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2008 GCE A LEVEL EXAMINATION

BIOLOGY PAPER 2 SOLUTIONS



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Paper 1

Paper 2
Section A

1. (a) (i) 0-15min: metaphase;;
15-30min: anaphase;;

(a) (ii) sister chromatids are separated to become daughter chromosomes after separation of
centromeres; (i.e. in graph 2, from 0 m to 50 m);;
daughter chromosomes are pulled towards the poles by microtubules / spindle fibres
(graph 1, from 20 m);;

(a) (iii) 0-10 mins : poles initially move closer (45 - 40 m); as the spindle forms (to move
chromosome to metaphase plate);
10-20 mins : poles remain at 40 m; alignment of chromosomes at metaphase plate;
20-30 mins : poles move further apart (40 m - 50 m); sliding action of polar
microtubules past one another pushes the two poles apart/ interpolar
microtubules lengthen to push the two spindle poles apart;

2008 GCE A LEVEL EXAMINATION
BIOLOGY PAPER 2 SOLUTIONS

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(b)
Reference to centromere as repetitive DNA sequence or satellite DNA;;
Role in chromatid adhesion;;
References to kinetochore, being proteins which bind onto centromeres to anchor
spindle fibres;;
Centromere separates so that sister chromatids could be pulled to the poles;;
The role of centromeres in chromatid alignment/separation;;

(c)
Each mark required a difference to be stated between the behaviour of chromosomes in
meiosis and mitosis, which the vast majority did. The major differences:
homologous chromosomes form bivalents in meiosis but not mitosis
crossing over occurs between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes
in meiosis but not in mitosis
homologous pairs line up at the equator in meiosis but in mitosis chromosomes line
up singly
homologous chromosomes separate in anaphase 1 of meiosis but chromatids
separate in anaphase of mitosis
meiosis results in the haploid number of chromosomes but mitosis maintains the
diploid number.
there are 2 divisions in meiosis but only one in mitosis.


2. (a) base substitution;;

2008 GCE A LEVEL EXAMINATION
BIOLOGY PAPER 2 SOLUTIONS

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(b) Note: what the question required i.e. the consequences of replacing hydrophilic glutamic
acid with hydrophobic valine.
the hydrophilic glutamic acid is replaced with hydrophobic valine;;
Tertiary structure of the molecule would change;;
at low oxygen concentration, hydrophobic areas on different molecules would stick
together;;
Consequently, HbS molecules would polymerise into fibres;;

(c) Note: the point of the question is the change from HbA to HbS would result in changes to
the red blood cells.
the change from HbA to HbS would result in changes to the red blood cells i.e. to
become sickled shape;;
the sickle shaped cells blocking capillaries;;
resulting in organ damage as oxygen is not supplied to the organ;;
causing the red blood cells to have a shorter life;;

(d) the gene for HbF could be activated / transcribed;;
resulting in translation to produce HbF;;

(e) there would be less HbS in red blood cells; and so there would be less polymerization;
The consequence would be less sickling of red blood cells; which would in turn have
longer lives
HbF has a greater affinity for oxygen;;

3. (a) haemagglutinin binds to receptors on the host cell membrane;;
then the virus enters via a vesicle by the process of endocytosis;;
the capsid is released into the cytosol;; OR
haemagglutinin binds to receptors on the host cell membrane;;
the viral envelope fuses with the cell surface membrane of the host cell;;
the capsid passes into the cytosol;;

(b) influenza virus made use of the host cells ribosomes to synthesise proteins;; Reject:
use of host machinery

(c) RNA dependent-RNA polymerases required by the virus are not be present in the host
cell;;
but these polymerases were required to replicate viral RNA as well as to transcribe
viral RNA to mRNA for subsequent translation to make viral proteins;;

(d) if neuraminidase is inhibited then new viruses cannot emerge from the infected cells;;
thus unable to infect other cells;;

4. (a) named factor: ionising radiation/ UV light/ tar in cigarette smoke;;
Gain of function mutation of proto-oncogenes, which stimulate cell division, to
oncogenes;;
Loss of function mutation of tumour suppressor genes, which prevent cell division;;
The uncontrolled division of cells leads to cancerous growth;;

(b) (i) the proto-oncogene codes for proteins that stimulate normal cell division;;
(ii) the oncogene was the mutated form of the proto-oncogene;;
an oncogene leads to an increase in either the amount of the proto-oncogenes
protein or intrinsic activity of each protein molecule;;
uncontrolled cell division results in cancer;;

