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Subject-Verb Agreement

The subject and verb of a sentence must agree with its subject in both person and number.
If the subject is singular the verb is singular and if the subject is plural, the verb is plural. So you should
remember the irregular plural forms of nouns.
People are .........
BUT there are some nouns that ending in S but singular in meaning take singular verbs. Moreover
Noncountable nouns also take singular verb.
Physics is his favorite
The news was not expected.
Two or more singular subjects connected by and re!uire a plural verb.
Gold and silver are precious metal.
Reeana and Tonni are there.
BUT if the singular nouns although joined by "N# suggest one idea to the mind or refer to the same person or
thing, the verb is singular.
Time and tide waits for none.
The horse and carriage is at the door.
N$TI%& the use of following article.
The president and Headmaster is (refers to same person'
The president and the Headmaster are (refer to two different person
If the singular subjects preceded by each or every the verb is usually, singular
!very "oy and girl has "een given a pri#e.
&ither (not either .... or' Neither (not neither ... nor' each, everyone, Many a must be followed by a singular
$any a little ma%es a mic%le.
!ach of the things is found in &ndia.
Two or more singular subjects connected by or, nor , either....or, neither....nor take a verb in the singular
'o noo% or corner was left unexplored.
'either he nor & was there.
)hen the subjects are of different numbers, the verb must be plural and the plural subject must be placed
closest to the verb.
He or his "rothers have done this.
'either the "oy nor his parents were present.
)hen the subjects are of different persons, the verb must agree with one nearest to it.
!ither he or & am to go.
BUT it is better to say ,
!ither he is to go or & am to go.
Two nouns !ualified by each or even though connected by and re!uire singular verb
!ach "oy and each girl was .........
Subjects joined by the following expressions of accompaniments have no effect on the verb. The Verb
must agree with its real subject.
Shafiq. accompanied by his wife and children, is arriving tonight.
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age , of ,-
Lecture # 03
Founder & Director : Dr. M.A.
83, Green Road (1st Floor)
Farmgate Da!a"1#$%
&one : 811'(81, )1#*8#1,
" collective noun is a word that is singular in form but refers to a group of people or things commonly used
collective nouns include the following.
%ompany firm audience corporation board
council department mob faculty
)hen the group to which these nouns refer is thought of or acts as a unit use a singular verb.
The committee is scheduled to meet at one o(cloc%.
)hen the members of the group are thought of or act separately, use plural verb.
The committee are evidently de"ating the merits of the proposed system.
The class are arguing with one another.
The )ury were divided in opinion "ut finally it has returned**********
The following chart also contains some other collective nouns
congress family group Committee class organization team
army club crowd Governmen
jury majority minority
NOTE+ Majority can be singular or plural. If it is alone it is usually singular/ if it is followed by plural nouns
it is usually plural.
The ma)ority "elieves that we are in no danger.
The ma)ority of the students "elieve him to "e innocent.
The following nouns are used to indicate groups of certain animals. They mean the same as group and thus are
considered singular.
flock of birds or sheep School of fish herd of cattle
pride of lions pack of dogs
The herd of cattle is ...........
Some nouns, which are singular in form but plural in meaning, take a plural verb.
Twelve do#en do not cost more.
)hen a plural noun between a singular subject and its verb the verb is often wrongly made to agree with the
nearest plural noun instead of with the real subject. This error should be guarded against. If a subject and a
verb are separated by a prepositional phrase, the prepositional phrase has no effect on the verb.
The danger of the forest fires is not to "e ta%en lightly.
The study of languages is very interesting.
The fear of rape and ro""ery has caused many people to flee.
The view of these disciplines varies from time to time.
)hen the plural noun is a proper name to some single object or some collective unit, it must be followed by a
singular verb.
The United ,tates has a "ig fleet.
)hen a sentence begins with gerund (verb0ing' or infinitive, the verb must be singular.
-nowing the ro""ers has caused his death.
To say lies is easy.
)hen the subjects of the verbs is a relative pronoun care should be taken to see that the verb agrees in number
and person with the antecedent of the relative or its real subject.
The man who saw your friends. has come.
$r. -amal is one of those people who are conscientious in following directions.
The collective nouns denoting some specific !uantity of time, money or measurements used as a whole are
Twenty five dollars is too much for it
Word Choice
+ord coice errors in,ol,e te incorrect use o- one .ord in /lace o- anoter. 0ese t.o .ords ma1
2e related
-orms (other and another, -or e3am/le) or te1 ma1 2e com/letel1 di4erent (do and make, -or
Descri/tions o- some o- te most common .ord coice errors are gi,en 2elo..
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age 1 of ,-
0e ,er2 to do is o-ten used in /lace o- to make, and to make in /lace o- to do. 5n its 2asic sense, to
make means to /roduce, to create, and to construct, .ereas to do means to /er-orm, to act, and to
accom/lis. 0ese ,er2s are also used in a num2er o- set e3/ressions:
An1time 1ou see te ,er2 make or do underlined in te 6tructure section, sus/ect a .ord coice
0e .ords so, such, and too are used in te /atterns:
so 7 ad8ecti,e 7 that clause
0ese 2o3es are so ea,1 tat .e can9t li-t tem.
(So is also used .it many . . . that and much . . . that.)
0ere .ere so man1 /eo/le in te auditorium tat .e could 2arel1 get in te -ront
such 7 ad8ecti,e 7 noun 7 that clause
5t .as such a /rett1 ,ie. tat e too! a /otogra/.
too 7 ad8ecti,e 7 in:niti,e
5t9s too cold to go s.imming toda1.
