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Parts of Speech

SHORT ANSWER
1. Words that name people, places, and things are called , and their substitutes or
replacements are called .
2. Action words generally describe this part of speech: .
3. Groups of words, such as has been delayed, was swimming, and will be studying, are called
.
4. Adjectives are words that describe and .
5. Expensive, new, and strong are examples of .
6. Am, is, are, was, were, been, and being are all forms of the verb .
7. In the statement I am sorry, sorry is a(n) .
8. Words that describe verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are called .
9. The short words to, for, on, and above are known as .
10. The joining words and, but, or, and nor are examples of .
11. The core or the heart of written communication is the , which has two main parts: the
and the .
12. In the statement You did a superb job, the word you is the .
13. A clause is a group of words with a(n) and a(n) .
14. A clause that can stand alone as a complete sentence is called a(n) .
EXERCISES
Parts of Speech
1. Identify the part of speech of each underscored word on the line provided.
When Angela
1
returned to
2
the office, she
3
immediately
4
submitted her Customer Call Report. Angela
describes a number of potential problems
5
in her report. For example, she explains that many customers
are complaining
6
about our new
7
billing system, which customers find cumbersome and
8
inaccurate.
In addition, she tells us
9
that Acme Industries is gaining
10
market share in
11
her territory.
12
PARTS OF SPEECH 1
2. Write a word appropriate for the context that matches the part of speech indicated on the line provided.
Do not repeat words.
2 PARTS OF SPEECH
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Nouns
1. a red
2. several
Pronouns
5. for Cary and
6. to Jenny and
Verbs
9. Francine
10. We
Adjectives
13. a(n) aide
14. that printer
Adverbs
17. works
18. runs
Prepositions
21. Jack and me
22. the managers
3. two new
4. many
7. Greg and decided
8. Mary and reserved
11. All of us
12. Many people
15. my apartment
16. a(n) company
19. manages
20. writes
23. my department
24. Lisa and him
Conjunctions
25. Tara completed the assignment quickly carefully.
26. Michael wrote produced the entire video.
27. Charles is not in favor of TV advertising radio commercials.
28. You can call our office, we are not there Saturdays.
Independent Clause
29.
Editing and Proofreading
1. Underline all errors in word usage in the following message. Rewrite the message with corrections. In
addition, identify the part of speech for each underscored word, and write your answers on the lines
below the message. Use these codes:
Noun (N) Verb (V) Adjective (ADJ) Conjunction (C)
Pronoun (P) Preposition (PREP) Adverb (ADV)
Thank you for request information on
1
DayPro franchises. For more than a decade now, DayPro have
been expanding successfully,
2
and we is very pleased that you have an interest in join our successful
3
family of franchise owners and
4
operator.
We have enclosed materials
5
that we
6
knowed you
7
will find both interesting and informative. After
you have review all the materials, you probably will have
8
some important question. Within the next
two week, therefore, our account
9
executive in your area, Darcy Newton, will call your to arrange an
appointment at your convenience. An experience DayPro representative, Darcy
10
sure will help to
clarify any issues or
11
resolve any questions that you may had.
Ms. Havermeyer, we real do appreciate your request for information about DayPro, and we hope that
you will enjoys your meeting with
12
Darcy. We hope that we may someday welcome you to the
DayPro family on successful franchise owners!
PARTS OF SPEECH 3
Verb Phrases
33. Maryanne
34. I
Prepositional Phrases
37. to
38. among
35. She
36. Americans
39. for
40. between
Dependent Clauses
30. If
31. When
32. Because
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spelling above the word.
a. Employees should be familar with the tecnical vocablary used in there organizations.
b. The English langauge contains ieght parts of speech.
c. Pronons can be substituted for nouns.
d. He is a singlar pronoun; we is a plural pronoun.
e. Instead of action, some verbs show a conditon or state of being.
f. She is the cheif financial officer is an independant clause.
g. Ajectives and averbs give life to effective sentences.
h. Prepostional phrases begin with prepostions and end with nouns or noun substitutes.
4 PARTS OF SPEECH
Nouns
SHORT ANSWER
1. Nouns are words that name .
2. Two very broad categories for sorting nouns are .
3. James, Greene County, and J & D Photography are examples of ; city, book,
and engineer are examples of .
4. One form of a noun is the singular; the other three noun forms are
.
5. The most common rule for forming noun plurals is to .
6. Latin plurals of singular words that end in um (datum, curriculum, addendum) are formed by
; Greek plurals of singular words that end in is (crisis, basis, parenthesis)
are formed by .
7. Compound nouns may be spelled in three ways:
.
8. The signal for the possessive is the .
9. To form the possessive of a singular noun, .
10. To form the possessive of (a) a plural noun that ends in s , ; (b) a plural
noun that does not end in s , .
EXERCISES
Nouns
Write a brief sentence using the specified nouns.
1. attorneys
2. Hewlett Packard LaserJet 2100
NOUNS 5
3. seminar
4. Insurance
5. cities
6. City
7. daughter-in-laws
8. fathers-in-law
9. chief executive officers
10. stations
Noun Forms
A singular noun form is in parentheses in each of the following sentences. Change that form to plural,
singular possessive, or plural possessive, according to the sentence number as indicated here:
13: Plural
46: Singular Possessive
710: Plural Possessive
1. The Finance Committee has been assigned the responsibility of handling such (crisis) in the future.
2. Several (municipality) have joined forces to help the needy in their (community).
3. This new regulation, if approved, will affect many (business) in the downtown area.
6 NOUNS
4. On Wednesday, we will complete the sale of (Ms. Harris) home.
5. In the question-and-answer period that followed the presentation, one (woman) comments were
especially insightful.
6. (Carol Mendez) recommendation now has been officially approved by our vice president.
7. Because all the (division) budgets have been slashed, employee training has been cut drastically for the
rest of the year.
8. The goal of this survey is to elicit (client) reactions to our policy changes.
9. Most (employee) benefits forms have been reviewed and forwarded to the Benefits Department.
10. Perhaps this topic should be discussed at the annual (manager) meeting next January.
Error Search
Underline all errors in noun usage in the following excerpt from a memo and make a corrected copy.
At the request of several employees, we have decided to establish an Employees Forum to provide a
means by which management and employees can communicate effectively. In the past few years, we
have tried to listen to employees suggestions, recommendations, and complaints; however, the results
were unsatisfactory. The Employees Forum promises to be effective for several reasons:
1. It provides confidentiality for all complaints.
2. It ensures that the president will hear every comment aired at the Forum meetings.
3. Forum comments will be evaluated and reviewed by a special committee of both managers and
employees.
NOUNS 7
Editing and Proofreading
Proofread the following draft of an instruction sheet; underline all errors in noun usage, word usage, and
spelling; and make a corrected copy.
Each applicants Employee Information Packet include a sample job description, which offer detailed
informations about each position in our headquarter as well as in all are branchs. The sample job
description attach have been labelled by numbers that corresponds to the following discussion. Using
the numbers on that samples, note that the sample job description:
1. Specifies the miminum, the mid-range, and the maximum salary. (Note the three numbers listed
in parenthesis after the job title.)
2. Lists the primary dutys and responsibilitys.
3. Identifies the person to which the jobholder report.
4. Describes how and when a performance will be evaluate.
5. Specifies the positions educational requirements.
6. Identifies typical communication patterns with peoples inside and outside the company.
Anyone who has questions about the Employee Information Packet should call the Human
Resourses Department, or stopped in the office between 8:30 a.m. and 4:30 p.m., Monday thru
Friday.
8 NOUNS
Pronouns
SHORT ANSWER
1. The three case forms for personal pronouns are .
2. Personal pronouns serve as for nouns.
3. In the sentence I myself wrote the letter, myself is a(n) pronoun.
4. In the sentence Jan gave herself a permanent, herself is a(n) pronoun.
5. Your, his, and my are examples of case personal pronouns.
6. I, they, and we are examples of case personal pronouns.
7. Me, us, and them are examples of case personal pronouns.
8. In the sentence Bob and I are partners, Bob and I functions as the of the sentence.
9. A(n) case personal pronoun precedes a gerund in a sentence.
10. In the sentence There is milk in the refrigerator, there is used as a(n) to invert the
sentence.
11. A(n) is a form of a verb that ends in -ing and functions as a noun in a sentence.
12. A(n) is a noun, pronoun, or other noun substitute that renames a noun that
immediately precedes it.
EXERCISES
Pronouns
1. Write the requested pronoun formnominative, objective, or possessivein the space provided for
each sentence.
a. Jon and (third person, singular, female) will compile the report.
b. They will give the report to the committee (third person, plural, reflexive).
c. We are sorry that Nelda and (third person, singular, masculine) were unable to
attend the meeting.
PRONOUNS 9
d. Mr. Wakoma (third person, singular, intensive) briefed the members.
e. He and she believe (third person, plural) working overtime has enabled them to
finish the project on time.
f. Peter will meet his brother and (first person, singular) at the office at eight oclock.
g. The members were divided in (third person, plural) opinions.
h. I will install the new computer for you and (third person, singular, female).
i. These books are (third person, singular, masculine) to be used in any way he wishes.
j. Neither Mrs. Ortiz nor (third person, singular, masculine) could agree with the
majority.
k. I (first person, singular, intensive) approve of all the suggestions that were made at
the evening meeting.
l. We gave the new office furniture to (first person, plural, reflexive) when no one
else requested it.
