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NOTE

1 The work that represents the object of the present project is classified in category C -
normal level of importance, according to the GO no. 766/21.11.1997, OG no.
675/3.07.2002 and to the "Methodology for the classification of constructions with
respect to their importance" - issued by INCERC BAP - SCB Laboratory in April 1996.

2 The present project is verified with respect to the following performance
requirements in accordance with GO no. 925/20.11.1955 and MLPAT Order no.
77/N/28.10.1996

A4 - resistance and stability at static, dynamic shocks, including seismic activity;
Af - resistance and stability of soil masses - consolidation works;
A7 - resistance and stability of hydro-technical works;
B2 - safety of the public traffic;
B5 - liability of hydro-technical works and environment protection;
D2 - human health and environment protection

3 At the beginning of the works the Employer, the Consultant and the Contractor will
establish the recovery means of the materials resulted from demolition.

4 If the execution of the Works will start more than 1 year after the date the design was
issued, the Designer will confirm the project applicability taking into consideration the
technical state of the existing structures at the date of the start of the Works.

5 All the property rights for this documentation belong to PARSONS GROUP
INTERNATIONAL LTD and SEARCH CORPORATION LTD., Bucuresti, Caderea
Bastiliei, no. 65, sector 1, phone: 021/230 40 17, fax: 021/230 52 71.
The project is to be exclusively used by the ROMANIAN NATIONAL COMPANY OF
MOTORWAYS AND NATIONAL ROADS for the procurement and execution of the
works for REHABILITATION OF DN 76 DEVA ORADEA.
The use or reproduction of various parts of the present project by other persons except
for the Client can only be done based on the prior written approval of the PARSONS
GROUP INTERNATIONAL LTD and SEARCH CORPORATION LTD.

6 This documentation contains the Technical Project for REHABILITATION OF DN 76
DEVA ORADEA.

Romanian National Company of Motorways and National Roads
Roads Rehabilitation V
th
Project
Rehabilitation of DN 76 DEVA - ORADEA
Contract 5R12 Vrfurile - tei, km 69+350 - 102+660




CONTENT OF THE TENDER DOCUMENTATION

VOLUME 1 INSTRUCTIONS TO TENDER
This Volume specifies the procedures to be followed by Tenderers in the preparation and submission of the
Tenders and comprises:
Form of Invitation to Tender; Instructions to Tender; Tender Data; General Conditions of Contract; Conditions of
Particular Application (Particular Conditions); Form of Tender, Letter of Discount, Appendix to Tender, Tender
Security, Schedules of Additional Information; Form of Agreement, Forms of Performance Security, Advance
Payment Guarantee, Retention Money Bank Guarantee; Dispute Settlement Procedure.

VOLUME 2 SPECIFICATIONS
This Volume is in four parts and contains the general and technical specifications for:
General Items; Road works; Ancillary works; Bridge works.

VOLUME 3 BILL OF QUANTITIES and PRICE DESCRIPTIONS
This Volume contains the Bill of Quantities and the Description of prices for General and Work Items.

VOLUME 4 DRAWINGS ROAD WORKS and ANCILLARY WORKS
This Volume is in three parts and contains:
Road works Drawings (Layouts, Typical Cross-sections, Longitudinal profiles, Cross-sections, Junctions);
Culverts, Earthworks, Consolidation Works, Hydro-technical Works Drawings (Layouts, Cross-sections, Details);

VOLUME 5 DRAWINGS BRIDGE WORKS
This Volume contains Bridge Works Drawings (Layouts, Longitudinal and Cross sections, Details).






The following volumes are not part of the Tender Documents but the information they
contain may be found useful by the Tenderer. They may be purchased from the Data
Room.

FINAL ENGINEERING REPORT
This volume contains the Designers Report on the Project.

VOLUME 6 GEO-TECHNICAL STUDY
This Volume contains data from the geo-technical investigations undertaken for both the road and the bridges.

VOLUME 7 IDENTIFICATION of the EXISTING UTILITIES
This Volume contains data regarding the existing utilities along the contract.

VOLUME 8 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STUDY
This Volume contains data and results from the Environmental Impact Study.

Roads Rehabilitation V Project EIB Fl 21.489
DN 76 DEVA ORADEA
Contract 5R12 DN76 Vrfurile tei km 69+350 to km 102+660
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General Items Page 3 of 349








SPECIFICATIONS




2.0 GENERAL ITEMS
Roads Rehabilitation V Project EIB Fl 21.489
DN 76 DEVA ORADEA
Contract 5R12 DN76 Vrfurile tei km 69+350 to km 102+660
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Romanian National Company of Motorways and National Roads
Roads Rehabilitation V
th
Project
Rehabilitation of DN 76 DEVA - ORADEA
Contract 5R12 Vrfurile - tei, km 69+350 - 102+660
CONTENTS

1 - GENERAL 6
2 - LEGAL PROCEDURES AND LOCAL LEGISLATION 6
2.1 - Legal provisions....................................................................................................6
2.2 - Quality Assurance and Control System for Civil Engineering Works ....................7
2.3 - State Quality Inspection of Construction Works....................................................9
3 - CONTRACTOR'S DUTIES 10
3.1 - Maintenance of the Existing Road during Execution .........................................10
3.2 - Drawings.............................................................................................................11
3.3 - Possession and Use of the Site..........................................................................11
3.4 - Site Compound...................................................................................................12
3.5 - Temporary works................................................................................................12
3.6 - Existing Structures and Underground Services ..................................................13
3.7 - Dealing with Water..............................................................................................13
3.8 - Information..........................................................................................................13
3.9 - Utilities Relocation and Protection......................................................................14
3.10 - Safeguarding the Environment ..........................................................................14
3.11 - Traffic Management...........................................................................................16
3.12 - Works done Off Site. .........................................................................................17
3.13 - Other Contractors..............................................................................................17
3.14 - Documents to be submitted to the Engineer......................................................18
3.15 - As Built Drawings ..............................................................................................18
3.16 - Clearing and disposal of Unexploded Ammunition............................................18
3.17 - Erection of site identification boards..................................................................18
4 - QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CONTROL 19
4.1 - Quality Assurance Management System............................................................19
4.2 - Specifications and Standards .............................................................................19
4.3 - Site Laboratory ...................................................................................................19
4.4 - Sampling, Testing, Trials and Method Statements .............................................20
4.5 - Alternative Materials ...........................................................................................20
4.6 - Engineer's approval of the Works.......................................................................20
5 - SURVEY 21
5.1 - Existing Ground and Road Levels ......................................................................21
5.2 - Survey and Setting Out.......................................................................................21
6 - FACILITIES, SERVICES and EQUIPMENT for the ENGINEER and for PROJECT
IMPLEMENTATION UNIT (P.I.U.) 22
6.1 - Engineer's Main Office........................................................................................22
6.2 - Laboratory Office for the Engineer......................................................................22
6.3 - Furniture and Equipment for the Engineer's Offices and for P.I.U. .....................22
6.4 - General Requirements for Engineer's Offices.....................................................23
6.5 - Communication Facilities for the Engineer .........................................................23
6.6 - Operatives for the Engineer's staff......................................................................24
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6.7 - Vehicles for the Engineer and for the P.I.U.........................................................24
6.8 - Miscellaneous Services for the Engineer and for the P.I.U.................................25
6.9 - Disbursement of Items supplied under Subclauses 6.1 to 6.8............................26
7 - applicable standards 26
APPENDIX 1 - Offices for the Engineer 27
APPENDIX 2 - Furniture and Equipment for the Engineer and for P.I.U. 28
APPENDIX 3 - Laboratory Equipment 30
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1 - GENERAL
These Specifications are designed with the purpose of the works construction control for Roads
Rehabilitation V Project, Lot D DN76, Deva Oradea, Contract 5R12.
The Specifications are concerning items of works, materials and construction methods that are
generally applicable to Romanian contracts for Roads and Bridges execution works.

2 - LEGAL PROCEDURES AND LOCAL LEGISLATION
2.1 - Legal provisions
These Technical Specifications have been produced in compliance with both the specific
legislation in force in Romania applicable from time to time to each design phase of the Works, and
the provisions of the Romanian law ratifying the project FIFTH ROADS REHABILITATION
PROJECT EIB Loan 21.489, financed out by the European Investment Bank and Romanian
Government, which regulates the rules and procedures to be followed for the procurement of works
(i.e. type of procurement procedure, standard format of works contract, etc).
The list of the legal provisions presented below is to be considered neither complete nor
exhaustive.
o The Government Emergency Ordinance no. 159/20.11.2002 - published in
Romanian Official Bulletin no. 862, dated 29 November 2002, regarding the
ratification of the Financing Agreement concluded between Romania and European
Investment Bank for the financing of the Fifth Roads Rehabilitation Project signed
in Bucharest on 8
th
March 2002
o Law no. 37/1995 Environment protection
o Law no. 10 regarding the quality in the field of construction works published in
Romanian Official Bulletin no. 12, dated 24 January 1995;
o Law no. 137 regarding the environment protection published in Romanian Official
Bulletin no. 304, dated 30 December 1995;
o M.L.P.A.T Order no. 1743 for approval of methodological norms regarding the
projects framework content on design phases of bidding documents, of tenders
and contracts for investment performance published in Romanian Official Bulletin
no. 232, dated 26 September 1995;
o Romanian Government Decision no. 766/21.11.1997 for approval of some
regulations regarding the quality in the field of construction works, published in
Romanian Official Bulletin no. 352, dated 10 December 1997:
approval of: regulations regarding the metrology activity in the field of
construction works;
approval of: regulations regarding the quality assurance and management in
the field of construction works;
approval of: regulations regarding the determination of importance
categories in the field of construction works;
approval of: regulations regarding the supervision of behaviour during
operation, of interventions and constructions post-operation;
approval of: regulations regarding the technical agreement for new products,
methods and equipments in the field of construction works;
approval of: regulations regarding the conformity certification of the quality of
products used in the construction field;
o Romanian Government Decision no. 877 regarding the performance of laboratory
tests and analyses by the suppliers of materials, construction elements and
products only in authorized laboratories, published in Romanian Official Bulletin part
I no. 538, dated 4 November 1999:
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o Romanian Government Decision no. 925 regarding the regulations for verification
and quality technical examination of designs, works performance and constructions,
published in Romanian Official Bulletin no. 286, dated 12 December 1995;
o Romanian Government Decision no. 261/08.06.1994 regarding the approval of
some regulation in the field of construction works;
o Romanian Government Decision no. 272 regarding the Quality State Control in the
field of construction works, published in Romanian Official Bulletin no. 193, dated 28
July 1994:
o Romanian Government Decision no. 273 regarding the approval of taking-over
regulations for construction works and related installations published in Romanian
Official Bulletin no. 193, dated 28 July 1994:
o Romanian Government Decision no. 102 regarding the determination of the
conditions for launching on the market of products for constructions, published in
Romanian Official Bulletin no. 129, dated 27 February 2003:
o Ministry of Transport Order no. 44 regarding the norms for environment protection
as a result of the road environment impact, published in Romanian Official Bulletin
no. 138bis, Part I, dated 6 April 1997;
o Ministry of Transport Order no. 48 regarding the norms for location and exploitation
of ballast pits in the area of roads and bridges, published in Romanian Official
Bulletin no. 138bis, Part I, dated 6 April 1998;
o Romanian Government Decision no. 393/15.07.1994 regarding the approval of
regulations for authorization and agreement of testing laboratories, published in
Romanian Official Bulletin no. 200, dated 4 August 1984;
o Ministry of Public Works and Territory Planning no. 31/N, dated 2 October 1995,
regarding:
procedure for authorization of testing laboratories for construction works;
procedure for the audit of testing laboratories for construction works in order
to obtain the authorization;
procedure for certification of auditors for testing laboratories for construction
works;
instructions for preparation and implementation of a quality system in testing
laboratories for construction works;
instructions regarding the exigencies that the testing laboratories for
constructions works have to comply with in order to obtain the authorization;
procedure regarding the setting up and operation of the authorization
committee for testing laboratories in construction works;
procedure for certification of specialized personnel from testing laboratories
for construction works and from quality control activity;
instructions regarding the fill in of testing bulletins issued by testing
laboratories for construction works.
o Romanian Emergency Ordinance no. 60 regarding the public acquisitions, published
in Romanian Official Bulletin Part I, no. 241, dated 11 May 2001

If there are conflicts between the provisions of the Instructions to Bidders, the Bidding Data and the
Conditions of Contract, Parts I and II, and the provisions of this section, the provisions in the former
will prevail.
2.2 - Quality Assurance and Control System for Civil Engineering Works
This clause refers to the general quality assurance system, as required by the Law No. 10/1995.
As far as the construction works are concerned, the specific provisions for the quality of materials,
plant and workmanship are detailed by the clause 7 of the General Conditions of Contract.
Any contracts, subcontracts, instructions, approvals, etc. to be concluded or issued during the
construction and defects liability period, shall comply with the above-mentioned Law No. 10/1995
dated 24.01.1995.
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The quality system applied to the civil engineering works is a set of organisational procedures,
responsibilities, regulations and means to be implemented for achieving the required quality of civil
engineering works during the design, construction, and defects liability period stages.
The quality system applied to civil works shall consist of the following:
a. civil engineering technical regulations, norms and standards
b. quality of materials applied for civil engineering works
c. technical agreements or licences required for applying new procedures and using new
products
d. verification of design and workmanship as well as specialist examinations of design and
construction works
e. quality assurance and control management
f. authorization and certification of laboratories where analyses and tests are performed for
the on-going construction works
g. metrological activity related to the construction works
h. acceptance of construction works (provisional and final taking-over)
i. behaviour of construction works during the defects liability period
j. maintenance of the construction works
k. quality state inspections of construction works.
The products or materials with quality not certified at the time of delivery by a Quality Certificate
issued by the producer and specifying their full compliance to the related requirements, shall not be
used.
The technical quality certificates issued for the new materials, procedures and equipment to be
used for construction works shall also specify, under the current law, their application range, as
well as their manufacturing, transport, storage, placement and maintenance requirements, in
compliance with the provisions of the HG. n. 766/97.
Where a certain construction quality requirement is to be ensured in accordance with quality
specifications, only the products, procedures, plant and equipment with technical agreements, shall
be used. The supervision of the execution of the construction works is mandatory and it is
undertaken by a consultant entity called Engineer, nominated by the Employer, in the spirit of full
compliance with the Conditions of Contract defining both the activity (supervision) and the entity
(Engineer).
Only technical experts and inspectors who are authorized through the law shall carry out the
technical checking of drawings and respectively the technical supervision of the construction
works.
The laboratories envisaged to be used in performing the testing and trials activities imposed
through the technical specifications shall be authorised in accordance with the Romanian Law.
The measurement activity related to the construction works shall be developed in compliance with
the legal provisions regarding calibration, checking and operational reliability required for the
measuring and control devices used in this field.
Technical assistance
Considering the stipulations of Law 10/1995 regarding quality in constructions, the Designers
obligations referring to the technical assistance that must be ensured on Site, during the works
execution are as follows:
a. In accordance with Law 10/1995, chapter III, section II, art.22, the Designer must
operatively solve all non-conformities and irregularities, with reference to the
designs produced by him.
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b. The Designer must take part to all the quality controls on site, run in accordance
with the Program of Quality Control by the representatives of the State Inspectorate
for Constructions for all the Determinant Phases as defined.
c. The Designer establishes how to treat the defects appeared in execution due to the
defaults in design and monitors the implementation on site of the solutions adopted
in this respect.
d. The Designer is involved in the Technical Book of Constructions compilation and in
the taking over procedures.
2.3 - State Quality Inspection of Construction Works
This clause describes the duties of the State Inspectorate responsible for the quality of Works, in
accordance with the law in force. The cost of these inspections will be borne by the Contractor, by
the payment of a specific governmental tax.
The State Quality Inspections include quality systems and quality requirements application during
the activities developed by the Employer for the design, construction and maintenance stages.
The State Quality Inspections for construction works are carried by the "State Inspectorate in
Constructions" which is responsible for the state control of the legal procedures adequately applied
to achieve the required quality of construction works.
The State Quality Inspections of construction works shall be performed in compliance with the
"Regulations for the State Quality Control of Construction Works" which stipulates the general
standard requirements, their tasks, contents, organisational frame and methods applied for the
state quality control of construction works.
The instructions included in these Regulations are compulsory for all the parties involved in the
issuing the territory planning certificates, building permits, site location and for those responsible
for the design, construction, and maintenance of civil engineering works.
The provisions of these regulations are mandatory for all the Romanian and foreign companies,
public units, central and local administrations, which, under the law, contribute to the construction
activities or represent the Employer, or the Users of these construction works, regardless of the
financial sources used for the works or the type of the ownership right.
The "List of Romanian Standards and Norms for Roads and Bridges Design and Construction
Works, Inspections, Investigations and Laboratory Tests Specific for various Types of Works" is
listed in the Technical Specifications Preamble. This list is only indicative and cannot be
considered either complete or exhaustive.

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3 - CONTRACTOR'S DUTIES
3.1 - Maintenance of the Existing Road during Execution
Summer maintenance
In order to allow a normal traffic in the summer seasons, the Contractor shall undertake all the
roads maintenance activities in accordance with the Norms in force for both the existing roads,
during the execution of the Works and the Works during the Defects Liability Period.
The N.A.R. Norm no. 554/2002 Norm regarding the public roads maintenance and repairing
stipulates the works necessary to be undertaken. For the information purposes only, please find
hereunder some of the main works to which the Norm 554/2002 relates, as:
bituminous surface and cement concrete repairs, including patching of the surface, sealing
of the joints and the cracks, etc.;
shoulders reshaping for ensuring of the side drainage of the surface water;
water drainage: cleaning of the ditches, of the fall chambers, of the footbridges, etc.;
maintenance and replacement of the road safety equipments (guardrails, fencing,
guideposts, portals, brackets, traffic signs, etc) and of the horizontal marking,
all in accordance with Employers requirements.