;otice tat so and such are 2ot -ollo.ed 21 that clauses, 2ut too is -ollo.ed 21 an in:niti,e.
0e .ords as and so are also sometimes con-used:
< =ane did so .ell as 5 did on te economics e3am. (5;>?RR@>0)
< 0e co4ee .as as ot tat 5 couldn9t drin! it. (5;>?RR@>0)
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age 2 of ,-
5n te :rst sentence, te .ord as sould 2e used in /lace o- soA in te second, so sould 2e used in
/lace o- as.
Also, loo! -or so much or too much used in /lace o- so or too.
Wrong choice of i!e or A"i!e
3ike ", *4 3ike birds, mammals are worm blooded
", like *4 *irds are like mammals are warm blooded.
" 5 * are alike 4 *irds and mammals are alike in that they are both warm blooded.
Wrong choice of Another or Other
"nother $ther
6sed as an adjective another 0singular noun
e.g.. have another sandwich
$ther 0 plural
e.g.. I wonder if there is life on other planets.
#eterminer 0 other 0 noun
There may be life on some other planets
6sed as a pronoun another
Thanks, , 7II have another
determiner 0 other
8I have one book. 9ou have the other:
#nd$ or $ but
i. ;"nd; joins two or more words, phrases or clauses of similar value or e!ual importance.
)e went swimming and boating.
ii. ;$r; joins two or more words, phrases, or clauses tht contain the idea of a choice.
)e could go swimming or boating.
iii. ;*ut; shows a contrast between two or more words, phrases, or clauses.
)e went swimming but not boating.
#"i%e$ "i%e
"live is used after a verb. *ut live is used before a noun.
< Sue likes to have alive plants in her apartment.
< "lthough she forgot to water it for a week, the plant was still live.
None$ No
None can take either a singular or plural verb, depending on the noun which follows it.
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age = of ,-
None 0 of the 0 non count noun 0 singular verb
'one of the counterfeit money has "een founds
None 0 of the 0 plural count noun 0 plural verb
no 0
Singular noun
non count noun

0 singular verb
no 0 plural noun 0 plural verb.
A number of $ the number of
" number of 0 plural noun 0 plural verb
The number of 0 plural noun 0 singular
/ num"er of students are going to the class
The num"er of days in a wee% is seven.
Here$ &here
is 0 Singular Subject
is 0 plural Subject
The sentence starting with preparatory here or there takes a singular or plural verb that agrees with its real
subject. The subject is actually after the verb.
Some Other Im'ort#nt Ru"e( to Remember
The sentence starting with introductory it always takes a singular verb even though the subject is actually after
the verb.
&t is they who are guilty.
The name of a company or organi?ation usually takes singular verb.
$errill 0unch. Pierce. 1enner 2 ,mith is one of the "est * %nown "ro%erage houses.
Proctor 2 Gam"le is a multinational company.
)hen a fraction or percentage is used as the subject of a sentence, the verb may be singular or plural.
If a singular noun or pronoun follows the fraction or percentage, the verb is singular. If a plural noun or
pronoun follows the verb is plural.
Three fifths of the people have arrived.
,ixty percent of our 3uota has "een met.
" number of nouns like dues, earnings, winnings are always plural. Therefore, they take plural verbs.
4u" ,cout dues are collected every month.
$y earnings are inade3uate to meet my expenses.
)hen an amount of money, a period of time, or a !uantity is the subject of a sentence and is considered as a
total amount, use a singular verb.
1our months is a long time "etween letters.
1ive hundred dollars is a reasona"le amount.
The following pronouns are plural
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age - of ,-
both few many others several.
)hen they are used as subjects or as adjectives modifying subjects, a plural verb is re!uired.
$any are called "ut few are chosen.
,everal people are una"le to attend5 the others are all coming.
The following indefinite pronouns can be either singular or plural, depending on the noun which they refer.
all any more some most
,ome of the firm(s capital is "eing earmar%ed for expansion
,ome of the employees have returned to wor%.
The following words must be followed by singular verbs and pronouns:
any 0 singular noun
no0 singular noun
no one
some0 singular noun
every 0 singular noun
each, either, neither either and neither are singular if they are not used with or and nor
/nyone is eligi"le to apply for the position.
,omeone is going to suffer for this.
The titles of books, maga?ines, articles, musical compositions and the like are often plural in form
Nevertheless, because they name one thing, they are considered singular and take a singular verb.
Business 0etters is a fine "oo%.
Better Homes and Gardens offers helpful redecorating ideas.
Some of the verb errors are errors in form. Most verb form problems involve main verb forms. "n ing
form may be used in place of a past participle a past participle in place of a past tense form, a simple form
in place of an ing form, an infinitive in place of a simple form, and so on. Some involve irregular verbs that
have different forms for the past tense and the past participle took and taken for e@ample. The following
information may help you chose the correct form of the main verb.
The simple form follows all modal auxiliaries.
might "e can remem"er should study
(%ertain similar au@iliary verbs re!uire infinitives'
ought to attend used to play have to hurry
The past participle is used after a form of have in all perfect forms of the verb.
has done could have called should have said.
The ing form is used after a form of be in all progressive forms of the verb.
is sleeping has "een writing should have "een wearing
The past participle is used after a form of be in all passive forms of the verb.
is worn will have "een shown would have "een lost.