2. Write the correct pronoun in the space provided in each sentence.
a. He (hisself/himself) purchased the supplies for the office party.
b. Agnes rewarded (hersself/herself) when she received an A on her report card.
c. (Whom/Who) should I call if an emergency arises?
d. This belongs to (whoever/whomever) was sitting at this desk.
e. (Whom/Who) is in charge of the Thompson, Rubens, and Clearfield accounts?
f. (Whomever/Whoever) wants this opportunity can certainly volunteer.
g. Carlo and (her/she) , recent law school graduates, will be very successful attorneys
some day.
h. Leave it for (I/me) to take care of when I can find some spare time.
i. We and (they/them) are planning to work on the audit the first week in May.
j. It is (we/us) who have been given the full responsibility of seeing that this project
is completed on time.
k. The accountants (theirselves/themselves) helped the support staff key the material
into the computer.
l. (Whoever/Whomever) is a nominative case pronoun.
10 PRONOUNS
Editing and Proofreading
1. Proofread the following message. Underline all pronoun and spelling errors, and rewrite the message
with corrections.
We enjoy hearing from our customers, and we thank you for youre recent school supply orders. We
ourself agree with you that our products can make a noticable difference in your classroom. All whom
have ordered our supplies so far have been very pleased.
Due to an unexpectedly high vollume of sales this quarter, the supply of catalog items #5718 and
#5719 is depleted. Thus, your shipment of ten dozen pairs of scisors and ten reams of copy paper will
be delivered to you by your representive, Paul Todd, hisself on August 28.
Ours sale catalog for September through December is enclosed. You will want to look through it
carefully and share it with whomever is interested in purchasing school supplies. Some of the items are
marked down 45 percent.
PRONOUNS 11
2. Underline all errors in pronoun usage, noun usage, and spelling in the following message. Rewrite the
message with corrections.
Mariano, as a freelance journalist, you youself will be pleased with the proposal my editor-in-cheif and
me can offer you. We would like you to interview members of the Amish sect in Lancaster,
Pennsylvania, to see how there communitys are withstanding the encroachment of modern technology
and crime in recent years.
I meself find the lifes of the Pennsylvania Dutch to be fasinating, especially in todays fast-paced society.
We would appreciate you lending your expertise to are project.
Please let my assistant Michele or I know as soon as possable if youre schedule allows you to consider
this assignment for the first two weeks of Febuary.
12 PRONOUNS
Pronoun-Noun Agreement
SHORT ANSWER
1. Pronouns must agree with their antecedents in these three ways: .
2. In the sentence Several should state their opinions, several is the of their.
3. An example of a singular gender-neutral pronoun is .
4. Antecedents such as jury and team are examples of nouns that sometimes agree with
singular pronouns and sometimes agree with plural pronouns.
5. In the sentence He and she enjoy their collection, he and she is a(n) antecedent.
6. If the elements of a compound antecedent are connected by or, the pronoun must agree with the
element closest to the .
7. Examples of pronouns are one, each, and every.
8. Pronouns such as all or any can sometimes be and sometimes be to
agree in number with the noun or object of the preposition that follows them.
9. Pronouns such as who, whom, which, and that are called pronouns.
10. Pronouns such as this, these, that, and those are called pronouns.
11. To agree with antecedents, the pronouns who, whom, and whose must refer to .
12. To agree with antecedents, the pronoun which must refer to .
13. The pronoun this points to a person, place, or thing that is the speaker.
14. A pronoun is a(n) substitute in a sentence.
PRONOUN-NOUN AGREEMENT 13
EXERCISES
Pronoun and Antecedent Agreement
Underline the antecedent of each pronoun that appears in bold.
1. The banker encouraged her support staff.
2. Most of the economists will state their opinions.
3. After Jules and Li composed the lyrics, they asked us to compose the music.
4. The Chinese woman who entertained us was very cordial.
5. A successful entrepreneur consults frequently with his or her accountant.
6. The neighbors donated their extra blankets to the victims.
7. Audrey finished her column two minutes before the deadline.
8. The newly appointed committee drafted its report.
9. Joe or Cary will stay overtime to finish his assignment.
10. Neither Sylvia nor Sue volunteered her time.
11. The students were pleased with their grades.
12. Every one of the professors wanted to question his or her students.
13. Few jog on the track near their community.
14. Cyril, whom we hired to repair our office equipment, is earning a degree in computer science.
15. My piano, which is a family heirloom, is tuned twice a year.
16. The family raved about its new home.
17. Both clowns will perform their routine.
18. Had one known the facts beforehand, one would have handled the situation differently.
19. All taxpayers received their refunds early.
20. Neither David nor June has done his or her homework.
14 PRONOUN-NOUN AGREEMENT
Editing and Proofreading
1. Underline all errors in pronouns, spelling, and word usage in the following message. Write a corrected
copy on a separate sheet of paper.
Because we have experience handleing cases such as those, our firm has decided to except Richard
Thompsons case. One year, who is a great deal of time, may be needed to research the facts and in-
terview all the witnesses theirselves. In edition, many expenses will be incurred from the investigation,
though we do expect the client and ourselves to win the case and make a profit.
Please let me know as soon as possable if anyone of you are not interested in working on that case.
Perhaps you are occupied with other assignments, or perhaps you yourselves do not wish to travel long
distances and be away from youre home.
I would appreciate you putting in writing you request to be taken of the case, if your so inclined. All
requests of this nature should be on mine desk by Monday.
The partners and me, whom are eager to begin work on the Thompson case, look foreward to work-
ing with each paralegal assistant whom undertakes these assignment.
PRONOUN-NOUN AGREEMENT 15
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spelling above the word.
1. Whom and whomever are objective case personnel pronouns.
2. The relative pronouns who and which begin dependant clauses that relate to other parts of sentences.
3. Theyre are four demostrative pronouns in the English language.
4. A pronoun-antesedent relationship should be clear and not have more than one meaning.
5. A pronoun functions as a substitute for a noun or a noun substetute in a sentence.
6. Due not shift from a first-person pronoun to a second-person pronoun in a given sentence.
7. Carefull use of relative pronouns will improve your writting skills.
8. Seperate inventorys will be conducted by temporary employees.
16 PRONOUN-NOUN AGREEMENT
Verbs
SHORT ANSWER
1. Linking verbs include two types of verbscondition and .
2. Condition verbs refer to a condition or appeal to the .
3. The combination of a main verb and helping verbs forms a(n) .
4. A state-of-being verb is sometimes called a(n) .
5. The most common helping verbs are forms of .
6. For a verb to be classified as a helping verb, it must have to help.
7. All verb forms are derived from principal parts.
8. The principal parts of verbs are .
9. The two groups of verb tenses discussed in this chapter are .
10. The word bought is the tense of the verb to buy.
11. Add a(n) to the present tense of a regular verb when it is used with a third-person singular
pronoun or a singular noun.
12. Add to the present tense of a regular verb to form the past tense.
13. Form the present participle of a verb by adding to the present form.
14. verbs must have an object to complete the meaning of a sentence.
VERBS 17
EXERCISES
Verb Forms
Underline the correct verb form in each sentence.
1. Please do not (raise/rise) your voice to the children.
2. I will be able to (set/sit) while I am waiting for Troy.
3. Donna worked four years before she (was/were) promoted.
4. The correct information (was/were) given to Tyler.
5. The chicken (lay/laid) its eggs yesterday.
6. The new technology (will be/will have been) helpful in the future.
7. Was that the telephone that (rung/rang)?
8. Janine stated that sales (was/were) high the first quarter.
9. Edward (claims/claim) that he did not receive his overtime pay.
10. By noon tomorrow, I (wrote/will have written) the proposal.
11. Charo (buy/will buy) a new computer next month.
12. They (have eaten/eaten) all the birthday cake.
13. The sales agents (give/gives) incentives to buy their products.
14. On vacation, Mort and Cara (have done/done) and (seen/have seen) everything they wanted.
Editing and Proofreading
1. Underline all errors in verb form, spelling, and word usage in the following message. Rewrite the
message with corrections.
Because of your companies reputation and because your catalogs are so attractive, I order a gift for my
mother for Mothers Day. I has selected an ankel bracelet in 14-karet gold with her initials, N.P.B.
Following the instructions in your catalog, on April 25th I done called the 800 number, given the infor-
mation requested to the person on the telephone, gave her my credit card number, verified the price of
$39, and mentioning that I wants the bracelet wrap and deliver to my mother by Mothers Day, May 8.
18 VERBS
May 8 have came and went; I receive my credit card charge, but my mother did not recieve her gift.
It is now May 22, and I are very unhappy about your companys negligence. My mother did not got a
gift from me on Mothers Day, and I received a bill but have nothing to show for it.
Please call I at 555-1234 as soon as possible to discussed either a credit to my account or a federal
express shippment of my mothers gift.