Winter maintenance
In order to allow a normal traffic in the winter seasons, the Contractor shall undertake all the roads
maintenance activities in accordance with the Norms in force for both the existing roads, during the
execution of the Works, and the Works during the Defects Liability Period.
The N.A.R.s Instruction no. 525/2000 Instruction regarding the public roads protection during
winter season, preventing the slipping and snow covering stipulates the works necessary to be
undertaken.
Here are some of the main specific works to which the Instruction no. 525-2000 refers:
The snow fences assembling in the places indicated by the D.R.D.P.;
The snow evacuation from the road should be done with a set of equipment during
minimum 105 days of the year:
o 1 grader;
o 1 tractor grader;
o 1 snow blower;
o 1 dozer;
o 1 loader;
o 1 spreader for antiskid materials;
The equipment should be accompanied by mechanics and equipment attendants as
necessary.
The spreading of the antiskid materials during minimum 105 days on the year, using
permanent equipment.
The approximate quantities of antiskid materials for a winter season are as follows:
o about 4 tons of salt per km;
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o about 8 m
3
of sand per km.
The works cost includes the supply of materials, stocking, preparation and spreading.
The ensuring of an informational system about the road condition 24 hours per day, during
minimum 105 days on the year.
After the winter period, the Contractor shall perform, inter alias:
The bituminous surfacing and the cement concrete reparations, including patching of the
depreciated surface, sealing of the joints and the cracks, etc.;
The shoulders reshaping for ensuring of the sidewise draining conditions of the roadway
waters;
The correctly waters drainage using the cleaning works of the ditches, of the fall
chambers, of the footbridges, the dieseling works of the footbridges, etc.;
The maintenance and the replacing of the road safety equipments (guardrails, fencing,
guideposts, portals, brackets, traffic signs, etc) and of the horizontal marking,
all in accordance with the Employers requirements.
3.2 - Drawings
The drawings issued with the Tender Documents are part of the Working Drawings.
During the performance of works and having the prior approval of the Employer, the Engineer will
instruct the Designer to prepare additional Working Drawings as necessary.
3.3 - Possession and Use of the Site
The Contractor shall have the responsibility for the roads used outside the Site of the Works, in
accordance with Romanian laws and regulations regarding their use.
Possession of the Site shall not be given if the provisions of the Conditions of Contract, Sub-
Clauses 8.3 and 18.1 had not been previously met by the Contractor.
The Employer shall give that possession in accordance with Clause 8.1 of the Conditions of
Contract once the conditions imposed under sub-clauses 8.3 and 18.1 are fulfilled.
When the Contractor is given possession of the Site, or a portion of the Site, he shall be given
authority to carry out the Works as instructed by the Engineer under the Contract. He shall notify
the Employer's local branch office and the local authorities of his programme of works as required
by the law.
The Contractor shall not enter into the Site for additional investigations or for carrying out the
Works until he has been granted possession. If the Contractor requires for other justified reasons,
and the Employer agrees, to enter into the Site prior to the possession had been granted, he shall
demonstrate that he has the necessary insurance and has arranged appropriate safety measures.
During possession of the Site, or portion of the Site, the Contractor shall be responsible for
providing lighting, protection and other measures to make the temporary works, permanent works,
material storage, excavations, partially finished works, etc., safe for the public and road users.
In the event of accidents within the area for which the Contractor has possession, causing
damages to the carriageway, any structures, monuments, etc., the Contractor shall carry out all the
necessary repairs, as instructed by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall keep open all accesses to property off the road during the execution of the
Works. Where closure of such accesses is unavoidable, as agreed with the Engineer, and due to
the proximity of the Works, the Contractor shall give sufficient and in advance notice of the
operations to the users/owners of the affected properties so that any inconvenience is minimised
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and whenever possible, temporary access shall be provided. In no case shall any access be
closed for more than twelve hours.
Roads, accesses, rights of way which are being used by the Site traffic shall at all times be kept
clean of dirt, mud and materials dropped from vehicles or from tyres.
The Contractor shall provide, maintain and use suitable maintenance equipment.
3.4 - Site Compound
The Contractor shall find his own site or sites for setting up one or more compounds as temporary
works, to which his offices, workshops, stores, plant, stockpiles, etc are to be placed, including the
access to and from them. The sites shall be close to the land provided by the Employer and on
which the Engineer's main office and laboratory are to be built-in.
The Contractor will ensure the access and communication between his own and the Engineers
working places.
On completion of the relevant section of the Works for which specific temporary works have been
provided, the Contractor shall remove them, clean the site and carry out other works to return the
site to the original condition.
The Contractor shall also identify his own areas for the location of collection and disposal of waste
and unnecessary materials, complying with the local regulations and procedures for transport and
disposal.
The identification, arrangement and finally reinstatement to the initial grade of the land necessary
for the borrow pits, depositing of the excavated material and any other kind or type of temporary
work required for ensuring the operation at the full designated capacity of the site organization and
the development of the project itself, is falling under the exclusive responsibility of the Contractor.
The complete endowment of the site organization with the access ways, water supply, electrical
and thermal energy, lighting, sanitation, etc., as required by the provisions of the Conditions of
Contract falls under the direct and exclusive responsibility of the Contractor.
The entire design for the establishment, arrangement for setting-up the site organization and
reinstatement of the land shall be subject to the Engineers approval.
In accordance with the provisions of the Ministry of Public Works Order no. 63/1998, the Contractor
shall erect within 28 days after the Commencement of Works, the Project Identification Signs,
subject to the Engineers approval. The Project Identification Signs shall be:
- installed on locations instructed by the Engineer, at both ends of the project. For each location
a single faced signs shall be provided, both in Romanian and English;
- manufactured in accordance with the above ordinance ;
- dimensions of the board: 3 m height, 2 m width;
- mounted on steel posts on concrete foundations at 1 m above the ground level;
In accordance with the provisions of Ministry of Public Works Order no. 38/2000, the Contractor
shall erect Commemorative Plaques in places instructed by the Engineer, at both ends of the
Project and on the major bridges.
3.5 - Temporary works
The Contractor shall design, arrange, provide and remove at his own cost all Temporary Works
needed in order to carry out the Permanent Works. The Temporary Works shall include the
provision of diversions of the road(s) as necessary. All temporary works shall be subject to the
Engineers approval, but this shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for their design
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and adequacy. For his design of the temporary works, the Contractor shall obtain the permits as
required by the law and regulations and shall pay all the related taxes or fees.
The Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining all approvals and permits for organising all
necessary land leasing for any Temporary Works such as for access roads, diversion roads,
borrow pits, site compounds, materials, plant and equipment storage areas, laboratory facilities
and so on. He shall reinstate the areas affected by these Temporary Works to their original
condition or as agreed with the Engineer.
The Contractor shall design and construct any form of temporary road diversion and rail or river
crossing and shall be responsible for obtaining approvals and clearances from the land owners and
the relevant authorities and organisations and pay all the related taxes, duties or fees.
The temporary road diversions shall be designed and constructed using materials and
workmanship of a prescribed quality standard so that no settlement, rutting or distortion of the
running surface will develop. The diversion roads shall be surfaced with an even and safe wearing
course.
The design of the diversion shall be submitted for approval, to the Engineer. The Contractor shall
submit details of his scheme to the landowners and all the relevant authorities.
When submitting the design of the diversion to the Engineer, the Contractor shall also submit his
proposals for traffic management and safety, whilst the diversion will be in use.
On completion of the relevant section of the Works for which Temporary Works have been
provided, the Contractor shall remove such roads, structures and the like and reinstate the ground
on which they had been constructed to its original condition or as agreed with the Engineer.
3.6 - Existing Structures and Underground Services
Where, in the course of execution of the Works, any existing foundations, walls, sewers, drains,
pipes, wires, cables, and other structures, places and things are exposed, or are otherwise
affected by the execution of the Works, they shall be properly diverted or protected and adequately
supported, to prevent any inconvenience and interruption and to ensure the safety and continuity in
use of the aforesaid services, all subject to the Engineers approval.
3.7 - Dealing with Water
Notwithstanding as otherwise specified, the Contractor shall bear all risks related to water, whether
from the main river, local water courses, underground springs or any other sources or cause. The
Contractor shall provide and use all necessary plant, appliances, pumps, and the like and shall be
responsible for pumping all water from excavations. In discharging and diverting water he shall
avoid flooding other works, causing erosion and polluting watercourses.
Where Temporary Works cross or are within watercourses the Contractor shall design and arrange
his Temporary Works in accordance with the water authority's requirements for water flow,
avoidance of pollution, etc.
3.8 - Information
The Contractor shall, when required by the Engineer, furnish all information as to quality, weight,
constituent substances, dimensions, levels, strength and description of the materials and work, and
give the Engineer such other particulars as may be required for their approval in accordance with
the Contract.
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3.9 - Utilities Relocation and Protection
Whenever an existing over or under-ground utility/service carrying live main services is to be
diverted in order to perform the Works, the Contractor shall arrange for these works to be carried
out by the owner of the services/utilities or by any authorised subcontractor under the supervision
of the owner and in accordance with the specific laws, including the assurance of the technical
assistance from the designer in accordance with the Law no. 10/1995. The Contractor shall provide
attendance as necessary and will be responsible for undertaking all measures to provide the
protection of such utility and for the consequences of damages that could appear.
The Contractor will obtain prior approvals from the utilities owners/administrators and all the
relevant authorities regarding such utilities not shown in the drawings and shall be responsible for
agreeing the programme of the work and for paying any necessary costs and fees, when and as
instructed by the Engineer. For the utilities shown in the drawings, the prior approval is to be
obtained by the Designer of the Works and provided to the Contractor before the start of the Works
on Site, but the Contractor remain liable for agreeing the related programme of work and for paying
any necessary costs and fees, when and as instructed by the Engineer.
The final approvals from the utilities owners, both for the utilities shown or not shown in the
drawings have to be obtained by the Contractor as follows:
The utilities owners/administrators issue a prior approval necessary for the Employer to obtain
the Construction License for the Works. The prior approvals usually impose a series of
technical requirements, according to the specific legislation, which regulates the utilities
operation under the new condition of the road. The prior approvals also usually specify that the
final approval must be obtained before the start of the Works.
The owners of the utilities issue the final approval usually after the formal approval by
themselves of the relocation/protection working drawings. The relocation/protection designs
shall be correlated with the final Working Drawings of the Works.
The Contractor is entitled to recover the cost of the design and execution for the utilities not
shown in the drawings and the cost of all necessary permits, licenses and approvals required
by the law as a prerequisite condition for the execution of relocation/protection of the utilities
shown or not in the drawings, from the related items provided for in the Bill of Quantities.
The execution of the utilities works shall be performed only by specialized companies agreed
by the owners/administrators, based on the designs and technical specifications approved as
mentioned above and with the necessary specialised technical assistance provided for under
the Law no. 10/1995.
Whenever during the execution of the Works the Contractor discovers utilities to be removed or
protected not shown in the drawings, he shall immediately notify the Engineer and the Employer.
In case that there is no need for the utilities to be diverted, it shall be the Contractor's responsibility
to maintain and protect them while working in their vicinity, all with the approval of the utilities
owners/administrators and the Engineer.
The Contractor shall inform immediately the relevant authorities in the event of any damage
produced to the public or private utilities shown on the drawings and shall perform the necessary
repairs at his own cost.
The responsibilities of the Contractor described hereunder will last until the end of the Defect
Liability Period.
3.10 - Safeguarding the Environment
The Contractor shall execute all the works and take any measures for the environmental protection
and impact mitigation, during the construction period and the Defect Liability Period, in full
compliance with the relevant local legislation and regulations in force. He shall obtain from the
Relevant Environment Agencies, all the necessary updated information and all the required permits
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and shall carry out in this respect any complementary studies whenever necessary. He shall obtain
environmental approvals for all the temporary works.
During the construction period, including the Defects Liability Period, the Contractor and his Sub-
contractors, in full compliance with the norms and regulations in force in Romania, shall implement
all necessary environmental mitigation measures aiming to:
ensure the reduction of the Equipment and Plant noise when working in urban or rural areas
and in the proximity of occupied buildings;
minimise the Plant and Equipment adverse impact on the natural, human and social
environments, including the locations for crushers, bitumen plants, batching plants and other
similar plants;
minimise the effect of the site traffic and to safeguard the public and the Contractor's work
force, including the enforcement of an adequate Traffic Management Plan;
protect the rivers, lakes, lands in crop and any areas surrounding the Site, against any kind of
pollution, which may be originated either from the permanent road works or from other
activities, related to the Contractor's operations on Site;
ensure a strict observance of the standards and specifications in defining, applying and
controlling the methods of stockpiling and handling the materials, especially those most
sensitive such as fuel, bitumen, lubricants, cement, explosive, etc.;
protect and accurately reinstate, at the end of the works, the land used for the borrow pits,
quarries, services and diversion roads, and for any temporary or preparatory work;
provide, install and test for proper operation the specific equipment required for the proper
monitoring of all kind of pollution factors such as noise, gas, dust, liquids, etc., deriving from
the Site activities;
reduce the pollutants emissions, under the admissible levels, in accordance with the
Romanian current legislation and norms;
prevent any pollution to the land and the underground waters, the biodegradable materials and
residues shall be carefully storied, by types, in containers or on platforms in locations approved
by the Engineer and the local Environmental Agency, and consequently properly eliminated
under due security conditions;
maintain all the time a clean and proper environment in performing the Works, inclusive by an
efficient and in time watering of all the affected areas of land or establishments (access roads,
platforms, etc.);
ensure a continuously and in-real-time determination of the following indices: NOx, SOx, CO,
heavy metals, particle in suspension, deposited dust, etc. In this respect, a proper equipment
shall be procured and installed on the location instructed by the Engineer, including the
provision and use of the adequate software for gathering, analysis and interpretation of the
registered data;
monitor the water level variation within the area of the Works, by constructing a 3 hydro-
geological observation wells with minimal depth of 20 m in the locations instructed by the
Engineer;
ensure a proper and adequate completion and maintenance of the Works, through gathering
of witness samples from the points instructed by the Engineer in order to determine the quality
of the environment (air, water, soil, vegetation);
take any other action, as instructed by the Engineer and as required by the current Romanian
legislation. (Law No. 137/dated 30.12.1995).
Upon the Engineers instruction, the Contractor shall carry out any environmental measurements to
demonstrate that the requirements of this Clause are met. The tests shall be carried out at the
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locations and at the time instructed by the Engineer. The Contractor shall carry out such tests at
his own expenses with instruments supplied by him.
The outcome of all the above will be subject to a distinctive section in the Contractors monthly
Report.
3.11 - Traffic Management
Within two weeks of the date of Commencement of the Works, the Contractor shall inform the
Engineer in writing the name of a fully qualified person responsible for the compliance with this
Clause.
The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval a Traffic Management Plan describing
how he intends to minimise the impact of the construction activities on the public road circulation.
The Traffic Management Plan shall be preliminarily submitted for its approval to all the relevant
authorities (Police Department, Employer's local branch, etc.). The Traffic Management Plan shall
include all the details and information as necessitated by the Works or as the Engineer may
require. Throughout the execution of the Works and the remedying of any defects therein, the
Contractor shall shall:
have full regard for the safety of all persons on Site or unauthorised and keep the Site (so far
as the same is under his control) as well as the Works (so far as the same are not completed
or occupied by the Employer) in an appropriate state to avoid any danger to all persons; and
provide and maintain, at his own cost, all lights, barriers and warning signs, when and where
necessary or when required by the Engineer for the protection of the Works or for the safety
and convenience of the public or others.
The structure of the document will contain at least the following information:
o temporary signing of the works performed on the public road, including details of the
principles of temporary road signing;
o classification and features of the road signs and ancillary means for works signing;
o installation/dismantling of road temporary signing, including night and emergency signing;
o alternating circulation;
o temporary marking;
o signing of the vehicles that take part in works execution;
o protection of personnel;
o traffic lighting, including calculation sheets;
o duties and responsibilities of the persons involved in the traffic safety;
The Contractor shall manufacture, install and maintain the Contract Identification Boards as
required by the Ministry of Public Works Order no. 63/N 11.08.98.
The location, dimensions and content of the Contract Identification Boards shall be subject to
Engineers approval.

Approval of request for setting up of traffic restrictions

Periodically and based on the provisions of the Traffic Management Plan, requests for setting up of
traffic restrictions are presented to the Engineer in accordance with the Works progress from the
revised and up-dated Updated Program of Works, according to Sub-Clause 8.3 of General and
Particular Conditions of Contract:

The documents attached to the request are the followings:
o the request for the related road sectors;
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o the approval of the Police County Inspectorate and National Roads Local Department;
o traffic designs (schemes) related to the restrictions;
o calculation and annexes, if necessary.

The Employer issues the approval for setting up of traffic restrictions for the requested time period
and the involved road sectors.
Where the circumstances of any particular case are not described in the Traffic Management Plan,
the Contractor shall submit proposals for dealing with such situations to the Engineers approval.
Compliance with the foregoing shall not relieve the Contractor of any of his other obligations and
liabilities under the Contract.
The Contractor shall not commence any work that affects the public roads until all traffic safety
measures necessitated by the work are fully operational. The traffic signs, road markings, lamps,
barriers and traffic control signals shall be in accordance with the requirements applicable at the
date of the execution of the Works (Common instructions issued by Ministry of Public Works,
Transport and Housing and Ministry of Internal Affairs regarding Methodological norms concerning
the conditions for traffic closing in order to perform works in the area of the road and/or to protect
the road published in Romanian Official Bulletin no. 397, dated 24 August 2000).
The Contractor shall keep clean and readable at all times all traffic sign, road markings, lamps,
barriers and traffic control signals and shall position, re-position, cover or remove them as
necessitated by the progress of the Works.
Roads, accesses, rights of way, etc. which are being used by the site traffic shall at all times be
kept clean of all dirty, mud and material dropped from vehicles or from tyres arising from such use.
The Contractor shall provide, maintain and use suitable equipment for this purpose. In carrying out
the Works, the Contractor shall ensure that all road drains, ditches and grips shall be kept clear of
any spoil, mud, slurry, or other materials likely to impede the free flow of water.
3.12 - Works done Off Site.
When major components of the Works are manufactured outside the Site, the Contractor shall
make the necessary arrangements to allow the Engineer to inspect the works during the whole
period of manufacture.
The Contractor shall give to the Engineer written notice of the workshops and places where works
is being, or is about to be, done or from which materials of manufactured articles are about to be or
are being supplied. He shall also give such notice and keep the Engineer advised of the times
when such materials will be ready to be inspected, so that such inspection may take place without
delaying the delivery of the materials to the site. Such notices shall be given at such times to
permit the inspection of the whole of the work at all stages of the processes of manufacture.
3.13 - Other Contractors
The Contractor is advised that other Contractors employed by the Employer and employees of the
Employer may be working on and around the Site. The Contractor shall liase with the Employer
and shall plan and execute the Works for mutual convenience and ensure satisfactory progress of
the Works.
The Contractor and his subcontractors shall not interfere with any works whether the property of
the Employer or of a third party, except where such interference is specifically described as part of
the Works either in the Contract or in an instruction issued by the Engineer. The Contractor shall
be held responsible for any loss or damage thereto if caused by him.
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3.14 - Documents to be submitted to the Engineer
At specified intervals specified, the Contractor shall supply to the Engineer updates / revision of the
following documents:
Program of Works;
Cash Flow;
List of Labour, Plant and Equipment.
The Program of Works (Critical Path Method) to be provided under the Conditions of Contract shall
be submitted in the form of a Time-Location Chart clearly indicating the phasing of all the Work.
Plant and labour resource teams shall be listed for all operations.
The Program shall be revised at the intervals specified in the Contract or as requested by the
Engineer, following any major variation or extension of time granted, or when any critical operation
has fallen behind its planned duration by more than 10 per cent.
Along with the revised version of the Program of Works, the related Cash Flow shall be submitted
to the Engineer.
The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer at the end of each calendar month, or at such other
times as may be agreed, detailed schedules and reports on the progress of works in the month in
question of the plant, equipment and labour engaged on Site, divided into categories, detailed as
the Engineer may reasonably request, showing separately the Contractor's and each sub-
contractor's labour, equipment and plant. As far as the equipment and plant are concerned, the
condition of each item shall be indicated in the schedules.
3.15 - As Built Drawings
The Contractor shall keep records as the Works proceed to enable him to mark up a set of As Built
Drawings during construction. These As Built Drawings shall be made available for inspection from
time to time by the Engineer.
On completion of the works and not more than 90 days after the issue of Taking Over Certificate,
the Contractor shall submit to the Engineers approval two sets of As Built Drawings (hard copy)
and one set of As Built Drawings on electronic format covering the complete construction of the
Works. The As-Built-Drawings shall be accompanied by all records taken during the construction of
the works.
3.16 - Clearing and disposal of Unexploded Ammunition
Before the Commencement of works, the Contractor submits his proposal for a subcontractor,
properly authorized to perform the clearing of unexploded ammunition.
The area from where the unexploded ammunition will be removed is settled based on the projects
layout considering the width of the construction limits with additional 7 m on both sides. The
removal of the unexploded ammunition is performed on a depth of minimum 1 m below the bottom
of the construction (sub-grade, foundation etc.).
3.17 - Erection of site identification boards
Within 28 days of the Commencement Date the Contractor shall supply and erect two project
identification boards, one at each end of the Site. The signboards, 3m high and 2m wide made of
aluminium, shall be installed on steel poles on concrete foundations. The lower end of the
signboard shall be 1m above ground level. Details on format, content and location shall be
provided by the Engineer.
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4 - QUALITY ASSURANCE AND CONTROL
4.1 - Quality Assurance Management System
Within 60 days of the Letter of Acceptance, the Contractor shall prepare and submit to the
Engineer a written Quality Assurance Management System similar to that described in ISO 9000
series. This shall show the Contractor's Site organisation and responsibilities for all members of
the Contractor's organisation to check and report on the quality of materials and workmanship. It
shall also show the procedures for communication with the Engineer.
The Contractor's Quality Assurance Management System shall comply with the provisions of the
Law No.10/95.
The Contractor shall be wholly responsible for ensuring that the quality of all materials and
workmanship is in accordance with the Technical Specifications.
The Contractor shall carry out his own inspection of materials and workmanship and satisfy himself
that they meet the Specification before submitting them to the Engineer for certification.
The Engineer shall issue Non-Conformity Notices if any work, material, workmanship or any other
thing is not in accordance with the Contract. Until such non-conformity notice is rescinded, the
Engineer shall not certify any payment for the work or item affected.
The Contractor shall, within 28 days of the Letter of Acceptance, submit to the Engineers consent
the names, CVs and duties of all key personnel.
4.2 - Specifications and Standards
The Contractor shall comply with the provisions of the Romanian Standards, Specifications and
Normas, including the additions and amendments in force 28 days prior to the latest date for
submission of the tender.
In case of a discrepancy between the provisions of the Technical Specification and the Standards
in force, the Engineer will issue the necessary clarification.
Upon the Engineers instruction, the Contractor shall provide specialised publications such as:
FIDIC and ICC books and publications, ISO Collections and Guides, roads and bridges specialty
books, standards, norms, magazines, etc.
4.3 - Site Laboratory
The Contractor shall provide, subject to Engineers consent, a building to form the Site Laboratory
for carrying out sampling and testing as required by the Technical Specification. The laboratory
shall be located within the limits of the Site or close to it.
The size and layout of the laboratory shall be suitable to carry out all sampling and testing of
materials and workmanship. It shall contain special storage rooms for samples of materials, etc.,
as agreed with the Engineer.
The laboratory shall be set up in accordance with the MLPAT Order No. 31/N/I995 and shall obtain
the required accreditation from the State Inspectorate. The Contractor shall provide the equipment
and consumables necessary for carrying out the sampling, testing and recording as required by the
Technical Specification and additional numbers of tests as instructed or carried out by the
Engineer. The minimal list of the laboratory equipment is presented in Appendix A.3 hereunder.
The list is not exhaustive. The Contractor is responsibility to provide any other necessary items of
equipment to ensure the proper performance of the activities in the laboratory. The testing
equipment shall be new and maintained in a clean and serviceable state and shall be checked
and/or calibrated at required intervals or when instructed by the Engineer.
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The Contractor shall staff the laboratory with a fully qualified engineer (Chief of Laboratory) and
qualified technicians fully experienced and properly authorized in testing the materials. The
sampling and testing shall be supported by an adequate number of laboratory and field labourers.
The Contractor shall provide mobile facilities for sampling and testing carried out in the field, at the
location of Works.
The laboratory shall be maintained in a clean and tidy condition to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
The laboratory shall be completed and ready for use within 12 weeks of the Commencement Date.
If the Contractor commences any selection or testing of materials for submission to the Engineer
for approval of any permanent works before the 12 weeks period, temporary testing facilities,
subject to Engineera approval, may be used.
The Contractor shall assist the Engineer to carry out tests for the Contract using the equipment,
consumables, etc., or to carry out supplementary tests as instructed by the Engineer.
4.4 - Sampling, Testing, Trials and Method Statements
The sampling and testing shall be in accordance with the relevant Standard Specification, with this
Specification and with the applicable regulation.
Before placing orders for materials for incorporation in the Works, the Contractor shall submit
complete information to the Engineer. This information should include the name of the supplier, the
origin of the material, manufacturer's specification, quality, description, together with details of
materials. The Contractor shall deposit the samples of such materials when requested and where
appropriate.
The Contractor shall supply Method Statements describing the sequence, materials and other
relevant details for all key activities or for any other activities requested by Engineer. The
Contractor shall not start any works prior to obtain Engineers approval for the relevant method
statement.
The Contractor shall carry out trials of all concrete or asphalt mixes showing by tests that the
constituent materials and the resulting mixture comply with the Technical Specification.
During the construction period, upon Engineers instruction, the Contractor shall repeat any tests in
his own laboratory or in a laboratory nominated by the Engineer.
At the completion of the Works (before the Taking Over) and at the end of the Defects Liability
Period, the Contractor shall carry out the following measurements and tests:
- evenness measurements by APL equipment;
- roughness measurements by GRIPTESTER equipment;
- bearing capacity measurements;
- finished surface evaluation and non-conformities by DEGY equipment.
4.5 - Alternative Materials
The Contractor may apply for using alternative materials. In such cases, the Contractor shall
submit his technical proposal to the Engineers approval at least 4 weeks before the material is to
be used, or longer if such longer period is required for testing of the material. The use of alternative
materials is allowed only with the Engineer's approval (given after due consideration of the
Romanian regulations.
4.6 - Engineer's approval of the Works
No works shall commence until the Engineer's written approval has been given.
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For Site inspections and approval of the Works, the Contractor shall give adequate notice in writing
to the Engineer. Where no period of notice is stated in the Contract, such notice shall be not less
than 8 hours of normal working time, before the Work is ready for inspection. The forms provided in
the QAMS shall be used.
This will not release the Contractor from any of his obligations or responsibilities under the
Contract.
The Engineer shall require reasonable time during normal working hours to carry out his
inspection.
For off-site works, the Contractor shall give the Engineer at least 7 days notice in writing stating
when such works are due to commence.

5 - SURVEY
5.1 - Existing Ground and Road Levels
The Contractor shall satisfy himself that the existing ground and road levels as indicated in the
Design are correct. Should the Contractor wish to dispute any levels he shall submit to the
Engineer a schedule of the position of the levels considered to be in error and a set of revised
levels. The existing ground relevant to the dispute levels shall not be disturbed before the
Engineer's decision as to the correct levels is given.

In case of foundation works or where the Engineer considers it necessary, the Contractor shall,
before the surface of any portion of the ground is disturbed or the work is put in hand, in
conjunction with the Engineer examine the Site and the plants and sections of the work and take
such additional levels or other measurements as may be necessary, and shall agree as to the
surface levels, etc., with the Engineer. Such agreement shall be recorded in writing, and shall form
the basis of the measurement of the Works.
5.2 - Survey and Setting Out
The Contractor shall, within 8 weeks of the Date of Commencement, check the permanent
benchmarks upon which the design of the Works has been based, and if any discrepancies are
found, the Contractor shall inform the Engineer in writing and the appropriate solution should be
found. He shall also establish temporary benchmarks adjacent to each bridge site and at
intermediate points. The benchmarks will be located within 60 m. of the Site and the agreed value
of each shall be legibly recorded thereon. The Contractor shall correlate the levels with those on
adjacent contracts.
The Contractor shall, as soon as practicable, submit to the Engineer the data concerning the
reference pegs and temporary benchmarks and shall keep such records up to date by formal
notice to the Engineer. All pegs shall be painted in distinguished colours.
The Contractor shall do everything necessary to facilitate any checking which the Engineer may
carry out.
The Contractor shall supply all instruments and equipment new for the use within 4 weeks from the
Commencement Date.
The Contractor shall provide and maintain, for the exclusive use of the Engineer during the period
of execution of the Works, all surveying equipment, pegs and tools as described in the Bill of
Quantities. All equipment shall be kept in accurate working order during the period of the Contract
and shall be replaced if reported to the Contractor as being inaccurate or unsatisfactory.
Where the case may be, patterns will be used to indicate the slope gradient and the changing
points of the gradient.
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All survey reference pegs shall be carefully preserved except where construction requires their
removal, and before such removal the Engineer shall be notified accordingly.
At each bridge crossing, the Contractor shall establish reference pegs to indicate the intersection
of the centre line of the road and the centre line of the bridge and shall preserve such pegs in
similar manner to other reference pegs.
Where centre lines have been fixed and running chainage established, reference pegs shall be
placed in protected places at every 100 m. The pegs will be placed perpendicular to the centre line.