E+erci(e ,
,. The first bridge to be built with electric lights (wasAwere' the *rooklyn *ridge.
1. &thics (isAare' they study of moral duties, principles, and values.
2. There (isAare' two types of calculus, differential and integral.
=. Beorge Bershwin, together with his brother Ira, (wasAwere' the creator of the first musical comedy to win a
+ulit?er pri?e.
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age C of ,-
-. In a chess game, the player with the white pieces always (movesAmove' first.
C. The &arth and +luto (isAare' the only two planets believed to have a single moon.
D. " number of special conditions (isAare' necessary for the formation of a geyser.
E. &ach of the lce "ges (wasAwere' more than a million years long.
F. The battery, along with the alternator and starter, (makesAmake' up the electrical system of a car.
,G. Teeth (isAare' covered with a hard substance called enamel.
,,. The moreorless rhythmic succession of economic booms and busts (isAare' referred to as the business cycle.
,1. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom (variesAvery' from element to element.
,2. "ll trees, e@cept for the tree fern, (isAare' seedbearing plants.
,=. Hifteen hundred dollars a year (wasAwere' the per capital income in the 6nited States in ,F-G.
,-. &veryone who (goesAgo' into the woods should recogni?e common poisonous plants such as
poison ivy and poison oak.
,. Many people looked for good investments/ most (was, were' disappointed.
1. These theories were presented, but some (was, were' !uestioned.
2. Several in this car (is, are' able to drive.
=. Sand was hauled from the pit, and some (was, were' delivered to our contractor.
-. The mail is being delivered by private carrier, and most (is, are' arriving on time.
C. $il comes from the "laskan pipeline, and most (are, is' shipped to this port.
D. Hrost damaged the oranges and all (was, were' fro?en.
E. Neither my wallet nor my bank accounts (show, shows' I can afford that car.
F. The weather summary or the stock reports (is, are' usually in teresting.
,G. >is play or his book (ranks, rank' high on our list.
,,. Neither the contractor nor his workers (is, are' at the site.
,1. The bank manager or the tellers (hope, hopes' to help.
,2. This report or that memorandum (is, are' unnecessary.
,=. &ither the instructor or the students (was, were' responsible.
,-. The &lements or Style (are, is' a good reference book.
,C. Sears Ioebuck and %ompany (was, were' the leader in retailing.
,D. Iomeo and Juliet (is, are' an unforgettable play.
,E. ()as, )ere' +eople a successful maga?ineK
,F. 8Ten Iules for Successful Teaching: (is, are' a helpful booklet.
1G. The concept of industrial democracy in all the states (become, becomes' e@tremely important.
1,. )orker participation programs, a from of industrial democracy, (are, is' a key factor.
11. )orkers at the *olivar plant (is, are' selecting their chief goal.
12. +roduction !uotas in each department (was, were' determined by a worker management team.
1=. &verything under construction during bargaining sessions (was, were' not publici?ed.
1-. &mployees in the marketing department (agree, agrees' on the resulting benefits.
1C. The runners, tired and e@hausted, but still eager to finish, (struggles, struggle' toward the finish line.
1D. Imports of li!uefied natural gas (has, have' decreased for short periods.
1E. Television news profits during the early season (are, is' embarrassingly high.
1F. Hew among them (are, is' willing to wait.
2G. The Soviet team, in the red uniforms, (outweighs, outweigh' the local team.
2,. Invocies for May (was, were' thoroughly checked.
21. $ur trip to 3ondon, +aris, and Iome (were, was' totally enjoyable.
22. &ither the manager or his assistant (was, were' in charge.
2=. Ms. *ronson or her assistants (count, counts' the money.
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age D of ,-
2-. *asic $ral %ommunications (is, are' worth studying.
2C. The materials you re!uested (is, are' stored in our warehouse.
2D. Many of the crew (are, is' putting in overtime.
2E. +arents of the school children who were on the bus (was, were' alarmed.
2F. The man and his wife (is, are' arriving together.
=G. ()hereLs, )here are' the book reportsK
=,. The apples were hit by the frost, but none (was, were' damaged
=1. )e had heard the tales before, and most (was, were' untrue.
=2. None of these items (was, were' shipped last month.
==. Some of us (is , are' willing to investigate.
=-. )e offered them the same merchandise that Iaphael and Joel (was, were' ordering.
=C. )e placed other materials where the warehouseman and his crew (was, were' working.
=D. >ere (is, are' the merchandise that arrived late.
=E. There (is, are' the plants that most people re!uest.
=F. If the grounds and building (is, are' inspected regularly, losses of merchandise and e!uipment (are, is'
fre!uently prevented.
-G. Those new businesses in this shopping area (was, were' eager to open their doors/ they (was, were' ready for
the holiday sales.
The "merican architect and engineer *uckminster Huller was born in ,EF- in Massachusetts. >e devoted his life to
the invention of revolutionary technological designs to solve problems of modern living. >e is best known for his
development of the geodesic dome, an e@tremely light yet enormously strong spherical structure composed of
triangular pieces. The geodesic dome is an application of his principle of deriving ma@imum output from a minimum
input of material and energy. In the ,F-Gs many of these domes were built for military and industrial uses. "
considerable number of homes also have been built using geodesic dome structures.
