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PART 13

MEDICAL and BIO-ELECTRONICS


I. BIOENGINEERING
A developing specialty featuring a multidisciplinary approach to the solution of
problems in medicine and biology
Based on the application of advances in science, engineering and technology
IEEE 1073: Standard for Med!a" De#!e Co$$%n!aton
1. IEEE 1073.31
Standard for Medical Device Communications Transport Profile-Connection
Mode
Defines the service and reuirements for bedside sub net!or"
&. IEEE 1073.'1
Physical layer, cable connected
Defines cables, connector data rates and bio level encoding
MEDICAL DE(ICES and E)*IPMENTS
1. DIAGNOSTIC E)*IPMENTS
Medical imaging euipment
a. Rado+ra,-. /0-RA12
Art and science of using ioni#ing radiation to provide images of tissues,
organs,bones and vessels that comprise the body
The first body imaging test
$-%ays !as discovered by &ilhelm %oentgen in '()*
Consist of electromagnetic radiation li"e light but behaves a shorter !avelength
Penetrate on the body and formed image on the film
Myelogram
An $-ray test of the spine
Arthrogram
$-ray of +oint usually tye "nee or hip
Flouroscopy
A moving picture of the body is seen as the test is performed and recorded
on videotapes
,valuates gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system and the bladder
Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
-ses contrast dye to outline "idneys, ureters and bladders
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DryCell
13-& Medical and Bio-Electronics
7. Ma$o+ra,-.
-sed for detection of breast disease such as breast cancer using lo! dose $-
ray
!. CT S!an /Co$,%ted To$o+ra,-.2
.btain multiple cross sectional images of the body by using special $-rays and
computer enhancement
d. E!-o!ardo+ra,-.
This procedure uses a special device to detect the sound that is reflected from
a beating of the heart
/t is also called 0diagnostic cardiac ultrasound1 because it uses reflected sound
!aves to 0loo"1 directly at your child2s heart
e. MRI /Ma+net! Re8onan!e I$a+n+2
Method of creating images of the inside of opaue organs in living organisms
as !ell as detecting the amount of bound !ater in geological structures
-ses magnetism and radio !aves
Produced much more detailed images than $-rays because of its ability to
separate different type of soft tissues
/t uses the magnetic properties of nuclei of the atoms in the body
-sed to loo" at any area of the body especially in diagnosing diseases !ithin
the soft tissues of the head
Procedures of choice to detect sports in+uries involving tendon and ligament
damage
f. Rado8oto,e /N%!"ear S!an2
3umber of tests that uses very small uantities of radioactive materials called
radio isotopes to image parts of the body
%adioisotope is attached to another substance that is in+ected4 /nhaled or
s!allo!ed
%everse of an $-ray because the radiation instead of directed o the body, the
radiation comes from the inside
-niversally dropped due to negative connotations
+. Bone S!an
Test that can detect changes in bone metabolism or gro!th
/t identifies cancer, infections of the cause of une5plained bone pain such as
brea" that didn2t sho! up on $-ray
Done by seeing ho! a radio active isotope !hich !or" as a 0tracer1
-. *"tra8o%nd /Sono+ra,-.2
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-ses high freuency sound !aves to 0echo1 off the body and create a picture
of it
.rgans being e5amined by the ultrasound are "idneys, the liver and spleen,
the brain, the female pelvis and the hips
&. T9ERAPE*TIC E)*IPMENTS

