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Pequeo libro rojo de las

bateras
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AT"R%AS $O#!&IT'
()at is a batter*+
T*pi,al appli,ations
C)oosing t)e ,orre,t si-e o. batter*
C)arging
atter* storage/ ,are 0 1aintenan,e
atter* sa.et*
!isposal2re&,*,ling
3argon 1ade eas*

()at is a batter*+
A battery is an electric storage device which can be found in any number of shapes, sizes,
voltages and capacities.
When two materials (often dissimilar metals) are immersed in a solution they conduct
electricity, between the plates causing an electrical potential. !he value of this potential
(or voltage) is dependent on the materials used, giving rise to a whole family of battery
types each having benefits and restrictions in use. "#amples are$% lead acid, nic&el
cadmium ('icad), lithium, silver al&aline.
!his manual is concerned only with one battery technology % the most successful % lead
acid % lead and lead o#ide immersed in sulphuric acid. "ach cell having a ( volt potential. A
battery is simply a number of cells connected together with a given voltage and capacity.
!he more cells the higher the voltage, the larger the plates the higher the capacity (in
general).
)urely for convenience, batteries are made in *( volt bloc&s with +
cells but are also available in + volt, , volt and even ( volt, single cell
bloc&s.
-ou can however connect bloc&s in series to the re.uired voltage,
and bloc&s in parallel to the re.uired capacity 4see Choosing the correct
size of battery 5'

T)e lead&a,id batter*
!here are two concepts in lead%acid batteries
*. /ealed or 0alve 1egulated 2ead Acid 012A
2. 3pen % 0ented
!here are three basic applications
*. 4ndustrial
(. Automotive (starter i.e. cars, commercial vehicles)
3. !raction (electric motor drive i.e. mil&float)
(ARNIN$ & !O NOT 6S" T7" (RON$ ATT"R8 9OR T7" APP#ICATION'
!his guide is focused on 4ndustrial /tandby applications and '3! Automotive and !raction
use.

Industrial batteries
4ndustrial batteries are available from two distinct groups with the following features. 'ote
that 012A have superseded open%vented in many applications.
OP"N&:"NT"! S"A#"!2:R#A
3lder technology "nvironmentally friendly
1e.uire separate battery room 5se directly in office. environment
1egular routine maintenance 2ow maintenance % 67aintenance free6
/eparate safety re.uirements /elf%contained. /afe
/tore8use in vertical position /tore8use in any orientation
9an re.uire e#tensive cabling 9an be used internal or ad:acent to load
012A has in many instances replaced the open%vented type.
Note % the term sealed lead%acid S#A is an old acronym considered misleading and is now
replaced by 0alve 1egulated 2ead Acid :R#A.
T*pi,al appli,ations
!he -uasa range focuses on 012A technology.
!o optimise battery duty and life for your application, ma&e sure you choose the right
product from the -uasa range.
C)oosing t)e ,orre,t si-e o. batter*
As mentioned earlier, batteries come in all shapes and sizes, from types no larger than a
shirt button, to a battery system filling an entire room.
!o find the size of battery you re.uire you generally need two pieces of information batter*
load and ba,;&up ti1es. ('ote; other factors may also have an effect).

atter* #oad
Whether you power lights, motors, electronic e.uipment or a toy vehicle your e.uipment
will draw a load in A7)/. 4f this is un&nown then the e.uipment will have a rating
e#pressed in Watts which may simply be converted to Amps by dividing the value by the
normal voltage of the system.
"<a1ple -ou have chosen ')9 for high cycle life and wish to drive a power tool rated at
*(< watts *( volts.
2oad current = *(< divided by *( = *< Amps