1. What does this passage mainly discuss
("' geodesic domes (*' an "merican architect (%'"merican architecture (#' revolutionary designs
!. The word "devoted" in line " is similar in meaning to which of the following
("' dedicated (*' bounded (%' charmed (#' aspired
#. $s used in line !% "revolutionary" refers to
("' warring (*' revolving (%' innovative (#' pragmatic
&. "Enormously" in line # could best be replaced by
("' hardly (*' somewhat (%' very (#' !uite
'. $ geodesic dome is closest in shape to
("' a tube (*' the end of a bo@ (%' one half of a ball (#' the tip of a triangle
(. Which statement best describes the dome
("' It uses a lot of material, but takes less energy to construct than traditional structures.
(*' It puts out ma@imum energy for its si?e.
(%' It uses very little material even though it is spacious.
(#' It takes less material and energy than traditional structures of the same si?e.
). "omposed of" in line & is most similar to
("' covered by (*' struck by (%' filled with (#' made of
*. The phrase "a considerable number of" in line ( could best be replaced by which of the following
("' many (*' an unusual number of (%' a few (#' an increasing number of
+. $s used in line (% the phrase ,a controversial writer, indicates that -uller.s writings were
("' unknown by the general public (*' discussed but not agreed upon
(%' disliked by most people (#' very popular among his readers
1/. -uller wrote about his life in his boo0.
("' Ideas and Integrities (*' 6topia or $blivion
(%' Nine %hains to the Moon (#' &arth, Inc.
" new hearing device is now available for some hearing impaired people. This device uses a magnet to hold the
detachable soundprocessing portion in place. 3ike other aids, it converts sound into vibrations, but it is uni!ue in
that it can transmit the vibrations directly to the magnet 5 then to the inner ear, producing clearer sound. The new
device will not help all hearingimpaired people, only those with a hearing loss caused by infection or other problem
in the middle ear. It will probably help no more that 1GM of all people with hearing problems. Those people,
however, who often have persistent ear infections should find relief 5 restored hearing with this device.
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age E of ,-
1. What is the author.s main purpose
("' to describe a new cure for ear infections (*' to inform medical personnel of a new device
(%' to urge doctors to use the new device (#' to e@plain the use of the magnet
!. The word "device" most li0ely means
("' something built 5 used for a specific purpose (*' type of operation
(%' first aid e!uipment (#' something used for investigating problems
#. "t can be inferred from the passage that
("' this use of magnets is new (*' infections are in the inner car
(%' magnets is dangerous for EGM of the people (#' the new device is smaller than old ones
&. What does the device 12T do
("' transmit sound to the inner car (*' help all deaf people
(%' produce clear sound (#' change sound into vibrations
'. The sound3processing unit
("' is a magnet (*' helps cure infections
(%' is placed in the middle ear (#' is part of the device
The -Gmillionyear old fossils of an ancient whale found in the >imalayas foothills of +akistan give string evidence
that modern whales are descended from a fourlegged, land swelling animal. the fossils consist of part of the skull,
some teeth, and the well preserved middle ear of an animal that was C to E feet long, weighed 2-G pounds, had a
wolflike snout, and had footlong jaws with sharp, triangular teeth. It is the middle ear which suggests that ancient
whale lived on land "nalysis indicated that the animal had eardrums, which do not work in water and which modern
whales have only in vestigial form. Hurthermore, the right and ear bones were not isolated from each other. The
separation of these bones in marine whales enables them to detect the direction of underwater sounds.
1. The '/3million3year old fossils found in 4a0istan
("' are C to E feet long and 2-G pounds in weight.
(*' are descended from a four legged, landdwelling animal
(%' proves the >imalayan foothills were once under water.
(#' includes the middle ear of an ancient whale
!. Whales with eardrums
("' would not be able to hear well in water.
(*' were marine creatures
(%' could distinguish where underwater sounds originated.
(#' could not live on land.
#. $ marine whale can recogni5e the source of a sound because
("' the right and left ear boned are isolated from each other
(*' the middle ear is in a vestigial form
(%' it lives under water instead of on land
(#' it has a well preserved middle ear.
Writing #bi"it/
1. #evelopments in transportation such as the invention of the automobile have had an enormous impact on
modern society. %hoice another development in transportation that you think is of great importance. Bive
reasons for your selection.
1. Some people say that university students should concentrate on their own field of study, and that all the classes
they take should be closely related to that subject. $thers believe that university students should get a general
education, taking classes in many fields before concentrating on a single field. #iscuss both points of view,
using concrete e@amples. )hich view do you supportK Bive reasons for your choice.
6"$712ST"8 T9ST :T;<3 2=T $T >2?9@
-ind out the wrong part:
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age F of ,-
the 6S Space program
in ,F-E, many inventions
for use in the program have
proved e!ually useful
on earth.
error 'o
!. #irigibles and some balloons
risen are
because they
filled are
gas a
that is
than lighter
error 'o
#. )hen fatigue is caused by e@ertion, the symptoms are
normal due

ical physiolog
processes and
resting "y relieved
error 'o
&. The owl
the sharp,
grasping talons
a of
prey of
error 'o
'. "s cities
er l grow arg
greater ces dis , tan
horses became
slow too
longer the
error 'o
(. A;"679 : 8$;6S ::
". dam . river *. gamble . money
%. image . mirror #. fencing . sword
). 1=?"S?$T"ST : 82"1S ::
". philatelist . stamps *. jeweler . jewels
%. cartographer . maps #. geneticist . chromosomes
*. 9?A;2"69; : 8B2T> ::
". patch . !uilt *. stain . glass
%. carve . knife #. chase . metal
Vocabulary Test : 8hoose the lettered ward or phrase that is most nearly opposite in meaning to the word
in capital letter.
