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Earths Structure:

Outer core
Inner core

Tectonic Plates:
Constructive is: when plates move apart. This is due to convection currents. Plates move apart
causing magma to rise to the top. This magma cools and solidifies into a new igneous rock.
Eventually this makes a volcano.
Destructive is: when plates move towards each other. Continental and oceanic plate. The oceanic
plate is denser as it has water and so the continental plate pushes the oceanic plate beneath it this is
known as the SUBDUCTION zone. The oceanic plate melts to form magma. The continental crust is
forced upwards and this results in Fold Mountains.
Conservative is: when to plates rub past each other causing friction.
Constructive plate margin:
Where plates move away from each other
2 oceanic plates move apart causing oceanic trenches causing mid Atlantic ridges.
Where continental plates move apart rift valleys are formed and then lava erupts to create shield
Destructive Plate margins:
Plates push together
Oceanic crust is forced down in to the mantle which is the subduction zone then this plate melts
causing a new land crust.
Lighter continental curst is pushed up forming fold mountains.
Oceanic plates sinks, melts and magma finds its way to the surface.
Primary and secondary hazards of an earthquake and volcano:
Volcanoes occur in the weaknesses of the earths crust allow magma, gas and water.
Most volcanoes occur at plate margins.
Volcanoes into 3 separate categories:
Dormant not erupted for long time
Shield volcanoes are found at constructive plate margins and on hotspots.
Composite volcanoes are found on destructive plate margins. Lava is acidic.
Lava flow is: molten rock flowing down the sides of a volcano.
Lahars: mudflows, mix of ash and water.
Pyroclastic Flow: burning clouds of gas and ash with temperatures of 1000
Earthquake is the result of vibrations in the earths crust caused by shockwaves.
The source of the shock wave is known as the focus and the surface above is the epicentre.
Richter scale or seismograph measure the size of earthquake.
The strength of the earthquake and distance from the epicentre.
Number of people who live in that area.
Preparation of the emergency services.
Case Study of Sichuan Earthquake:
Central China
8.0 on Richter scale
Densely populated area, earthquake struck in 4am when most people are asleep.
Primary effects are:
Buildings collapsed
70000 people killed
5 million left homeless
374000 people injured
Crops and farms lost
Secondary effects:
700 schools destroyed
Water and electricity supplies cut off
Reasons why people live in hazards zones:
Dramatic scenery attracting tourists
Lava and ash provides good nutrients for crops
Geothermal energy produced
Predict and protect from hazards?
Predicting eruptions:
Use volcanologists
Remote sensing
Preparation for Eruption:
Exclusion zones outside volcanoes must be created.
Emergency supplies must be ready
Good communication systems must be made.
Preparing for an earthquake:
Prepare emergency kits just in case
Take emergency drills to protect yourself in the event of an emergency
Earthquake proof buildings with weights or shock absorbers to stop the swaying of a building to stop
Differences that MEDCs have compared to LEDCs:
Building quality is strong and durable for hazards
Can afford expensive equipment e/g seismographs or tiltometers
Heat movements monitoring every hour to see any changes
Good emergency services.
Buildings of very bad quality cannot withstand any impact from hazards will collapse straight away.
No expensive equipment can be purchased
No weights or shock absorbers to provide support for buildings.
Emergency services are not good enough.