a,;&up ti1e
!his is the time you re.uire the battery to support the load described above and is often
called Autonomy or discharge time. "#ample, !o power a cordless electric tool for a total of
>.< hours before recharging. With these two pieces of information use our selection graph
to plot an intersection point from which you will determine a re.uired size or capacity in
Amp. hours (Ah).
3ur figure 'o. * has been rationalised into rounded figures of capacity. 4f your intersection
point falls between two lines choose the ne#t highest value.
Fig No.1 NP Types
Always choose a suitable sized battery from the ranges appropriate to your application.
-ou may notice that the chosen capacity in Amp hours is often higher than the 0alue of
Amps # ?ours used, in our e#ample using *< A7)/ # > ?1/ = >< Ah and the chosen
option being >@Ah. !his is because the capacity 6cA6 of each ') battery is stated at the (<
hour discharge rate. -ou will only get full capacity if discharged over this length of time.
Note=& T)is e<planation is a si1pli.ied version/ i. in an* doubt ,all our Te,)ni,al
depart1ent on >?@AB&CDE@EB'
Si1pli.ied Sele,tion Matri<
A F "<,ellent F$ood C F9air
A ') ')281" ')9 ')?8')B "'85B2
Cloat 2ife upto D years E A % E A
9yclic 2ife 9 9 A E E
Cloat 2ife upto *< years % E % % A
?igh 1ate Aischarge E E % A E
Cloat 9harge Applications A A E A A
"nergy Aensity 9(<89*< E E E E E
/pecific "nergy 9(<89*< E 9 E E E
/pecific "nergy 9*8<.D E E E A E
)ortable Applications 9 E A E %
C)arging
9orrect charging of a 012A battery is essential in optimising battery performance and life.
Although a ,onstant voltage charge should be applied, optimum charging also depends
on temperature ('ominally (<F9), charge current (ma# *8, battery capacity) and ripple
current (minimum). !wo basic categories of charging e#ist.
9loat2Standb*
!his charging method is used in applications such as emergency bac&%up when the battery
is re.uired only upon mains failure e.g., Alarm )anels, "mergency 2ighting, 5)/. 4n each
case the battery is continuously on charge and conse.uently the recommended voltages
are slightly lower than cyclic charging so as not to damage the battery. (Cloat voltage for
-uasa ') range = (.(D%(.> volts8cell). These figures may vary between different battery
types.
C*,li,
9yclic charging is used in applications where the battery is repeatedly discharged then
charged, e.g. )ortable e.uipment, Wheel 9hairs, Golf trolleys etc.
A higher charging voltage is used but should N":"R be left on indefinitely since it will
overcharge and destroy the battery. (9yclic voltage for -uasa ') range = (., % (.D
volts8cell)
For optimum performance always recharge a battery immediately after discharging.
Note & 9onsult the individual battery specification for the correct charging voltage or
contact -uasa !echnical Aepartment on <*HI>%+,DHD>
atter* storage/ ,are 0 1aintenan,e
!he storage or shelf life of a 012A battery is usually between *( to *@ months at (<F9
starting from a charged condition.
(arning & 'ever store in a discharged or partially discharged state.
Always store in a dry, clean, cool environment in a fully pac&aged condition.
4f storage of *( months or longer is re.uired supplementary charging will be re.uired.

!esign #i.e
Float
"ach battery type will have a prescribed float design life. )lease be aware of this life
e#pectancy and replace the battery as end%of%life approaches. Jeep a reference or label
the battery to show its date of installation as this will indicate replacement at the right time.
Cyclic
"ach battery suited to cyclic use will have a prescribed .uantity of cycles to end of life and
is dependant on depth of discharge. !he depth of discharge is e#pressed as a percentage
of the capacity re.uired per duty cycle.
'ear the end%of%life the standby capacity of the battery will reduce. When this reduction
becomes persistently regular, this indication can also be used for the time of replacement.

atter* Care
"ach -uasa 012A battery should be supplied in a charged condition having passed
stringent .uality chec&s.
!o ensure optimum battery performance and life, it helps to ta&e care of your battery by
observing the following$

Sulp)ation26nder,)arge
(ARNIN$ & Never leave a :R#A atter* in a dis,)arged state'
4f a battery has an open%circuit voltage lower than its rated value, then sulphation may well
be the cause.
When a battery is left in a discharged state or for prolonged periods of storage lead
sulphate crystals begin to form acting as a barrier to recharge and will prevent normal
battery operation.
Aepending on the degree of sulphation, a battery may be recovered from this condition by
constant current charging at a higher voltage with the current limited to one tenth of the
battery capacity for a ma#imum of *( hours.
'ote the applied voltage will e#ceed the normal recommendation and so the battery must
be monitored (not left unattend) and removed from charge if e#cess heat is dissipated. !he
voltage re.uired to force this ma#imum current into the battery will reduce as the battery
recovers until normal charging can ta&e place.
4n e#treme circumstances a battery may never fully recover from sulphation and must
therefore be replaced.
I. in doubt ,all 8uasa Te,)ni,al !ept >?@AB&CDE@EB