+. AB"T>9:
". conceited *. dim
%. sturdy #. laconic
&. grave
1/. 42B9?"8$B:
". imitative *. lavish
%. conciliatory #. attractive
&. modest
8orrect $nswer:
,.# 1." 2." =.* -." C.# D." E.# F.& ,G.%
VOCA)0AR1 -2
< 8$A$B (B8,BCi D8) %li!ue, coalition, combination, confederacy, coterie, faction, Jane, junta, set, league.
< 8$824>212=S (!EF.GCHI e, Jem1Bi,) %acophonic, cacophonous, discordant, grating, harsh,
< 8$6$V9;2=S (gKBGi gBG,) "shy, chalky, deathlike, ghastly, pale, pallid, wan.
< 8$"T"-- (D1eKLM) %hurl, coward, knave, miscreant, rascal, rogue, ruffian, scoundrel, sneak, traitor,
< 8$C2B9 (.g.N CO,P -I8,B2,) *eguile, blandish, coa@, deceive, delude, dupe, entrap, fawn, flatter,
< 8$B$?"T< (D1DL!, e, .ecLP) "dversity, affliction, blight, blow, catastrophe, disaster,
dispensation, evil,
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age ,G of ,-
< 8$B8=B$T9 (.eBe&2, Ci,, .nBme Ci,) "ppraise, assess, cast, compute, consider, count,
estimate, figure,
< 8$B916$; (.D2c.Q) "lmanac, catalogue, diary, list, register, schedule.
< 8$B"A9; (RgG,) *ore, diameter, gauge, "bility, capacity, endowment, faculty, force, gifts, parts,
< 8$BB2=S (DD,m32, .2SIi) "pathetic, dull, hard, hardened, indifferent, insensible, obdurate, obtuse,
< 8$BB2W (Ac.icT) Naked, unfledged, Breen, ine@perienced, juvenile, naive, silly, simple, soft.
< 8$B? (!,U) %ollected, composed, cool, mild, peaceful, placid, !uiet, sedate, selfpossessed, serene,
< 8$B=?1< (.gOV, Ace,D) "buse, aspersion, backbiting, defamation, detraction, insult, libel,
< 8$16"6 (ACcH) aboveboard, fair, frank, guileless, honest, naive, open, plain, sincere, straightforward,
< 8$162; (ACcHG,) "rtlessness, fairness, frankness, guilelessness, honesty, openness, plainness,
< 8$1D9; (23.GWN, RP) *ale, bane, blight, corrosion, corruption, erosion, infection, rot.
< 8$12;2=S (!EF.Gga1i) Melodious, musical, tuneful.
< 8$1T$1D9;2=S (GCXuBP) %rabbed, headstrong, intractable, obdurate, obstinate, perverse, selfwilled,
< 8$4$A"B"T< (RgG,) "bility, brains, caliber, capableness, capacity, competency, faculty, force, power.
< 8$4$8"2=S (R,PM,eY8) "ccommodative, ample, broad, comprehensive, e@tensive, large, roomy, spacious.
< 8$4;"8"2=S (Z,gBZP,83) %hangeable, crotchety, fanciful, fantastical, fickle, freakish, inconstant,
< 8$4T"V$T9 (Bg,.nG Ci,) *ewitch, catch, charm, enamor, enchant, fascinate, gain, take, win.
< 8$;$V$1S$;< (mi,[Z,2,) *ody, corpse, inn, khan, publichouse, tavern.
< 8$;6"1$B (cEa,2) %apital, central, chief, essential, first, important, main, principal, vital.
< 8$;99; (R3e2eKM,U) %onduct, course, history, life, procedure, progress, race, walk %ourse, rush,
< 8$;"8$T=;9 (Dcn,Bmi R2V DcCi\) *urles!ue, lampoon, mimicry, parody, travesty.
< 8$;"2=S (23.GWN) %orrupt, decayed, mortified, putrid, rotten, ulcerate.
E 8$;D (nPi,2 Ci,, .ei] Ci,) "nnoy, fret, grieve, harass, perple@, ve@, worry.
< 8$;1$79 (nGV,) *loodshed, butchery, havoc, massacre, slaughter.
< 8$;1"V$B (Drme) %arousal, festivity, mas!uerade, revel.
< 8$;V9 (BZ,D,[ Ci,, -,^_L Ci,) %hisel, cut, divide, engrave, fashion, form, hack, grave, hew,
< 8$ST9 (B!E\3) *lood, class, dignity, lineage, order, race, rank, respect, station.
< 8$ST"7$T9 (.2`D, Ci,) "dmonish, beat, cane, chastise, censure, chasten, correct, discipline,
< 8$T$8B<S? (eo aiB\i e2V,) %alamity, catastrophe, deluge, disaster, inundation, overflow, upheaval.
< 8$T$B27=9 (G,.8C,) Inventory, invoice, list, record, register, roll, schedule.
< 8$T$ST;24>9 (D1DL!,) "dversity, affliction, blow, calamity, casualty, disaster, distress, evil, ill,
< 8$T98>"S? (Z1.HBP cE!a Ci,) compendium, creed, e@amination, interrogation, Socratic.