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spelling above the word.
a. The past tense of buy is brought and the past tense of bring is bought.
b. The English langauge has many iregular verbs.
c. Entransitive verbs are verbs that do not need an object to complete the meaning of a sentence.
d. Linking verbs have predicate nonimatives or predicate ajectives.
e. The two verb voices are active and pastive.
f. Joan received asistance from the accountent.
g. I request that a ajustment be made imediately.
h. If Charles and Rena where going to Hawai, they would buy us macadamia nut.
VERBS 19
Sentence Composition
1. Write a sentence using the verb congratulate in the past tense.
2. Write a sentence using the verb cost in the future tense.
3. Write a sentence using the verb hit in the present perfect tense.
4. Write a sentence using the verb stay in the past perfect tense.
5. Write a sentence using the verb organize in the future perfect tense.
20 VERBS
Subject-Verb Agreement
SHORT ANSWER
1. The complete subject encompasses all the sentence that is not part of the complete .
2. The subject is the main word in the complete subject that specifically names what the
sentence is about.
3. A(n) predicate consists of two or more verbs with the same subject.
4. Good communicators make sure that their subjects and always agree.
5. Third-person singular pronouns require a singular verb that ends in s when the tense
is used.
6. A sentence is considered to be when the main verb precedes the subject.
7. The phrase of the rowing team is an example of a(n) phrase that may intervene
between the subject and verb.
8. Intervening phrases do not affect agreement and should be ignored.
9. The expression number is considered to be plural and needs a plural verb.
10. The expression number is considered to be singular and needs a singular verb.
11. Names of companies are usually considered to be .
12. An amount that is plural in form takes a(n) verb if it is considered to be a single
entity.
13. Usually a compound subject joined by and is and requires a plural verb.
14. If words such as each, every, and many a precede a compound noun, always use a(n)
verb.
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT 21
EXERCISES
Sentence Structure
Underline the correct verb in each sentence.
1. The audience (like/likes) the musical performance.
2. The students (observe/observes) the drafting operations.
3. The news (were/was) so important that it appeared on the front page.
4. The government employee (are attending/is attending) a lecture in Washington.
5. The condominium, with all its furnishings, (sell/sells) for more than I can afford to pay.
6. They and their teacher (have shown/has shown) an interest in this educational kit.
7. The members of Congress (are voting/is voting) on the health care bill.
8. A number of birds (eat/eats) from our bird feeder every morning.
9. Five dollars (are/is) ample to donate to the Firemans Fund.
10. Where (are/is) the CD and the tape of his latest recording?
11. The young lady, one among many, (were/was) waiting patiently.
12. The recruit, rather than the experienced players, (have volunteered/has volunteered) to assist the
trainee.
13. They (have raised/have risen) their averages since January.
14. The presenters (address/addresses) the audience from 10 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. on the first day of the
conference.
15. The United States (is, are) currently conducting business with many foreign countries.
16. Each of the lessons (was, were) an hour long.
17. All of the mountain (is, are) closed until the avalanche danger passes.
18. Several of the applicants (has, have) experience in supervising work teams.
19. The items listed below (is, are) rules of business etiquette when conducting business.
20. Several of the new ski lifts (was, were) installed at Vail.
22 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
Error Search
1. Underline all errors in subject-verb agreement, spelling, and word usage in the following message.
Make a corrected copy.
As you requested, I mailed copys of the questionnaire we selected to 95 urban companys to see if
theyre are a need for junior college courses to train information-processing employees. The results of
the survey is very interesting. Although my complete report are not ready, here is some preliminary
findings:
1. The firms surveyed has an unparalelled need for information-processing operators.
2. The creation of documents and decision making is done by managers and executives who could
use training.
3. Support personall produce final documents, and they also performs other administrative duties.
4. Users of computers acknowleges their lack of expertise when they uses the software, resulting in
many requests in the personnel offices for training at local colleges such as ares.
Feel free to call me if you wishes to discuss the contents of this memo. The full report, with all the
statistics, are to be printed and on your desk by the requested date, Wenesday, Febuary 12.
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT 23
2. Underline all misspelled words in each sentence. Write the correct spelling above the word.
a. Some sentences have both compound subjects and compound predecates, yet they are simple not
compound sentences.
b. Locate the simple and complete predicates in the sentences you compose.
c. Profesional people such as yourselfs seem to accumulate many frequent flyer miles each year.
d. Luxury accomodations, including two telavisions, are available in our suites.
e. The manufacturor recieved the past-due check for the shipment.
f. All the accountents know how to supervize their assistants.
g. In the final analyses, they are the only ones that should be considered for the job openings.
h. Each of the three transcribers proofreads the intaroffice memos for the company president.
24 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
Adjectives
SHORT ANSWER
1. A(n) is a word that describes or limits nouns or noun substitutes.
2. Modifiers of nouns answer the following questions: which one, how many, and .
3. The adjectives the, a, and an are called .
4. A converts to an when it is used before a noun that begins with the of a vowel.
5. Proper nouns that precede and modify other nouns serve as adjectives.
6. Two or more hyphenated words that immediately precede and modify nouns are called
adjectives.
7. The three degrees of adjectives are .
8. Adjectives such as smarter, cleaner, and better are in the degree.
9. Adjectives such as smartest, cleanest, and best are in the degree.
10. Adjectives that do not form their comparisons by adding either -er or more are called
adjectives.
11. More happier is an example of a and is incorrect.
12. The terms more nearly or most nearly precede adjectives such as complete and unique.
13. When comparing one member of a group with another member of the same group, insert the word
after the word any.
14. The adjective less refers to amounts and is used with , not plural, nouns.
ADJECTIVES 25
EXERCISES
Adjectives
Use the following adjectives in short sentences.
1. good (comparative degree)
2. deteriorating (superlative degree)
3. square (comparative degreeabsolute adjective)
4. full (superlative degreeabsolute adjective)
5. technical (comparative degree)
6. usable (positive degree)
7. fancy (comparative degree)
8. thirsty (positive degree)
9. interesting (superlative degree)
10. total (comparative degree)
26 ADJECTIVES
Adjective Comparisons
Underline the correct adjective in each sentence.
1. Rand is the (brightest/brighter) of the twins.
2. Their room is the (most cleanest/cleanest) I have ever seen.
3. My senior advisors bark is (worst/worse) than her bite.
4. Your wastebasket is (fuller/more nearly full) than it was yesterday.
5. The event is (a/an) historic occasion.
6. Gilda is the (dependabler/more dependable) of the two.
7. Kens response was (more perfect/more nearly perfect) than his classmates.
8. Her grandfather is the (most proud/proudest) person I have ever met.
9. He is the (littlest/least) baby I have ever seen.
10. The new garden is (more beautiful/beautifuller) than the old one.
Error Search
1. Underline all errors in adjectives, spelling, and word usage in the following message. Write or key a
corrected copy on a separate sheet of paper.
Because of are passed experience eating at youre restaurant, we planned my parents anniversary
dinner at The Blue Eatery on Sunday, June 6. The celebration is over, but the food and service where
more unsatisfactory.
We received slowest and uncaringest service, luke warm and taste less food, and the worse private
room in your establishment. Everyone in our party commented that you restaurant appears to be the
wrongest place to celebrate a most specialest occasion. It is existing on its reputation.
I am requesting four free dinners in your mane dinning room for my parents and us. We want to see
if your once very highly reputablest restaurant still can provide the finer service and gooder food that
we remember.
ADJECTIVES 27
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spelling above the word.
a. Do not combine -er and more in the comparitive degree.
b. Most quietest is an example of double conparison.
c. Words such as uniqeue and complete are called obsolete adjectives.
d. When comparing one member of a group with another member of the same group, insert the
word else after any one.
e. The word fewer, an ajective, refers to number; it is used with plural nouns.
f. Demonstretive pronouns such as this and that frequentley function as adjectives.
g. Adjectives are often most affective if they immediately preceed nouns in sentences.
h. By intraspersing adjectives in your writting, you will enliven your communications and give them
meaning.
28 ADJECTIVES
Adverbs
SHORT ANSWER
1. Adverbs modify other adverbs, action verbs, and .
2. Adverbs answer the questions how, when, where, how often, and about
the words they modify.
3. Adverbs modify action verbs but not verbs, such as the verb to be.
4. In the sentence, We plan to meet tomorrow, the adverb is .
5. In the previous sentence, the adverb answers the question .
6. The adverb quickly is the degree.
7. The adverb more speedily is the degree.
8. The adverb least accurately is the degree.
9. Words such as moreover and therefore are called adverbs.
10. Determine whether bad or badly belongs in the following sentence: The accident victims look
.
11. Determine whether never or not belongs in the following sentence: I have smoked,
and I am glad that I was tempted.
12. The adjective real means in this sentence, This sculpture from China is made out of
real jade.
13. The word surely is an adverb; the word sure is a(n) .
14. The word well may be used as an adjective when referring to .
ADVERBS 29
EXERCISES
Sentence Composition
Write a brief sentence using the specified adverbs.
1. efficiently (positive)
2. temporarily (positive)
3. slyly (comparative)
4. improperly (positive)
5. Saturday
Adverbs
Underline the correct word in each sentence.