6 - FACILITIES, SERVICES and EQUIPMENT for the ENGINEER
and for PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION UNIT (P.I.U.)
6.1 - Engineer's Main Office
The Contractor shall provide offices for the Engineer as detailed in Appendix A1. The Engineers
Office shall be made available within four weeks of the Commencement Date. It shall be located
close to the Site and to the Contractors Site Office. The location, design and arrangements for the
permanent office shall be subject to the Engineers approval.
If no permanent office can be made available within four weeks of the Commencement Date, the
Contractor shall provide temporary facilities until the permanent office can be made available. The
temporary facilities shall be similar to the permanent office and shall be subject to the Engineers
approval.
The office shall be provided with furnishings, fittings and equipment, all subject to the Engineers
approval, as specified in Clause 6.5, Clause 6.6 and Appendix A2.
The water supply, sanitary arrangements, heating and lighting for the office shall be provided and
maintained by the Contractor in accordance with the requirements of Clause 6.5.
The office and the access thereto shall be properly maintained by the Contractor in accordance
with the requirements of Clause 6.5. until the end of the Defects Liability Period.
6.2 - Laboratory Office for the Engineer
The Contractor shall provide a laboratory office for the Engineer as detailed in Appendix A.1, within
the laboratory specified in Clause 4.3.
The laboratory office shall be provided with furnishings, fittings and equipment, all subject to the
Engineers approval, as specified in Clause 6.5, Clause 6.6 and Appendix A.2.
The water supply, sanitary arrangements, heating and lighting for the laboratory office shall be
provided and maintained by the Contractor in accordance with the requirements of Clause 6.5.
The laboratory office shall be completed and ready for occupation and use by the Engineer at the
same time as the laboratory.
6.3 - Furniture and Equipment for the Engineer's Offices and for P.I.U.
The Contractor shall supply new furniture and new equipment of good quality suitable for hard and
prolonged use, as required by the Engineer.
The lists given in Appendix A.1 and Appendix A.2 of the Specification General Items are
indicative of the requirements. The Engineer may make alterations when the Contractor's
organisation, methodology and the location and layout of new buildings are known.
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The computer software shall be in English language; separate software licensed packages shall be
provided for each computer. The Contractor shall supply adequate electronic supports (floppy disk,
CDR, CDRW, DVD, DVDRW, backup cartridges), as well as printings and plotting facilities and
consumables. The Contractor shall also supply a complete set of operating instruction manuals, in
English, for all hardware and software.
A local network with internet access shall be installed. All computers in the office shall be
connected to the network.
The Contractor shall insure all items against loss and damage.
6.4 - General Requirements for Engineer's Offices
All buildings shall be insulated and weatherproof suitable for the climate. All windows shall be
double-glazed and have rolling blind and curtains. Entrances shall be provided with two sets of
doors. Natural lighting and ventilation shall be provided to each room but adequate electrical
lighting shall be provided. Every room shall be provided with at least three earthed electric power
sockets, with a maximum total supply of 4 kilowatt per room;
Each room shall be provided with a through-the-wall heating/cooling air conditioning unit suitable to
maintain an internal temperature of about 21 C whatever the external temperature might be.
Ceiling heights shall be at least 2.8 metres.
Each kitchen shall be equipped with a sink, base and wall cupboards, a 180 litre refrigerator and a
two ring electric hotplate. Wash-hand basins, showers and kitchen sinks shall be continuously
provided with hot and cold water.
The Contractor shall properly clean and maintain the offices as long as the Engineer requires use.
The Contractor shall carry out the repairs to the buildings, their contents and services, and to the
equipment as soon as the need arises.
The Contractor shall make all arrangements, and pay all necessary charges, for the continuous
provision and maintenance of the following services, until the offices are no longer required by the
Engineer:
electricity for power and lighting;
air conditioning and heating;
fresh drinking water;
hot water;
disposal of sewage and waste water;
disposal of solid waste;
international telephone and fax lines.
6.5 - Communication Facilities for the Engineer
The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with 1 (one) international direct line for telephone and
fax at the Main Office. In addition, the Contractor shall also provide 2 (two) national telephone lines
with internet connections at the Main and Laboratory offices, with fax facilities at the Main Office.
The Contractor shall provide to the Engineer 2 (two) new GSM mobile phones with international
access and 8 (eight) new GSM mobile phones with local access - model and brand as approved by
the Engineer.
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The Contractor shall allow for all purchasing, rental, servicing, subscriptions costs or fees and
maintenance. The charges for use of the telephone fax facilities and mobile phones shall be paid
by the Contractor but reimbursed at invoice cost by the Employer.
Telephone, internet connections and fax facilities shall be available contemporary to the offices in
which they are located; the mobile phones shall be provided within 14 days of the Commencement
Date.
6.6 - Operatives for the Engineer's staff
The Contractor shall provide to the Engineer with such assistance as he shall reasonably require.
The Contractor shall provide skilled personnel for the tasks required, and maintain continuity of
employment. Chainmen shall be experienced in assisting the Engineer in survey work. Laboratory
handymen shall be capable to assist the Engineer with routine tasks in the Laboratory.
Chainmen, drivers and laboratory handymen shall have valid driving licenses and driving
experience suitable for the vehicles to be provided.
6.7 - Vehicles for the Engineer and for the P.I.U
The Contractor shall provide the Engineer and the P.I.U. with new vehicles as detailed bellow and
in the appropriate items of the Bill of Quantities for the exclusive use of the Engineer and other
persons authorised by the Engineer including the Employer, at all times, including the days off and
weekends.
The vehicles shall be licensed and comprehensively insured for use on the public roads by any
licensed driver authorised by the Engineer. The insurance cover shall extend to liability to third
parties arising from accidents involving the vehicles used by the Employer or the Engineer. The
Contractor shall provide fuel, oil and maintenance (including replacing defective parts, tyres, etc,
whenever required), arrange the service and legal technical checking in accordance with the
Romanian Law (and obtain the appropriate certificate). The vehicles shall be provided as soon as
practicable after receipt of an appropriate instruction from the Engineer, and shall be fuelled, oiled
and maintained as aforesaid until the end of the Defects Liability Period, unless released earlier at
the direction of the Engineer.
Each of the vehicles shall be fitted with a fire extinguisher, first aid kit, tow rope, tool kit, wheel
wrench, jack and handle, tyre pump, spade, torch, etc. One battery charging unit shall be provided
for the Engineers use.
The Contractor shall provide a similar replacement for any of the vehicles out of service for more
than twenty four hours, and shall also replace any vehicle by a similar new vehicle after it has
completed 100,000 km if, in the opinion of the Employer or the Engineer, such vehicle cannot be
maintained in a satisfactory condition.
The Contractor shall arrange for and pay all costs, custom fees, charges, and any other taxes etc.,
in providing on site and maintaining the vehicles for the Engineer and for the P.I.U.
The Contractor, at his cost, shall fuel the Engineer's vehicles without withdrawing their availability
to the Engineer.
The Contractor shall pay all costs, fees, charges, etc., in providing and maintaining the vehicles for
the Engineer and for the P.I.U.
The vehicles for the Employer and Engineer shall be new and similar in size, quality and
performance as specified bellow:
4 wheel drive, 5 doors, 2500 TDi, EURO 4 emission class, air conditioning, ABS, ESP, SLS,
ACE, solar protection windows;
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4 wheel drive, 5 doors, 2000 TDi, EURO 4 emission class, air conditioning, ABS, ESP, SLS,
ACE, solar protection windows;
4 wheel drive, 5 doors, 1600 TDi, EURO 4 emission class, air conditioning, ABS, ESP, SLS,
ACE, solar protection windows;
The vehicles shall be supplied within 12 weeks of the Letter of Acceptance or such later time as
instructed by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall provide the Engineer, as and when required, with the services, of drivers for
the Engineer's vehicles. These drivers shall also carry out general duties as requested by the
Engineer.
6.8 - Miscellaneous Services for the Engineer and for the P.I.U.
The Contractor shall supply all necessary stationary and consumables (paper for photocopier,
plotter and printer, pens and inks for plotter, toner for photocopier, CDR, CDRW, DVD, DVDRW,
printer cartridges, notebooks, pads of writing paper, file holders, lever arch file, ball pens, pencils,
erasers, staplers, and staples, punches, clips, adhesive tape, marking pens, wipers, etc.) for the
Engineer's staff in the offices and for the Employer as instructed by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall ensure at all times the necessary quantities for a reasonable consumption of
coffee, tea, sugar, mineral water and other items as instructed by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with a Digital Video Camera and two Digital
Photographic Camera and all the necessary accessories for carrying, standing, processing and
printing, including extra memory, as described in the Appendix A.2.
The Contractor shall arrange to take full colour record photographs of the Works as the Engineer
shall direct. Each month, the Contractor shall deliver to the Engineer the digital format of the
photographs and four printed sets, each set up to 40 photographs. All photographs shall be
numbered and retained on the Site; on completion of the Works the digital format and one
complete set of all the photographs shall become the property of the Employer. The copyrights of
all photographs shall be vested with the Employer.
The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with safety helmets, reflective jackets, reflective
weatherproof suits, warm outer coats, waterproof safety boots and other protective clothing in
number and size instructed by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall provide and maintain a full set of surveying instruments, all new, for the
exclusive use of the Engineer. The set of surveying instruments shall consist of the following:
- Total Station with sighting targets 1 set;
- ranging rods;
- automatic level 1 piece;
- metric level staff 2 pieces;
- walkie-talkie equipment 1 set;
- 30m tape 1 piece;
- 50m tape 1 piece;
- 5m tape 10 pieces.
All necessary consumables shall be provided to the Engineer as required, among which: pegs,
hammers, nails, torches, sunshade, etc.
Based on the Engineers request, the Contractor shall provide the Engineer with topographic
assistance. The Contractor shall provide personnel for the requested tasks and shall ensure a
continuous presence of the personnel on site (including overtime and weekends). The topographic
workers will have relevant experience to be able to assist the Engineer in land survey works.
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6.9 - Disbursement of Items supplied under Subclauses 6.1 to 6.8
It should be noted that on final completion of the Contract and expiry of the Defects Liabilty Period
that all buildings, equipement, vehicles and furniture detailed in Subclauses 6.1 to 6.8 will remain
the property of the Contractor.

7 - APPLICABLE STANDARDS
The Tenderers must observe all the requirements of the legislation, regulations, technical norms
and standards concerning the Scope of the Works, in force in Romania at the date 28 days before
the deadline for submission of the tender.

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APPENDIX 1

Main Office for the Engineer
Laboratory Office for the Engineer

Description Unit Main Office Laboratory Office
Rooms > 16 m
2
number 8 2
Minimal total surface Sq.m. 135 25
Toilets number 2 1
Sinks number 2 1
Shower number 1 1
Kitchen number 1 1
Storage room number 1 1
Meeting room > 25 m
2
number 1 -
Parking platform - concrete Places 6 2

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APPENDIX 2

Furniture and Equipment for the Engineer and for P.I.U.

Item
Main
Office
Laboratory
Office
P.I.U.
Through the wall air conditioning units 8 2 -
Desks (1.8m x 0.9m) with lockable cabinet (3 drawers) 10 2 -
Padded high back swivel chairs for desks 10 2 -
Desk (1.8m x 0.9m) 6 2 -
Lockable filling cabinets (3 drawers) 6 2 -
Chairs with padded seats 6 2 -
Meeting room table (4.0m x 1.6m) 1 - -
Meeting room chairs 10 - -
Drawing tools set 1 - -
Shelf units (1.8m x 0.3m) 10 4 -
Cupboard (1.8m x 0.9m) with 3 shelves and lock 5 1 -
Wall notice pin board (2m x 1.2m) 10 1 -
PC Intel Core 2 Duo 2.4 GHz computer, Intel DG965RY mainboard,
1 GB 533 MHz DDR2 RAM, 250 GB 7200 rot/min HDD, DVD RW
Double layer, video-card GeForce4 256 MB DDR, media card
reader, Logitech cordless keyboard and mouse, internet and
network cards;
LCD 19 screen;
Software: Windows XP Professional
MSOffice XP Professional
AUTO CAD latest version
7 1 2
Laptop HP 17 display, Intel Core 2 Duo 2.4 GHz, 1 GB 667 MHz
DDR2 RAM, 100 GB HDD, DVD RW Double layer, media card
reader, internet and network cards;
Software: Windows XP Professional
MSOffice XP Professional
AUTO CAD latest version
1 - -
Network Color Laser printer (A3/A4) with scanning/copy facility 1 - -
Color DeskJet Printer A4 format 7 - 2
UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply) 7 - -
Local network for computers and printers 1 - -
Primavera Project Planner P3, including training, service and
upgrading
1 - 1
Digital video camera: min. 10 Mega pixels, large colour display,
mini DVD and card recording, steady Shot, audio/video input,
incorporated light, night shot;
lens extension, UV external filter, tripod stand, case
1 -
Digital Photo camera: min 10 Mega pixels, large colour display,
incorporated light, night shot;
lens extension, UV external filter, tripod stand, case
1 1 -
Colour A4 Scanner 1 - -
Heavy duty comb binder and punch 2 1 -
Paper shredder 1 -
Refrigerator (180 liter) 1 1 -
Waste bins 10 2 -
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Item
Main
Office
Laboratory
Office
P.I.U.
Fire extinguisher (1 electrical and 3 general purpose, 15 liters each) 1+3 1+1 -
Crockery and cutlery 10 - -
Microwave oven 1 1
Coffee filter 2 1
Clothes stand 9 2
Hand-pocket 12 digit calculators 10 2

The above list is indicative only. The Engineer may amend the list as necessary.
Before purchase, the Contractor shall seek Engineers approval for the proposed number, model and quality
of the items of furniture or equipment.
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APPENDIX 3

Laboratory Equipment (minimal list)

Nr. crt. Description Quantity
1 Laboratory oven 100 l 1
2 Laboratory oven 220 l 2
3 Analytical balance: sensitivity 0.01g, weight 500-600g 1
4 Analytical balance: sensitivity 0.1g, weight 10,000g 1
5 Analytical balance: sensitivity 0.1-1g, weight 30,000g 1
6 Pharmaceutical balance precision 0.01 g 1
7 Hydrostatic balance 1
8 Platform scale 100 kg 1
9 Hot plate 20-30 cm 2
10 Gas oven 2
11 Sieve set for soils (see SR-EN 933-2/1998) 1
12 Sieve set for aggregates (see SR-EN 933-2/1998) 1
13 Sieve set for concrete (see SR-EN 933-2/1998) 1
14 Sieve set for mixtures (see SR-EN 933-2/1998) 1
15 Sieves shaker 1
16 Aggregate sample splitter 1
17 Extruder 1
18 Desiccators 2
19 Compression testing machine for concrete max. 2000 KN 1
20 Room thermometer 2
21 Outdoor thermometers 2
22 Digital thermometer for asphalt, concrete etc. 4
23 Rain gauge 1
24 Core drilling machine 1
25 Los Angeles machine 1
26 Methylene blue test set 1
27 Pichnometers 2
28 Unit weigth measures to measure the density 5
29 Aggregate shape gauge (determination of shape factor) 1
30 Scoop 1
31 Slump test set 3
32 Vibrating table 1
33 Concrete mixer 1
34 Testing moulds (15 x 15 x 15) 1
35 Water tank with thermostat 1
36 Curing room vaporiser with temperature control 1
37 Mortar mixer 1
38 Jolting apparatus 1
39 Vicat apparatus + consistency plunger 1
40 Le Chatelier rings 1
41 Centrifuge extractors with filler separator 2
42 Marshall compression tester (manual sau mecanic) 1
43 Compression tester for cubic samples 1
44 Sample mixer 1
45 Water bath with thermostat 1
46 Penetrometer 2
47 Ring and ball apparatus 2
48 Asphalt oven for TFOT or RTFOT 1
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Nr. crt. Description Quantity
49 Ductility testing mashine 150 cm 1
50 Fraas breaking point apparatus 1
51 Spectrophotomenter 1
52 CBR Equipment 1
53 Standard and Modified Proctor mould + hammers 30
54 Benkelman beam 2
55 Lukas plate 1
56 Liquid limit device - Cassagrande apparatus 1
57 Areometers 2
58 Sand equivalent test set 2
59 Sand cone equipment 4
60 Specific gravity frame + gravity tank + basket 2
61 Compression testing machine for ciment 1
62 Chronometer 3
63 Polish stone device 1
64 Thermo-hygrograph -35 +45C; 0 - 100% humidity range 1
65 Field Dynamic penetrometer (FDP) for soil 1
66 Viscometer 1
67 Skin Resistance Test Device 1


The above list is indicative only. The Engineer may amend the list as necessary.
Before purchase, the Contractor shall seek Engineers approval for the proposed number, model and quality
of the items of Laboratory equipment.

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SPECIFICATIONS





2.1 ROAD WORKS
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CONTENTS
1 Earthworks
2 Form layer made of ballast
3 Layer of ballast or optimal ballast
4 Crushed stone
5 Layer of ballast stabilized with cement
6 Base course of hot rolled asphalt mixtures
7 Bituminous surfaces
8 Concrete pavement
9 Road signing
10 Road marking
11 Traffic safety
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION







- 1 -
EARTHWORKS
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Earthworks

SUMMARY


GENERAL PROVISIONS 36

1 MATERIALS 37
1.1 Top Soil ............................................................................................................ 37
1.2 Soils for earthworks .......................................................................................... 37
1.3 Water ................................................................................................................ 37
1.4 Quality control of soils ...................................................................................... 37

2 EARTHWORKS 41
2.1 Pegging out ....................................................................................................... 41
2.2 Preliminary works .............................................................................................. 41
2.3 Displacement of Earthworks .............................................................................. 42
2.4 Borrow pits and earth stockpiles ........................................................................ 42
2.5 Cuttings ............................................................................................................. 43
2.6 Preparation of the soil under embankment ........................................................ 45
2.7 Construction of the embankment ....................................................................... 45
2.8 Ditches and Gutters ........................................................................................... 47
2.9 Roadbed finishing .............................................................................................. 48
2.10 Protection with top soil ...................................................................................... 48

3 CONTROL OF CONSTRUCTION AND ACCEPTANCE OF WORKS 48
3.1 Control of Construction ...................................................................................... 48
3.2 Acceptance of Works ........................................................................................ 50





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GENERAL PROVISIONS


This Technical Specification applies to earthworks in public roads construction and includes the
conditions to follow during the earthworks construction with regard to excavation, transport,
compaction, levelling and finishing of the works, as well as the quality control and acceptance
criteria.

The Contractor shall perform, in an authorised laboratory, all the tests required by the Technical
Specifications and any other tests required by the Engineer.

Apart from the Technical Specifications, the Contractor shall respect the stipulations of the
standards and norms in force.


14 days before starting the works the Contractor shall submit for the Engineers approval, the
Method Statement for earthwork construction and that shall include:
Detailed programme of earthworks construction
The equipment necessary for excavation, transport, spreading, watering, compacting and
finishing
Borrow pits and earth storage places (temporary and permanent) and the related Method
Statement and also the access to each of them.
Temporary road diversions for the public traffic during the works construction
Diagram of Earthworks Displacement.


In order to determine the details of the compaction Method Statement, trial sections shall be
executed by the Contractor, on his own expense; the size and location of the trial sections shall be
decided together with the Engineer.
After executing the trial section, the Method Statement shall be completed with information
regarding the compacting Method Statement:
- The features of the compaction equipment (weight, width, tire pressure, vibration
parameters, speed)
- Number of passes with and without vibration to achieve the degree of compaction according
to the Technical Specification stipulations.
- The thickness of the layer before and after compaction.

The Contractor shall ensure that by all procedures applied, he fulfils the requirements of the
Technical Specifications.

The Contractor shall record on a daily basis data related to the construction of the works and the
obtained results of measurements, samples and tests.






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1 MATERIALS

1.1 Top Soil

The topsoil good for vegetation shall be used to cover the surfaces that have to be seeded and
planted.


1.2 Soils for earthworks

The types of soils used for earthworks are showed in Tables 1a and 1b.

In case the soil, in the area where earthworks are to be executed, is of bad or very bad quality
(see Table 1b) it shall be replaced with a suitable quality soil or it shall be stabilised either
mechanically or using binders (quick lime, power plant ashes etc).
Replacing or stabilising the earth shall be executed over the entire width of the platform with a
minimum 20 cm depth for the bad quality soil and minimum 50 cm for the very bad quality soil or
in case the dry density is less than 1.5g/cm
3
.
The clayey soil type 4d shall be replaced or stabilised in at least 15 cm depth.
The clayey soils of medium quality can be used provided that the STAS 1709/1,2,3-90 stipulations
regarding the prevention of deterioration caused by freezing thawing are respected.

The inorganic soils of bad and very bad quality as well as the organic soils, silts, mud, top soil,
soft soils (consistency index less than 0.75) and soils containing more than 5% water soluble salts
shall not be used for embankment construction.
The Contractor shall not use materials that:
- are frozen;
- contain organic matter in decay (grass, branches, roots).

The soil containing water soluble sulfates more than 1.9 g/l (SO
3
) shall not be stored or used as
filling material nearby/in the proximity of the concrete works.


1.3 Water

Water used for compaction of the earthworks shall be clear and it shall not contain either inorganic
or organic suspensions.


1.4 Quality control of soils

Before starting the works, the Contractor shall determine the quality and estimate the quantity of
materials from the borrow pits. The documents will be submitted to the Engineer for approval.
The materials used for earthworks shall also have the Engineers approval before starting the works.





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Table 1a Soil types (non-cohesive soils)
Content in fine parts in % of the
total mass
The main types of soil name, features
Type
(Symbol
)
<0,005
mm
<0,05
mm
<0,25
mm
Irregularity
index
U
n

Plasticity index
for parts less
than 0,5 mm I
p

Swelling
capacity
U
L
(%)
Material
quality for
earthwork
s
Very few fine parts, irregular
(continuous grading);
Non-sensitive to freezing thawing
or to moisture content variations.
1a > 5 Very good
Coarse grained:
Fraction > 2 mm is more
than 50% of the mass

Boulder stones, blocks,
gravel
Id.1a, discontinuous grading
1b
< 1 < 10 < 20
5
0 -
Very good
With fine parts, irregular
(continuous grading);
Medium sensitivity to freezing
thawing, non-sensitive to moisture
content variations
2a > 5 Very good
medium and fine:
fraction < 2 mm is more
than 50% of the mass

Gravel sand, coarse
grained sand, medium or
fine
id 2a, discontinuous grading 2b
< 6 < 20 < 40
5
10 -
Good
With very many fine parts;
Very sensitive to freezing thawing;
The fine fraction has low swelling
capacity
3a 40 Middling
medium and fine with
cohesive soils as binding
material
fraction < 2 mm is more
than 50% of the mass;
cohesive soils as binding
material
Gravel sand; coarse
grained sand, medium and
fine, with mud as binding
material
Id 3a, the fine part has medium or
high swelling capacity
3b
6 20 40 - > 10
> 40 Middling





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Table 1 b Type of soils (cohesive)
Name and characteristics of the main
type of soils
Symb
ol
Grading according to Cassagrande nomographic chart
Plasticity index I
p

for parts less
than 0,5 mm
Swelling
capacity
U
L
%
Material
quality for
earthworks
Inorganic:
- C and U low
- S i-d medium
4a < 10 < 40 Middling
Inorganic:
- C medium
- U low or medium
- S i-d very high
4b





Plasticity Index I
p

< 35 < 70 Middling
70

Organic (OM>5%):
- C and U low
- S i-d medium
4c
60


4d

10 40 Middling
50


Inorganic:
- C and U high
- S i-d medium
4d
40

4a
W
c

=

5
0
%



> 35 70 Bad
30


W
c

=

3
0
%

4b
Organic (OM>5%):
- C medium
- U medium or low
- S i-d very high
4e
20
4f

< 35 < 75 Bad
10
4c 4e


10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Cohesive soils:
o Dusty sand
o Sandy dust
o Clayey sand
o Dusty,
clayey sand
o Dusty clay
o Dust
o Dusty, sandy
clay
o Sandy clay
o Clay
o Fat clay

Organic (OM>5%):
- C high
- U high or medium
- S i-d very high
4f
Flow limit- W
c
(%)
Diagonal: I
p
= 0,73 x (W
c
20)
- 40 Very bad

Note: OM = organic matter
C = compressibility
U = swelling capacity
S i-d = sensitivity to freezing thawing
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Table 2 - Tests to verify the soil
No
.
Characteristics Minimum frequency
Methods for
determination
according STAS
1 Grading Depending on the irregularity of the soil, at least one test each 5000 m
3
. 1913/5-85
2 Plasticity limits Depending on the irregularity of the soil, at least one test each 5000 m
3
. 1913/4-86
3 Compaction characteristics
Depending on the irregularity of the soil, at least one test each 5000 m
3
.
.

In case of filling behind the works of art and for soils in protective layers, for each laid layer.
1913/13-83
4 Irregularity index Depending on the irregularity of the soil, at least one test each 5000 m
3
. 730-89
5 Swelling capacity In case of filling behind the works of art and for soils in protective layers, at least one test each 1000 m
3
. 1913/12-88
6 Sensitivity to freezing
thawing
In the natural ground under the embankment and in cutting, at least one test each 250 m of road.
1709/3-90
7 Moisture content Either daily or at each 500 m
3
. 1913/1-82
8 Maximum dry density Depending on the irregularity of the soil, at least one test each 5000 m
3
. 1913/3-76

Note: 1. When approving the source for soil it is necessary to present the tests regarding the organic matter (in compliance with STAS 7107/1-76), water- soluble salts (in
compliance with STAS 7107/3-74) and compressibillity (in compliance with STAS 8942/1-84).
2. The Contractor may request the Engineers approval for other Norms and testing methods that have Technical Agreement in Romania.



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2 EARTHWORKS CONSTRUCTION

2.1 Pegging out

The Engineer shall hand over to the Contractor the benchmarks located outside the construction
limits (at least 2 benchmarks/km) and a list indicating the coordinates of the main points of the
alignment and of the benchmarks.

Before starting the works, the Contractor shall re-establish the benchmarks (if necessary) and he
shall execute the pegging out of the cross-section, at his own expense.

On completion of the pegging out of the centre line, the Contractor shall mark on the ground the
following:
- height of the filling
- the intersection points of the slope with the natural ground
- the slope's declivity

Over the entire duration of the construction works, the Contractor shall execute, at his own expense,
the maintenance of all pegs and benchmarks, including their restoration and relocation if necessary.

During the pegging out all the existing utilities located either within or in the proximity of the
construction limits shall be visibly marked in case it is necessary to relocate or protect.


2.2 Preliminary works

Before starting the earthworks the following shall be executed:
o Tree-cutting: cutting and transport of all trees and bushes (including tree roots grubbing out
and transport) to locations approved by the Engineer;
o Removal of leaves, branches and grass and transport to locations approved by the Engineer
o Removal and storage of the topsoil in locations approved by the Engineer;
o Land drainage;
o Demolition of the existing constructions.