< 8$=ST"8 (.G]) "crid, biting, bitter, burning, corroding, corrosive, cutting, mordant, pungent,
< 8$V"B (BD,l JD5P,, A,c.M JG,8,) %arp, censure, complain, deride, object. %arping, censure,
< 89$S9 (B!l Ci,, .ei] n5P,) #esist, discontinue, end, finish, stay, stop, terminate, *e e@tinct, fail.
< 89$S9B9SS (A.ei,g) %ontinual, continuous, endless, eternal, incessant, interminable, perpetual,
< 8969 ( Ci,) "bandon, forego, grant, relin!uish, resign, surrender, yield.
< 89B9A;$T9 (DD,c2 Ci, cE.mb Ci,) "pplaud, commemorate, commend, e@tol, glorify, honor,
< 89B9;"T< (DcF.G) #ispatch, fleetness, haste, !uickness, rapidity, speed, swiftness, velocity.
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age ,, of ,-
< 89B9ST"$B (^dM3LP) "ngelic, divine, empyreal, empyrean, ethereal, heavenly, immortal, radiant,
< 89?9T9;< (Cei^9,2) *urialground, catacomb, churchyard, graveyard, necropolis.
< 891S2; (mg,B8,&C) %arper, caviler, censurer, critic, inspector.
< 891S=;9 (.2`D, Ci,) "dmonish, blame, chide, condemn, critici?e, rebuke, remonstrate, reprehend,
< 89;9?21< (A21S,2) %eremonial, form, formality, observance, parade, pomp, rite, show, solemnity,
< 89;T"-< (.2ePG,mnC,Bi .Cf1 e8,) "cknowledge, attest, aver, avouch, avow, declare,
demonstrate, inform,.
< 89SS$T"21 (.eiG O,C,) "beyance, ceasing, discontinuance, halt, intermission, pause, !uiescence,
< 8>$7;"1 (.ei] Ci,) "nger, annoyance, displeasure, dis!uiet, e@asperation, irritation, mortification,
< 8>$179B9SS :.^9i) "biding, consistent, constant, fi@ed, immutable, permanent, regular, reliable,
< 8>$2S :.e!KZ8,) "narchy, confusion, disorder, furor, pandemonium, turmoil.
< 8>$4-$BB91 (g2gi, e, nG,!) %restfallen, dejected, depressed, despondent, discouraged,
< 8>$;"T$AB9 (D,2!38, cBi,cC,i3) *eneficent, benevolent, benign, benignant, bountiful, generous,
< 8>$;B$T$1 (n,GIBo +,],i) %heat, empiric, impostor, mountebank, pretender, !uack.
< 8>$;< (mGCL) %areful, cautious, circumspect, heedful, prudent, reluctant, shy, slow, sparing, wary.
< 8>$S9 (A21mi\ Ci,) Hollow, hunt, prosecute, pursue, track.
< 8>$ST9 ( %ontinent, incorrupt, modest, pure, simple, uncontaminated, undefiled, virtuous.
< 8>$ST91 (!,.^ JD5P,) %astigate, chastise, correct, discipline, humble, improve, punish.
< 8>$ST"S9 :!,.^ JD5P,) *eat, castigate, chasten, correct, discipline, flog, humble, lash, punish,
< 8>$T (BM,8Mh) *abble, chatter, confabulate, gossip, prate, prattle.
< 8>9$4 (m^,) %ommon, economical, ine@pensive, reasonable, Indifferent, inferior, mean, paltry, poor,
< 8>9;"S> (8,82 Ci,, Jc,l\ Ci,) &ncourage, entertain, foster, harbor, nourish, nurse, promote,
< 8>"8$19;< (Ci.ggG,, cEG,i\,) "rtifice, chicane, deception, duplicity, intrigue, prevarication,
< 8>"69 (.2`D, Ci,) "dmonish, blame, censure, check, objurgate, rate, rebuke, reprimand, reprove,
< 8>"9- (cEa,2) %aptain, chieftain, commander, head, leader, principal, ruler. %apital cardinal, especial,
< 8>"B6"S> :.!jBG,l, 2M\V, GIkf) Hoolish, imbecile, infantile, juvenile, paltry, puerile, silly, tender,
< 8>"S9B (BZ,D,[ Ci,) %arve, cut, engrave, sculpture.
< 8>"V$B;2=S :mrm,nm3) "dventurous, bold, brave, courageous, gallant, generous, heroic, high
< 8>2"89 (e,f,[, cf`D) %herished, dainty, e@cellent, e@!uisite, precious, rare, select, superior,
< 8>2B9;"8 (i,M3, eDBgR,R3) "ngry, fiery, hasty, hot, impetuous, irascible, irritable, passionate,
< 8>2=S9 :cEG,.iG Ci,) *amboo?le, befool, beguile, cajole, cheat, circumvent, co?en, deceive,
defraud, delude, dupe, ensnare,
< 8>;21"8 (D3;LBgP,D3) "biding, confirmed, continual, habitual, inveterate, persistent
< 8>=;B"S> :A.!N) *rus!ue, brutish, crabbed, harsh, impolite, morose, rough, rude, snappish, snarling,
sullen, surly, uncivil,
< 8";8="T2=S :BM,8,C,i) #evious, indirect, roundabout, tortuous, turning, winding.
< 8";8=B$T"21 :eV,c2, fo,B2,) #iffusion, dissemination, promulgation, propagation, publication,
spread, spreading.
< 8";8=?-9;9189 (c.i.a) *oundary, circuit, enclosure, girth, outline, periphery.
< 8";8=?B28=T"21 (lVOLC) "mbiguity, ambiguousness, periphrasis, verbosity.