a. Cardo#er8on
Process of restoring the heart2s normal rhythm by applying a controlled electric
shoc" to the e5terior of the chest
6o!er electric level than defibrillator
7. Pa!e$a:er
%egulates the beating of the heart
3atural pacema"er is the sinoatrial 7SA8 node or sinus node
The artificial pacema"er is a small battery operated device that helps the heart
beat in a regular rhythm
!. Dat-er$.
/nvolves the passage of high freuency alternating current through the body
tissue
d. Def7r""ator
A device that administers an electric shoc" through the chest !all to the heart
9igh voltage po!er supply, storage capacitor and electrodes are primary
components
-ses t!o electrical pads to stimulate heart beat
Can be manual or automatic
3. MONITORING E)*IPMENTS
a. E"e!tro!ardo+ra$ /ECG2
A non-invasive test that records the electrical activity of the-heart
/t !as invented by a Dutch physiologist &ilhem ,inthoven 7'(:;-')<=8
-sed to measure the rate and regularity of heartbeats as !ell as the si#e and
position of the chambers, the presence of any damage to the heart and the
effects of drugs
Detects electrical signals from the heart
M-Mode
Provides a single dimension images that allo! accurate measurement of the
heart chambers
2-D echo
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13-' Medical and Bio-Electronics
Capable at displaying a cross sectional slice of the beating heart, including
the chambers, valves and the ma+or blood vessels that e5ist from the left
and the right ventricle
7. E"e!trone%ro+ra$ /ENG2
Detects electrical signals from the nerves
!. E"e!tro$.o+ra$ /EMG2
Assess the health of the muscles and the nerves controlling the muscles
A needle electrode is inserted through the s"in into the muscle4 The electrical
activity detected by the electrode is inserted through the s"in into the muscle
d. E"e!troen!e,-a"o+ra$ /ECG2
Detects the electrical signals from the brain
%ecorded by ( to ':; pairs of electrodes attached to the scalp
e. E"e!tro-o!%"o+ra$
Detects the electrical potential from the eyes7retina and cornea8
f. E"e!tron.8ta+$o+ra$
A recording of the eye movements
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Medical and Bio-Electronics 13- ;
II. BIOMETRICS
As the level of security breaches and transaction fraud increases, the need for
highly secure identification and personal verification technologies is becoming
apparent4
Among the features measured are> face, fingerprints, hand geometry,
hand!riting, iris, vein and voice
1. A%to$ated Met-od8
a4 a mechanism to scan and capture a digital or analog image of a living personal
characteristics
b4 compression, processing and comparison of the image
c4 interface !ith applications systems
&. Identf!aton and A%t-ent!aton
/dentification occurs !hen an individual2s characteristics are being selected
from a group of stored images
/dentification is called a 0one to many1 search, the uestion put to the machine
is 0Do / "no! you?1
Authentication occurs !hen an individual ma"es a claim of identity by
presenting a code or a card
Authentication is called 0.ne to one1 search, the uestion put to the machine is
0Are you !ho you claim to be?1
3. P-.8o"o+!a" and Be-a#ora" C-ara!ter8t!8
A physiological characteristics is a relatively stable physical characteristics such
as the fingerprint, hand silhouette, iris pattern or blood vessel pattern of the blac"
eye
This type of measurement is basically unchanging and unalterable !ithout
significant duress
'. Perfor$an!e Mea8%re8
The most commonly discussed performance measure of a biometric is its
/dentifying Po!er
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The terms that define /D Po!er are a slippery pair "no!n as @alse %e+ection
%ate7@%%8 or Type / ,rror and @alse Acceptance %ate7@A%8 or Type // error

TEST 1O*RSEL= 13
Re#e3 )%e8ton8


'4 /t is the plainly visible, colored ring that surrounds the pupil4
a4 iris
b4 retina
c4 cornea
d4 lens
An83er a4 iris
<4 &ho first proposed in ')(* that no t!o irises are ali"e? They researched and documented the
potential of using the iris for identifying people and !ere a!arded patent in ')(=4
a4 Dr 6eonard @lom and Dr4 Aran Safir
b4 D4 Aohn Daugman
c4 Dr4 Andre! Cope
d4 Dr4 6ars %asmussen
An83er a4 Dr 6eonard @lom and Dr4 Aran Safir
B4 The official international organi#ation in Biometrics
a4 /S.C/,C ATC' SC B=
b4 /B/A
c4 /3C/TS M'
d4 A3S/
An83er a4 /S.C/,C ATC' SC B=
D4 &hen !as &ilhelm %oentgen discovered $-ray?
a4 '()*
b4 '():
c4 '()=
d4 '()(
An83er a4 '()*
*4 This is a lo!-noise, biological isolation amplifier suitable to connection to measuring electrodes
attached any!here on the human body
a4 bios amplifier
b4 physio amplifier
c4 op-amp
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d4 bioamplifier
An83er d4 bioamplifier
:4 This device detects electrical signals from the brain using the (-': pair of electrodes attached to
the scalp4
a4 ,,E
b4 ,CE
c4 ,ME
d4 ,3E
An83er a4 ,,E
=4 &hat is the natural pacema"er of the body?
a4 ventricular node
b4 sinus node
c4 atrium
d4 aorta
An83er b4 sinus node
(4 This device uses a high freuency sound !aves to 0echo1 off the body to e5amined "idneys,
liver etc
a4 -ltrasound
b4 S.3A%
c4 $-ray
d4 CT-scan
An83er a4 -ltrasound
)4 This medical euipment obtain multiple cross sectional images of the organ concerned
a4 -ltrasound
b4 S.3A%
c4 $-ray
d4 CT-scan
An83er d4 CT-scan
';4 /t is a non-invasive test that records the electrical activity of the heart
a4 ,lectrocardiogram
b4 ,lectromyogram
c4 ,lectroencephalogram
d4 mammography
An83er a4 ,lectrocardiogram
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''. Assess the health of the muscles and the nerves controlling the muscles
a4 ,lectrocardiogram
b4 ,lectromyogram
c4 ,lectroencephalogram
d4 mammography
An83er b4 ,lectromyogram
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