Over,)arge
As mentioned in /ection 69harging6 optimum charging relies mainly on voltage, current and
temperature factors which are interrelated and all of which can cause overcharge.
"#cessive charge voltages will force a high overcharge current into the battery, which will
dissipate as heat, and may cause gas emission through the safety valve. Within a short
period of time this will corrode the positive plate material and accelerate the battery
towards end%of%life.
5nder these conditions the heat produced inside the battery can lead to thermal runaway
due to the increased electrochemical reaction of the battery. !he battery may swell before
failing and will be irrecoverable from this state.

Te1perature
(arning %?eat Jills Eatteries
!he recommended normal operating temperature is (<FF %(DF9.
?4G? !"7)"1A!51" will reduce battery service life often .uite dramatically (see figures
( and >), and in e#treme cases can cause !hermal 1unaway, resulting in high
o#ygen8hydrogen gas production and battery swelling. Eatteries are irrecoverable from this
condition and should be replaced.
Figure 2
Te1perature 4GC5 H>G HEG B>G BEG D>G DEG E>G
K "#pected Cloat 2ife *<<K *<<K @<K +<K ,<K (<K *<K
'otice that high temperatures will give increased performance but only at
a loss in life.
23W !"7)"1A!51"/ will help to ensure a long service life but
batteries used at low temperatures have reduced performance.
Cor detailed information contact -uasa !echnical Aept <*HI> % +,DHD>
atter* sa.et*
!anger
/afety Eatteries are electrically live at all times, ta&e great care
never to short%circuit the battery terminals.
!anger
?igh A.9. voltages, are more dangerous than the mains.
(arning
Eatteries are often heavy, ta&e care when lifting and
transporting batteries. Cor weights above (, &ilos, lifting aids
should be used.
(arning
Ao not attempt to remove battery lid or tamper with the battery
internal wor&ings. 012A Eatteries are low%maintenance
re.uiring no electrolyte top%up or measurement of /pecific
Gravity.
!isposal2re&,*,ling
Cinally, when a battery has reached the end%of%life it must be returned to the point of sale
or to a licensed battery dealer for recycling. )lease observe the following points.

Caution
Ao not throw batteries in a bin at end%of%life. 012A batteries
contain substances harmful to the environment so return to
your supplier or ta&e to your 9ouncil tip for disposal.
Caution
'ever bury in the ground or incinerate at end%of%life.
Eatteries contain harmful substances ma&ing this unsafe.
AlIa*s
1eturn the spent battery to your /toc&ists, the 2ocal 9ouncil tip or any licensed battery
dealer for recycling.

3argon 1ade eas*
Abbreviations
:R#A % 0alve regulated lead acid battery.
S#A % /ealed 2ead%acid.
CC: % 9losed % circuit voltage.
OC: % 3pen % circuit voltage.
(PC % Watts per cell.
Pb % 9hemical symbol for lead.
6PS % 5ninterruptible power supply.
A) % Amp hour. !he unit of battery capacity.
!OM % Aate of manufacture.
"O! % "nd of discharge.
:PC % 0olts per cell.
NC % 'umber of cells.
:. % Cloat 0oltage.
:S % /tarting 0oltage.
IA: % Average current.
Sg % /pecific gravity
cAn % Aefined capacity of the battery to the 6n6 time period.
H> )r Rate % !he capacity a battery will deliver over (<hrs.