2008 GCE A LEVEL EXAMINATION
BIOLOGY PAPER 2 SOLUTIONS

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(c) chromosomal translocation;; near to a powerful gene regulatory sequence, e.g. strong
promoter or enhancer, which caused increased transcription;;
and therefore translation leading to increase in amount of Myc proteins;; OR
increased gene amplification which increase the number of copies of proto-
oncogenes in the cell;;
hence more Myc proteins formed;;

(d) gene amplification means more copies of Mdr1; gene amplification would give more
copies of the transporter;
with more copies of the transporter, more drugs would removed from the cells causing
the resistance;;

(e) an inhibitor that would block the transporter;;
thus drug will not be able to bind to the transporter to be removed from the cell;;

5. (a)
Parental
phenotype
Purple plant X Purple plant
Parental
genotype
RrEe ; RrEe ;
Gametes
RE Re

rE re ;


RE Re

rE re ;

Gametes
RE


Re

rE

re

RE


RREE
Purple

RREe
Purple

RrEE
Purple

RrEe
Purple

Re


RREe
Purple

RRee
Red

RrEe
Purple

Rree
Red

rE


RrEE
Purple

RrEe
Purple

rrEE
white

rrEe
white

re


RrEe
Purple

Rree
Red

rrEe
white

rree
white
Correct genotypes;;
Correct phenotypes;;
Phenotypic ratio: 9 purple: 3 red: 4 white;;

(b) This will help to determine if the difference between the observed and expected is
significant;;
if the chi-squared value has a probability of greater than 0.05, the difference is not
significant and does not deviate from expected ratios, the difference can be
attributed to chance and vice versa;; OR
if the chi-squared value has a probability of less than 0.05, the difference is
significant and deviate significantly from expected ratios and vice versa;;

(c) recessive epistasis;;

2008 GCE A LEVEL EXAMINATION
BIOLOGY PAPER 2 SOLUTIONS

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(d) allele R encodes an enzyme R which converts precursor (colourless compound) to
red pigments;;
red pigments are converted to purple pigments by enzyme E determined by allele E;;
rr was epistatic over the E/e locus;
a white phenotype was produced when the genotype is rr--;
allele R allele E

enzyme R enzyme E

precursor red pigments purple pigments
(colourless)

(e) The plant grown from a white grain had to be crossed with a red plant i.e. RRee or
Rree in order to determine that it was homozygous recessive at both loci;;
This cross would give either all red or red and white grains;;
If any purple grains were seen, then the original plant grown from a white grain must
have at least one E at the E/e locus;;

6. (a) stage A - binding of interferon with the receptors (reception); causes two separate
receptor polypeptide chains to dimerize; associated Jaks are brought together so
that they can cross-phosphorylate each other on tyrosines; They recruit different
STATs (STAT1 and STAT2) and phosphorylate them;
stage B - the STATs dissociate from the receptors; and dimerize via their SH2
domain;

Source: Molecular Biology of the Cell

(b) interferon was too large or could not pass through because it was polar;;
whereas cell surface membrane is made up of phospholipid bilayer, the hydrocarbon
tails of the phospholipids is non-polar and hydrophobic;;

(c) signal amplification;;
and the ability to regulate or control the response;;
specificity;;
the ability of a molecule reaching a cell membrane to activate genes in the nucleus;;
the activation of many cells simultaneously;;
for a single signal molecule to trigger numerous cellular reactions at once;; [any three]
2008 GCE A LEVEL EXAMINATION
BIOLOGY PAPER 2 SOLUTIONS

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7. (a) Environment factor:
(1) the type of food;; i.e fruit/insects/different size and hardness of seeds; determine
the beak size & shape that is adapted to the food type, e.g. short & wide beak is
adapted to crushing hard/large seeds;
(2) the availability of food or competition for food - select for finches with the suitable
beak shape;;

(b) increase in BMP4 expression increases beak height/depth and width or vice versa;;
increase in CaM expression increase in beak length;;
the extent of expression such as low/moderate etc. depends on the balance of
expression of the 2 genes;;

(c) Molecular evidence:
1. reference there are different levels of gene expression which in turn leads to
variation;;
2. reference to BMP4 and CaM being present in the ancestor;;

Explanation:
reference to the selection pressure (i.e. the type /availability of food ) which favoured
different phenotypes (e.g. different beak shape and size);;
those finches that can feed will survive and reproduce;;
allele being passed to offspring;;

(d) island leads to a geographical barrier or isolation;;
results in a lack of gene flow between population of finches;;
the fact that there would be different conditions (e.g. environment) on the different
islands;;

Section B
8. (a)
Krebs cycle Calvin cycle
Site Matrix of the mitochondrion
Occurs in all aerobically
respiring cells
Stroma of the chloroplast
Occurs in plant cells/ aglae/
blue-green bacteria
Nature of process Catabolic reaction (breakdown
of pyruvate)
Anabolic reaction (formation
of triose phosphate or starch)