On the sections where the surface water can discharge into the construction limits, the Contractor
shall drain the water outside the construction limits, at his own expense.
These works shall be executed wherever necessary and the Contractor shall ensure adequate
devices to store the water previous to discharge it.

The existing over-ground or under-ground construction located in the work area shall be demolished
to a depth of 1.00 m below the foundation level. After demolition, the resulted holes will be cleaned
and filled in appropriate material.

The remaining earth, ditches, collecting channels, cables and pipes, as well as any other fencing
shall be removed to at least 1.00 m from the works area.
Drains, channels and existing ditches which became useless, from the construction limits, shall be
sealed in order to prevent water percolation under the construction limits.

Materials resulted from demolition shall be transported to locations approved by the Engineer.

Any voids (well, cellar and holes including those resulted after tree roots grubbing up) shall be
open, cleared and filled as follows:
- If located in the works area, with suitable material for filling and then compacted to a ratio as
indicated in table 4
- If located outside the works area, with material similar to the surrounding soil and then
compacted to the same ratio of the surrounding soil.
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The Contractor can start the earthworks only after the preliminary works have been verified and
accepted by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall use only methods and equipment suitable for the type of filling material.
He is responsible to maintain in good conditions the approved materials, so that when they are laid
and compacted the requirements of this Technical Specification are met.

The construction of the earthworks shall be stopped in case the requirements of this Technical
Specification are not met due to the unfavourable weather. The construction of the earthworks on
cold weather, below +5
o
C, can occur by taking special measures, stipulated by the technical norms
in force (C 16-84).
Filling operations shall not be performed when the soil is frozen, contains ice or snow, or in case the
moisture is not within the limits of a proper compaction.


2.3 Displacement of Earthworks

One of the targets of the displacement of earth masses is to allow the use of the material resulted
from excavation as filling material for embankments. When executing the works, the Contractor shall
present to the Engineer for his approval the Chart of Displacement of Earth Masses, depending on
the approved soil sources.

The material in excess as well as the unsuitable soils for filling shall be transported in permanent
stockpiles, to locations proposed by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer.

In case the excavated soil is not enough for filling, the additional material shall be taken from the
borrow pits proposed by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer.

The Contractor shall immediately suspend the use and inform the Engineer if the quality of the soil
from either cutting or borrow pit becomes unsuitable. In case of cutting, the works can be carried on
by transporting the excavated material to an approved stockpile. In case of a borrow pit the
authorisation for using that specific borrow pit shall be suspended. For the borrow pit the Engineers
approval shall be requested following the initial procedure.

The transport of the soil in embankment or other storage areas shall start when a sufficient number
of spreading and compacting equipment functions in that area.


2.4 Borrow pits and earth stockpiles

The location of the borrow pits and earth stockpiles, either temporary or permanent, shall be
identified and proposed by the Contractor who will also request the Engineers approval.
The proposal shall be presented to the Engineer at least 7 days before starting the use of the
borrow pits or stockpiles and it shall have enclosed the following documents:
o Report regarding the quality of the soil from the borrow pits, including the results of the
laboratory tests and analysis performed;
o Estimated quantity (for borrow pits);
o Excavation execution chart (for borrow pits) or storage programme;
o Plan for the arrangement of the area after completion of the works;
o Approval of the owner regarding the use of either the borrow pit or stockpile;
o Approval from the Environment Authority;
o Other agreements or approvals, when necessary.

The design together with all the investigations, tests, rents and other necessary fees to exploit the
borrow pits, earth stockpiles or access roads shall be on the Contractors expense.
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During the excavation of the borrow pits, the Contractor shall respect the following:
o The top soil shall be removed and stored in approved stockpiles;
o The bottom of the borrow pit shall not be lower than the bottom of the water drainage ditch
o The bottom of the borrow pit shall have a transverse slope of 1-3% towards the exterior as
well as a longitudinal one to ensure the water drainage;
o In major river flood plains, the borrow pits shall be placed downstream having a separation
area of at least 4 m width from the base of slope.
o The slopes of the borrow pits located alongside the road shall have a slope of 1:1.5-1:3. In
case there is no road shelf between the foot of the slope and the edge of the borrow pit the
slope shall be 1:3.

Digging in the borrow pit can be carried out in succession of the slope of the cut.

The earth stockpiles shall comply with the following requirements:
o In case the stockpile is near the embankment, the first 5 m of the stockpile shall meet the
same requirements as for the construction of the embankment (compaction, leveling and
finishing)
o The height of the stockpile shall not exceed the height of the road embankment.
o The location of the stockpile shall be decided in such a way that it avoids the road to be
snowed up.

The borrow pits and earth stockpiles shall not either affect the stability of the existing earthworks or
cause erosion due to surface or underground water. The Contractor is responsible for any injury or
damage to public or private property that can be caused by the construction of the works.

The Engineer can refuse to approve the construction of the borrow pits or earth stockpiles in case
they affect the landscape or the water drainage.


2.5 Cuttings

Digging and slope construction according to the designed cross-section shall start at the same time
on the entire width.
Increasing the depth of cut shall be avoided. In case it happens the cut shall be filled to the
designed level, at the Contractors expense and according to the requirements for filling from this
Technical Specification.

Cuttings that require filling shall be closed as soon as the stage of the works in the area allows.

When excavating in soils sensitive to moisture, the works shall be progressively executed and rapid
rainwater drainage shall be ensured, avoiding affects on the hydrological equilibrium of the area or
the underground water level.

In case during the excavation, the Contractor observes a combination of suitable and unsuitable
materials and unless otherwise specified in the Design, the Contractor shall execute the digging in
such a manner that the suitable materials are separately excavated. This is to be done in order to
use them for the permanent works and to avoid being contaminated by the unsuitable materials.

The Engineer can decide a way to improve the bearing capacity in case the soil discovered at the
designed level does not meet both the required quality and the bearing capacity according to the
Design.
Where there are significant differences regarding the type of soil towards the Design stipulations,
the Contractor can forward to the Engineer for approval a proposal to change the slope's declivity.

The slope declivity for a cut of maximum 12 m depth is showed in Table 3.
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Table 3 Slope declivity
Type of soil in the cut Slope declivity
Clayey soil: generally sandy or dusty clay, clayey sands
or dusts
1:1.5
Marly soils 1:1. 1:0.5
Macroporous soils (loess and loessoid soils ) 1:0.1
Depreciating stony rocks: declivity depending on the
deterioration degree as well as on the depth of the cut
1:1.5 1:1
Stable stony rocks (non depreciable) 1:0.1
Stable stony rocks favourably bedded 1:0.1 vertically or in cantilever

When cutting in clayey soil deeper than 12 m or under unfavourable hydrological conditions
(moisture, water seepage) at any depth, the slope declivity shall be decided further to a stability
analysis.

The clods, stones and unstable rocks shall be removed from the slope and stored together with the
material resulted from cutting.

If during the construction of the works the Contractor observes the loss of works stability, he shall
immediately suspend the works, give notice to the Engineer and take action to consolidate the
works.

The bottom of the cut shall be compacted to 100% Normal Proctor degree of compaction, measured
at 30 cm depth. If the soil at the designed level has not the quality and the bearing capacity
required by the design, the Engineer could instruct the construction of a form layer. In this case, the
upper layer of the cutting, under the form layer, shall be compacted to the 97% Normal Proctor
degree of compaction.

During the construction, the slopes as well as the area above shall be frequently verified, especially
after explosions and heavy or long rains in order to observe in due time any sign of stability loss.

The method statement for levelling the roadbed in stony soil shall be proposed by the Contractor
and forwarded for the Engineers approval. The levelling shall be carried out on the Contractors
expense.

The Contractor shall take all the necessary action to prevent deterioration or softening of the soil
excavated from the cut and that is intended to be used as filling material.

Execution of the widening of the existing road structure

Excavations in cassettes for widening the road structure shall be executed mechanized and shall
include 25 cm of the existing road structure or as much as necessary to extract the existing kerbs.

After the setting out of the works the existing underground utilities shall be identified.
The existing road pavement shall be cut (usually with a cutting disk) through the whole thickness of
the asphalt layers such as to ensure that the remaining existing structure will not be disturbed during
the excavations.

In order to prevent the degradation of the edge of the existing structure the excavations shall be
performed on short sections such as to ensure that the excavation is not open for more than 72
hours.

After excavation reaches the specified level and the nature of the foundation ground is checked, the
ground shall be leveled and compacted until the required compaction degree is achieved. The
bearing capacity shall be measured at the required frequency.
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Drainage of the water from the excavation shall be ensured at all times.

Where the existing buildings/utilities are located at less than 3 m from the external limit of the works,
the excavation shall be executed with adequate care and equipment in order to avoid any
unnecessary disturbance.

2.6 Preparation of the soil under embankment

The soil under embankment shall be compacted to 100% Normal Proctor degree of compaction
measured at 30 cm depth.

In case the declivity of the soil is more than 20%, the Contractor shall execute jointing steps having
a height equal to the thickness of the filling layers. The transverse slope is 4% towards the exterior.

2.7 Construction of the embankment

In case the unfavourable weather affects the quality of the embankment, established by the
Technical Specifications and the legislation in force, the works shall be stopped. They shall resume
after being given the Engineers approval and at the time the requirements for the construction of
the works in compliance with the Technical Specifications are met.

The embankments shall be executed in even layers, parallel with the designed line, over the entire
width of the platform and over a length according to the approved method statement.
Separation, road inequalities and moisture content variations shall be avoided.

In special case, with Engineers approval, the width of the earth layers can be diminished. Under
these circumstances the embankment shall be constructed of more adjoining lanes. The difference
in height of two adjoining lanes shall not exceed the thickness of one layer.
The material brought on the platform shall be spread and levelled to the proper compaction
thickness, as it was established on the trial section and respecting the designed longitudinal section.

The surface of the foundation as well as the one of each layer shall be even and with a transverse
slope of 4% towards the exterior.

In case of embankments higher than 3 m, the base can be constructed of stone or concrete blocks
with a maximum size of 50 cm. After placing, the blocks shall be in-filled using earth. The thickness
of the blockage layer shall be established so that the thickness of the homogenous filling above is at
least 2 m.

Filling and compaction shall be realised at the proper moisture content. The Contractor shall take all
the necessary action to attain the best degree of moisture content by:
o scarifying and mixing;
o treating with lime;
o scarifying, spreading and watering.

The compaction of each layer shall be carried out according to the parameters established on the
trial section, in compliance with the characteristics of the soil used.

The compaction equipment shall ensure the achievement of all the requirements for each course
and type of soil.

The Normal Proctor degree shall be achieved in accordance with Table 4.

Table 4 Degree of Compaction
Embankment areas intended to compact
Non-
cohesive soil
Cohesive
soil
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a) The first 30 cm of natural soil under embankment, with the
height:
h 2,00 m
h > 2,00 m

100
95

97
92

b) In the embankment, at a depth under the roadbed:
h 0,50 m
0,50 < h 2,0 m
h > 2,0 m

100
100
95


100
97
92

c) In the cut, at 30 cm depth the roadbed 100 100

The Contractor can request the acceptance of a layer when in all measured points, the degree of
compaction is either equal to the required level or more.

The minimum frequency of the tests shall be in compliance with the Table 5.


Table 5 Frequency of the tests
Test Minimum frequency Observations
Optimal compaction moisture
content (Proctor test)
each 5000 m
3
For each type of soil
Moisture content 6 tests for each 2000 m
2
of
platform
On each earth layer
Degree of compaction 6 tests for each 2000 m
2
of
platform
On each earth layer

Sections and slopes

The works shall be executed so that after compaction and cleaning, the slopes are within the
allowed limits. The section of the slope shall be realised without refilling.
The slope declivity depends on the type of soil used for embankment as well as on the type and
bearing capacity of the soil underneath the embankment.

The declivity of the slope shall be 1:1.5, with a maximum height as indicated in Table 6.

Table 6 The height of the embankment
Type of material used for
embankment
H max. (m)
Dusty or sandy clay 6
Clayey sands or clayey dust 7
Sands 8
Gravel or ballast 10

In case there are differences between the materials indicated in the Design and those stipulated by
STAS 2914-84, Table 1a and 1b, the Contractor shall present to the Engineer for approval, a
proposal based on field investigations, to change either the declivity or the height of the slope.

The declivity of the slope will be verified after compaction and finishing.

The embankments up to 12 m height shall have the declivity of the slope 1:1.5 for the height
indicated in Table 6, measured from the roadbed downwards and 1:2 for the remaining height to
base.

For the embankments higher than 12 m as well as for those in major river flood plains, valley,
puddles or swamps, with the foundation of fine or very fine soils, the declivity of the slope shall be
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decided based on a stability calculation. In this respect a stability factor of 1.3-1.5 shall be taken into
account, according to STAS 2914-84 and Table 7 shall be also followed.

Table 7 Maximum height of the embankment depending on the characteristics of the foundation
soil
a) internal friction angle (grade )
5 10 15
b) material cohesion (Kpa)
30 60 10 30 60 10 30 60 80
The declivity of
the foundation
Maximum height of embankment h
max
(m)
0 3,00 4,00 3,00 5,00 6,00 4,00 6,00 8,00 10,00
1:10 2,00 3,00 2,00 4,00 5,00 3,00 5,00 6,00 7,00
1:5 1,00 2,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 5,00
1:3 - - - 1,00 2,00 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00

Embankments of water sensitive soils

When preparing the Method Statement, the Contractor shall include special measures that have to
be taken into account in case of water sensitive soils, such as:
o laying and scarifying the soil;
o lime treatment;
o construction of open drains.

Stony embankment

When utilised for embankment, the stony material shall be spread in layers and levelled to obtain a
homogenous mixture with a minimum content of voids.

The thickness of the layers shall be established in compliance with the material size and the
capacity of the compacting equipment, but it shall not be more than 80cm. The last 30cm
underneath the roadbed shall not contain blocks with the maximum size more than 20cm.

In case voids still remain after compaction, the layer shall be completed with an approved grain
material so that all the surface voids are filled.

In case of uncovered slopes, the blocks shall be fixed over at least 2/3 of their thickness.

Back filling of the works of art (retaining walls, abutments, wing walls, etc)

Unless otherwise specified than in the Technical Specifications, the back filling of the works of art
shall be executed using the same material as for the embankment, apart from the stony material.
The maximum size of the material that can be used is 1/10 of the filling width.

The filling shall be executed in even layers with a thickness of maximum 25cm.

The filling shall be mechanically compacted until the degree of compaction according to Table 4 is
achieved.

Protection against water action

The Contractor shall ensure the protection of embankments against erosion caused by rainwater
(the heaviest rain in the last 10 years shall be taken as reference).

2.8 Ditches and Gutters

Ditches and gutters shall be constructed parallel with the base of the slope.
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2.9 Roadbed finishing

The roadbed shall be compacted, levelled and finished respecting the level, slope and width
stipulated in the Design.

The Contractor shall limit the access of all equipment on the roadbed after the finishing procedure.

2.10 Protection with top soil

The slopes that are to be covered with topsoil shall be previously either cut in steps or reinforced
with a grid made out of furrows and wattles or pre-cast units.

After having been covered with topsoil, the slope shall be fertilised and seeded.

After sowing, the slopes will be watered several times until the grass seeds start the vegetation
process.

During the growing season, the grassy slopes shall be mowed twice a year. The cut grass shall be
collected and removed to locations approved by the Engineer.

3 CONTROL OF CONSTRUCTION AND ACCEPTANCE OF WORKS

3.1 Control of Construction

The quality control of earthworks includes:
o Verifying the pegging out;
o Verifying the quality, condition and preparation of the foundation soil;
o Verifying the quality and the condition of the earth used as filling material;
o Control of the characteristics of the executed layers;
o Control of the characteristics of the road platform.

The Contractor shall not start the construction of any layer before the previous layer is completed,
verified and accepted by the Engineer. The Contractor shall ensure, at his own expense the
maintenance for the accepted layers before the next layer is laid.

The acceptance of each layer shall be again requested in case there are more than 7 days from the
date of the initial acceptance and the construction of the next layer. It is also compulsory when
within this period of time the Engineer considers that the accepted layer does not meet the
requirement to be covered.

The deflection measurement shall be performed using a lever deflectometer, according to Norm CD
31/2002.

The minimum frequency to check the degree of compaction shall be as indicated by Table 5.

Checking the quality of soils means determining their characteristics, according to Table 2.

The Contractor can propose the use of alternative tests but they can be considered only if approved
by the Engineer.

Checking the pegging out

The construction of earthworks can start only after the pegging out has been verified and approved
by the Engineer.
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The allowed limits in the pegging out are 50 mm.

Checking the characteristics of the foundation soil

To verify the quality of the foundation soil, sampling shall be performed from the working area.
There shall be 3 samples for each 100m of road length distributed in such a way that the entire
working area is verified.
The analysis and tests shall be performed according to Tables 1 and 2.

Deflection measurement shall be performed in cross-section on 6 strips (4 traffic lanes and 2
emergency lanes), wherever it is necessary, but at least on each cross-section of the design.

The bearing capacity of the foundation layer is considered achieved when the value of the elastic
deformation, measured according to the stipulations of norm CD 31/2002, is less than the allowed
on from Table 8 in at least 90% of the measurement points and is less than 600
1
/
100
mm in the
other measurement points.

The performance uniformity is considered as satisfactory if the coefficient of variation is < 50%.

Table 8 Elastic deformation limits
Type of soil according to STAS 1243-88 Elastic deformation limit (1/100 mm)
Dusty sand, Clayey sand 350
Sandy dust, Sandy-clayey dust, Clayey dust, Dust 400
Dusty clay, Sandy clay, Dusty-sandy clay, Clay 450
To verify the degree of compaction for the foundation soil, the indications of tables 4 and 5 shall be
respected and a correlation with the points where a low bearing capacity is observed shall be made.

The tolerance for the embankment construction limits is +50 cm.

Verifying the features of the executed layers

The following determinations shall be performed on the compacted layers:
o Degree of compaction on each layer, in cross-section, minimum 6 tests/2000m
2
of layer,
according to STAS 2914-84. In case of cohesive soils, from each point 3 samples shall be
taken (surface, middle and base) if the thickness is more than 25 cm and 2 samples (surface
and base) for less than 25 cm thickness. In case of non-cohesive soils 1 sample shall be
taken from each point on the middle of the layer.
o Thickness and cross section slope of the layer for each layer
o Deflection measurement every third layer or after rain or at the last layer
The measurement shall be performed in cross-section at a maximum distance of 25 cm on 6
strips.

The values for the degree of compaction are given in Table 4.

The slope of the cross-section after compaction shall be 4%, having a tolerance of 1%

The control of the roadbed features

The control of the roadbed features involves survey and deflection measurements, at the level of the
roadbed and on the achieved degree of compaction.

The dimensions and the roadbed level are measured wherever necessary but, in the designed
cross-sections at least.

The related allowed limits for the roadbed are as follows:
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Width: 5 cm from the road centre line;
10 cm over the entire road platform;
Level: between +2.5 and 5.0 cm.

The transverse slope of the roadbed after compaction shall be 4%, having a tolerance of 1%.

The elastic deformation is measured wherever necessary, on 6 strips in cross-section, but at least in
the designed cross-sections.

The bearing capacity of the roadbed shall be achieved when the value of the measured elastic
deformation is lower than the allowed value according to the Table 8.

The control of the roadbed features and the overall verification of the executed earthworks
(dimensions and the uniformity of the roadbed surface and slopes) shall be performed at the same
time.

The allowed limits of the uniformity of the roadbed surface and slopes, measured using the "3 m
straight edge" are according to the Table 9.

Table 9 Surface uniformity
Limits
Section
Compact rocks Non compact rocks or soils
Platform without improved form layer 5 cm 3 cm
Platform with improved form layer (*) 10 cm 5 cm
Uncovered slope - 10 cm
Note (*) when it is intended to execute improved form layer over the platform.


3.2 Acceptance of Works

After the works are completed on a road section they will be subjected to Engineer's approval
before the next layer could be laid.

To verify the works that are to be covered, it shall be previously established whether they are
executed in accordance with the Design as well as with this Technical Specification.

After this procedure an Acceptance Report shall be concluded to further authorise the Contractor to
proceed to the next construction stage.

The Designer establishes the construction stages subject to acceptance in the Programme of
Acceptance for construction stages, which is enclosed in the Working Drawings and refers to the
following:
o pegging out;
o the level and the final section in case of digging;
o the nature and compaction of the foundation soil;
o in case of embankment, for each course after compaction.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION




- 2 -
FORM LAYER MADE OF BALLAST
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Form Layer made of Ballast

SUMMARY



GENERAL PROVISIONS .................................................................................. 53

1 MATERIALS ...................................................................................................... 54
1.1 Natural aggregates ............................................................................................ 54
1.2 Geo-textile material .......................................................................................... 55
1.3 Water . 55
1.3 Quality control of aggregates............................................................................. 55

2 CONSTRUCTION OF THE FORM LAYER........................................................ 56
2.1 Transport ........................................................................................................... 56
2.2 Preliminary conditions....................................................................................... 56
2.3 Trial section ...................................................................................................... 56
2.4 Construction............................................................................................... 56

3 CONTROL of CONSTRUCTION and ACCEPTANCE of WORKS .................. 57
3.1 Verifying the geometric elements ..................................................................... 57
3.2 Verifying the compaction and bearing capacity ................................................. 58
3.3 Verifying the surface characteristics ................................................................. 58
3.4 Acceptance of works on construction stages.................................................... 58


















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GENERAL PROVISIONS


The present Technical Specifications apply when constructing the ballast form layer of the road
structure. They present the technical requirements that have to be met by the utilized materials
according to SR 662-2002 as well as by the constructed foundation layer as indicated by STAS
6400-84.

The Contractor shall perform, in an authorized laboratory, all the tests and determinations requested
by the present Technical Specifications as well as any other test requested by the Engineer.

Apart from the Technical Specifications, the Contractor shall respect the stipulations of the
standards and norms in force.

The Contractor shall present for the Engineers approval, the working technology, 7 days before
commencing the works. This has to include, amongst others:
o Construction chart for the form layer;
o The equipment used for transport, spreading, watering, compaction and finishing;
o The sources (ballast pits or suppliers) and aggregates stockpiles, including the access to
each of them.

To establish the details regarding the working technology, trial sections shall be constructed. Their
size and location shall be established by common agreement with the Engineer.
After the construction of the trial sections, the method statement shall be completed with information
regarding the compaction method statement such as:
- Characteristics of the compaction equipment (weight, width, tire pressure, vibration
characteristics, speed);
- Number of passes with and without vibration, to attain the degree of compaction in
compliance with the stipulations of the Technical Specifications;
- The thickness of the ballast course before and after compaction.

The Contractor shall make sure that by all applied procedures he meets the requirements of the
present Technical Specifications.


The Contractor shall record on a daily basis data regarding the construction of the works as well as
the results of all measurements, tests and investigations carried out.

The form layer made of ballast will be laid on a geo-textile material having the characteristics
mentioned in the present Technical Specification.




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1 MATERIALS

1.1 Natural aggregates

To construct the ballast form layer, the Contractor shall use natural ballast, which gives the
characteristics according to Table 1.

Each source of ballast (ballast pit or supplier) that is intended to be used shall be proposed by the
Contractor and submitted for Engineers approval.

The proposal shall be submitted to the Engineer at least 7 days before opening the ballast pit or
commencing the supply and it shall have enclosed the following:
o report upon the quality of the aggregates, which has to include the results of the laboratory
tests and analysis performed. The tests shall be conducted according to Table 1 and the
stipulations of SR 662-2002 (Table 19);
o analysis of the conformity in relation with the stipulations of the present Technical
Specifications;
o estimated quantity;
o chart showing the manner the ballast pit is to be exploited or a graph indicating the supply;
o transport route;
o lay-out of the storage place;
o lay-out for the arrangement of the area after completing the exploitation (in case of the
ballast pit) or the stockpile liquidation;
o agreement of the owners regarding the possession and exploitation of the area;
o agreements, approvals and authorizations required by the legislation in force.

All the investigations, tests, rents and taxes related to the exploitation of the ballast pit shall be on
the Contractors expense.

The ballast pits and stockpiles shall not affect the stability of the existing earthworks and shall not
cause erosion under the effect of surface of underground water. The Contractor is responsible for
any injury or damage to public or private property that can be caused by the execution of the works.

The transport and the storage of the aggregates from different sources shall be executed so that it
avoids aggregates to contaminate or mix. The access roads to the stockpiles shall be arranged in
order to avoid the contamination of the aggregates with mud or other materials.

The aggregates shall be stored on arranged platforms, which shall have slopes and gutters for
water drainage. It shall be also avoided to contaminate or mix the aggregates from the stockpile.
The aggregates stockpiles shall be identified by panels, which indicate the source and the size of
the aggregate.