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age ,1 of ,-
< 8";8=?S8;"A9 (.;Bi O,C,) *ound, confine, define, delineate, designate, encircle, enclose, fence,
limit, restrict, surround.
< 8";8=?S498T :.e&R\) "ttentive, careful, cautious, considerate, discreet, heedful, judicious,
observant, prudent, scrupulous,
< 8";8=?ST$189 (;H2,) %ondition, detail, element, event, fact, feature, happening, incident,
occurrence, particular,
< 8";8=?V91T (cEG,.iG Ci,) *amboo?le, beguile, cheat, check, checkmate, co?en, deceive, defraud,
delude, dupe,
< 8"V"B (.!N, -Dc, 2,M.iC) "ccommodating, affable, civic, civili?ed, complaisant, courteous, domestic,
easy, gracious, municipal,
< 8B$169ST"19 (Xm, 81T,.PG) concealed, furtive, hidden, private, secret, sly, stealthy, surreptitious,
under hand.
< 8B$;"-< (Be,aMgVCi,, c.in_,i Ci,) %lear, defecate, infiltrate, precipitate, purify, strain.
< 8B$SS"-< (B!E\3 .e2V,m Ci,) "rrange, assort, class, collocate, dispose, distribute, divide, group,
range, rank, tabulate.
< 8B9?918< (Bmon,DVL, mDPG,) %ompassion, forgiveness, gentleness, kindness, lenience, lenity,
mercy, mildness, tenderness.
< 8B"91T :gBT8, cKSBc,lC) *uyer, dependent, henchman, patron, retainer.
< 8B"?$F (&po,) "cme, consummation, culmination, head, height, peak, summit, top, ?enith.
< 8B2"ST9; (.2RL2^9,2, A,!Eg) "rcade, colonnade, pia??a.
< 8B=?S< (e1Oe1, A,2,o3) "wkward, blundering, bungling, heavy, ine@pert, lumbering, maladroit,
ponderous, unapt, unhandy,
< 82$B9S89 (RBo,Ci,) "malgamate, blend, combine, fraterni?e, harmoni?e, mi@, unite.
< 82$B"T"21 (D8, JR,H) "lliance, amalgamation, combination, compact, confederacy, confederation,
federation, fraternity,
< 82$ST (mg1Dc qmCG) *each, seaside, shore, strand.
< 8266B9 (A,.8r2 Ci,, cE!EP JDP,) %aress, fondle, humor, indulge, nurse, pamper, pander, pet.
< 829;89 (BR,i Ci,) %heck , compel, constrain, curb, drive, force, impel, inhibit, repress, restrain.
< 829T$192=S (mgm,g.PC) %oeval, coe@istent, contemporary, simultaneous, synchronous.
< 82791T (DK/ cEGVP Ds3cC) %onclusive, potent, powerful.
< 82>9;9189 (ms8MaG,, J8BC O,C,) "dherence, adhesion, agreement, coalition, cohesion,
congruity, connection, consistency,
< 82>2;T (tm.2C D8) *and, battalion, companion, company, comrade, legion, line, s!uadron.
< 82"18"69 (GC gG Ci,, mg,c.GG n5P,) agree, concur, correspond, harmoni?e, s!uare, tally.
< 82BB$4S9 (B-Br ,5P,) *reak down, faint, fall, subside.
< 82BB$T9;$B (mg,Ui,8, A21iuc) Indirect, parallel, pledge, related, security, subordinate, warranty.
< 82BB9$7=9 (mnC,i3) "bettor, aider, ally, assistant, associate, au@iliary, cooperator, copartner,
coadjutor, collaborator,
< 82BB"69 (&I\L Ci,, .eBi,.aG, Ci,) %lash, crash, encounter, hit, interfere, oppose, smash.
< 82BB"S"21 (ms;lL) %lash, concussion, conflict, crash, encounter, interference, opposition.
< 82BB28$T9 (.e2V,^ Ci,) "llocate, arrange, classify, dispose, locate, order, place, tabulate.
< 82BB2G=< (CBO,cCO2) %onversation, dialogue, discourse, talk.
< 82BB=S"21 (loU), confederacy, connivance, conspiracy.
< 82B2SS$B (cEC,v e, .e!,8) &normous, gigantic, >erculean, huge, immense, mammoth, monstrous,
overwhelming, prodigious,
< 82?A=ST"AB9 (D,nV) consumable, flammable, ignitable inflammable.
< 82?-2;T$AB9 (m1.ea,R2C) "cceptable, agreeable, grateful, gratifying, pleasant, pleasing,
pleasurable, welcome.
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age ,2 of ,-
< 82??$16?91T (A,BD!, .2BDL!2,) *ehest, bidding, charge, command, direction, instruction,
mandate, order,
< 82??9189 (A,iwx n5P,) *egin, open, originate, start.
< 82??916 (cE!sm, Ci,) "pplaud, approve, encourage, eulogi?e, e@tol, laud, praise, recommend.
< 82??91S=;$T9 (O,c.ig,\) %oe@tensive, commensurable, conterminous, e!ual.
< 82??91T (gUeV Ci,, mg,B8,&2, Ci,) "nnotate, critici?e, dilate, e@plain, illustrate, interpret, note,
observe, propound, remark.
< 82??"1$T"21 (-3.G cED!L2) #enunciation, menace, threat, threatening.