Phosphorylation Production of ATP by substrate
level phosphorylation

Expenditure of ATP in
reduction of GP to TP and in
regeneration of RuBP
Electron/hydrogen
carrier
NAD
+
& FAD NADP
+
Carbon dioxide Released by oxidative
decarboxylation, 4 CO
2
lost per
glucose molecule
Fixed by RuBP, 6 CO
2
used
to combine with 6 RuBP
ATP Produced, 2 ATP by SLP, 22
ATP through NADH and FADH
2

by OP per glucose molecule
Used in reduction of GP to
GALP, and in regeneration of
RuBP
18 ATP to form 1 glucose
molecule
Type of reaction Reactions are mainly oxidative
as many dehydrogenation
reactions occur / many reduced
NAD formed.
Reactions are mainly
reductive where reduced
NADP / NADPH is consumed.
2008 GCE A LEVEL EXAMINATION
BIOLOGY PAPER 2 SOLUTIONS

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Substrate Oxidation of substrate (acetyl
CoA)

Reduction of substrate (CO
2
)
Starting material oxaloacetate

RuBP
[1m for each comparison; no mark if comparisons are not made, max 7 marks]

(b)
1. 34 ATP from oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of oxygen;;
2. without oxygen as final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain and
subsequently link reaction and Krebs cycle stopped;;
3. ETC unable to operate/ no oxidative phosphorylation;;
4. No ATP produced by oxidative phosphorylation;;
5. NAD
+
will not be regenerated from NADH;;
6. Link reaction and Krebs cycle unable to operate;;
7. NADH used to reduce pyruvate to ethanol in yeast and lactate in mammalian
cells;;
8. Only two ATP from glycolysis;;
9. Glucose not completely broken down;;

(c)
Similarities
1. involved an electron transport chain; electron carrier molecules transfer electrons
down the electron transport chain;
2. the chain uses the exergonic flow of electrons to pump protons across the membrane;
3. the generation of a proton gradient across the membrane - inner membrane of
mitochondria/thylakoid membrane of chloroplast;
4. presence of ATP synthetase; through which the protons flow down its concentration
gradient;
5. proton-motive force is harnessed; to phosphorylate ADP, forming ATP;
Reason for the similarities
6. they were once prokaryotes and were engulfed by another prokaryotes, living within
the host cell endosymbiontic origin;;

9 (a)
Classification
1. classification as placing organisms into groups;;
2. the classification is hierarchical with each successive group containing more diverse
kinds of organism;
3. Each group possesses unique features;;
4. The lowest or more exclusive taxon is the species; the highest or most inclusive is
the kingdom;;
5. The taxa used in order of decreasing size are
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species ;;
6. A binomial naming system was used to name the species;; to avoid confusion by
common name
7. The first part of a binomial is the genus, the second part is the genus the species
belong to;;
Phylogeny
8. phylogeny was based on evolution; and involved passing genes from ancestors to
descendants;
9. a phylogenetic tree can be constructed to reflect the evolutionary history;;
2008 GCE A LEVEL EXAMINATION
BIOLOGY PAPER 2 SOLUTIONS

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10. use of DNA base sequences to assess relationships between species; or by
comparing their anatomy;

(b)
1. molecular methods were not dependent on subjective judgements or observations
and that they involved quantitative differences;;
2. use of a molecular clock to date the time of divergence;;
3. these methods avoided the pitfalls of convergent evolution;;
4. able to measure the degree of relatedness;;
5. being able to compute probable relatedness;;
6. being able to analyse nucleotide sequences;;
7. major phenotypic differences may be due to small genetic differences, that some
molecular differences are not visible e.g. supergenes - a group of neighbouring
genes on a chromosome;; and can be used on living or dead material;;

(c)
1. as the viruses depend on cells for their propagation therefore there is no common
ancestor;;
2. viruses originated from fragments of cellular nucleic acids that could move from one
cell to another;;
3. they replicate very quickly, providing a great deal of material for the engine of natural
selection;;
4. rapid genetic variation is acted on by powerful selective pressures provided by the
host's adaptive immune system and by modern medicine, which destroy pathogens
that fail to change;;
5. error-prone replication mechanisms e.g. retroviruses acquire on average one point
mutation every replication cycle, because the viral reverse transcriptase that
produces DNA from the viral RNA genome cannot correct nucleotide
misincorporation errors;;
6. plasmid and transposon are found in viral genome which help to transfer genome
between cells;;
7. there are different types of virus, that viruses evolve with their host, to escaped
genes, or to degenerate cells;;