The Contractor shall ensure a temporary storage area for non-approved aggregates.

In case ballast from below the water level is used, the Contractor will provide safe surfaces for its
provisional storage excess water to drain away.

The aggregates shall come from stable rocks, which can not be affected by water, air or freezing
and shall not contain visible foreign matter (clods, coal, wood or vegetation remains) or other
materials.

The aggregates that exceed 1,9 g of sulphate (SO
3
)/ l, shall not be stored or used as filling material
in the proximity of the works that contain cement (concrete or stabilized ballast); the minimum
distance from these works shall be of 1.0 m.


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Table 1 Aggregates characteristics
Characteristics
Admissible
values
STAS
Sort 0-63
Fraction content % - less than 0,02 mm
- less than 0,20 mm
- 0-1 mm
- 0-4 mm
- 0-8 mm
- 0-16 mm
- 0-25mm
- 0-50 mm
- 0-63 mm
max. 3
3-33
4-53
16-72
25-80
37-86
50-90
80-98
100
4606-80
Non-uniformity coefficient /irregularity coefficient (Un), (%) min. 15 730-89
Sand equivalent (EN), min. 30 730-89
Los Angeles wearing resistance (LA), (%) max. 50 730-89


1.2 Geo-textile material

When choosing the geo-textile material, the provisions of the Norm C227/2001 will be taken into
consideration Technical norms regarding the utilisation of the geo-textiles and geo-membranes in
the construction works. The type for the geo-textile material will be submitted by the Contractor for
the Engineers approval.

The laying of the geo-textile material shall be performed before the laying of the ballast for the form
layer. The method of laying the geo-textile material, the pieces superposing technique , etc., will be
those presented in the Technical Agreement. The geo-textile material will be laid on all width of the
form layer and will exceed with minimum 50 cm the width of the platform, on both sides (right and
left).

1.3 Water

The necessary water to correct the moisture shall be clear, without any particles in suspension.

1.4 Quality control of aggregates

Sampling and quality control of aggregates shall be done in compliance with Table 2.

Table 2 - Tests on aggregates
Characteristics to verify Minimum frequency STAS
Grading, sand equivalent, non-
homogeny
One sample each source, each 400 t
730-89
4606-80
Wearing resistance (Los Angeles test)
One sample each source, each 5000 t

730-89


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2 CONSTRUCTION of the FORM LAYER

2.1 Transport

The Contractor shall take all the necessary action so that during the transport to the working area,
the ballast does not significantly modify its content (segregation and either decrease or increase the
water and fine parts content, etc).

2.2 Preliminary conditions

The construction of the improved sub-grade can start only after the earthworks in the subject area,
including the water drainage from foundation (transverse and longitudinal drains, ditches and
gutters) have been verified and accepted by the Engineer.

It is forbidden for the Contractor to lay on the same working area ballast from different stockpiles.

2.3 Trial section

To establish the construction method statement, the equipment and devices necessary to lay and
compact, the Contractor shall execute, with the Engineers approval and before starting the works,
one trial section for each source of aggregates. The trial section shall be of at least 50m length and
at least half of the platforms width.

The laboratory on site shall decide the quantity of water that has to be eventually added in order to
obtain the best humidity for compaction. The water shall be added by sprinkling, so that the ballast
to have the optimal level of humidity necessary for compaction, uniformly spread in the mixture.
The tolerances for the mixture humidity are more than 1% and less than 2% comparing with the
optimal humidity level.

The compaction characteristics of the ballast for the form layer shall be decided based on the
Modified Proctor test, in compliance with the stipulations of STAS 1913/13-83:

max.PM
= maximum density in dry condition (g/cm
3
);
W
opt.PM
= optimum humidity for compaction (%) .

The preparation and execution of the works as well the measurements performed on the trial
section shall be carried out under the Engineers supervision and on the Contractors expense.

The sector from the trial section with optimal results certified as optimal by the Engineer will be
considered as reference section in order to complete the working technology.

2.4 Construction

The laying of the form layer should proceed only after the road bed has been checked and approved
by the Engineer.

The geo-textile material will be laid on all width of the form layer and will exceed with minimum 50
cm the width of the platform, both on the left and right side.

The compaction shall be carried out as soon as possible after the material was laid and compacted
and in accordance with the requirements of the working technology, as perfected after the execution
of the trial.
The characteristics of the compaction shall be established using samples taken from the work:

ef
= real density (g/cm
3
);
W
ef
= real humidity for compaction (%).

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ef

Degree of compaction g
c
= -------------- x 100

max.PM


It is forbidden to lay the form layer when:
o the ballast humidity is outside the limits, as specified in 2.3;
o the ballast is frozen or contains ice;
o the roadbed does not comply with the requirements for being covered.

3 CONTROL of the CONSTRUCTION and ACCEPTANCE of WORKS

The tests performed during the construction of the foundation course shall be in compliance with
Table 3.


Table 3 Testing the form layer
Determination, verifying procedure or
characteristics to be verified
Minimum frequency at the working point STAS
The optimal compaction moisture
content (Modified Proctor test)
For each source and when considered
necessary
1913/13-83
Layer thickness 3 determinations each 2000 m
2
-
Compaction characteristics:
- humidity
- density
6 samples each 2000 m
2

1913/1-82
1913/5-85
12288-85
Degree of compaction daily, in minimum 6 points each 2000 m
2

1913/15-75
12.288-85
Bearing capacity
In each designed cross-section, on 6
strips (3 for each traffic lane).
Norm
CD
31/2002

The bearing capacity at the upper level of the ballast layer shall be established by measurements
using the lever deflectometer, in compliance with the Departmental Technical Instructions CD
31/2002.

3.1 Verifying the geometrical elements

The thickness of the form layer shall be verified wherever necessary but in at least 3 points for 2000
m
3
of executed layer. The tolerance is 20 mm.

The width of the course is measured wherever necessary but at least in every designed cross-
section.
The allowed deviation, measured from the axis is +5 cm.

The width of the geo-textile material will exceed with minimum 50 cm the edge of the platform, both
on the right and left side. The width of the material will be measured whereever considered
necessary, but at least in every transversal profile from the design.

The transversal slope of the form layer is equal to the designed one of the road revetment, and it
shall be measured wherever necessary, but in each designed cross-section at least. The tolerance
is of 0.4% from of the designed transverse slope.

The levels of the layer are measured wherever considered necessary, but at least in each designed
cross-section; the maximum tolerance is +2.5 and -5.0 cm.
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3.2 Verifying the compaction and the bearing capacity

The form layer shall be compacted until the 98% compaction level is achieved for at least 95% of
the measured points and minimum 95% compaction level for all the measuring points.

The bearing capacity at the upper level of the form layer is achieved when the value of the elastic
deformation measured according to the stipulations of Norm CD 31/2002 is at most 200 mm in at
least 90% of the measured points and at most 360 in the other measured points.

The performance uniformity is to be considered as satisfactory if the coefficient of variation is less
than 50%.

3.3 Verifying the surface characteristics

Verifying the irregularities for the surface of the form layer shall be done with the 3m straight edge,
wherever necessary, but at least:
o in long section, in the axis of each traffic lane; the admissible deviations measured under
the 3m straight edge are 2 cm;
o in cross-section, in the designed cross-sections; the admissible deviations under the 3m
straight edge are 1 cm;


3.4 Acceptance on construction stages

After completing the works on a road section and before starting the next layer, the Engineers
approval is compulsory to be obtained.

The inspection of the works, which become hidden, shall decide whether the works have been
carried out according to the Design and to the present Technical Specifications.

The Acceptance of the works implies the checking of the records during the execution of the works
and of the test results as well as the real examination of the works.

After the checking an acceptance report has to be concluded, which authorizes the Contractor to
proceed with the next execution stage.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION




- 3 -
LAYER OF BALLAST
OR
OPTIMAL BALLAST MIXTURE
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Layer of Ballast or Optimal Ballast Mixture

SUMMARY


GENERAL PROVISIONS .61

1. MATERIALS . .62
1.1 Natural aggregates 62
1.2 Water 63
2. PREPARATION OF OPTIMAL BALLAST .64
2.1 The optimal ballast preparation plant .64
2.2 Preparation of the mixture .64
2.3 Quality control of the mixture .64
3. EXECUTION OF THE LAYER .65
3.1 Trial section 65
3.2 Preliminary conditions ....66
3.3 Transport 66
3.4 Construction .66
4. Control and acceptance of the works ..67
4.1 Verifying the horizontal geometry ..67
4.2 Verifying the compaction and the bearing capacity 68
4.3 Verifying the characteristics of the course surface ...68
4.4 Acceptance on execution stages ...68




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GENERAL PROVISIONS

The Technical Specifications apply when constructing the ballast and optimal ballast foundation
courses of the road structure. It comprises the technical conditions to be met by the materials
utilized, provided in STAS662-2002 as well as the requirements for the constructed ballast
foundation according to STAS 6400-84
The Contractor shall perform, in an authorized laboratory, all the tests and determinations
requested by the Technical Specifications as well as any other test requested by the Engineer.
Apart from the Technical Specifications, the Contractor shall comply with the stipulations of the
standards and norms in force.
The Contractor shall present for the Engineers approval, the execution method statement, 7 days
before commencing the works. This has to include:
o Execution schedule for the foundation course;
o The equipment used for aggregate production and transportation
o The equipment used for optimal mixture production;
o The equipment used for extraction, transport, spreading, watering, compaction and finishing
of the optimal mixture;
o The sources (ballast pits or suppliers) and aggregates stockpiles, including the access to
each.
To establish the details regarding the compaction method statement, the Contractor shall execute
trial sections. Their size and location shall be established by common agreement with the Engineer.
After completion of the trial sections, the construction Method Statement shall be completed with
information regarding the compaction method statement such as:
- Characteristics of the compaction equipment (weight, width, tire pressure, vibration
characteristics, speed);
- Number of passes with and without vibration to attain the degree of compaction in
compliance with the stipulations of the Technical Specifications;
- The number of the sub-layers where the foundation course shall be performed (when the
compaction level cannot be achieved by laying one course);
- The thickness of the ballast/optimal ballast course before and after compaction.
The Contractor shall make sure that by all applied procedures he meets the requirements of the
Technical Specifications.
The Contractor shall record on a daily basis data regarding the execution of the works, as well as
the results of measurements, tests and investigations.
The Contractor shall perform supplementary examinations, whenever required by the Consultant.








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1. MATERIALS

1.1 Natural aggregates
To execute the ballast or optimal ballast foundation course the Contractor shall use either natural
ballast or optimal ballast prepared of natural aggregate types, which have the characteristics
indicated in Table 1.
The aggregates shall come from stable rocks, which are not affected by water, air or frost and shall
not contain visible foreign matter (clods, coal, wood or vegetation residue) or any other materials.
Each source of aggregates (natural ballast or sorts for optimal ballast) shall be proposed by the
Contractor and submit for the Engineers approval.
The proposal shall be submitted to the Engineer at least 7 days before opening the ballast pit or
commencing the supply and it shall have enclosed the following:
o report upon the quality of the aggregates, which has to include the results of the laboratory
tests and analysis performed. The tests shall be conducted according to Table 1 and the
stipulations of SR 662-2002 (Table 19);
o analysis of the conformity in relation with the stipulations of the Technical Specifications;
o estimated quantity;
o chart showing the manner the ballast pit is to be exploited or a graph indicating the supply;
o transport route;
o lay-out of the storage place
o lay-out for the arrangement of the area after completing the exploitation (in case of the
ballast pit) or the stockpile;
o agreement of the owners regarding the possession and exploitation of the area
o agreements, approvals and authorisations required by the legislation in force.
All the investigations, tests, rents and taxes related to the exploitation of the ballast pit shall be at
the Contractors expense.
The ballast pits and stockpiles shall not affect the stability of the existing earthworks and shall not
cause erosion by the effects of surface or underground water. The Contractor is responsible for any
injury or damage to public or private property that can be caused by the execution of the wrks.
The transport and the storage of the aggregates from different sources shall be such that it avoids
contamination or mixing of the aggregates. The access roads to the stockpiles shall be arranged in
order to avoid the contamination of the aggregates with mud or other materials.
The aggregates shall be stored on organized platforms, which shall have slopes and gutters for
water drainage. Mixing or contamination of the stockpiled aggregates should be avoided. The
aggregates stockpile shall be identified by panels, which indicate the source and the size.
The Contractor shall ensure a temporary storage area for the rejected aggregates. In case of
ballast extracted from below the water level, the Contractor shall provide the necessary surfaces for
temporary storage, until excess water has drained away.
The aggregates that exceed 1,9 g of sulfate (SO
3
) / l, shall not be stored or used as filling material
in the proximity of the works that contain cement (concrete or stabilized ballast); the minimum
distance from these works shall be of 1 m.



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Table 1 Aggregates characteristics
Limits Characteristics
Ballast Optimal ballast
STAS
Sort 0-63 0-63 -
Fraction content %: < 0,02 mm
< 0,20 mm
0 - 1 mm
0 - 4 mm
0 - 8 mm
0 - 16 mm
0 - 25 mm
0 - 50 mm
0 - 63 mm
max. 3
3-18
4-38
16-57
25-70
37-82
50-90
80-98
100
max. 3
4-10
12-22
26-38
35-50
48-65
60-75
85-92
100




4606-80
Grading Fig. 2 SR 662 Fig. 2 SR 662 4606-80
Non-uniformity coefficient (Un), min. 15 730-89
Sand equivalent (EN), min. 30 30 730-89
Los Angeles factor, %, max. 50 30 730-89

The optimal ballast can be prepared by mixing the sorts 0-8, 8-16, 16-25, 25-63, according to SR
662.
After organizing the stockpiles, they shall be approved by the Engineer. The checking of the
aggregates from a stockpile shall be performed according to Table 2.
Table 2 Tests on aggregates
Action, verifying procedure
or characteristics to verify
Minimum frequency when supplying
Method to determine
(STAS)
Examination of data recorded in
the quality certificate
Each transport
-

Grading
Sand equivalent
Irregularity
One sample for each 400 t
730-89
4606-80
Wearing resistance (Los Angeles
test)
One sample for each 5000 t 730-89


1.2 Water

The necessary water to correct the moisture shall be clear, with no particular taste or smell and it
shall not contain either inorganic or organic suspensions.
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2. PREPARATION OF OPTIMAL BALLAST

2.1 The optimal ballast preparation plant
The Plant shall have the following equipment and facilities:
o Separate storage areas of aggregates on concrete platforms with slopes for water drainage; the
platforms shall have vertical separators to avoid mixing of aggregates. Each storage area shall
indicate the type of the aggregate;
o Devices to dose and store the aggregates;
o Adequate equipment to prevent segregation of the mixture when unloading in the transport
vehicles
o Authorized plant laboratory;
o Facilities for the workers safety and equipment for fire extinction.
o Installations and materials for cleaning the dosage and mixture devices, the bunkers and the
means of transportation.
The aggregates shall be dosed according to the grading. The following limits shall be respected in
this case:
o Aggregates 3%;
o Water 2%.
After installing, checking and obtaining all the authorisations required by the authorities, the Plant
shall be submitted to the Engineers approval.
All the expenses related to the Plant authorization and function shall be the Contractors
responsibility. During the Plant function the Contractor, on his own expense, shall ensure the
necessary checking in order to produce the mixture with the approved characteristics.

2.2 Preparation of the mixture

Before starting the works, the Contractor shall perform tests on the Plant in order to confirm the mix
proportion, as determined in the laboratory.
These tests shall also establish the minimum duration for the mixing operation, which ensures the
homogeneity of the mixture.
Any change of the mixture ratio, apart from the correction imposed by the humidity of the stored
aggregates, shall be treated as a change of the job mix formula and submitted for the Engineers
approval.
The necessary quantity of water shall be decided according to the aggregate humidity, taking into
account the water loss during transportation from the Plant to the working area.

2.3 Quality control of the mixture

The sampling and the quality control of the mixture shall be performed according to Table 3.

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Table 3 - Tests performed on the Plant
Activity, verifying procedure or
characteristics to verify
Minimum frequency on the Plant
Testing
method
The optimal compaction moisture content
(Modified Proctor test)
Each study of the job mix
1913/13-83
Grading content of the mixture At least once a day for each 500 m
3
4606-80
Aggregates humidity (
1
)
At least once a day when the weather
condition change
1913/1-82

Note: 1 to establish the necessary water content of the mixture.

The tolerances when preparing the mixture are:
o type 0-8 mm 5%;
o type 4 mm 2%
For the other types, no tolerances are admissible.
In case of natural ballast, the transport, storage and control shall be performed under the same
conditions as per the optimal ballast.

3. EXECUTION OF THE FOUNDATION COURSE

3.1 Trial section
To establish the construction method statement, the equipment and devices necessary to lay and
compact, the Contractor shall execute, with the Engineer approval and before starting the works,
one trial section for each source of aggregates. The trial section shall be of at least 50m length and
at least half of the platforms width.

The laboratory on site shall decide the quantity of water that has to be eventually added in order to
obtain the best humidity for compaction. The water shall be added by sprinkling, so the mixture has
the optimum humidity of compaction, uniformly spread in the mixture.
The tolerances regarding the mixture humidity are more than 1% and less than 2% comparing with
the best humidity level.

The compaction characteristics of the ballast for the foundation course shall be decided based on
the Modified Proctor test, in compliance with the stipulations of STAS 1913/13-83:

max.PM
= maximum dry density (g/cm
3
);
W
opt.PM
= optimum humidity for compaction (%).

The preparation and execution of the works as well the measurements performed on the trial
section shall be carried out under the Engineers supervision.
The preliminary works, their execution and the measurements on the trial section shall be
performed at the Contractor expenses.

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The test results from the trial section approved by the Engineer shall be used as a reference
document for the completion of the method statement.

3.2 Preliminary conditions

The construction of the ballast foundation can start only after the earthworks in the subject area,
including the form layer or foundation sub-grade (if the case) as well as the water drainage
(transverse and longitudinal drains, gutters and ditches) have been accepted by the Engineer.
To allow the water drainage from the foundation course, the bottom of the layer shall be minimum
15 cm above the maximum level of the water in the adjacent gutters/ditches, temporarily formed for
draining the water during construction.
It is forbidden to lay in the same working area ballast or optimal ballast from different stockpiles.
In case of using different ballast sources, the section limits and the used sources shall be named in
the Site Diary.

3.3 Transport
The Contractor shall take all the necessary action so that during transport to the working area, the
ballast/optimal ballast does not significantly modify its content (segregates, either decrease or
increase the water and fine parts content).

3.4 Construction
The foundation course can be laid only with the Engineers approval and when the roadbed meets
the requirements for being covered.
The ballast/optimal ballast shall be laid over the accepted earthworks, in one or more layers
depending on the thickness specified in the Design and the best thickness for compaction, as
established in the trial section.

The Contractor shall not start the execution of any layer before the previous one is verified and
accepted by the Engineer. The Contractor shall ensure, on his own expense, the necessary
maintenance for the accepted layers construction of the next layer.
The acceptance of each layer shall be again requested in case there are more than 7 days from the
date of the initial acceptance and construction of the next layer. It is also compulsory when within
this period of time the Engineer considers that the accepted layer does not meet the requirement to
be covered.
Compaction shall be executed as soon as possible after the material is laid and in compliance with
the requirements of the construction method statement as agreed after construction of the trial
section.
The characteristics of the compaction shall be established using samples taken from the work:

ef
= effective density (g/cm
3
);
W
ef
= effective humidity for compaction (%).

ef

Degree of compaction g
c
= -------------- x 100

max.PM


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In the working area where the foundation course is not executed over the entire width of the
platform, the shoulders shall be completed and compacted at the same time with the execution of
the foundation course, so that the shoulders permanently frame the foundation.
To avoid accidental damage, the Contractor shall take all the necessary action to limit the traffic
over the compacted and finished course.
The foundation course shall not be laid when:
o the humidity of the ballast is outside the limits, as specified in III.3;
o the ballast is frozen or contains ice;
o the weather conditions determine that the roadbed/improved sub-grade (if the case) does
not meet the requirements for covering.

4. CONTROL AND ACCEPTANCE OF THE WORKS

The tests performed during the execution of the foundation course shall be in compliance with Table
4.

Table 4 Tests for the quality control
Determination; verifying procedure
or characteristics to verify
Minimum frequency at the working
point
Verifying method
(STAS)
Examination of transport documents
each transport -
Modified Proctor test
For each source or when changing
the grading content
1913/13-83
Determination of the compacted
layer thickness
Minimum 3 determinations each
2000 m
2
of foundation
-
Characteristics of compaction
a) Humidity
b) Density

6 sample each 2000 m
2
of laid
course

1913/1-82
1913/5-85
12288-85
Determination of the degree of
compaction (by determining the dry
volume weight)
Daily, minimum 6 points
for each 2000 m
2
of laid course
1913/15-75
12.288-85
Determination of the bearing
capacity at the upper level of the
layer
In cross-section, every 25 m, on one
strip for each lane, including
emergency stationery
Norm
CD 31/2002

The bearing capacity at the upper level of the ballast layer shall be established by measurements
using the lever deflectometre, in compliance with the Technical Instructions CD 31/2002.

4.1 Verifying the horizontal geometry
The thickness of the foundation course shall be verified wherever necessary but in at least 3 points
for 2000 m
2
of executed foundation. The tolerance is 20 mm.
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The width of the course is measured wherever necessary but at least in every designed cross-
section.
The tolerance, measured from the centerline, is +5 cm.
The transverse slope of the foundation is equal to the road revetment slope, which is indicated in
the Design and it shall be measured wherever necessary, but every 25 m at least. The tolerance is
0,4% of the designed transverse slope.
The levels of the course are measured wherever considered necessary, but in every designed
cross-section at least; the tolerance is 1 cm.

4.2 Verifying the compaction and the bearing capacity

The foundation course shall be compacted until the 100% Modified Proctor (MP) is achieved for at
least 95% of the measuring points and 98% MP for all the measuring points.
The bearing capacity at the upper level of the foundation course is achieved when the value of the
deformability measured according to the stipulations of Norm CD 31/2002 is lower than 180
1
/
100

mm.
The uniformity of the execution is acceptable when the value of the variation coefficient is below
35%.

4.3 Verifying the characteristics of the course surface

Verifying the irregularities of the foundation surface shall be done with the 3m straight edge, as
follows:
o In long section, measurements shall be performed wherever considered necessary, but in the
axis of each traffic lane at least; the allowed irregularities measured under the 3 m straight edge
are 2 cm;
o In cross-section, measurements shall be performed wherever considered necessary, but in the
designed cross section at least; the allowed irregularities measured under the 3 m straight edge
are 1 cm;

4.4 Acceptance on execution stages

After completing the works on a road section and before starting the next layer it will be necessary
to obtain the Engineers approval.
The inspection of the works, which are subject to covering restrictions, shall decide whether the
works have been carried out according to the Design and the Technical Specifications.
The Acceptance of the works implies the checking of the records during the execution of the works
and of the test results as well as the examination of the works.
After checking an acceptance report has to be completed, which authorizes the Contractor to
proceed to the next construction stage.

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION




- 4 -
CRUSHED STONE OR CRUSHED STONE
OPTIMAL MIXTURECOURSE
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Layer of Crushed Stone or Crushed Stone Optimal Mixture

SUMMARY


GENERAL PROVISIONS ............................................................................................71

1 MATERIALS...........................................................................................................72
1.1 Natural aggregates ............................................................................................ 72
1.2 Water ................................................................................................................. 74
1.3 Geo-textile Material ........................................................................................... 75
1.4 Quality control of aggregates ............................................................................. 75

2 CONSTRUCTION of the FOUNDATION COURSE ...........................................75
2.1 Establishing the compaction characteristics ...................................................... 75
2.2 Trial section ....................................................................................................... 75
2.3 Preliminary conditions ....................................................................................... 76
2.4 Construction ...................................................................................................... 76

3 CONTROL of CONSTRUCTION and ACCEPTANCE of WORKS .................77
3.1 Verifying the horizontal geometry ...................................................................... 78
3.2 Verifying the compaction and the bearing capacity ........................................... 78
3.3 Verifying the characteristics of the surface of the layer .................................... 78
3.4 Acceptance of works on construction stages .................................................... 79







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GENERAL PROVISIONS

The Technical Specifications refers to the construction and approval of the crushed stone or
crushed stone optimal mixture foundation course of the road structure for the public roads and
streets. This document includes the technical conditions which have to be met both by the materials
used and the constructed foundation course.

For this project, the ballast foundation course is also the lower foundation course for the crushed
stone course, according to STAS 6400-84. Therefore, no additional ballast layer (minimum 10 cm
thick) shall be performed for the crushed stone foundation course.