1. He stared (suspiciously/suspicious) at the activists.
2. She feels (well/good) about her raise in pay.
3. The members of the club had (never/not) arrived by 8:30.
4. Jules is (exceedingly/more exceedingly) brave.
5. Ivy worked (most slowly/more slowly) than Isaac.
6. Alfredo is (surely/sure) the right person for the job.
7. Milk appears to be (badly/bad) for her stomach condition.
8. Is that (real/really) the situation?
9. Come (most early/early) to get an orchestra seat.
30 ADVERBS
10. That project is (quite/quitely) expensive.
11. Speak (most softly/more softly) in the library than you do in the cafeteria.
12. The music is (extreme/extremely) loud at this concert.
13. Did Lana dance (more lively/most lively) this time than she did last time?
14. They saw on television (where/that) the Phillies have won five games in a row.
Error Search
1. Underline all errors in adverbs, spelling, and word usage in the following message. Write or type a
corrected copy on a separate sheet of paper.
Because you realty company appears to have a really interest in your clients, I want to tell you
emphatic that our rental these passed summer was complete unsatisfactorily.
First, your agent, Ms. Barton, high recommended a four-bed room house one block from the beach.
Than, she quick changed her mine and recommended the house we rent on Sassafras Street. Her first
recommendation was a well one; her second recommendation was a seriously mistake. It clear turn out
that we paid $1,000 to stay in a dirty house with rickety furnitures and poorly plumbing. The only
best part about the place was its location.
We requests fastest action on your part to show us that your real due care about your clients as you
advertize. We expect a refund of 20 per cent ($200), a apology, and an statement saying if we or are
friends every want another rental from you, we will be advised proper and only top notch houses will
be recomended.
ADVERBS 31
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spelling above the word.
a. A adverb usually answers the question to what extent? about an adjective that it modifys.
b. Adverbs such as never or all ways are frequently found in the middle of verb phrases.
c. An example of a conjuntive adverb is more over.
d. Superlitive is one of the three degrees of adverb comparison.
e. Troublesome adverbs like realy cause problems for communicaters.
f. Although the words never and not both denote a negitive situation, they should not be used
intrachangeably.
g. The ajective real means genuine and often is used to describe diamends and antiques.
h. Two examples off nouns that may be used as adverbs are yesterday and tomorow.
32 ADVERBS
Prepositions
SHORT ANSWER
1. Prepositions usually indicate direction, position, or .
2. Prepositions are usually in length.
3. Prepositions introduce phrases called phrases.
4. In phrases that begin with prepositions, the noun or noun substitute serves as the of
the preposition.
5. A phrase that begins with a preposition functions as an adjective or a(n) .
6. Between is used when referring to two nouns, and is used to refer to three or more nouns.
7. The preposition in refers to ; the preposition into refers to movement.
8. The preposition beside means by the side of ; the preposition besides means .
9. Do not use the preposition after over in a sentence such as We are glad this project
is over.
10. Sentences should not end with a(n) , such as at or to.
11. The word to should be after the word opposite.
12. Some writers incorrectly insert the word after the word like.
13. Insert the preposition after the word agree when referring to rules and procedures.
14. The preposition should follow the word identical, not the preposition to.
PREPOSITIONS 33
EXERCISES
Sentence Composition
Write a brief sentence using the specified prepositions.
1. without
2. beyond
3. concerning
4. against
5. until
6. among
7. within
8. toward
9. beneath
10. like
34 PREPOSITIONS
Prepositions
Underline the correct word in each sentence.
1. We may not be able to agree (with/upon) the plan they suggested.
2. I try not to be angry (with/at) my supervisor when I have to work overtime.
3. They are no different (than/from) other auditors at the end of the fiscal year.
4. Did you detect a discrepancy (between/in) her facts and his?
5. The teenager did not want to part (from/with) the torn jeans.
6. Do not plan (to go/on going) with your friends Friday night.
7. I hope our benefits are retroactive (from/to) the first of last month.
8. Lets speak (with/to) each other soon to discuss our points of view.
9. They would (like/like for) you to join them in Seattle.
10. Is this problem finally (over with/over)?
Error Search
1. Underline all errors in preposition usage, spelling, and word usage in the following message and write
a corrected copy.
Like we discussed at the telephone Tuesday, the new office being considered is opposite to the
courthouse. You commented that as soon as youre present project is over with, you and your partners
also will be looking for a new location. Where are you looking at?
You may want to consider relocating to the office besides ours upon the third floor at 123 Main
Street. We could share the law liberry into the conference room and also the word-processing facilitys
and message service to City Hall. Accept for the usual headaches connected with moving, relocating to
the new location has significant advantages.
Please seriously consider this suggestion, for both firms would find the move to be considerable
advantageous. Among your expertise in estates and our expertise in contracts, we could compliment
each other in our law practices.
Beside the professional advantages, working closely with you and your partners once again would be
socially beneficial for all the attorneys. Please let me hear by you when you have an oportunity.
PREPOSITIONS 35
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spelling above the word.
a. The following words are prepostions: beneath, between, and through.
b. The sentence Between you and me, the applicants interveiw was unsuccessful has one
prepositional phrase.
c. In a prepositional phrase, the noun or noun substiute maybe modified by an adjective.
d. Avoid useing unneccessary prepositions in your sentences.
e. Ending sentences with prepositions is not considered to be gramatically correct.
f. The words between and among are too prepositions that are frequently missused.
g. Through frequent use, spesific prepositions have been peared with designated words.
h. Do not insert the word for after like in this sentence: We would like you not to rationolize the
reasons for your inacuracies.
36 PREPOSITIONS
Conjunctions and
Interjections
SHORT ANSWER
1. A(n) is a word that joins two or more words, phrases, or clauses.
2. The connecting word is used when the second independent clause explains the first
independent clause in a compound sentence.
3. The coordinate conjunctions and are used in opposing situations.
4. conjunctions are used in pairs mainly for emphasis.
5. A(n) conjunction joins elements of unequal grammatical rank.
6. The words after and since are examples of conjunctions.
7. The word for is either a conjunction or a(n) .
8. In the sentence The reason is because we arrived early, the word should be substituted
for the word because.
9. In the sentence Being that were hungry, lets eat, the word should be substituted for
the words being that.
10. The word Help! is an example of a(n) .
11. Either . . . or is an example of a(n) conjunction.
12. A(n) is a word used to express strong emotion and is usually followed by an
exclamation point.
13. In the sentence The craftsman carves quickly and with accuracy, the construction is not
.
14. The connecting words nor and or are examples of conjunctions.
CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS 37
EXERCISES
Sentence Composition
Write a brief sentence using the specified conjunctions.
1. not only . . . but also
2. either . . . or
3. neither . . . nor
4. both . . . and
5. yet
Conjunctions
Underline the correct words.
1. (Unless/Because) it didnt matter, Josie put the problem out of her mind.
2. (Because/Provided) of the inconvenience, Sheldon decided not to invite weekend company.
3. Walking is a good form of exercise (but/and) is good for your heart.
4. You can find answers more readily (if/while) you know what questions to ask.
5. When she is on vacation, Bebe likes both swimming and (to play/playing) golf.
6. You not only should thank him (but/but also) should reciprocate.
7. The project has been fairly successful, (but/for) it has had its share of trouble.
8. Decision making is an accomplishment (though/when) you follow the problem-solving steps one-by-
one.
9. Neither the accountant (nor/or) the attorney kept the appointment.
10. (Although/When) Linda returned to her computer, she decided to back up her files on disk.
38 CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS
11. Both the municipal court cases (and/or) the common pleas court cases kept the law firm busy.
12. My goal is to work in either a hospital (or/nor) a small medical clinic.
13. (As though/Before) the orientation started, the crowd congregated outside the auditorium.
14. I wanted to buy new furniture, (yet/and) I knew that money was not available for the purchase.
15. They packed lightweight clothing (although/because) Florida is hot and steamy in the summer.
Error Search
1. Underline all errors in conjunctions, interjections, spelling, and word usage in the memo. Write or
type a corrected copy on a separate sheet of paper.
TO: All Systems Analysts
FROM: A. C. Grossback
DATE: August 11, 20
SUBJECT: Availability of Over Time
Being that I have overheard many remarks and also have recieved many inquiries about the lack of
overtime opportunities, the companys present policy about over time is presented here. Overtime has
been suspended until further notice. The reason is because the overtime budget have been slashed
severely this fiscal year.
We realize that this is not a good situation for you when most of your count on overtime pay to help
take care of your many expenses. Both annual salary or overtime pay are important these days.
Unfortunately, however, not only overtime but salary raises may be affected in the near future. Know!
No one is being fired, and the company must hold the line or it will be in really finansial trouble.
Lets hope that Americans will once again buy products made in America yet help companys such as
ours to grow steadily and with force. We are confidant that before long overtime opportunities will be
reinstated.
CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS 39
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spelling above the word.
a. Cordinate conjunctions may join two prepostional phrases.
b. The conjunction and should be use when you mean in edition to.
c. Use the conjunction nor in negitive situations; use the conjunction or in postive situations.
d. Corelative conjunctions are used in pairs mainly for emphases.
e. A subordinent conjunction joins elements of unnequal grammatical rank.
f. An interjecion is a word or expression that has no gramatical relationship with other words in a
sentence.
g. A study of parts of speech provides a solid base for creating affective letters, memos, and reports.
h. Writers avoid trouble spots in there communications by ensuring that all their constructions are
paralell.
40 CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS
A Grammar Review I
SHORT ANSWER
1. Family and friends usually will forgive any routine errors that you make in speaking and
.
2. In the business world, you should use communication skills, including skills, to
enhance your message.
3. Be careful how you spell words such as managers, managers, and managers, which are
alike.
4. A(n) is used after an indirect question.
5. The verb forms seen and spoken are forms of the verbs to see and to speak.
6. The verb forms saw and spoke are forms of verbs.
7. Two singular subjects joined by or create a(n) construction.
8. Two singular subjects joined by and create a(n) construction.
9. Interrupters, such as prepositional phrases, do not affect /verb agreement.
10. The s in the word heres substitutes for the word .
11. The specific person, place, or thing to which a pronoun refers is called a(n) .
12. The singular pronoun used to refer to a gender-neutral noun, such as table, is .
13. Pronouns such as me, him, and her are case pronouns.
14. Pronouns such as I, he, and she are case pronouns.
A GRAMMAR REVIEW I 41
EXERCISES
Sentence Composition
Write a brief sentence using the specified word(s).
1. executives
2. Cassidys
3. attorneys
4. seen
5. neither . . . nor
Grammar Review
Underline the correct choice in each sentence.
1. Several (employees/employees) are on vacation.
2. (Mens/Mens) sportswear is sold in this department.
3. (Cassies/Cassies) office is in the next corridor.
4. They (have wrote/wrote) their wills on July 5.
5. You certainly have (groan/grown) since last year.
6. Louis and Gerta (have taken/has taken) too long.
7. If I (has known/had known) about it, I would have handled the situation differently.
8. Either Carl or Marta (are/is) to arrive before noon.
9. Neither he nor his assistants (is/are) ready to finish the project.
10. The landlord or the tenant (was/were) responsible for the damage.
11. The newly written documents in the file (were/was) damaged by the virus.
42 A GRAMMAR REVIEW I
12. Public television, which helps to educate children, (are/is) supported by our organization.
13. (There are/Theres) a rose and a dahlia in this vase.
14. (Whos/Who are) the victims of this tragedy?
15. The police force announced that (it/they) will be on the alert for the criminal.
Error Search
1. Underline all errors in word usage and spelling in the following message. Write a corrected copy on a
separate sheet of paper.
When we seen youre special spring sale notice, we took advantage of some freetime and had gone to
your department store to purchase a few needed items. My family and me was looking for some
clothes, a set of pots, and accesories for are den.
The pots and items for the den that was purchased was very satisfactory. The clothes purchases,
however, turned out to be a dissaster. My sons two pairs of jeans had a hole in it, which was not
obvious at the store. My daughters cotton blouse no longer fit her after it were washed. The baddest
thing that happened, however, is that the two sport out fits that I brought for myself, which were
marked washible in cold water, faded so bad that they cannot be worn.
Either returning our money and replaceing all the damaged merchandise if you want to keep us as
customers. We written this letter to you to let you knew that, if you wish, we will give you one more
chance before our friends and us boycott your store all together.
Please tell us by next weak in a letter or on the telephone how you plan to handle this very serious
problem. For your convenience here are our telephone number555-1234.
A GRAMMAR REVIEW I 43
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spellings above the word.
a. Pronouns should agree with the nouns to which they refer in both number and gender.
b. Would you use nomnative, objective, or possesive case nouns as the subject of a sentence?
c. Past partlcipal verb forms must be acompanied by helping verbs, but past tense forms do not
need help.
d. People need excellant communication skills to succeed in the businessworld.
e. Follow the guide lines for spelling noun plurals and possessives.
f. Mispelled words are not exceptable in a business office.
g. The computer has softwear to check the spelling of youre document, but the softwear usually
cannot recognize the misuse of homonyms.
h. A grammer review all ways helps students and professionals.
44 A GRAMMAR REVIEW I
A Grammar Review II
SHORT ANSWER
1. Use case pronouns after prepositions and action verbs.
2. In the sentence, Mae keys better than I, the pronoun I functions as the of the missing
verb do.
3. In English, the word like gradually is becoming established as a conjunction.
4. In written English, use the word like as either a preposition or a(n) .
5. The word should be substituted for the word like in this sentence: Like he predicted,
the rain has stopped.
6. The words should be substituted for the word like in this sentence: She acts like she
owns the company.
7. The words theres and are homonyms.
8. The word should be substituted for the word your in this sentence: Your being
considered for a promotion.
9. The word good is an adjective; the word well is a noun or a(n) ; the word well is an
adjective when describing health.
10. Adjectives describe and noun substitutes.
11. Use the singular adjective this with the noun kind or a similar word.
12. A gerund, such as running, is a verb that ends in and functions as a noun.
13. Precede a gerund with a(n) case pronoun or noun.
14. In the sentence If only I were a millionaire, Id be happy, the verb shows a wish or
something contrary to fact.
A GRAMMAR REVIEW II 45
EXERCISES
Sentence Composition
Write a brief sentence using the specified word(s).
1. between you and her
2. better than he
3. as if we were
4. theirs
5. well (describing health)
Grammar Review
Underline the correct choice in each sentence.
1. Sandra said that if she (was/were) the advertising manager, she would cancel the ads.
2. Please tell Lorne that (its/its) necessary to have approval for such purchases.
3. Are you sure that Michelle wants (this/these) kind of stationery?
4. In my opinion, Ben markets his products very (good/well).
5. In the past, (theirs/theres) been a need for those supplies.
6. More recently, she has been feeling (well/good).
7. Barry said that we need more of those (kinds/kind) of samples.
8. Both Alyson and Bob appreciated (us/our) helping them coordinate the seminar.
9. (Like/As) the president warned, layoffs are about to occur.
10. (Its/Its) priority is a matter of fact, not emotion.
11. They wanted Xena and (I/me) to join the team in Omaha.
46 A GRAMMAR REVIEW II
12. Because Melanie interviews people so (good/well), she always recommends successful computer
programmers.
13. Between you and (he/him), which person should serve as a delegate to the convention?
14. Ken is a good speaker, but Nancy also speaks very (good/well).
15. Do you prefer to watch (this/these) type of screen saver?
Error Search
1. Underline all errors in word usage and spelling in the following message. Write a corrected copy on a
separate sheet of paper.
Between you and I, the company is sorry to here that your dissatisfied with the alarm system it in-
stalled in your residents. These kind of problems are rare, and no installers are more capable than us.
Like I told you earlier, Alarm, Inc., is not pleased unless its customers are pleased, and its eager to
procede as you wish. It wants your alarm system to work good and for you to be 100 per cent
satisfied.
You calling and letting us know of youre alarm system problem enables us to send our maintenance
people right a way. If we was the biggest alarm system company in the country, we would not be
more concerned about catering to our customers needs.
Mr. Walter Sheng, our supervisor, will be calling you tommorrow to discuss the system and your ulti-
mate satisfaction with its operation.
A GRAMMAR REVIEW II 47
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spellings above the word.
a. In statements that indicate a wish or something contary to fact, use were instead of was.
b. Use hominyms such as fare and fair wisely in youre writing.
c. Good comunicators should always avoid grammar errors.
d. Possessive case pronouns should preceed all gerrunds in speaking and writing.
e. A grammar review such as the one you have just completed should provide a solid foundation
toward you developing error-free messages.
f. Communicators who incorrectly use the phrase between you and I do so either from habit or
from a desire to inpress.
g. Pronoun choice in comparesons is especialy challenging; the trick is to fill in the missing words.
h. Avoid useing the word like as a conjuction that means as or as if.
48 A GRAMMAR REVIEW II
Periods, Question Marks,
and Exclamation Points
SHORT ANSWER
1. Punctuation may include marks such as periods or internal marks such as commas.
2. A period is used after most sentences, after many , and after numbers and letters in
enumerations.
3. The types of sentences that end with periods include declarative sentences, mild commands,
, and courteous requests.
4. The following sentence is a(n) sentence: She is attending the meeting.
5. The following sentence is a(n) : Turn out the lights when you leave.
6. The following sentence is a(n) question: He asked me when you planned to arrive.
7. The following sentence is a courteous : May I have an interview with your company.
8. Periods are placed after many commonly used to indicate that the words are shortened
forms of longer words.
9. The abbreviation Ltd. stands for ; Inc. stands for .
10. When numbers are used in a list, are placed after each number.
11. A(n) is used after a direct question.
12. Place a(n) at the end of the following sentence: Where are you going
13. A(n) is a mark of punctuation that follows a word, a group of words, or
a sentence that shows strong emotion.
14. Use exclamations and exclamation points in all writing, but especially in business
communications.
PERIODS, QUESTION MARKS, AND EXCLAMATION POINTS 49
EXERCISES
Sentence Composition
Write a brief sentence using the type of sentence requested.
