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CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENTS

INTRODUCTION
Every construction project needs employment of certain equipments
and machinery for achieving the targets of rate of progress, turnover
in work and quality of work and the finish.
To obtain that, the following aspects need to be considered:
The type, size and other particulars of the equipments.
hether the equipment is to be purchased, rented or to be
procured under hire cum purchased arrangement.
!vailability.
"tility.
#roduction cost.
hether indigenous or imported.
!vailability of spare parts.
!vailability of skilled operator.
"seful life of equipment.
$uration of project.
CLASSIFICATION OF EQUIPMENTS
The various types of equipments can be classified under as follows:
E%cavating and Earth &oving Equipments
'oncrete &anufacturing Equipments
(oil 'ompacting Equipments
)ifting and *oisting Equipments
*andling and Transporting Equipments
TYPES OF EQUIPMENTS
Earth &overs + E%cavators
Transport Equipments
,ibrators
#ower -loats
#umps
.ollers / 'ompactors
'rushers
'oncrete &i%ers
0atch &i%ers
SPECIAL CONSIDERATION REGARDING USE OF EQUIPMENTS
orking hours: 1 to 23 hours.
(hifts: (ingle 4 2335 turnover
$ouble 4 263 to 2735
Triple 4 823 to 8895
ork in different conditions: Topography, eather or 'limatic
'ondition, and (ituations.
:perator;s efficiency: E%perience of 2 year 4 195
<ewly appointed 4 635
Testing and standardization from time to time: keep the
equipments fit and reliable.
#urchase of various hiring =alternatives>.
SCRAPERS
These are the equipments adopted for scrapping the ground, loading
the material simultaneously and transporting it to the desired place,
dump it as well, spread it over the required area to the needed
thickness and return to the e%cavation pit.
The scrappers can be used for all type of materials such as sand,
gravel, silt, clay, loam and mi%tures. These are economical for haul
distances e%ceeding 233m up to 2933m.
To be more precise it is a self sufficient machine which can dig, load,
haul, + discharge the material in uniform thickness of layers. ?f in any
case any part of the machine stops functioning due to breakdown, the
other part can still be operative.
The main components of scrapper are:
0owl 4 The bowl itself may be angled up or down, and this
movement determines the depth of the cut.
'utting Edges 4 The cutting edge may be either a type of blade or
a ladder 4 type of elevator that lifts the earth up as the vehicle
moves.
!pron
Ejector or Tailgate
The (crappers are available in following types:
a. 'rawler 4 $rawn
b. Two 4 !%le
c. Three 4 !%le
a. CRAWLER DRAWN SCRAPER
'onsists of a four wheeled scraper bowl towed behind a crawler
power unit.
0owl heaped capacities of range from 9 to 93 m
@
.
"sed on small hauls up to @33 m.
b. TWO AXLE SCRAPER
*as two wheeled bowl pulled by a two wheeled power unit.
!dvantages over its four wheeled power unit or three a%le
counterpart in that it is more maneuverable, offers less rolling
resistance and has better traction since the engine is mounted
closer to the driving wheels.
c. THREE AXLE SCRAPER
!ble to use its top speed more frequently and is easier to control.
#ayloads of A3 m
@
can be handled.
TECHNIQUE
The operations involved are:
):!$?<B :. $?BB?<B
The cutting edge is moved by the ejector at the rear which raises
the apron by A3 cm and the bowl is lowered to get the desired cut.
The engine moves forward with a speed, thus allowing the bowl
getting filled. Then the bowl is raised.
T.!<(#:.T?<B
The unit is transported with the bowl in the raised position and the
material is held by the closing of apron fully. The ejector remains
in the rear position.
"<):!$?<B
This involves dumping as well as spreading. #ositioning the bowl to
the desired level, the apron is partially opened and the material is
dropped while keeping the unit in uniform motion. The ejector may
be moved forward to push the rest of the material from the bowl.
!fter completion of the dumping process, the ejector is retracted
to its original position. The spread material may be graded to level
by the cutting edge and then the ne%t cycles continue.
The efficiency of the scrappers depends upon:
#roper adjustment of the cut depth
! good haul road system
Times of movement
'apacity
The production rate of scraper can be increased by following method
without increasing the cost at site:
.ipping C ?f the soil is ripped before scraping, time of loading is
reduced and this results in increased output.
#rewetting the soil C (oil can be loaded more easily if it is wet.
.ipping combined with wetting sometimes gives better results.
)oading downgrade. Each one percent downgrade is equivalent to
increasing the load force by Dkg/tonne weight of push of the pusher
tractor and the scraper unit.