According to STAS 6400-84 the large crushed stone 63-80 and crushed stone optimal mixture
foundation course consist of two layer (lower and upper) made of large crushed stone or crushed
stone optimal mixture having the minimum designed thickness of 10 cm (lower layer) and 12 cm
(upper layer).

On the area where the construction of a form course or any other measures to improve the
foundation soil are not provided, and in case the foundation soil is made of cohesive soils, the lower
crushed stone layer shall be exclusively constructed over an insulating layer. This layer may be
either 7 cm (after compaction) of sand or geo-textile.

The Contractor shall present for the Engineers approval, the Method Statement, 14 days before
commencing the works. This has to include:
o Program of Works for the foundation course;
o The equipment used for production and transport of aggregates;
o The equipment used for transport, spreading, watering, compaction and finishing;
o The sources (quarries or suppliers) and aggregates stockpiles, including the access to each.

To establish the details regarding the Method Statement, the Contractor shall construct trial
sections. Their size and location shall be decided by common agreement with the Engineer.

After the construction of the trial sections, the Method Statement shall be completed with
information regarding the compaction technology such as:
- Characteristics of the compaction equipment (weight, width, tire pressure, vibration
characteristics, speed);
- Number of passes with and without vibration to attain the degree of compaction in
compliance with the stipulations of the Technical Specifications;
- Number of the sub-layers of the foundation course (when the required compaction degree
could not be achieved by the construction of a single layer);
- The thickness of the ballast/optimal ballast course before and after compaction.

The Contractor shall perform, in an authorised laboratory, all the tests and determinations required
by this Technical Specifications as well as any other tests requested by the Engineer.

Apart from this Technical Specifications, the Contractor shall comply with the stipulations of the
standards and norms in force.


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1 MATERIALS

1.1 Natural aggregates

For the construction of the crushed stone foundation the following aggregates shall be used:
a. For foundation made of large crushed stone, 63-80:
o sand 0-4 mm for the insulating sub-layer if no form layer is performed;
o ballast 0-63 mm in the lower layer;
o crushed stone 63-80 mm;
o split stone 16-25 mm to wedge on the upper layer;
o grained sand or grit 0-4 mm as protective material.

b. For the foundation made of crushed stone optimal mixture 0-63 mm:
o sand 0-4 mm for the insulating sub-layer if no form layer is performed;
o crushed stone optimal mixture 0-63 mm.

The aggregates shall come from stable rocks, which can not be affected by water, air or freeze and
shall not contain visible foreign matter (clods, coal, wood or vegetation remains) or other materials.
The aggregates from feldspar rocks or schist shall not be used.

Each source of aggregates proposed by the Contractor shall be submitted for Engineers approval.
The proposal shall be submitted to the Engineer at least 14 days before commencing the supply or
the extraction and it shall have enclosed the following:
o report about the quality of the aggregates, which has to include the results of the laboratory
tests and analysis performed. The tests shall be conducted according to Table 1, 2, 3 and 4
and the stipulations of SR 662-2002 and SR 667-2001;
o analysis of the conformity in relation to the stipulations of this Technical Specification;
o estimated quantity;
o chart showing the manner the exploitation that is to be carried out or a graph indicating the
supply;
o transport route;
o lay-out of the storage area
o lay-out for the arrangement of the area after closing the extraction (in case of the ballast pit)
or the removal of the stockpile;
o agreement of the owners regarding the possession and exploitation of the area;
o agreements, approvals and authorisations required by the legislation in force;
o Design and agreements for the technological roads.

All the investigations, tests, rents and taxes related to the extraction of the aggregates shall be at
the Contractors expense.

The Contractor is responsible for any person put in jeopardy, injury or damage to public or private
property that can be caused by the extraction, transport or storage of the aggregates.

The transport and the storage of the aggregates from different sources shall be that it avoids
contamination or mixing of the aggregates. The access roads to the aggregate stockpiles shall be
arranged in order to avoid the contamination of the aggregates with mud or other materials.

The aggregates shall be stored on organised platforms, of concrete or asphalt mixture, which shall
have slopes and gutters for water drainage. It shall be also avoided to contaminate or mix the
aggregates from the stockpile. The aggregates stockpile shall be identified by panels, which indicate
the source and the size.

The Contractor shall ensure a temporary storage area for not accepted aggregates.


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Table 1 - SAND (insulating layer) - Conditions for acceptance according to SR 662
CHARACTERISTICS Conditions for acceptance for:
Sort 0 - 4
Grading Continuous
Fraction content (less than 0,1 mm) %, max. 14
Reversed Filter Condition 5 d
15
p < d
15
f < 5 d
85
p
Permeability coefficient (K), cm/s, min. 6 x 10
-3


Table 2 - BALLAST Admissibility Conditions according to SR 662
Characteristics Limits
Sort 0-63
Fraction content %: < 0,02 mm
< 0,20 mm
0 - 1 mm
0 - 4 mm
0 - 8 mm
0 - 16 mm
0 25 mm
0 - 50 mm
0 - 63 mm
max. 3
3-18
4-38
16-57
25-70
37-82
50-90
80-98
100
Grading According to figure 2 from SR 662
Non-uniformity coefficient (Un), min. 15
Sand equivalent (EN), min. 30
Los Angeles wearing resistance, %, max. 50

Note: When approving the source all the results according to SR 662 (Table 19) shall be presented.

Table 3 CRUSHED STONE Admissibility Conditions according to SR 667
Grit Crushed stone (split) Large crushed stone
Limits
Sort
Characteristics


0-8 8-16 16-25 25-40 40-63 63-80
5 5 5 5
Grains content that:
- remain on the upper sieve
( d
max
), %, max.
pass through the lower sieve
(d
min
), %, max.

10 10 10
Content of decayed, soft, porous
and with voids grains, %, max.
- 10 10 -
Grain shape:
- physically shape characteristic
, %, max.
35 35 35
1 1 1 1
Impurity coefficient:
- foreign matter, %, max.
fraction under 0,1 mm, %, max.

- 3 It is not the case
Wearing resistance (Los Angeles
test) %, max.
30
According to the type of rock,
(SR 667)
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Grit Crushed stone (split) Large crushed stone
Limits
Sort
Characteristics


0-8 8-16 16-25 25-40 40-63 63-80
Resistance to repeated action of
natrium sulphate (Na2S04)
5 cycles, %, max.
- 6 3
It is not
the case

Note: When approving the source all the determinations according to SR 667 (Table 12) shall be
presented.

The crushed stone optimal mixture can be prepared by mixing the sorts 0-8, 8-16, 16-25, 25-40 and
40-63, or directly from crushing, in case the conditions specified in Table 4 are met.

Table 4 CRUSHED STONE OPTIMAL MIXTURE Admissibility Conditions
Characteristics Conditions for acceptance
Sort 0-63
Fraction content, %, max. :
- less than 0,02 mm
less than 0,2 mm
-0...8mm
-20 ... 63 mm
< 3
4.. .10
30. ..45
25. ..45
Grading Within the limits of table 5
Sand equivalent (EN), min. (
1
) 30
Activity coefficient (
2
) 1.5 / 2
Wearing resistance (Los Angeles test) (LA) %, max. 30
Resistance to repeated action of sodium sulphate
(Na
2
SO
4
), 5 cycles, %, max.
6 for split
3 for large crushed stone 40-63

Note: (1) - when natural sand is present in the mixture;
(2) - when in the mixture it is used only quarry aggregates:
1.5 - when the percentage of the grains which pass through the 0.1 mm sieve is
below 8%
2 - when the percentage of the grains which pass through the 0.1 mm sieve is up
8%

Table 5 CRUSHED STONE OPTIMAL MIXTURE - Grading
Passes in % by mass through sieves with size .... (mm)
Grading limits Limit
0,02 0,2 8 25 40 63
0 .... 63 Lower 0 4 35 65 85 100
Upper 3 10 50 80 95 100

Admissibility conditions regarding the physically shape characteristics, content of decayed grains
and impurity content for crushed stone optimal mixture are those indicated in table 3.

The transport of aggregates to the working area shall be done using only accepted stockpiles.

1.2 Water

The water used to correct the moisture content shall be clear and it shall not contain either
organic or inorganic suspensions.
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1.3 Geo-textile Material
The geo-textile material shall be neither woven nor impregnated and it shall be verified according to
the Norm C 227 -"Technical norms regarding the use of geo-textiles and geomembrans in
construction works".



1.4 Quality control of aggregates

The minimum frequency of determinations for each type of aggregates is:
- one sample each 2000 t for each sort of crushed stone and crushed stone optimal mixture;
- one sample each 1000 t for grit;
- one sample each 500 t for crushed sand;
- one sample each 400 t for ballast;
- one sample each 200 t for natural sand.


2 CONSTRUCTION of the FOUNDATION COURSE

2.1 Establishing the compaction characteristics

A specialised laboratory shall establish the best characteristics of compaction for ballast and either
crushed stone or optimal mixture course before starting the works.

By the modified Proctor test, according to STAS 1913/13-83 it shall be established:

du max PM
- maximum dry volume weight (g/cm
3
)
W
opt PM
- best moisture content of compaction (%)

The real characteristics for compaction are established in the site laboratory on samples taken from
the working area, such as:

du ef
- real dry volume weight (g/cm
3
)
W
ef
- real moisture content of compaction (%)


du ef

Degree of compaction, gc = ----------------- x 100

du max PM


2.2 Trial section

To establish the Method Statement, the equipment and devices necessary to lay and compact, the
Contractor shall execute, with the Engineer approval and before starting the works, one trial section
for each source of aggregates. The trial section shall be of at least 50m length and at least half of
the platforms width.

The experimentation aims to determine on site, in conditions of current performance, the
components of the compaction workshop, its acting procedure for achieving the compaction level, if
the thickness provided in the Design can be performed in one or two layers, the adjustment of the
spreading devices for obtaining the respective thickness and a right surface.

The compaction on the experimental sections will be done in the presence of the Engineer, and the
control of the compaction degree will be done by testing it on site or in the laboratory, as the case
may be.

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In case of the big crushed stone foundation 63-80, the aim is to properly determine the rolling
workshop, composed of light and middle compressing rolls, the minimum number of passings of
these tubes for their rolling until the fixation of the crushed stone 63-80 and, then, the minimum
number of passings after the laying in two successive stages of the filling split 16-25 until the
optimal clenching is obtained.

In this case, the rolling is considered as finished if the roll wheels do not leave at all tracks on the
crushed stone foundation surface, and other stones of the same dimension 63-80 disposed in front
of the roll do not enter into the foundation layer, by the contrary, they are broken.

The laboratory on site shall decide the quantity of water that has to be eventually added in order to
obtain the best moisture content for compaction. The water shall be added by sprinkling, uniformly
distributed in the mixture to ensure the best moisture content level.

The allowed limits regarding the mixture moisture content are more than 1% and less than 2%
comparing with the best moisture content level.

In case of large crushed stone (63-80) the compaction is considered completed when the tyre of the
roller does not leave marks on the surface of the foundation and stones larger than 40mm, which
are thrown in front of the compacting roller, do not penetrate the layer. Moreover, they are crushed
without causing any dislocation or deformation to the foundation course.

The preparation and construction of the works as well the measurements performed on the trial
section shall be carried out under the Engineers supervision and at the Contractors expense.

That part from the performed section with the best results will serve as reference section for the rest
of the works.

The characteristics obtained on this section will be write down in order to be used for controlling the
quality of works in the future.

2.3 Preliminary conditions

The construction of the crushed stone / optimal mixture foundation can start only after the lower
ballast foundation layer has been verified and accepted by the Engineer.

Aggregates from different stockpiles shall not be laid on the same working area.

In the working area where the foundation course is not executed over the entire width of the
platform, the shoulders shall be completed and compacted at the same time with the construction of
the foundation course, so that the shoulders permanently frame the foundation.

To avoid accidentally deterioration, the Contractor shall take all the necessary action to limit the
traffic over the compacted and finished course.

The foundation course shall not be laid when:
o the moisture content of the ballast is outside the limits, as specified in 3.2;
o the ballast is frozen or contains ice;
o the weather conditions determine that the roadbed/form layer (if the case) does not meet the
requirements for covering.

2.4 Construction

A. Foundation made of large crushed stone (60-80) over a ballast layer

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a. Construction of the lower layer made of ballast

The ballast shall be laid on the form layer or, if this is not present, on a 7 cm thick insulating sand or
geo-textile layer.

Ballast shall be laid and levelled in one single layer so that after compaction the resulted thickness
is of 10 cm.

The compaction of the foundation layer shall be done respecting the Method Statement as agreed
further to the construction of the trial section.

b. Construction of the upper layer made of large crushed stone 63-80

The crushed stone shall be laid only after the Engineer accepts the lower layer of ballast, previously
watered.

After completing the layer rolling, the crushed stone shall be wedged on using split 16-25 and
further to this is covered with grit 0-8 or sand.

To protect against accidental deterioration by the time the next layer is constructed, the Contractor
shall cover the compacted and finished crushed stone foundation with a protective layer made of
grained sand or grit.

B. Crushed stone optimal mixture foundation course

The construction of the insulating layer and the lower ballast foundation course is carried out
according to 2.4.A.a.
Over the ballast layer, the crushed stone optimal mixture shall be laid using a spreader.

The construction of the foundation layer shall be carried out following all the characteristics, as it
was decided further to the construction of the trial section.

3 CONTROL of CONSTRUCTION and ACCEPTANCE of WORKS

During the construction of the large crushed stone 63-80 or crushed stone optimal mixture courses,
there shall be performed the checking and determinations indicated by table 6.

With regard to the bearing capacity of the foundation course, this shall be established after
measurements using the lever deflectometer, in compliance with the Technical Instructions CD 31-
93.
Table 6 Determinations for the foundation layer
Determination, verifying procedure or
characteristics to verify
Minimum frequency at the
working area
STAS
The optimal compaction moisture content
(Modified Proctor test)
For each source or when the
grading is modified
1913/13-83
Determining the compaction moisture
content
- ballast and crushed stone optimal mixture
6 points for 2000 m
2
1913/1-82
Determining the thickness of the compacted
layer
- ballast, large crushed stone and crushed
stone optimal mixture
3 points for 2000 m
2


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Determining the degree of compaction
(measuring the volume weight)
6 points at 2000 m
2

1913/15-75
12288-85
Verifying the compaction (crushing the
stone in front of the roller)
6 points at 2000 m
2
6400-84
Determining the bearing capacity at the
upper level of the foundation course
in cross-section every 25 m,
on each traffic lane including
the emergency lanes
Norm
CD 31-94



3.1 Verifying the horizontal geometry

The thickness of the foundation course shall be verified wherever necessary but in at least 3 points
for 2000 m
2
of executed layer. The tolerance is 2 cm.

The width of the course is measured wherever necessary but at least in every designed cross-
section.
The tolerance, measured from the centre line is +5 cm.

The transverse slope of the foundation is equal to the one of the road pavement, which is indicated
in the Design, and it shall be measured wherever necessary, but each 25 m at least. The tolerance
is 0.4%.

The levels of the course are measured in the characteristic points of the designed cross-sections.

The maximum deviation of the foundation levels towards the Design shall be 1 cm.

3.2 Verifying the compaction and the bearing capacity

The large crushed stone 63-80 foundation courses shall be compacted until the maximum degree of
compaction is attained. This is verified by crushing a rock of the same type as the one used for the
construction of the layer and with a size of 4cm, which is thrown in front of the compacting roller.
The compaction shall be considered attained if the rock is crushed without causing deformation of
the layer.

The foundations made of crushed stone optimal mixture have to be compacted by the time the
100% degree of compaction is attained in at least 95% of the measured points and minimum 98% in
all the measuring points.
The degree of compaction shall be determined as dry density by Modified Proctor test complying
with STAS 1913/13-83

The bearing capacity of the foundation layer is achieved when the value of the measured elastic
deformation does not exceed 120
1
/
100
mm in any of the measured points and the variation
coefficient less than 35%.


3.3 Verifying the characteristics of the surface of the layer

Verifying the irregularities of the foundation surface shall be done with the 3m straight edge, as
follows:
o In long section, measurements shall be performed wherever considered necessary, but in
the axis of each traffic lane at least; the allowed irregularities measured under the 3 m
straight edge are 2 cm;
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o In cross-section, measurements shall be performed wherever considered necessary, but in
the designed cross section at least; the allowed irregularities measured under the 3 m
straight edge are 1 cm;

3.4 Acceptance of works on construction stages

After completing the works on a road section and before starting the next layer the Engineers
approval is compulsory to be obtained.
The inspection of the works, which are subject to covering procedure, shall decide whether the
works have been carried out according to the Design and the Technical Specifications.

The Acceptance of the works implies the checking of the records during the construction of the
works and of the test results as well as the site examination of the works.

After the checking an acceptance report has to be concluded, which authorises the Contractor to
proceed to the next construction stage.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION








- 5 -
LAYER OF BALLAST STABILISED
WITH CEMENT
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Layer of Ballast Stabilised with Cement

SUMMARY


GENERAL PROVISIONS 82

1 MATERIALS 83
1.1 Natural aggregates............................................................................................. 83
1.2 Cement............................................................................................................... 84
1.3 Water.................................................................................................................. 85
1.4 Additives............................................................................................................. 85
1.5 Materials for layer protection.............................................................................. 85
1.6 Quality control of materials................................................................................. 85

2 PREPARATION OF THE MIXTURE 87
2.1 Establishing the content of the mixture............................................................... 87
2.2 Mixture preparation plant.................................................................................... 88
2.3 Preparation of the mixture.................................................................................. 88
2.4 Quality control of the mixture.............................................................................. 88

3 CONSTRUCTION OF THE LAYER 89
3.1 Trial section........................................................................................................ 89
3.2 Transport ............................................................................................................ 89
3.3 Preliminary conditions ........................................................................................ 90
3.4 Construction....................................................................................................... 90

4 CONTROL of CONSTRUCTION and ACCEPTANCE OF WORKS 91
4.1 Verifying the horizontal geometry....................................................................... 91
4.2 Verifying the degree of compaction.................................................................... 91
4.3 Verifying the surface characteristics................................................................... 91
4.4 Acceptance on construction stages.................................................................... 91




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GENERAL PROVISIONS

The Technical Specifications applies when constructing the natural aggregates stabilised with
cement foundation layers of the road structures. It specifies the technical requirements that have to
be met by the materials used as well as by the constructed foundation layer.

The Contractor shall perform, in an authorised laboratory, all the tests and determinations requested
by the Technical Specifications as well as any other test requested by the Engineer.

Apart from the Technical Specifications, the Contractor shall respect the stipulations of the
standards and norms in force.

The Contractor shall present for the Engineers approval, the Method statement, 14 days before
commencing the works. This has to include:
o Construction chart for the foundation layer;
o The equipment used to produce and transport the aggregates;
o The equipment used for transport, spreading, watering, compaction and finishing;
o The sources (ballast pits, manufacturers, suppliers) and aggregates stockpiles, including the
access to each.

To establish the details regarding the compaction method statement, trial sections shall be
constructed. Their size and location shall be established by common agreement with the Engineer.
After the construction of the trial sections, the Method Statement shall be filled in with information
regarding the compaction method statement such as:
o Characteristics of the compaction equipment (weight, width, tire pressure, vibration
characteristics, speed);
o Number of passes with and without vibration, to attain the degree of compaction in
compliance with the stipulations of the Technical Specifications;
o The thickness of the ballast layer before and after compaction.

The Contractor shall make sure that by all applied procedures he meets the requirements of this
Technical Specification.

The Contractor shall record on a daily basis data regarding the construction of the works as well as
the results of the measurements, tests and investigations.

In compliance with the stipulations of STAS 10473/1-87 for this project, the natural aggregate
stabilised with cement layer is considered foundation layer.




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1 MATERIALS

1.1 Natural aggregates

To construct the road layers made of natural aggregates stabilised with cement the Contractor shall
use the aggregate sorts as specified in Table 1.

The aggregates shall come from stable rocks, which are not affected by water, air or freeze-thaw
conditions. The aggregates from feldspar or schist shall not be used.

Table 1 - Type of aggregates
Aggregates utilised
Application field
Type of aggregates Sort Grading
Ballast pit aggregates 0-4, 4-8; 8-16 0-16 Base layer for flexible
pavements, platforms and
parking areas
Quarry or ballast pit crushed
aggregates
0-4, 4-8; 8-16; 16-20 0-20
Sand 0-4 0-4
Ballast pit aggregates 0-4; 4-8, 8-16; 16-25 0-25
Quarry or ballast pit crushed
aggregates
0-4; 4-8, 8-16; 16-25 0-25
Foundation layer,
emergency lane, tapered
lane and shoulders
Quarry waste 0-25 0-25

Note: The Contractor can propose the use of alternative aggregate fractions provided that at least 3
sorts are used.

The Contractor shall take all the necessary measures in order to avoid aggregates mixing or
becoming contaminated during transporting, storage and use.
The aggregates shall be stored on concrete platforms, which shall have slopes and gutters for
surface water drainage. Each stockpile shall be identified by panels, indicating both the source and
the size of the aggregate.

The access roads to the aggregate stockpiles shall be located so that aggregate mixing or
contamination is avoided. The Contractor shall also ensure a temporary storage area for aggregates
that are not accepted.

The ballast pit aggregates or crushed aggregates (from quarry or ballast pit) used when constructing
the cement stabilised road layers shall meet the requirements indicated by Table 2.

Table 2 Aggregates characteristics
Quality characteristics Limits STAS
Sand
Sort 0-4
Grading Continuous 4606-80
Non-uniformity coefficient (U
n
), (%) min. 8 730-89
Sand equivalent (EN) (min) 50 730-89
Aggregates
Ballast pit and crushed aggregates 0-25
Fraction content 0-8 mm 50-80 4606-80
Grading Continuous 4606-80
Non-uniformity coefficient (U
n
), (%) min. 8 730-89
Sand equivalent (EN) % (min) (for fraction 0-4 mm ) 30 730-89
Los Angeles test (LA) % (max) 35 730-89
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In the mixture for the construction of the cement stabilised layers, at least 50% of aggregates shall
be crushed.

Table 3 Aggregates grading
Passes through sieves (% by mass)
Grading
0,09 0,2 1 4 8 12,5 16 25
min. 5 8 18 33 50 65 100 -
0-16
Max. 10 17 34 60 75 88 100 -
min. 5 8 18 33 50 65 75 90
0-25
Max. 10 17 34 60 75 88 95 100

1.2 Cement

In the mixture for the construction of the cement stabilised layers, one of the following types of
cement shall be used provided that the technical requirements regarding the quality as indicated in
Table 4 are met:
o cement II A-S 32,5 STAS 1500-96;
o cement SR II/A-S 32,5 SR 3011-96;
o cement H II/A-S 32,5 SR 3011-96;
o cement I 42,5 (P 40) SR 388-95;
o cement CD 40 STAS 10092-78

Table 4 Cement characteristics
Cement
Physical characteristics
II/A-S 32.5 SR II/A-S 32,5 H II/A-S I 42,5 CD 40
The setting determined on the
cement paste of normal consistency
- shall not start sooner than:
- shall not be completed later than:


1,5 hours
10 hours


1,5 hours
10 hours


1 hours
8 hours


2 hours
10 hours
Maintaining of sample's volume - samples without bending, cracks (swelling)
Increase of volume at Le Chatelier
ring test
- < 10mm
Compressive strength (minimum) at:
2 days N/mm
7 days N/mm
28 days N/mm

-
16
32,5

-
16
32,5

10
-
42,5

15
26
40

The technical conditions regarding the taking-over, supplying, storage and testing of the cement
shall comply with the stipulations of the Code of Practice NE 012-99. Each lot of cement supplied on
site shall have a Conformity Certificate.
The verification of the cement quality shall be done within 24 hours from delivery, according to
SR EN 196/7-95.

In case the cement is obtained from a supplier (not from a manufacturer), the delivery shall contain
a conformity statement.

In case of providing more types of cement, each of them shall be separately stored and utilised on
distinct sections.

During transport or storage the cement shall be protected against moisture and contamination with
foreign matter.

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The stockpiles shall be properly marked, indicating the type of stored cement. Before changing the
type of cement from a stockpile this has to be emptied, cleaned and properly marked for the type of
cement that is to be stored afterwards.

The cement indicating a temperature above +50
o
C shall not be used.

The cement shall be used before the indicated expiration date.

Stored cement that has expired shall be re-tested in order to verify the quality characteristics. The
cement having a mechanical strength lower than for the minimum value for the specific class shall
be considered as belonging to a lower class and used according to the new class.
The cement with a compressive strength lower than the minimum value of the lowest type shall not
be used.
In case of contamination with water, the cement can be used only if the waste does not exceed 10%
and only by respecting the physical-mechanical characteristics at 2 and 7 days according to Table
4.

Testing the quality of cement shall be done according to Table 4.

1.3 Water

Water for the preparation of the cement-stabilised mixture shall be verified in compliance with STAS
790-94.