!e.initions
atter* % one or more cells
9loat2Standb* % 9ontinuous charging for use in a emergency or bac&%up
application
C*,li, % 9ontinual discharge8recharge application often associated with
traction applications.
atter* String or an; % A number of batteries connected in series will
constitute one string. /trings can then be connected in parallel to achieve
the re.uired capacity.
Monoblo, % A phrase used to describe a multi % celled single bloc&.
(et29looded % 3pen%vented lead%acid cells which need topping up, i.e.
not maintenance free.
Stationar* %Applications using static placed batteries.
Top & ,)arging % A service charge during or after storage, usually at a
level slightly higher than normal float 0.

!id 8ou JnoI+
4n addition to one of the widest range of 0alve 1egulated lead acid
batteries available in the world % -uasa also offer 2ithium )rimary 9ells;
'ic&el % 7etal ?ydride rechargeable batteries and 'ic&el % 9admium
batteries. Cull technical information on these battery types are available on
re.uest.

PoIer9il1 #it)iu1 Cell
!he -uasa 6)owerCilm6 is a 2ithium > volt cell that is, only >'H 11 t)i,;
and uses solid polymer electrolyte (/)"). 7easuring only (I.> mm # ((.>
mm its construction incorporates a 2ithium Anode and a manganese
dio#ide cathode separated by a solid polymer electrolyte. !hese are
encased between two micro%thin metal foils that also act as an e#ternal
case and the positive8negative collector. A significant pac&aging
development is the sealing of the outer edges of these collectors using a
sealing compound that also provides the electrical insulation between the
two polarities of the current collectors. !his feature ma&es it the sa.est
2ithium )rimary 9ell available. !he -uasa 6)owerCilm6 also represents the
highest power density /)" 2ithium )rimary cell in commercial production.
Ni,;el & Metal 7*dride
-uasa 'ic&el%7etal ?ydride batteries are designed for applications
covering portable electronic 3"7 products, computers, and
telecommunications.
8uasa KPris1ati,K Ni,;el & Cad1iu1 batteries
!hese batteries offer what is believed to be one of the highest energy
profiles available in 'ic&el 9admium compared to similar sized batteries.

8uasa )as applied over L> *ears o. e<perien,e o. lead a,id batter*
te,)nolog* in t)e produ,tion o. :R#A t*pe batteries Iit) a ,)oi,e o.
C> di..erent 1odels .ro1 si< di..erent ranges'
Standard NP
Available in a wide range of sizes to suit general applications.
NP7 and NPM
?igh performance batteries specially designed for applications re.uiring
high rate discharge supplying up to D<K more power (watts) for short
durations when compared to conventional ') models.
NP#2R"
!he e#tended service life version of the ') designed for normal standby
and float service applications. ')26s now available to E/+(I<pt,.
NPC
/pecifically designed to suit the arduous re.uirements of cyclic
applications allowing increased cycle life (at least double that of
conventional types).
"nduran,e
!he premium long life battery from -uasa (that) fully complies with
E/+(I<pt, and *"9@I+pt(.
R"# R"#IART
"#tra long life batteries. *D year design life.
We have uality !ssurance "tandard #"$%$& '"( )&&& Part 2 for our *+
battery manufacturing plant. (ur customers can be assured that when
they choose ,uasa they are choosing a state-of-the-art power source
manufactured to the highest attainable .uality standard.

9or .urt)er in.or1ation on our produ,ts *our lo,al distrubutor or
sto,;ist is .ull* quali.ied to )elp *ou'
8ou are o. ,ourse Iel,o1e to 1a;e ,onta,t dire,t Iit) an* o. our
Sales 0 Mar;eting Co1panies in t)e 6J/ $er1an*/ 9ran,e and Ital*'

86ASA ATT"R8 SA#"S 46J5 #IMIT"!
?aw&sworth 4ndustrial "state
/windon Wiltshire /'( *"G 5J
!el$ (<*HI>) +,DH<< Ca#$ (<*HI>) +,DH<*
86ASA ATT"RI"S 9RANC" SA
9entre A6Affaires "volic
*, 1ue de Eru#elles
>@<H< /aint%Luentin Callavier Crance
!el$ <<>>, H,I DI<I@ Ca#$ <<>>, H,I DI<@*
/uropean 0anufacturing Plant
86ASA ATT"R8 46J5 #IMIT"!
"bbw 0ale Gwent Wales

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