You are on page 1of 3

Section 31 - Barges and Pontoons C 31 - 1

Section 31
Barges and Pontoons
A. General
1. Definitions
1.1 Barges as defined in this Section are unmanned or
manned vessels without self-propulsion, sailing in pushed
or towed units. The ratios of the main dimensions of barges
are in a range usual for seagoing ships; their construction
complies with the usual construction of seagoing ships;
their cargo holds are suitable for the carriage of dry or liquid
cargo.
1.2 Pontoons as defined in this Section are unmanned
or manned floating units with or without self-propulsion.
The ratios of the main dimensions of pontoons deviate from
those usual for seagoing ships. Pontoons are designed to
usually carry deck load or working equipment (e.g. lifting
equipment, rams etc.) and have no holds for the carriage
of cargo.
2. Validity
The requirements given in Sections 1 - 24 apply to barges
and pontoons unless otherwise mentioned in this Section.
3. Character of classification
3.1 Vessels built in accordance with the requirements
of this Section will have the notation "BARGE" or
"PONTOON" affixed to the character of classification.
3.2 Barges built for the carriage of special cargo (e.g.
liquid or ore cargo) will have the respective notations affixed
to the characters of classification (see also Volume I,
Section 2).
4. General indication
Where barges are intended to operate as linked push barges
proper visibility from the tug forward is to be ensured.
5. Deck cargo load
The load for deck cargo, unless greater load is required
by the Owner, is to be taken as p = 25 [kN/m
2
].
B. Longitudinal Strength
1. The scantlings of longitudinal members of barges
and pontoons of 90 m and more in length are to be
determined on the basis of longitudinal strength calculations.
For barges of less than 90 m in length, the scantlings of
strength deck longitudinal members are to be generally
determined according to Section 7, A.4.
2. The midship section modulus may be 5% less than
required according to Section 5.
3. The scantlings of the primary longitudinal members
(strength deck, shell plating, deck longitudinals, bottom
and side longitudinals, etc.) may be 5% less than required
according to the respective preceding Sections of this
Volume. The minimum thickness and critical thickness
specified in those Sections are, however, to be adhered to.
4. Longitudinal strength calculations for the condition
"Barge, fully loaded at crane" are required, where barges
are intended to be lifted on board ship by means of cranes.
The following permissible stresses are to be observed:
bending stress :
b
= [N/mm
2
]
150
k
shear stress : = [N/mm
2
]
100
k
k = material factor according to Section 2, B.2.
Special attention is to be paid to the transmission of lifting
forces into the barge structure.
5. For pontoons carrying lifting equipment, rams etc.
or concentrated heavy deck loads, calculation of the stresses
in the longitudinal structures under such loads may be
required. In such cases the stresses given under 4. are not
to be exceeded.
C. Watertight Bulkheads and Tank Bulkheads
1. For barges and pontoons, the position of the collision
bulkhead is to be determined according to Section 11,
A.2.
1)
Where in barges and pontoons, the form and construction
of their ends is identical so that there is no determined "fore
or aft ship", a collision bulkhead is to be fitted at each end.
2. On barges intended to operate as linked push barges,
depending on the aft ship design, a collision bulkhead may
be required to be fitted in the aft ship.
3. A watertight bulkhead is to be fitted at the aft end
1)
For barges and pontoon with length Lc 90 m, the <