1.4 Additives

To improve the workability, to reduce segregation during transport and to increase the freezing-
thawing resistance additives shall be used that meet the requirements according to STAS 8625-90.

The additives proposed for use with natural aggregates stabilised with cement shall be approved by
the Engineer on the basis of preliminary tests performed on the prepared mixture in compliance with
the approved job mix.

Each batch of additives shall have enclosed the quality certificate from the manufacturer.

The additives shall be stored and kept in the original package, respecting the requirements, which
are recommended by the manufacturer.

The additives are added into the mixture as solution. The concentration of the solution shall be
established following the recommendation of the manufacturer. When added into the mixture, the
additive solution should be previously homogenised in a tank provided with agitators.

1.5 Materials for layer protection

After verifying the constructed layer, this shall be protected against moisture content loss by
covering.
In case of protection with bituminous emulsion or sand (0-4mm) these materials shall be verified
according to STAS 8877-72 and SR 662-2002.

The Contractor can propose alternative methods to protect the stabilised aggregates layer.

1.6 Quality control of materials

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The materials for the preparation of the stabilised aggregate layer shall be supplied from sources,
which are approved by the Engineer. The nature and the frequency of these tests are indicated in
Table 5.





Table 5 Quality control of materials
Minimum frequency
Action, procedure or verified
characteristics
When providing the: stockpile, the
concrete plant
Before using the
material
Verification
according to
STAS
Cement
Certificate of conformity For each supplied batch - -
Storage duration For each supplied batch For each batch
Status of cement (
1
)
For each supplied batch, at least
one test for 100t
2 tests each silos (top
and bottom) or at max.
50 t of utilised cement
SR EN 196/
6-94
Constancy of volume For each supplied batch, at least
one test for 100t
-
SR EN 196/
3-95
Duration of setting For each supplied batch, at least
one test for 100t
-
SR EN 196/
3-95
Compressive strength at 2, 7
and 28 days
One test at 100 t for each silos
-
SR EN 196/
1-95
Aggregates
Certificate of conformity For each supplied batch - -
Content of impurities:
- fine parts and fractions <
0.09 mm
- organic matter

- foreign matter

- one test for max. 500 m
3
for
each source and sort
- one test for each supplied batch
- one test for each supplied batch

-

-

- continuously

730-89
4606-80
4606-80
Grading
one test for max. 500 m
3
for each
source and sort
For each type, at max.
500 m
3
of mixture, or
when necessary
730-89
4606-80
Moisture content -
at 200 m
3
of mixture or
when necessary
4606-80
Non-uniformity coefficient one test for each supplied batch - 730-89
Wearing resistance (Los
Angeles test)
one test for each supplied batch - 730-89
Sand equivalent one test for each supplied batch - 730-89
Crushing one test for each supplied batch - 730-89
Additives
Certificate of conformity At each supplied batch - -
Solution density (if prepared
using the plant)) At each supplied batch
- Norm
CD 22-92

Water
Chemical content
One test when starting the works for each source and
whenever changes are noticed
790-84
Bituminous emulsion
Viscosity At each supplied batch - 8877-72
Bituminous waste At each supplied batch 8877-72
Homogeneity At each supplied batch 8877-72
Stability on storage At each supplied batch 8877-72
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Note: (1) - in case of exceeding the expire date or when occur events that may affect the quality;

2 PREPARATION OF THE MIXTURE

2.1 Establishing the content of the mixture

The study of the content of the mixture of natural aggregates, cement and water, shall be done in
order to determine:
o aggregates grading and variation limits;
o dosage of cement and additives;
o water content;
o dry density.

The study of the content of the mixture prepared of natural aggregates stabilised with cement shall
be submitted for the Engineers approval and it includes, without being limited to, the following:
o complete analysis of the materials utilised;
o Modified Proctor test for the allowed cement content; the test shall be performed on variation
stages of the cement dosage of 1% between 4% - 7%;
o physical-mechanical characteristics of the mixture on cylindrical samples within the limits of
the moisture content W
opt
2% , on at least 3 sets of samples (W
opt
- 2%, W
opt
, W
opt
+ 2%);
o certificates of conformity for the materials proposed in the report (aggregates, cement,
additives).

The cement dosage shall be maintained between 4 6 % of the weight of the dry aggregates.

The quantity of the retarding agent depends on the temperature of the environment and is
established in the laboratory by a preliminary study. In this respect it shall be taken into account the
fact that the duration for processing at 10C is twice as much as that at 20C, which is also double
comparing to that on 40C.
Further to the trial, the curve showing the duration of processing according to temperature will be
drawn.

The study of the content shall be done in case the source, the type of aggregates and/or the cement
changes or whenever necessary to re-examine the content.

The content of the mixture shall be established in order to comply with the conditions indicated by
Table 6.

Table 6 Physical-mechanical characteristics of the mixture
Physical-mechanical characteristics Allowed values
Compressive strength, Rc (N/mm
2
): at 7 days
at 28 days
1,2 1,8
1,8 3,0
Stability in water: lowering the compressive strength Rci % max.
volume swelling Ui % max.
water absorption Ai % max.
25
5
10
Mass loss, (%) max.: saturation-drying (Psu)
Freezing-thawing (Pid)
10
10

Note: If case for the minimum quantity of cement, the values obtained for the compressive strength
are more than the upper allowed value, the Contractor can propose measures to correct.

The grading of the mixture shall be within the limits indicated in Table 3. The selected grading shall
lead to a degree of compaction allowable within the conditions specified for standard compaction
(Modified Proctor test).
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2.2 Mixture preparation plant

The stabilised aggregate mixture can be prepared in plants with continuous dosage and mixing or in
concrete plants.

The distance between the preparation plant and the working area shall correspond to transport
duration of maximum 45 minutes.

The preparation plant shall have the equipment as follows:
o storage spaces for aggregates, on arranged platforms that ensure water drainage, separated
to prevent the contamination and mixing and also properly marked;
o silos of cement properly marked;
o devices for preparation, tanks and batcher;
o bunker for unloading the prepared mixture;
o arranged and properly equipped laboratory;
o equipment for cleaning the mixers, bunkers and means of transportation;
o materials for protection of the labour and equipment for fire extinction.

The dosage of the aggregates, cement and additives shall be done using an aggregate weight
batcher, and for the water is shall be done by volume.

The plant for the preparation of the mixture shall respect the accuracy of weighing and dosage as
indicated below:
o aggregates 3%;
o cement and water 2%;
o additives 5%.

The Contractor shall ensure permanently that the devices for dosage are in good condition to
function, verifying them any time as necessary, and not less than once a week.

2.3 Preparation of the mixture

The quantity of water necessary for the mixture shall be corrected according to the natural moisture
content of the aggregates.

The order the materials are introduced inside the mixer is decided by the instructions from the
manufacturer of the preparation plant.
After each shift or interruptions of more than 1 hour in the mixture preparation, the mixer shall be
cleaned and washed.

Over the entire duration from the moment of mixture preparation and compaction completion, the
temperature of the mixture shall not be more than 30C.

This duration from the moment of mixture preparation to the compaction completion shall be up to 6
hours, in accordance with the construction conditions. The duration shall be allowed to exceed 2
hours only if a retarding agent is utilised.

2.4 Quality control of the mixture

Quality control of the prepared mixture and the tests performed to determine the mechanical
characteristics of the mixture (degree of compaction and compressive strength) shall be conducted
respecting the provisions of Table 7.

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Table 7 Tests during construction
Minimum frequency
Activity or characteristics to verify

In the preparation plant
At the working
area
Verification
according
STAS
Transport documents
- For each
transport

The optimal compaction moisture
content (Modified Proctor test)
For each job mix - 1913/13-83
Temperature (at air temperature
lower than 5
o
C or more than 20
o
C)
Every 2 hours
Every 2 hours
Grading of the mixture
each 500 m
3
but at least
once a day
- 4606-80
Mixture moisture content (in order
to establish the quantity of water
necessary to ensure the best
moisture content for compaction)
At least once /shift and
when moisture content
changes
- 1913/1-82
Verifying the characteristics of
compaction (moisture content,
density)
-
6 samples each
2000 m
2

1913/1-82
12288-85
Compressive strength at 7 and 28
days
-
2 series of 3
samples each
1500 m
2

10473/2-86

The allowed deviation when calculating the job mix are: - for fraction 4 mm 5%;
- for fraction < 4 mm 2%

3 CONSTRUCTION OF THE LAYER

3.1 Trial section

In order to establish the Method statement, the equipment and devices necessary to lay and
compact, before starting the works, the Contractor shall construct, with the Engineers approval a
trial section of at least 50m length and 10m width.

Over the duration of the construction of the trial section, it shall also be performed the verification,
under working conditions, of the preparation plant. It shall be also verified the constancy of the
characteristics of the established mixture, determined in the laboratory, as it was approved by the
Engineer.

After the construction of the trial section and tests performance, the constructed layer on the trial
section shall be removed.

The preparation and construction of the works and tests performance on the trial section shall be
carried out in the presence of the Engineer and on the Contractors expense.

Changing the job mix implies the construction of new trial section.

The results obtained on the trial section shall help to decide the Method statement, which is a
reference document in the construction of the layer.

3.2 Transport

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The Contractor shall take all the measures so that:
o over the entire duration of the loading and transporting to the working area, the mixture does
not suffer changes in content (segregation, fine part loss, change of moisture content);
o the mixture is loaded only in clean vehicles.

The transportation capacity shall be correlated with the efficiency of the preparation plant and the
capacity of laying and compacting so that during a working day construction joints do not occur.

3.3 Preliminary conditions

The construction of the layer made of stabilised aggregates shall not start until the support layer is
verified and approved by the Engineer.

Before laying the mixture, the support layer shall be wetted and re-compacted.

3.4 Construction

Laying the stabilised mixture shall be done with mechanical spreaders.

Compaction shall be done immediately after laying and levelling, respecting all the requirements
established by the Method statement, which is approved by the Engineer.

In order to obtain a high value for the density, the compaction procedure shall be finalised before
starting the cement setting. In this respect, and especially under high temperature, retarding agents
shall be utilised.

The compaction shall be completed the latest 1 hour after the cement start setting.

The traffic over the compacted and finished layer shall not be allowed before the construction of the
next layer.

Measures taken under unfavourable weather

It shall not be allowed to lay the mixture when the air temperature is below +5
o
C or when it rains.
When the air temperature is above +30
o
C and the air moisture content is less than 40%, the laying
can be done only by taking special measures.
When laying the mixture on warm weather, special measures shall be taken to prevent dehydration.

The use of frozen materials or laying the mixture over a surface covered with snow or ice shall not
be allowed.
When the air temperature is below 0C in the first 24 hours after the mixture is laid, protective
measures according to Norm C 16-84 (works construction during cold weather).

Layer protection

To avoid water evaporation, sprinkling cationic bituminous emulsion (0.7 1.1 kg/m2) shall protect
the stabilised aggregates layer.

The bituminous emulsion shall be sprayed immediately after the layer is compacted and finished.

In rainy weather, the constructed layer shall be protected in order to prevent the washing out of the
cement paste.

The construction of the next layer shall not start earlier than 7 days from the completion of the
stabilised aggregates layer.

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The traffic over this layer shall not be allowed until the construction of the next layer.

4 CONTROL of CONSTRUCTION and ACCEPTANCE OF WORKS

The Quality control regarding the mixture of natural aggregates stabilised with cement shall be
performed in accordance with the specifications of Tables 7 and 8.

Table 8 - Tests during construction
Characteristics to verify Minimum frequency STAS
Compressive strength at 7 and 28
days
2 x 3 cylindrical laboratory samples each
1500 m
2

10473/2 86
Thickness of layer 3 points each 2000 m
2

Degree of compaction 6 points each 2000 m
2
10473/2 86

4.1 Verifying the horizontal geometry

The thickness of the aggregates layer shall be verified wherever necessary but in at least 3 points
for each 2000 m
2
of constructed layer. The allowed deviation is 1cm +2cm.

The width of the layer is measured wherever necessary but at least in every designed cross-section.
The allowed deviation for the width of the layer, measured from the centre line, is +2 cm.

The transverse slope of the foundation layer is equal to the designed one of the road pavement, and
it shall be measured wherever necessary, but in each designed cross-section at least. The allowed
deviation is 0.4%.

The levels of the layer are measured wherever considered necessary, but in each designed cross-
section at least; the allowed deviation is 1 cm.

4.2 Verifying the degree of compaction

The foundation layer shall be compacted until the 100% degree of compaction is attained for at least
95% of the measured points and at least 98% for all the rest of the measured points.

For platforms, parking areas and shoulders, the degree of compaction shall be of at least 95% in all
the measured points.

4.3 Verifying the surface characteristics

Verifying the irregularities of the surface of the foundation shall be done with the 3m straight edge,
wherever necessary, but at least:
o in long section, in the axis of each traffic lane; the allowed irregularities are 1 cm;
o in cross-section, in the designed cross-sections; the allowed irregularities are 1 cm;

4.4 Acceptance on construction stages

After completing the works on a road section and before starting the next layer it is necessary to
obtain the Engineers approval.

The inspection of the works, which are subject to covering procedure, shall decide whether the
works have been carried out according to the Design and the Technical Specifications.

The Acceptance of the works implies the checking of the records during the construction of the
works and of the test results as well as the examination of the works.

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After the checking an acceptance report has to be concluded, which authorises the Contractor to
proceed to the next construction stage.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION







- 6 -
BASE COURSE OF HOT ROLLED
ASPHALT MIXTURES
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Base Course of Hot Rolled Asphalt Mixtures


SUMMARY


GENERAL PROVISIONS 95

1 MATERIALS 96
1.1 Natural Aggregates ............................................................................................ 96
1.2 Filler ................................................................................................................... 96
1.3 Bitumen.............................................................................................................. 96
1.4 Bituminous emulsion .......................................................................................... 97
1.5 Additives............................................................................................................. 97

2 ASPHALT MIXTURE PREPARATION 97
2.1 Establishing the composition.............................................................................. 97
2.2 Asphalt mixing plant ......................................................................................... 100

3 LAYER EXECUTION 101
3.1 Trial section...................................................................................................... 101
3.2 Preparation of support layer ............................................................................. 101
3.3 Transport .......................................................................................................... 102
3.4 Execution ......................................................................................................... 102

4 CONTROL OF EXECUTION and ACCEPTANCE OF WORKS 102
4.1 Quality control of materials............................................................................... 102
4.2 Control of preparation and laying the mixture................................................... 102
4.3 Quality control of the executed layer ................................................................ 103
4.4 Acceptance of works ........................................................................................ 104



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GENERAL PROVISIONS

These Technical Specifications set out the general technical conditions of execution and verification
of the hot rolled asphalt mixture base courses.

The asphalt mixture base course is part of the road structure on which bituminous surfaces are
applied.
The application fields of the hot rolled asphalt mixture base course and special technical
requirements are to be in conformity with the requirements of SR 7970/2001.

The Contractor shall carry out, in an authorized laboratory, all tests and determinations required by
this Technical Specification and any other tests requested by the Engineer, including the
preparation of mix formula studies for the asphalt mixtures.
In addition to these Technical Specifications, the Contractor must comply with the stipulations of all
standards and norms in force.

With at least 14 days prior to the beginning of works, the Contractor shall submit for the Engineers
approval, the Execution Method Statement of the base course, which shall contain, amongst others:
o program of works of the base course;
o equipment used for materials manufacture and transport;
o equipment used for transport, spreading and compaction of the mixture
o sources (ballast pits, quarries, producers, suppliers) and aggregates stockpiles, including the
proposed haulage route;
o study of job mix formula.

To determine the details of the compaction technology, trial sections will be executed to the
dimensions and locations to be agreed with the Engineer.
After executing the trial sections, the Execution Method Statement shall be amended with
information on the laying and compaction technology:
o characteristics of the compaction equipment (weight, width, tire pressure, characteristics of
vibrations, speed);
o number of passings, with or without vibrations, to accomplish the required degree of
compaction;
o number of sub-layers of the base course (when the degree of compaction cannot be
achieved by laying only one course);
o thickness of layer (sub-layers) before and after compaction;
o temperature at the beginning and the end of compaction;
o revised job mix formula.

The Contractor shall ensure that all applied procedures meet the requirements of this Technical
Specification.

The Contractor shall daily record the data referring to the works execution and to the results
obtained after measurements, tests and sampling.

Types of mixtures

Based on the aggregates size used for their preparation, the asphalt mixtures for the base course
can be:
o type AB 1, with medium aggregates: 22 % ... 47% particles over 4 mm;
o type AB 2, with large aggregates: 36 % ... 66% particles over 4 mm.
The type of asphalt mixture used for this project is AB2. SR 7970/2001.
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1 MATERIALS
1.1 Natural Aggregates

The aggregates used for the preparation of asphalt mixtures for the base course are shown in Table
1.

Table 1 Contents of aggregates over 4 mm
Road technical class Type of aggregates over 4 mm
I chippings
II chippings (min. 35%) + crushed
gravel
III crushed gravel
IV graded gravel

To prepare the asphalt mixture for the base course, the following types of aggregates shall be used:
o quarry natural aggregates: - chippings size 4-8, 8-16, 16-25
- crush sand size 0-4
o ballast pit natural aggregates, washed, crushed and sorted:
- natural sand size 0-4;

To approve the sources of aggregates, the Contractor shall run, for each source, all the determinations
set out in SR 662/2002 (Table 19) and SR 667/2001 (Table 12).

The aggregates shall be stored separately, in paddocks designed with concrete platforms, with
slopes to drain the surface water and separating walls to prevent mixing and contamination.

To approve the batches, the Contractor shall run, for each type of aggregate, all the determinations
specified below:
o according to SR 667/2001 (Table 8) - a sample from 1000 t every chippings sort;
o according to SR 667/2001 (Table 10) - a sample from 500 t for crushed sand;
o according to SR 662/2002 (Table 5) - a sample from 200 t for natural sand.

1.2 Filler

To approve the source, the Contractor shall carry out at monthly intervals all the determinations set out
in STAS 539/1979.

Other materials or fine fractions recovered from the asphalt plant exhauster are not to be used as
filler replacement.

The filler is stored in covered rooms, away from humidity or in silos with pneumatic loading. The use
of conglobated filler is not allowed

On the stored filler, all the determinations set out in STAS 539/1979 (Table 1) will be run, with the
following frequencies:
o 1 test per 700 t for limestone filler;
o 1 test per 100 t for chalkstone filler;
o 1 test per 50 t for dust slacked lime filler.
1.3 Bitumen
To prepare the asphalt mixture for the base course in this project, non-paraffin bitumen for roads
type D 80/100 shall be used, the works being located at the limit between the warm area and cold
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area (areas defined in accordance with STAS 174-1/2002).

Various types of bitumen must be separately stored in metallic tanks designed with heating system,
temperature recording system (for oil and bitumen), aeration hole, recycling pumps, etc.

To approve the bitumen source, the Contractor shall run at quarterly intervals all the determinations set
out in SR 754/1999 and Norm AND 537/1998.

At each batch (max. 500 t), all the determinations requested by SR 754/1999 shall be run, except for
the paraffin contents, density and adherence.
1.4 Bituminous emulsion
Cationic emulsion with quick break point shall be used to prime the support layer, according to
STAS 8877/1971.

To approve the source, the Contractor shall run and re-run for each batch (max. 100 t) all the
determinations set out in STAS 8877/1971.

The cationic bituminous emulsion is stored in clean metallic tanks, having recycling pumps and
heating systems.
1.5 Additives
The bitumen adherence to the aggregates used to obtain the asphalt mixture must be of min.80%,
for roads of technical class I-II (quarry natural aggregates), and of min 75%, for roads of technical
class III-IV (ballast pit natural aggregates).

If the bitumen adherence, determined as in STAS 10969/3-1983, is situated below this value, it is
then necessary to improve the bitumen using additives.

The additives have to comply with the following basic conditions:
to be compatible with the type of the utilized bitumen;
to be thermally stable until minimum 200C;
to ameliorate the bitumen adhesiveness to the natural aggregates without affecting its other
characteristics;
not to be toxic, corrosive or inflammable.

The used additives must be approved by the Engineer. For each additive, the Contractor shall
present the technical agreement and the quality certificate of conformity.

The determinations and frequencies are those set by the technical agreement of each product.

2 ASPHALT MIXTURE PREPARATION

2.1 Establishing the composition

The study to elaborate the job mix formula and the verification of the materials quality are to be
carried out in an authorized laboratory.
The asphalt mixture for the base course shall be fully executed with quarry natural aggregates or of
a mix between quarry and ballast pit natural aggregates, as shown in Table 2.
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Table 2 Composition of asphalt mixture (aggregates + filer)
Used natural aggregates
o chippings size 4-8, 8-16, 16-25
o crush sand size 0-4 in ratio of 1:1 with natural sand size 0-4
o filler

The limits of aggregates and filler percentages of the total aggregates quantity are shown in Table
3.

Table 3 Composition of asphalt mixture (aggregates + filler)
Fractions of aggregates from the total mixture, (% of mass) Composition (%)
Filler and fractions of sands under 0,1 mm 3 12
Filler and sands, fraction 0,1...4 mm, Difference up to 100%
Aggregates over 4 mm 3666
Aggregates over 25 mm max. 10
Note: the filler content must be of min. 4% (according to STAS 539/1979).

The grading of the natural aggregates mixture shall be within the limits from Table 4 and figures 1
and 2 (SR 7970/2001).

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Table 4 Mixture particle size
Sieve dimension Passings (%)
25 mm 90 100
16 mm 71 100
8 mm 50 86
4 mm 34 63
1 mm 14 39
0,63 mm 10 35
0,20 mm 4 22
0,1 mm 3 11

The recommended bitumen content is within the interval 3.4 5.0% for crushed aggregates and
within the interval 3.3 ... 4.8% for ballast pit aggregates.

The actual bitumen content is established within the formula study, according to STAS 1338/1-84,
STAS 1338/2-87 and STAS 1338/3-84.
The deviations admitted from the established dosage must be within the limits from Table 5.

Table 5 Limit deviations in mixture composition
Mixture elements Admitted deviations (%)
Bitumen content 0,3
Fractions of natural aggregates: 16 25 5
8 16 5
4 8 5
1 4 4
0,20 0,63 3
0,1 0,2 2
0 0,1 1,5
Physical-mechanical characteristics

The physical-mechanical characteristics of the asphalt mixtures are determined:
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o on Marshall type samples and on cubic specimens made of asphalt mixtures prepared in the
laboratory to establish the optimal dosages and of samples taken during works execution,
from the mixer or whilst laying;
o from the already executed layer.

The physical-mechanical characteristics of the asphalt mixture are determined according to STAS
1338/1-84, STAS 1338/2-87, SR EN 12697-27/2002, SR EN 12697-28/2002.

The tests results shall be within the limits from Table 6.

Table 6 Physical-mechanical characteristics of the asphalt mixture for the base course
Characteristics Type of Bitumen Values
Tests on Marshall
D80/100 5,5
Stability (S) at 60
o
C, (kN) min
D80/100 5,0
D80/100 1,5-3,5
Flowing value (index), (mm)
D80/100 1,5-4,0
Bulk density, (kg/m
3
), min D80/100 2200
Water absorption, (% vol) - 28
Tests on cubic specimens
Compression resistance at 22
o
C, (N/mm
2
), min D80/100 2,5
Reducing of the compression resistance after
28 days of water endurance at 22
o
C, (%) max.
D80/100 30
Bulk density, (kg/m
3
), min D80/100 2150
Water absorption, (% vol) D80/100 210
2.2 Asphalt mixing plant

The asphalt mixture is prepared in asphalt mixing plants, designed with devices for pre-dosing,
drying, resorting of aggregates, devices of dosing the components (aggregates, bitumen, filler), and
of forced mixing of the asphalt mixture.

The asphalt mixing plant must be authorized in accordance with the regulations in force.

The mixing duration must be sufficient as to accomplish a complete and uniform coating of the
natural aggregates and filler with the bitumen.

The asphalt mixing plant must have devices to avoid the mixture's segregation during storage and
loading in the means of transport.

During preparation and laying the asphalt mixture, the temperature must be within the limits from
Table 7.

Table 7 Temperature regime during manufacturing and laying asphalt mixture
Temperature (
o
C) Execution phase
D60/80 D80/100
Aggregates at the drier exit 170190 165... 185
Bitumen at the mixer entrance 155165 150... 160
Asphalt mixture at the mixer exit 165175 160... 170
Asphalt mixture during laying min. 155 min. 150
Asphalt mixture at the beginning of compaction min. 150 min. 145
Asphalt mixture at the end of compaction min. 110 min. 105

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The temperatures situated at the high end of the interval are applicable if the works are performed in
cold areas or in special circumstances where outside temperatures are below the minimum admitted
limit (10 15
0
C)

The asphalt mixture temperature at the mixer exit shall be adjusted within the prescribed interval so
that, under the actual transport conditions (distance, means of transport) and the climate conditions,
all the laying and compacting temperatures should be ensured as in Table 7.