< 82??"T?91T (D1n_gL, MKn3G D,.PGy) %onsignment, delivery, depositing, intrusting.
< 82??26"2=S (m1.ea,R2C) "dvantageous, ample, comfortable, convenient, easy, fit, proper,
roomy, spacious, suitable,
< 82??214B$89 (MG,21M.GC) %ommon, hackneyed, obvious, ordinary, stale, threadbare, trite.
< 82??2T"21 (DBMR2,) "gitation, bustle, disorder, disturbance, e@citement, furor, perturbation,
tumult, turbulence, turmoil,
< 82??=19 (B,M,B,M Ci,) %ommunicate, converse, correspond, speak, talk.
< 82?4$8T (ms.Rm, ;2.e2V,^) %lose, compressed, dense, firm, snug, solid.
< 82?4$;"S21 (GI82,, DD,ni\) %ollation, compare, illustration, similitude.
< 82?4$SS"21 (Bmon,DLV) %lemency, commiseration, kindliness, kindness, mercy, pardon, pity,
< 82?4$T"AB9 (msMG, m,gQmVc\L) "ccordant, congruous, consistent, consonant, reconcilable.
< 82?4916 (msBRc) "bbreviation, abridgment, abstract, compendium, compression, condensation,
curtailment, digest,
< 82?491S$T9 (R.Gci\ Ci,) "mend, atone.
< 82?49T9189 (mRgG,) "bility, capableness, capacity, fitness, power, !ualification, suitableness.
< 82?4"B$T"21 (Xkf, GCgG,) %ombination, combining, compiling, composition, selection.
< 82?4B$89189 (mUz.N) %ontent, contentment, gratification, pleasure, satisfaction.
< 82?4B$"1$1T (A.-B,MC,i3) Brumbling, lamentation, repining, tirade, disease, disorder,
distemper, illness, indisposition,
< 82?4B$"S$189 (BmoR2V) "ffability, civility, complacence, compliance, courtesy, graciousness,
manners, obligingness,
E 82?4B9?91T (mg,.m, c.iciC) %ompleteness, crew, fulfillment, !uota, tale, total, totality.
< 82?4B9T9 (mg,m Ci,) %ompleted, concluded, consummate, consummated, ended, entire, finished,
fulfilled, perfect, total,
< 82?4B9F (R.H8) %omplicated, composite, compounded, confused, intricate, involved, manifold,
mingled, mi@ed.
< 82?4B9F"21 (e\L) "ppearance, aspect, color, hue, look, skin.
< 82?4B"$189 (BgB2J25P,) "c!uiescence, agreement, assent, concession, concurrence, consent,
docility, obedience, submission, yielding.
< 82?4B"8$T96 (R.H8)%omple@, composite, compounded, confused, entangled, intricate, involved,
manifold, mingled, mi@ed.
< 82?4B"?91T (cE!sm, Ci,) %ommend, congratulate, e@tol, flatter, laud, praise.
< 82?42191T (Dc,D,2) %omposing, constituent, constituting.
E 82?42S=;9 (.^9iG,, qaL) %almness, coolness, e!uanimity, placidity, !uiet, sedateness,
E 82?42T$T"21 (g,G8,g3) *acchanal, carousal, carouse, carousing, conviviality, debauch,
jollification, revel, reveling, revelry.
< 82?4;9>916 (Be,aMgV Ci,) "ppertained, conceive, discern, grasp, perceive, see, understand,
comprise, contain, embrace,
< 82?4;9SS (msBRc Ci,) "bridge, close, compact, condense, contract, epitomi?e, pinch, press, shorten,
shut, s!uee?e,
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age ,= of ,-
< 82?4;"S9 (AU-L] Ci,) %omprehend, contain, embody, embrace, enclose, include.
< 82?4=BS2;< (e,aVG,g8C) *inding, enforced, imperative, necessary, obligatory, unavoidable.
E 82?;$69 (mnCgL3) "lly, associate, chum, companion, compeer, confederate, fellow, mate, pal.
E 8218$T91$T"21 (mgB!E\3) %hain, connection, continuity, linking, se!uence, series, stringing,
E 8218$V9 (AeG8) #epressed, e@cavated, hollow, hollowed, scooped.
E 82189$B (81C,B2,) %loak, cover, disguise, dissemble, hide, screen, secrete, suppress.
E 82189"T (A,{ AnsC,i, D|xG a,i\,) %onceitedness, egotism, vanity.
E 82189"V9 (Be,aMgV Ci,) "pprehend, comprehend, fancy, fathom, imagine, picture, suppose, think,
E 821891T;$T9 (BC`Dc3-pG Ci,) "ssemble, centrali?e, condense, conglomerate, congregate, convene,
coven, converge, draw,
E 821894T (a,i\,) %onceit, conception, fancy, idea, impression, notion, thought, view.
E 82189;1 (DBlM, msmce) "ffect, interest, regard, touch.
E 82189SS"21 (m1.ea, AcL\, e!3-pG Ci, C.g!2) "dmission, allowance, boon, grant,
E 8218"B"$T9 (!,U}Ci,) "ppease, enlist, gain, pacify, propitiate, reconcile, win.
E 8218"B"$T2;< (e!3C,iC) pacifier, +acificator, pacifying, persuasive, reconciling, winning.
E 8218"S9 (ms.Rm) *rief, compact, compendious, compressed, condensed, laconic, neat, pithy, pithy,
pointed, sententious, short,
UCC**" "dmission +reparation +age ,- of ,-