1. declarative sentence
2. mild command
3. indirect question
4. direct question
5. exclamation
External Punctuation
Insert the correct external punctuation in the following sentences and underline all misspelled words.
Write the correct spelling above the word.
1. Office automation is ocurring faster then we might choose
2. Did he ask if we are against a no-smokeing policy
3. Would you please close the front door and the side window
4. You have won a new pick up truck Great
5. A compound sentence contains two independant clauses
6. When does the opera seasen begin in Santa Fe
50 PERIODS, QUESTION MARKS, AND EXCLAMATION POINTS
7. May I be interveiwed before next Friday when I leave town
8. Mr. Smith asked Miss Jones when the meeting would be conveinent for her
9. Does every one have to rise when the judge enters the courtroom
10. Will you send me the information as soon as possable
11. Are you taking a change of clothes? your swimsuit? a camera? your shaver
12. He asked if you were comeing directly to the dinner meeting
13. Do you beleive the qualifications we have set are fair to the applicant
14. Exclamation points are used infrequently in bussiness writing
15. Take over now
Error Search
1. Correct all errors in external punctuation, spelling, and word usage in the following message. Write a
corrected copy on a separate sheet of paper.
Thank you for your recent inquiry about instaling a voice-mail system in your office! I am pleased to
help you in anyway that I can?
By now you should have had a opportunity to speak with Rita Cheng, the executive who suggested
that you called me, and also to observe the system that we placed in her office last year it is a user-
friendly system that works good, is easily to operate, is comparitively inexpensive, and is approved by
her companys clients who call frequently
Before we meat on Wensday, Febuary 4, please take time to jot down all your questions and concerns
about the installation of a new voice-mail system! Some systems the public is exposed to are quite cumber
some, and I am confident that you want to keep your existing and prospective customers satisfied?
You dont want to expose them to a telephone system that does not meet either there needs or yours
PERIODS, QUESTION MARKS, AND EXCLAMATION POINTS 51
Please call me when you recieve this letter? We then can establish a meeting time that is convenient
for both of us? Would you like some of your staff to join us. If so, Mr Gleason, fill free to invite
youre office manger and two department managers to join us Wensday!
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spelling above the word.
a. The period, the exclamaton point, and the question mark are examples of external marks of
punctuation.
b. A question mark follows each part in a series of questions.
c. Exclamations should be used sparingley in business comunications because they lose their impact
when they are overused.
d. Some people can not understand why a question mark is not placed after an indirect question.
e. The following sentence: May I here from you tommorrow should end with a period, not a
question mark.
f. All though all punctuation marks are important, the period is used more frequently then most of
the other marks.
g. Some readers incorectly place an exclamation point instead of a period after a mild command.
h. The abreviations Sr. and Jr. stand for Senior and Junior, respectivly.
52 PERIODS, QUESTION MARKS, AND EXCLAMATION POINTS
Commas
SHORT ANSWER
1. The period is an external punctuation mark, and the comma is a(n) punctuation mark.
2. The word however in the following sentence is a(n) element: However, we will call you.
3. The conjunctions and, but, and or are conjunctions.
4. A comma is inserted the conjunction that joins two independent clauses in a
compound sentence.
5. The sentence Anne will visit today, but Jill is waiting until next week, is a(n)
sentence.
6. When the independent clauses are separated by a coordinate conjunction in a compound sentence in
which each has less than four words, the comma should be .
7. Interrupting expressions and nonrestrictive clauses are examples of elements.
8. To determine whether information is necessary to the meaning or structure of a sentence, temporarily
the information.
9. An expression that is not needed and affects the flow of a sentence is called a(n)
expression.
10. A(n) phrase adds additional information that is not essential to the meaning of a
sentence.
11. A(n) clause clarifies or is essential to the meaning of a sentence and is not set off with
commas.
12. A noun that renames and refers to a preceding noun and is set off with commas is called a(n)
.
13. When the writer mentions the readers name in the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence, the
writer is using address.
14. Do not use commas to separate the parts of one or weight.
COMMAS 53
EXERCISES
Sentence Composition
Write brief sentences, inserting commas in accordance with requested comma use.
1. With introductory phrase
2. In a compound sentence
3. With an appositive
4. With direct address
5. In a series
Punctuation
Insert commas, periods, question marks, and exclamation points in the following sentences.
1. The hard-working contented assistant complimented her supervisor
2. Corn wheat and soybeans interest commodity brokers
3. We went to the theater on Saturday and we sat in front of Tom and Vera
4. Do you realize that both Sara and Norm just received promotions
5. Please review their proposal and return it to them Monday May 26
6. The car that cost $10 000 has 5 700 miles on it
7. The chief financial officer Isaac Muti has worked here five years
8. Our itinerary includes Dayton Ohio and Scranton Pennsylvania
9. The paint we purchased at Gladds is light beige and pale lavender
10. Jim Thompson, who plays in the American League gives 10 percent of his income to charity
11. Listen Someone is banging on the front door
54 COMMAS
12. Shortly after the printer needed a new cartridge
13. Put your blue jeans sneakers a sport shirt etc. in your duffle bag
14. She awakens at 6:30 and starts the coffee and prepares the toast
15. Gils driving him to the office saved commuting expense for John
Error Search
Correct all errors of insertion or omission in the use of commas, periods, and question marks in the fol-
lowing message. Also, correct errors in word usage in the following message. Write a corrected copy on a
separate sheet of paper.
Ken as a recently hire employee you will wont to know that you will be receiving a new office
assignment the new assignment have nothing to due with the fact that you where hired Tuesday
May 4 just one month ago let me explain
As you may have heard our company is expanding so rapidly that we have just about run out of office
space we are therefore going to partition off the extra conference room on the second floor and we
plan to make four new offices for the most recently hired staff members you will occupy one of these
new offices because a new computer a laser printer and modern furniture will be placed in your office
I know that you will find the facility suitable in ever respect. In edition the new office is well located,
and convenient to the front elevator what more could you ask.
Please call me, or stop in to see me if this new arrangement present a problem for you if I do not hear
from you by Friday I will notify the personal department of your move. It will take place the week of
September 1?
COMMAS 55
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spellings above the word.
a. Ocasionally, a sentence requires a comma for no reason other than to ensure clarity.
b. Writers should be familar with comma rules that pertain to abbreviations.
c. To impress and emphasise, writers some times repeat identical words in a sentence.
d. If cordinate conjunctions preceed each item in a series, omit commas.
e. Under no circumstanses should you seperate subjects and verbs with commas.
f. Incorrectly inserting a comma between two independant clauses results in a comma splice.
g. The comma, used more frequently then any other internal puncuation mark, has many uses.
h. Learning the guide lines that cover comma use and applying them in your writting will provide
clarity to your communications.
56 COMMAS
Semicolons, Colons, Dashes,
and Hyphens
SHORT ANSWER
1. A semicolon is a form of punctuation used to denote a(n) .
2. Use a colon a series.
3. A dash is formed by typing two unspaced .
4. Use a semicolon between two independent clauses.
5. Words such as moreover and however are called adverbs when used between
independent clauses.
6. Use a(n) before an expression such as for instance when the expression introduces a list
of examples.
7. Use a semicolon before the in a compound sentence when either or both clauses have
internal commas.
8. A(n) directs the readers attention to the material that follows it.
9. Use a colon when the words the following are near the or at the of a
sentence that introduces a series of items.
10. Use a colon to introduce a(n) quotation.
11. Although enliven sentences, they should be used sparingly in business writing.
12. For emphasis, use a dash to set off appositives and other elements from the rest of a
sentence.
13. A(n) is used in word division and in the formation of some compound words.
14. In the word ex-president, a hyphen appears after the ex.
SEMICOLONS, COLONS, DASHES, AND HYPHENS 57
EXERCISES
Sentence Composition
Write a brief sentence using the specified punctuation marks.
1. a dash and an exclamation point
2. a hyphen and a question mark
3. a semicolon and a period
4. a colon and a list of three items
5. a hyphen and a comma
Punctuation
Insert semicolons, colons, dashes, or hyphens where needed in the following sentences.
1. The company is experiencing a slower than expected recovery.
2. He believes that the program the one scheduled to run tonight will be a success.
3. The dollar is getting stronger the Japanese yen is getting weaker.
4. The breakfast meeting on Monday will begin at 6 45.
5. Consider the most basic investment decision Are the companys profits increasing or decreasing?
6. We are awaiting the ex presidents input.
7. Have you ever been to Portland, Oregon Salt Lake City, Utah; or Santa Fe, New Mexico?
8. They agree with managements decision or do they simply have no other choice?
9. The mother should warn the teacher of a possible problem the teacher should watch the child
carefully.
58 SEMICOLONS, COLONS, DASHES, AND HYPHENS
10. Heres a photo of the CEO he looks presidential and exudes confidence.
11. The impatient actor is suffering from preproduction anxiety.
12. The following items should be faxed
a. A copy of the letter
b. Your receipt
c. A chronological list of events
13. The victim is afraid and panicky but who wouldnt be in this situation?
14. Cleo, the young pitcher, excelled the entire season furthermore, he was considered for the Cy Young
Award.
