.1388 < 1.5 OK

Mn = 0.9 (437.5 ) = 393.75 k-ft > 167.445 k-ft OK
The design moment is greater than the factored load moment. So W16 X 57 IS
ADEQUATE
30 ft
Service DL= 450 lb/ft
LL = 550 lb/ft
Dr. M.E. Haque, P.E. (LRFD: Bending Members) Page 12 of 12
EXAMPLE 4: Select the least-weight wide-flange A992 steel beam section. It
supports a reinforced concrete slab that provides a continuous lateral support of
the compression flange.








SOLUTION:

Since, at this point beam W sections weight is unknown, calculate Mu without the
beam self weight

Wu = 1.2(0.45) + 1.6(0.55) = 1.42 k/ft

Mu = wu L
2
/8 = 1.42 (30)
2
/ 8 = 159.75 k-ft.

Mn = Mp = Fy Z

Mn = Fy Z

Considering Mu

Z
req
= Mu /( Fy) = 159.75 (k-ft) X12/ (0.9 x 50) = 42.6 in
3


From AISC Table, W 12 X 30, Zx= 43.1

Check: Mn = Fy Z = 0.9(50)(43.1) = 1939.5 k-in = 161.625 k-ft

Wu = 1.42 + 1.2(0.03)= 1.456 k/ft

Mu = 1.456 (30)
2
/8 = 163.8 k-ft > 161.625 NG

Select W12 X 35, Zx=51.2
Check: Mn = Fy Z = 0.9(50)(51.2) = 2304 k-in = 192 k-ft

Wu = 1.42 + 1.2(0.035)= 1.462 k/ft

Mu = 1.462 (30)
2
/8 = 164.475 k-ft < 192 OK

ANSWER: W 12 X 35
30 ft
Service DL= 450 lb/ft
LL = 550 lb/ft