maximum distance of collision bulkhead from forward


perpendicular may be 0,13 Lc
Section 31 - Barges and Pontoons G 31 - 2
of the hold area. In the remaining part of the hull, watertight
bulkheads are to be fitted as required for the purpose of
watertight subdivision and for transverse strength.
4. The scantlings of watertight bulkheads and of tank
bulkheads are to be determined according to Sections 11
and 12 respectively.
Where tanks are intended to be emptied by compressed
air, the maximum blowing-out pressure p
v
according to
Section 4, D.1. is to be inserted in the formulae for
determining the pressures P
1
and P
2
.
D. Structural Details at the Ends
1. Where barges have typical ship-shape fore and aft
ends, the scantlings of structural elements are to be
determined according to Section 8, A.1.2 and Section 9,
A.5. respectively.
The scantlings of fore and aft ends deviating from the
normal ship shape are to be determined by applying the
formulae analogously such as to obtain equal strength.
2. Where barges are always operating with horizontal
trim, in consideration of the forebody form, relaxations
from the requirements concerning strengthening of the
bottom forward may be admitted.
3. Where barges have raked ends with flat bottoms,
at least one centre girder and one side girder on each side
are to be fitted. In the forward ends, the girders shall be
spaced not more than 2,4 m apart. The girders shall be
scarphed into the midship structure.
4. ln pontoons which are not assigned a notation for
restricted service range or which are assigned the notation
P (Restricted Ocean Service), the construction of the
fore peak is to be reinforced against wash of the sea by
additional longitudinal girders, stringers and web frames.
In case of raked bottoms forward, the reinforcements are,
if necessary, to be arranged beyond the collision bulkhead.
If necessary, both ends are to be reinforced, see also C.1.
Note
Also for pontoons sailing only temporarily, for the purpose
of conveyance to another port, within the region P
(Restricted Ocean Service) or beyond that region, the rein-
forcements given in 4. are required.
E. Rudder
The rudder stock diameter is to be determined according
to Section 14, C.1. The ship's speed v
0
is not to be taken
less than 7 knots.
F. Pushing and Towing Devices, Connecting
Elements
Devices for pushing and towing of linked barges as well
as the connecting elements required for linking the barges
are to be dimensioned for the acting external forces.
The forces are to be specially determined for the respective
service range. When determining the scantlings of these
devices and elements as well as of the substructures of the
barge hull, the following permissible stresses are not to
be exceeded :
- bending and normal stresses:
= [N/mm
2
]
100
k
- shear stresses:
= [N/mm
2
]
60
k
- equivalent stresses:

v
= [N/mm
2
]
2
3
2
120
k
G. Equipment
1. Barges and pontoons are to be provided with anchor
equipment, designed for quick and safe operation in all
foreseeable service conditions. The anchor equipment must
consist of anchors, chain cables and a windlass or other
equipment (e.g. cable lifter with a friction band brake, by
means of which the anchor can be lifted using an auxiliary
drum or a crank handle) for dropping and lifting the anchor
and holding the ship at anchor. The requirements of Rules
for Machinery Installations, Volume III, Section 14, D.
are to be observed.
2. Unless otherwise specified in this Section, the
required equipment of anchors and chain cables and the
recommended ropes
2)
, for manned barges and pontoons
are to be determined according to Section 18. A stream
anchor is not required.
3. The equipment numeral Z for determining the
equipment according to Table 18.2, is to be determined
for pontoons carrying lifting equipment, rams etc. by the
following formula:
Z = D
2/3
B f
b
f
w
D = displacement of the pontoon in [t] at maximum
anticipated draught
f
b
= distance in [m] between pontoon deck and
waterline
2)
see also Section 18, F.
Section 31 - Barges and Pontoons G 31 - 3
f
w
= wind area of the erections on the pontoon deck
in [m
2
] which are exposed to the wind from
forward, including houses and cranes in upright
position.
4. For unmanned barges and pontoons the number of
anchors may be reduced to one and the length of the chain
cable to 50 % of the length required by Table
5. If necessary for a special purpose, upon Owner's
request, for barges and pontoons mentioned under 6, the
anchor mass may be further reduced by up to 20%.In such
cases the equipment notation in the Character of
Classification (see Rules for Classification and Surveys,
Volume I, Section 2.,C.2.3.) is to be II
Upon Owners request the anchoring equipment may be
dispensed with.In such cases the equipment notation in
the character of Classification will be assigned .
6. If a wire rope shall be provided instead of a chain
cable, the following is to be observed :
6.1 The length of the wire rope is to be 1,5 times the
required chain cable length. The wire rope is to have
the same breaking load as the required chain cable
of grade KI-K1.
6.2 Between anchor and wire rope, a chain cable is to
be fitted the length of which is 12,5 m or equal to
the distance between the anchor in stowed position
and the windlass. The smaller value is to be taken.
6.3 A winch has to be provided which is to be designed
in accordance with the requirements for windlasses
(see also Rules for Machinery Installations,
Volume III, Section 14, D).
7. Push barges not operating at the forward or aft end
of pushed or towed units need not have any equipment.
8. Anchor equipment fitted in addition to that required
by this Sub-Section (e.g. for positioning purposes) is not
part of classification.