15. The time has come for us to have a heart to heart talk.
Error Search
1. Underline all errors in spelling and word usage. In addition, insert semicolons, colons, dashes, and
hyphens where needed. Write a corrected copy on a separate sheet of paper.
Starting August 16, 20, PQB will be makeing the following changes
1. ajustments in interest checking accounts
2. ajustments in savings accounts
3. ajustments in money market accounts
You, Ms. Adams, has an interest bearing checking account with PQB therefore, you will wont to be
a ware of several changes pertaining to youre account.
Here is the changes
1. The miminum balance require will increase from $1,200 to $1,500.
2. All MAC with drawals from banks other then PQB will cost 50 cents.
The economy have slowed, our profits have decrease, and we are planning for a upturn these
conditions explain the changes in handleing our accounts. If you has any questions, Ms. Adams, feel
free to call our branch and Claire Burns, the head teller Mary Ellen Greene, the senior account
representive or me will be glad to help you.
SEMICOLONS, COLONS, DASHES, AND HYPHENS 59
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spellings above the word.
a. Semicolons are frequently used with independant clauses and conjuntive adverbs.
b. Expresions such as for example usually indicate that an enumerration will follow.
c. One use of a colon is to direct the readers attention to the materail following the punctuation mark.
d. An other use of a colon is to introduce a long quotaion.
e. A dash may procede a sumarizing statement.
f. Also, a dash can give a creative flare to your writting.
g. A hyphen is used to indecate word division between sylables.
60 SEMICOLONS, COLONS, DASHES, AND HYPHENS
Quotation Marks,
Parentheses, Underscores,
and Apostrophes
SHORT ANSWER
1. Quotation marks are placed around quotations.
2. Use quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a quotation.
3. Place periods and commas ending quotation marks.
4. Place semicolons and colons ending quotation marks.
5. Use quotation marks to enclose words such as aint.
6. Use to enclose the title of a magazine article.
7. Use the to indicate the title of a book.
8. More than one parenthesis are called .
9. To de-emphasize elements, place them in parentheses.
10. If a list of items is included within a sentence, parentheses may be used to enclose the
.
11. Underscores or all capital letters are used if are not available.
12. To indicate a contraction, insert a(n) in the space where the missing letters belong.
13. Add a(n) to an indefinite pronoun such as someone to form the possessive.
14. In compound words, add the apostrophe to the word to indicate possession.
QUOTATION MARKS, PARENTHESES, UNDERSCORES, AND APOSTROPHES 61
EXERCISES
Sentence Composition
Write a brief sentence using the specified words and the specified punctuation.
1. Use quotation marks to indicate spoken words.
2. Use parentheses to set off directions.
3. Use an underscore with a foreign expression.
4. Use an apostrophe to indicate possession in a compound word.
5. Use the word elses in a question.
Punctuation
Insert quotation marks, parentheses, underscores, and apostrophes in the following sentences.
1. His file cabinets held many clients records.
2. Louis and Farrah s father just took the bar examination.
3. A school s principal should be respected by all students.
4. The anthropologist s lecture The Bones of Ancient Warriors was extremely boring.
5. President Clark stated, Everyone should be aware of Mamelak s words, Stand up and fight for your
rights.
6. The article Studying Foreign Languages in the latest issue of Foreign Language Quarterly could help
your class.
7. I believe, said the bank teller, that your printed checks will be sent directly to your home.
8. They said that they couldn t join the group on Friday.
9. The expression par avion means to go by airplane in French.
62 QUOTATION MARKS, PARENTHESES, UNDERSCORES, AND APOSTROPHES
10. The political aspirant heard from some nine of her backers.
11. See Appendix A page 212 for the listing you requested.
12. Our client has been awarded the sum of ten thousand dollars $10,000 in settlement.
13. Give the proposal to Celia she will proofread it ; when it s placed on my desk, I will call you.
14. You are both correct, stated Kunio. We will fly to Japan either Tuesday or Wednesday.
Error Search
1. Edit the following message. Correct errors in grammar and insert necessary punctuation. Write a
corrected copy on a separate sheet of paper.
Because all my past purchases at your store has been very satisfactory I decided to purchase see the
enclosed sales receipt a pair of Rockland ProWalkers in your shoe department on Wednesday April 7
They seemed to fit me in the store but they rubbed blisters on the back of both feet after I walked on
the track in a nearby park
When I tried to exchange them for another style that did not come up as high on the foot your
salesclerk said We cant exchange them you have already wore them. I answered I wore them one half
hour each of two days and that is how I found out that the ProWalkers are not for me She kept me
waiting a long time 15 minutes and then told me that she couldnt allow me to return the shoes
An article that I just read titled If Your Feet Hurt, Nothing Else Matters strengthens my argument
Ms Merriweather that your store should allow me to exchange the ProWalkers for another companys
better fitting shoes. I dont want to have to resort to the guidelines mentioned in the pamphlet Ten
Ways to Get Satisfaction When Youre in the Right. Please call me at 555-1243 when you receive this
letter to tell me how to solve this problem
QUOTATION MARKS, PARENTHESES, UNDERSCORES, AND APOSTROPHES 63
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spellings above the word.
a. When stating someones exact words, enclose them within opening and closeing quotation marks.
b. Use quotation marks around words used in a special or an uncoventional manner.
c. Quotation marks also are use to enclose titles of lectures, songs, sermons, and short pomes.
d. A parentheses is a punctuation mark that is used in pairs to set off non-essential elements.
e. If a statement in parentheses is intentionly a complete sentence, capitalise the first word and end
the statement with an external punctuation mark.
f. Use parentheses to set off both references and directions to miminize their importance in a
sentence.
g. The under score calls attention to a word or expresion.
h. Use an underscore with titles of complete works that are published as individuel items.
i. An underscore should be used to distinquish foriegn expressions from standard English vocabulary.
j. The apostrophe is used primaraly to indicate the omission of a letter in a contration.
k. Add an s to an indefanite pronoun to show possesion.
l. Add an s to lower case letters and some abbreviations to form theyre plural.
64 QUOTATION MARKS, PARENTHESES, UNDERSCORES, AND APOSTROPHES
Abbreviations
SHORT ANSWER
1. An abbreviation is a(n) form of a word or a group of words.
2. Titles such as Mr. and Mrs. are called titles.
3. The personal title Messrs. is the plural of .
4. A title for a woman that omits reference to marital status is .
5. A family designation such as junior that appears after a persons name should be .
6. The first letter of a persons first or middle name, which is called a(n) , is sometimes
used instead of a full first or middle name.
7. An abbreviated professional title for a neurosurgeon is .
8. An abbreviated professional title that follows an attorneys name is .
9. The abbreviation for the Doctor of Philosophy academic degree is .
10. After a street name, the compass designation northwest should be written .
11. The two-letter postal abbreviation for the state of Montana is .
12. The correct abbreviation for International Business Machines Corp. is .
13. The British abbreviation Ltd. means .
14. The abbreviation a.m. comes from the Latin words .
EXERCISES
Sentence Composition
Write a brief sentence using the specified abbreviations.
1. p.m.
ABBREVIATIONS 65
2. C.O.D.
3. CEO
4. vs.
5. EST
Abbreviations
Substitute abbreviations for spelled-out words where necessary, spell out words that should not be abbrevi-
ated, and correct all abbreviation misspellings in the following sentences.
1. Harry A. Crouse, Junior, is managing his fathers business.
2. Messrs. Gloria and Anne White are delegates to the convention.
3. Gov. Ferndale does not support the death penalty in her state.
4. She lives S. of Broad St. but W. of Sixth Ave.
5. We take our boat either to the NJ shore or to a lake in MI.
6. The tree-lined blvd. they live on is very wide and very beautiful.
7. Getting a job with the F.B.I. is very difficult.
8. The co. I work for is doing ltd. hiring at this time.
9. He sells mdse. whlse. not retail.
10. The acronym r.a.d.a.r. is short for radio detecting and ranging.
66 ABBREVIATIONS
Error Search
l. Identify all errors in abbreviation usage, word usage, and spelling in the following letter. Write a
corrected copy on a separate sheet of paper.
Because of the fine beach location of youre inn, my sister and me chose to stay at your establishment
over the Jul. 4 weekend beg. on Thurs. and ending on Tues. Although much of are stay were very
gd., a few problems arose that I thought you should know about.
The man at the reception desk, Charles O. Jackson, Senior was very abrupt to all person checking in.
Check-in time was 4 pm, but he told us that we would has to wait until 5 pm. He address I as
Missus Lopez several times; my name is Lomax. My sister, who is an DR., has stayed in inns in CT,
GA, LA, and PA and have never before saw such a rude receptionist. She told other guests, some
whom works for the Y.W.C.A. and others who work for the I.R.S., that she hope all Cape May inn
employees are not like Mister Jackson.
FYI, we pd. for the full five days in order to leave a zero bal. even before our stay begun. You
probably asked for the prepayment because your plastic glasses, one bar of soap, skimpy bath towels,
and insistence on leaving a deposit for the TV remote and beach tags may scare your patrons a way
for $200 a night. We thought that you may want to know that next yr. a no. of your customers is
going to E.P.C.O.T. instead.
ABBREVIATIONS 67
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spellings above the word.
a. A personnel title such as Mr. that preceeds a persons name should be abbreviated.
b. An initial may be used in business corespondence if the recipeint of a letter uses initials as part of
his or her name.
c. A proffessional title such as Senater may be abbreviated if both the first and last name of a person
are used.
d. Do not precede a name with Dr. if an academmic degree appears after the name.
e. In bussiness correspondence, do not abbreviate words such as boulavard.
f. The two-letter postal abbreviation for Massachusets is MA; it is LA for Louisana.
68 ABBREVIATIONS
Capitalization
SHORT ANSWER
1. The first letter of a word may be capitalized to distinguish between a proper noun and a(n)
noun.
2. A(n) adjective such as Turkish in Turkish rug is usually capitalized.
3. A capital letter is used to indicate the beginning of the following : The group will
meet as soon as possible.
4. When a complete sentence that states a rule or emphasizes a statement is preceded by a colon, begin
the sentence with a(n) letter.
5. Do not capitalize the second part of a(n) direct quotation.
6. Capitalize only the first word in the Yours truly.
7. Capitalize the first word of each of a poem unless the poet uses a different form.
8. Capitalize titles used without a proper that refer to a specific, well-known individual.
9. The articles (the, a, an) are not capitalized in a heading unless they appear or
.
10. In the title of the magazine article Decorating With Flowers and Bushes, the short
and is not capitalized.
11. Do not capitalize words referring to relatives when they are preceded by a(n) noun or
pronoun.
12. Capitalize the name of a(n) such as The Declaration of Independence.
13. Capitalize most nouns that precede numbers or (Flight 43 or Vitamin C).
14. Capitalize compass points when they refer to a(n) area.
CAPITALIZATION 69
EXERCISES
Sentence Composition
Write a brief sentence using the specified words.
1. College
2. college
3. Theater
4. theater
5. City
6. city
Capitalized or Uncapitalized Words
Underline the correct word choice in each sentence.
1. Atsuko resembles a (japanese/Japanese) woman who worked with me last year.
2. He prefers to use Tide (laundry detergent/Laundry Detergent) when he washes his work clothes.
3. The new project is titled (overload 2000/Overload 2000).
4. Do you concur with (Senator/senator) Jacksons recommendation?
5. Amelia has enrolled in the local (Community College/community college) for the fall semester.
6. The new (spring/Spring) merchandise will be delivered this week.
7. Some schools are closed on (good Friday/Good Friday).
8. Remember to drive (north/North) after you go around the circle.
70 CAPITALIZATION
9. Members of the (department of defense/Department of Defense) are working on the budget.
10. James is studying (accounting/Accounting) as he plans to start his own business.
11. I used to wear (size/Size) 16, but I lost 20 pounds and now wear a smaller size.
12. On Alicias next vacation, she is going to a foreign (Country/country).
13. An appropriate gift for Leonardos supervisor is a Parker (pen/Pen).
14. The (City/city) of Newark has a modern airport facility.
Editing and Proofreading
1. Underline all errors in capitalization, spelling, and word usage in the following letter. Rewrite the
message with corrections.
dear ms. Dawson:
we are pleased to comply with your request for information about a caribbean island vacation. We are
happy that your extend stay in the middle east was enlightened and can understand why you are now
ready for a relaxing Vacation.
We suggest that you consider either nevis or dominica at this time. They are both comparitively small
Islands and have much to offer Tourists who want to get away from the hustle and bustle of the City.
A journalist in a travel magazine states, a visit to nevis will stayed in your memory forever. As for
dominica, it have the best Fruit and Vegetable market in the caribbean so you know that the produce
will be delicious. The President of our Agency just return from both Islands and highly recommend
them.
Feel free, ms. Dawson, to stop in with your Sister Annabelle to discuss your travels to the Islands
before youre Sabbatical Leave at the university of Pennsylvania is over this year. Before you come,
however, you may want to read the magazine article everything you should know about the
caribbean and are afraid to ask in the august issue of the Travelers Agenda. as all ways, we are happy
to have an opportunity to assist you.
Sincerely Yours,
CAPITALIZATION 71
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spelling above the word.
a. Writers should remember to capitilize the first word of a direct quotion.
b. Specific guidelines apply to salutions and complementary closes in business letters.
c. Be aware of acceptions to the rule for capitalizing headings and titles.
d. Capitalize the proper nouns in the names of commerical products.
e. Capitalize the proper names of parks, buildings, and countrys.
f. Capitalize the name of an histerical event such as World War I.
g. Seasons of the year such as autuumn and spring should not be capitalized unless a specific
designation accompanys them.
h. Capitalize the name of a nationality such as Cacasian and the name of a religion such as Catholisism.
72 CAPITALIZATION
Number Expression
SHORT ANSWER
1. In number expression, writers must select either words or to present the numbers to
the reader.
2. Some situations require numbers to be expressed in , not numerals.
3. Generally, quantities of and under are written in words.
4. For the most part, quantities of and over are written in numerals.
5. To express approximate numbers, use .
6. When two related numbers appear next to each other in a sentence, write the one in
words.
7. If two unrelated numbers appear next to each other in a sentence, separate them with a(n)
.
8. Use to express a number that begins a sentence.
9. If a number that begins a sentence is overly long, then the sentence.
10. To express numbers in dates when the day follows the month, write the day in .
11. Use with the day when it precedes the month.
12. Use numerals to express house numbers in ordinary text except for the number .
13. If a street name is written in numerals and a direction such as West does not separate the house
number from the street name, insert a(n) between them so readers do not misread
the address.
14. Sums of one dollar or more are written in numerals preceded by a(n) (symbol).
NUMBER EXPRESSION 73
EXERCISES
Sentence Composition
Write a brief sentence using the specified number expressions.
1. 200 one-inch connectors
2. 16 bags of peanuts, 17 hot dogs, and 16 bags of chips
3. your order dated the first
4. 165383d Avenue
5. $181.5 million
6. 600,000-square-foot building
Number Expression
Underline the correct choice in each sentence.
1. The (eighteen-year-old/18-year-old) graduate traveled to Europe before he began college.
2. The countrys deficit with Japan swelled to (26 percent/twenty-six percent) by the end of the year.
3. (150/One hundred and fifty) manufacturers provided the requested data.
4. The negotiators hoped to reach an agreement by September (30/30th).
5. On the formal invitation, the year was expressed as (2002/two thousand two).
6. The Dow Jones industrial average went down (21/twenty-one) points yesterday.
7. With her raise, Luisa will earn (thirty-five thousand dollars/$35,000) annually.
8. The wall will require (four/4) 8-foot-high panels.
9. The information is on (Page nine/page 9)in your textbook.
74 NUMBER EXPRESSION
10. Most likely (half/1/2) the team will be girls under ten.
11. Approximately (150/one hundred and fifty) guests will attend the dinner.
12. The store that sells everything for no more than (99 cents/$0.99) is the most popular store in the mall.
13. If emergency action is not taken soon, the institute will lose ($20 million dollars/$20 million) before
declaring bankruptcy.
14. (Three and one-half/3 1/2) pounds is just right for the brisket of beef.
Editing and Proofreading
1. Underline all errors in number expression, spelling, and word usage in the message. Rewrite the
message with corrections.
Here is the information about our planned trip to Vancouver begining July 9th; we hope you can join
us in our two thousand one mazda van.
We plans to travel no more than two hundred and fifty miles a day and to keep our gas and toll
expense to $25. Generally, $35.00 a day for meals should suffice, accept for special locations where
the food is more expensive. AARP members receive a 5 to 10% discount at many motels and hotels,
and AARP offers discount coupons for sightseeing events after the 4 of July.
We are enclosing copies of pages thirty-four and thirty-five of Traveling to Vancouver so that you can
see the places of interests in and around Vancouver. We plan to travel lite, taking 2 suitcases each, 1
golf bag apiece, and our medicines and toiletries. In 1999, 11 of us taked a trip across country using
several vehicles; the trip was a great success.
Please call me or write before the 3rd; we are temporarally staying at our cousins home at 1 East
Flower Lane. Her telephone number is (610) 555-1234. About 1/2 the telephone calls seem to be for
us, so you wont be intruding if you call instead of write. Just dont call after 10 p.m. oclock or before
8:00 a.m. Dinner is at 6, so that wouldnt be a good time either.
Please try to join us; now that we is semi-retired and fifty-five years of age, we would love to travel
with you.
NUMBER EXPRESSION 75
2. Underline all misspelled words in the following sentences. Write the correct spelling above the word.
a. Eliminate a decimal with dollar amounts that include no cents, unless other amounts in the same
sentence include cents.
b. In a series of amountssome with just dollars, some with dollars and cents, and some with just
centsbe consistant with in a sentence.
c. Aproximate amounts should be writtened in words not numerals.
d. Use a comination of words and numerals to exppress very large amounts of money.
e. Use numerals followed by the word per cent to express precentages.
f. All ways express decimals in numerals.
g. Use numbers to express a mix number in either a fraction or a decimal, unless the number apears
first in a sentence.
h. Use numerals before am and pm, but use words before oclock.
76 NUMBER EXPRESSION