Heating the aggregates and the bitumen above the values in Table 7 is not permitted.

Heating bitumen for lengthen period or re-heating the same bitumen quantity repeatedly shall be
avoided. If, due to technological reasons, the bitumen re-heating could not be avoided, its use is
allowed only after the penetration, the softening point and the ductility are checked at 25
o
C.

3 LAYER EXECUTION

3.1 Trial section

To establish the method statement, the equipment and all laying and compacting devices, before
the works start, with the Engineers approval, the Contractor shall perform a trial section, of at least
150 m length, on the entire width of the way.

During the execution of the trial section, the asphalt mixing plant shall also be verified under working
conditions, as well as getting the job mix constant characteristics, established in laboratory, as
approved by the Engineer.

Based on the designed thickness of the base course and on the equipment used to accomplish the
prescribed grade of compaction, on the trial section it shall be determined whether the mixture is
laid in one or more sub-layers. When determining the number of layers there shall be taken into
consideration that the thickness of each layer must be within the 6 ... 12 cm.

The preparation, execution of works and the running of tests on the trial section shall be done in the
presence of and with the approval of the Engineer.

The preparation, execution of works and the measurements taken on the trial section shall be done
at the Contractors expense.

Changing the job mix formula requires the execution of a new trial section.

The results obtained from the trial section shall be used to finalize the procedure of execution, and
the reference document relating to layer execution.
3.2 Preparation of support layer
The execution of the base course shall not begin before the support layer is verified and approved
by the Engineer.

Before laying the asphalt mixture, the support layer is cleaned and primed with bituminous
emulsion. The priming of the support layer is to be applied by mechanized spraying equipment,
ensuring the evenness and the prescribed rate of spread.
Based on the support layer nature, the quantity of the emulsion spread for priming must ensure a
rate of spread of (0,3...0,5) kg residual bitumen per square meter, spread as continuous thin layer.

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3.3 Transport
The asphalt mixture is transported in tipping lorries, with clean and dry tipper bodies, equipped with
a tarpaulin covering the entire load to prevent temperature losses.

3.4 Execution

Laying the asphalt mixtures for the base course is carried out only when the ambient temperature is
over 10
0
C, during dry weather. The works are interrupted during strong winds or rains and are
resumed after the support layer is dry.

Laying the asphalt mixtures on the prepared support layer is done with spreaders finishers,
equipped with a sensor and automatic leveling system, to ensure the mixture pre-compaction.

The asphalt mixture must be laid uniformly and continuously on each layer. If accidental
interruptions occur, the procedure according to SR 174-2/1997 must be followed.

The compaction is achieved with tire compactors and/or with smooth wheeled rollers rolls, equipped
with vibrating devices.

The places inaccessible to compactors (along the kerbs, around the gullies or manholes) are
compacted with adequate means approved by the Engineer.

When beginning the works to the adjacent lane, or when continuing the work at the same lane, in
the working joints area, the asphalt is cut on the whole thickness of the layer so that a vertical sharp
margin would result, which shall be primed as in SR 174-2/1997.

When executing the works on successive layers, the transversal and longitudinal working joints of
the successive layers must be gapped with at least 10 cm, the upper layer being applied within 24 h
of first layer being laid. If the second layer cannot be executed within 24 h, the surface of the
executed layer shall be prepared by cleaning and priming.

It is recommended for the bituminous surface being laid (binder course) to be applied immediately
after the execution of the base course.

4 CONTROL OF EXECUTION and ACCEPTANCE OF WORKS
The quality control of execution of the asphalt mixture base course implies:
o control of materials quality;
o control of preparation and laying the mixture;
o control of executed layer quality.
4.1 Quality control of materials
During works execution, all verifications and determinations shall be executed in the site laboratory,
on each supplied batch.
4.2 Control of preparation and laying the mixture
Control of the asphalt mixture plant

During preparation and laying, the following shall be checked:
o functioning of pre-dosing devices: daily;
o functioning of dosing devices: at the beginning of each shift;
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o bitumen temperature when put in the mixer: permanently;
o aggregates temperature at the exit of the drier: permanently;
o asphalt mixture temperature at the exit of the mixer: permanently.

Control of mixture composition and quality
o Observing the pre-established asphalt mixture composition, through tests run in site
laboratory :
- grading analysis of the mixture between aggregates and filler at the mixer exit, before
adding the bitumen: daily or anytime necessary;
- asphalt mixture composition through extractions, on mixture samples taken from the
mixer and whilst laying: daily (1/400 tons of mixture)
o The quality of asphalt mixture, through tests run in an authorized laboratory, on asphalt
mixture samples: 1 test at 400 tone manufactured mixture, but at least once a day;
- lB softening point, of the bitumen extracted from the asphalt mixture;
- the physical-mechanical characteristics on Marshall tests and cubic specimens.

Characteristics of bitumen from the asphalt mixture

The bitumen from the asphalt mixture taken during execution, from the mixer or whilst laying, must
have an IB softening point higher with max 9
0
C than the value measured before manufacturing the
mixture.

The lB softening point is determined in accordance with STAS 60/69, and the bitumen extraction
and recovery from the mixture is done in accordance with STAS 1338-2/84, with SoxhIet device,
with the centrifugal (or in accordance with the new regulations: SR EN 12697-1/2002, SR EN
12697-3/2002 and SR EN 12697-4/2002).

If organic solvents containing chlorine are used during extraction (e.g. Chloroform), solvents which
hardens the bitumen, the real value of the IB softening point will be obtained by subtracting 8
0
C
from the measured IB value.

The focus is on the complete removal of the filler from the bitumen solution at extraction, by
centrifuging or by decantation for min. 24 hours (in the case of using Soxhlet extractors or
centrifugals which do not have filler separation system).
4.3 Quality control of the executed layer

Verification of geometrical elements

The declivity in cross-section and the declivity in longitudinal profile of the asphalt mixture base
course are the same as in the bituminous pavement case.
Table 9 Tolerances of the bituminous pavement layer
Measured element Tolerance
Layers thickness 10%
Layers width 5 cm
Cross-section declivity 0.4%
Levels of the cross-section and longitudinal profile 1 cm (observing the distance
between the vertical alignment
vertexes)
Evenness of surface (measured using the 3m straight edge) 0.3 cm

Verification of asphalt mixture quality and compaction level

The verification of the executed layer is done on cores taken from the layer (at least 1 sample at
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7000 m
2
) performing the following measurements and tests:
Thickness of the laid layer;
Bulk density;
Water absorption;
Compaction level;
Mixture characteristics (composition, physical-mechanical characteristics, IB softening point
of the extracted bitumen).
The cores are extracted in the presence of and from the locations as directed by the Engineer.

The grade of compaction is measured as a percentage ratio between the bulk density of the mixture
compacted into the layer and the bulk density determined on Marshall tests prepared in laboratory
from the same asphalt mixture.

The bulk density of the layer mixture is determined on cores taken from the already executed layer
or through non-destructive measurements (e.g. with gamma densitymeter).

The tests results must be within the limits from Table 10.

Table 10 Mixture characteristics to determine the compaction
Characteristics Admitted values
Bulk density, (kg/m
3
), min 2150
Water absorption, (%vol) 2 10
Compaction level, (%), min 96
4.4 Acceptance of works
After finishing the works on one section, the performed works shall be presented to the Engineer for
approval, before laying the next course.

The inspection of the works to be covered must establish whether they were performed in
compliance with the design and this Technical Specification.

The acceptance team shall verify the records during execution and the tests results, as well as the
actual examination of works.

After the verification is done, the minutes of acceptance shall be prepared in order to authorize the
next phase of execution.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION








- 7 -
BITUMINOUS SURFACES
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Bituminous Surfaces


SUMMARY

GENERAL PROVISIONS 107
1 MATERIALS 108
1.1 Natural aggregates.............................................................................................. 108
1.2 Filler .................................................................................................................... 108
1.3 Bitumen............................................................................................................... 108
1.4 Bituminous emulsion ........................................................................................... 109
1.5 Fibres .................................................................................................................. 110
2 ESTABLISHING THE JOB MIX COMPOSITION 110
2.1 Cellulose fibres content in the asphalt mixtures .................................................. 112
2.2 Filler/bitumen ratio............................................................................................... 112
3. PHYSICAL MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS 113
3.1 Physical-mechanical characteristics of the asphalt mixtures stabilized with fibres114
3.2 Determination of the physical-mechanical characteristics................................ 114
3.3 Characteristics of the bituminous surface layers .............................................. 115
4 CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE SURFACE OF THE EXECUTED LAYER 116
5 PREPARATION AND LAYING OF THE ASPHALT MIXTURES 117
5.1 Preparation of the asphalt mixtures.................................................................. 117
5.2 Installation for preparing the asphalt mixture.................................................... 118
5.3 Laying the asphalt mixture ............................................................................... 120
6 CONTROL OF THE EXECUTION AND ACCEPTANCE OF WORKS 122
6.1 Verification of the geometrical elements........................................................... 122
6.2 Characteristics of the bituminous surface......................................................... 122
6.3 Acceptance of works ........................................................................................ 122
ANNEX A 123



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GENERAL PROVISIONS

These Technical Specifications set out the general technical conditions of execution and verification
of the bituminous surfaces.

The Contractor shall perform, in an authorized laboratory, all tests and determinations required by
these Technical Specifications and any other tests and determinations requested by the Engineer.

In addition to these Technical Specifications, the Contractor must comply with the stipulations of all
standards and norms in force.

Fourteen (14) days prior to the beginning of works, the Contractor shall submit for the Engineers
approval, the Working Technology for the bituminous surface, which shall contain, amongst others:
o program of works for the bituminous surfaces;
o equipment used for materials manufacture and transport;
o equipment used for transport, spreading and compaction of the mixture
o sources (ballast pits, quarries, producers, suppliers) and aggregates storage, including the
access paths to each of them.

To determine the details of the laying and compaction technology, trial sections will be executed,
whose dimensions and locations shall be established together with the Engineer.
After executing of the trial sections, the Working Technology shall be completed with information on
the compaction technology:
o characteristics of the compaction equipment (weight, width, tire pressure, vibration
characteristics, speed)
o number of passings, with or without vibrations, to accomplish the grade of compaction as to
comply with these Technical Specifications;
o temperature for starting and finishing the compaction;
o job mix formula (optimal dosages).

The Contractor shall make sure that, by applying all the procedures, he meets the requirements of
these Technical Specifications.

The Contractor shall daily record the data referring to the works execution and to the results
obtained after measurements, tests and determinations.


Types of mixtures

The bituminous surfaces are of the hot rolled asphalt concrete type. SR 174/1-2002.

They are composed of 2 layers:
wearing course in accordance with Annex C;
binder layer in accordance with Annex D.

The references related to all the types of asphalt mixtures used for hot rolled bituminous surfaces
are shown in Annex E.

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1 MATERIALS

1.1 Natural aggregates

Depending on the source, the natural aggregates are classified into:
- quarry natural aggregates (in accordance with SR 667/2001);
- chippings, size 4-8, 8-16 and 16-25;
- crushed sand, size 0-4;
- gravel pit natural aggregates, processed by washing and grading or by washing,
crushing and grading (in accordance with SR 662/2002);
- natural sand, size 0-4.

Minimal class of the rock
The minimal class for the rock from which natural aggregates for bituminous surfaces are obtained,
shall be established in accordance with SR 667/2001 (Table 3).
The physical-mechanical characteristics of the rock resulted from the quarry aggregates have to be
in accordance with SR 667/2001 (Table 2).

Storage
Each type and size of natural aggregates has to be separately stored, in bins provided with concrete
platforms, having water draining slopes and separating walls in order to avoid aggregates mixing.

1.2 Filler

The filler to be used is lime or chalkstone, in accordance with STAS 539/1979. For the asphalt
mixtures stabilized with fibres, the filler has to comply additionally with the condition that not more
than 20% of particles to be less than 0.02 mm. It will not be allowed to use other materials as a
replacement for filler or the fine fractions recovered from the asphalt plant exhauster.

The filler will be stored in bunkers with pneumatic charging. There will not be allowed to use the
agglomerated filler.

1.3 Bitumen

For all types of asphalt mixtures, bitumen type D80/100 shall be used, excepting MASF 16 for which
bitumen type D60/80 shall be used.

In order to approve the bitumen source, the Contractor shall perform and re-execute quarterly all the
tests stipulated in SR 754/1999 and NAR Norm 537/1998.

For each batch (max. 500 t), all the determinations provided in SR 754/1999 will be performed,
excepting the paraffin content and the density.

The bitumen will have to comply with the requirements specified in Table 1. For this project, bitumen
type D60/80 will be used.

Table 1 Characteristics of bitumen
Characteristics Admissible values STAS
Penetration at 25C, (1/10 mm) 60-80 80-100 42-68
Softening point IB, (C) 48-55 44-49 60-69
Ductility at 25C, (cm), min. 100 100 SR 61-96
Ductility at 5C, (cm), min. 4.0 5,0 SR 61-96
Breaking point Fraass, (C), max. -13 -15 113-74
Inflamability point Marcusson, (C), min. 250 250 5489-80
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Characteristics Admissible values STAS
Solubility in organic solvents, (%), min. 99 99 115-80
Stability in warm conditions in thin layer at
163C

- mass loss, (%), max. 0,80 0,80
- residual penetration at 25C, (%),
min.
50 47
- increase of the softening point,
(C), max.
9 9
- residual ductility at 25C, (cm),
min.
50 75
8099-74
Method II
Paraffin content, (%), max. 2.0 2.0 8098-68
Density at 15C, (g/cm
3
), min. 0,995 0,992 35-81
Adhesiveness on standard aggregate, (%),
min.
80 80 10969/3 - 83
Adhesiveness on the used aggregate 80 80 10969/3-83
Colloidal instability index, (), max. 0.5 0.5

Bitumen with additives
When the adhesiveness of the bitumen to the natural aggregates utilized, determined in accordance
with STAS 10969/3, is smaller than 80%, the bitumen shall be improved.

The additives have to comply with the following compulsory conditions:
- to be compatible with the type of the utilized bitumen;
- to be thermal stable until minimum 200
0
C;
- to ameliorate the bitumen adhesiveness to the natural aggregates without affecting
its other characteristics;
- not to be toxic, corrosive or inflammable.

The additives which are intended to be used will be subject to the Engineers approval. For each
additive presented for approval, the Contractor will submit also the technical agreement and the
quality certificate of conformity.

The bitumen with additive has to be in compliance with the requirements of table 1, excepting the
adhesiveness, which will be determined for the natural aggregates utilized.

The storage period of the bitumen plus additive has to be maximum 3 days, and the temperature
during storage will be within the interval 120-140
0
C.

The determinations and the frequencies are those specified in the technical agreement for each
product.

1.4 Bituminous emulsion

For the priming of the support layer, rapid setting cationic bituminous emulsion shall be used,
complying with the requirements of STAS 8877/1971.

The source from which the Contractor intends to supply the emulsion, shall be submitted to the
Engineers approval.

The bituminous emulsion shall be stored in vertical metallic tanks, which shall be clean and provided
with re-circulation pumps and heating system.



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1.5 Fibres

The fibres utilized for preparing the asphalt mixtures stabilized with fibres, for the execution of the
bituminous surfaces, are cellulose fibres or grains, either bitumen or not.

The type and the fibres dosage in the asphalt mixture will be established based on the preliminary
study performed by an authorized laboratory.

The fibres type which is intended to be used is to be submitted to the Engineer for approval.
For each type of the fibres for which the Contractor requests the Engineers approval, the Contractor
will present also the technical agreement and the quality certificate of conformity.

2 ESTABLISHING THE JOB MIX COMPOSITION

The asphalt mixtures for bituminous surfaces will be entirely executed of quarry aggregates or
mixture of quarry and ballast pit natural aggregates.

Table 2 Natural aggregates for bituminous surfaces

Asphalt mixture type Natural aggregates utilized
Asphalt mixtures
stabilized with fibres
- chippings : size 4-8 and 8-16
- crushed sand: size 0-4
- filler
Rough asphalt
concrete
- chippings : size 4-8 and 8-16
- crushed sand: size 0-4
- filler
Asphalt concrete rich
in chippings
- chippings : size 4-8, 8-16 and 16-25
- crushed sand size 0-4
- natural sand size 0-4
- filler
Asphalt concrete with
crushed gravel
- crushed gravel size 4-8, 8-16, 16-25
- natural sand size 0-4
- filler
Rough asphalt
concrete with
chippings
- chippings: size 4-8, 8-16 and 16-25
- crushed sand: size 0-4
- natural sand size 0-4
- filler
Open graded asphalt
with crushed gravel
- crushed gravel size 4-8, 8-16, 16-25
- crushed sand size 0-4
- natural sand size 0-4
- filler
Open graded asphalt
with sizeed gravel
- gravel size 4-8, 8-16, 16-25
- crushed sand size 0-4
- natural sand size 0-4
- filler

The dosage limits for the natural aggregates and filler, for each type of asphalt mixture are those
specified in Table 3.

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TABLE 3
Wearing course
Binder course
Type of the asphalt mixture
No.
Fractions and natural aggregates from the
total mixture
BA8
BA8a
BA16
BA16m
BA16a
BA25
BA25a
BAR16
BAR16m
BAR16a
MASF8 MASF16 BAPC16
BAD25
BAD25m
BAD25a
BADPC25
BADPC25a
BADPS25
BADPS25a
1 Filler and sand fractions under 0,1 mm (%) 9-13 9-13 6-13 9-11 11-14 10-14 9-13 2-7 2-7 2-7
2 Filler and sand fraction (0,1 4) mm (%) Difference up to 100 %
3 Chippings with size over 4 mm (%) 22-45 34-58 39-60 47-61 45-60 63-75 - 55-72 - -
4 Crushed gravel with size over 8 mm (%) - - - - - - 18-34 - 39-58 -
5 Graded gravel with size over 8 mm (%) - - - - - - - - - 39-58
Note : The filer content for the open graded asphalt concrete is minimum 2 %
TABLE 4
Type of the asphalt mixture
BA8
BA8a
BA16
BA16m
BA16a
BA25
BA25a
BAR16
BAR16m
BAR16a
MASF8 MASF16 BAPC16
BAD25,BAD25m , BAD25a,
BADPC25 , BADPC25a,
BADPS25 ,BADPS25a
Size of the mesh
according to SREN 933-
2/1998
Passings through the sieve with square meshes SREN 933-2/1998 (%)
25 mm - - 90-100 - - - - 90-100
16 mm - - 72-90 90-100 - 90-100 95-100 73-90
8 mm 90-100 66-85 54-80 61-74 95-100 44-59 66-82 42-61
4 mm 56-78 42-66 40-61 39-53 40-55 25-37 42-66 28-45
2 mm 30-55 30-55 30-50 30-42 19-28 20-25 30-55 20-35
1 mm 22-42 22-42 20-40 21-31 16-22 16-22 21-42 14-32
0.63 mm 18-35 18-35 15-35 18-25 13-20 13-20 18-35 10-30
0,20 mm 11-25 11-25 8-25 11-15 12-16 11-15 11-25 5-20
0,10 mm 9-13 9-13 6-13 9-11 11-14 10-14 9-13 2-7
Grading area for the
natural aggregates
mixture
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8
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The grading area of the natural aggregates mixture for each type of asphalt mixture is comprised in
the limits presented in table 4 and figures 1-8 from the annex. For the open graded asphalt
concrete for the binder course, crushed sand or mixture of crushed sand with natural sand will be
used, natural sand being maximum 50%.

2.1 Cellulose fibres content in the asphalt mixtures

The cellulose fibres content in the asphalt mixtures with fibres MASF8 and MASF16, will be
comprise in the limits (0.5 1.0%) from the asphalt mixture weight, so that an equilibrium to be
established between the inferior limit of the bitumen dosage, the fine fraction dosage and cellulose
fibre dosage.

The optimal content of bitumen, of fine fraction and of cellulose fibre will be established through the
preliminary study elaborated in accordance with STAS 1338/ 1, 2 and 3 84-87, by a certified
laboratory.
The recommended limits for the execution of the preliminary laboratory studies, in order to
establish the optimal content of bitumen, are presented in table 5.

Table 5 Binder content for different types of asphalt mixtures
Type of the layer
Type for the asphalt
mixture
Binder content from the
mass of the asphalt
mixtures (%)
Technical class of the
road
6,7-7,5 I-V MASF8
MASF16 6,5-7,5 I-V
5,7-6,2 I-III BAR16m, BAR16a
5,7-6,2 II-III
6,0-7,0 I-II
BA16m
6,3-7,3 III
6,0-7,0 II
6,3-7,3 III BA16, BA16a
6,5-7,5 IV-V
BA8, BA8a 6,5-7,5 IV-V
BA25, BA25a 5,5-7,0 IV-V
Wearing course
BAPC16, BAPC16a 6,0-7,5 IV-V
BAD25m 4,0-5,0 I-III
BAD25, BAD25a 4,0-5,0 I-V
BAPC25, BAPC25a 4,0-5,0 III-V
Binder course
BADPS25, BADPS25a 4,0-5,0 IV-V

2.2 Filler/bitumen ratio

The filler/bitumen ratio recommended for the asphalt mixtures types included in the present
Technical Specifications is in accordance with Table 6.

Table 6 The recommended filler/bitumen ratio
Type of the
layer
Type of the asphalt mixture
Filler: binder ratio
(recommended)
Rough asphalt concrete 1,6-1,8
Asphalt concrete rich in chippings
- with maximum size of the grain 16 mm
- with maximum size of the grain 25 mm

1,3-1,8
1,1-1,8
Wearing course
Asphalt concrete with crushed gravel 1,6-1,8
Binder course Open graded asphalt concrete 0,5-1,4
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3. PHYSICAL MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS

The physical-mechanical characteristics for the asphalt mixtures will be determined on cylinder
samples made of asphalt mixtures prepared in laboratory in order to establish the optimal dosages,
but also during the works execution, samples are to be taken from the mixer or whilst laying, or
from the finished layer, in order to check the quality of the asphalt mixtures.

The sampling during the works and from the finished layer will be performed in accordance with SR
EN 12697-27/2002.

The physicalmechanical characteristics for the asphalt mixtures, prepared with non-paraffinic
bitumen for roads or bitumen with additives, have to be in the limits specified in Tables 7 and 8.

Table 7 The asphalt mixtures characteristics for bituminous surfaces
Characteristics on cylindrical laboratory samples type Marshall
Type of the
asphalt
mixture
Type of the
bitumen
Technical
class of
the road
Stability (S)
at 60 C
(KN) min
Flow Index
(I) (mm)
Ratio S/
( /
mm)
Bulk density
(Kg / mc)
minim
Water
Absorption
(%) volume
BA8, BA25
BA8a
BA25a
D 80/100
D 80/100a
IV-V 5.5 1.5-4.5 1.2-3.6 2300 2-5
II 8,0 1,5-4,0 2,0-5,3
III 7,0 1,5-4,0 1,7-4,6
BA16
BA16a
D 80/100
D 80/100a
IV-V 6,0 1,5-4,5 1,3-4,0
2300 2-5
I-II 8,5 1.5-4,0 2,1-5,6 BAR16
BAR16a
D 80/100
D 80/100a
III 7,5 1,5-4,0 1,8-5,0
2300 3-5
BAPC16
BAPC16a
D 80/100
D 80/100a
IV-V 5,5 1,5-4,5 1,2-3,6 2300 2-5
BAD25
BAD25a
D 80/100
D 80/100a
I-V 4,5 1,5-4,5 1,0-3,0 2250 2-5
BADPC25
BADPC25a
D 80/100
D 80/100a
III-V 4,0 1,5-4,5 0,9-2,6 2250 2-5
BADPS25
BADPS25a
D 80/100
D 80/100a
IV-V 4,0 1,5-4,5 0,9-2,6 2250 2-5

Table 8 Characteristics of the asphalt mixture for the bituminous surfaces
Characteristics Type of the asphalt mixture

BAR16, BAR16a,
BA16, BA16A, BA8,
BA8a, BA25, BA25a
BAD25, BAD25a,
BADPC25, BADPC25a,
BADPS25, BADPS25a
Characteristics on the cylinders executed at
the gyratory compaction press:
- Voids volume for 80 rotations, % max.
- Voids volume for 120 rotations % max.



5,0

-



-

9,5
Resistance to permanent deformations
- dynamic flow at 40C and 1800 pulsations 10
-
4
mm max.
7600 -
Elasticity modulus at 15 C MPa min.:
- warm climatic area
- cold climatic area

4200
3600

3600
3000
Tiredness resistance :
- number of cycles until cracking at 15C min.
-- 4x10
5

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3.1 Physical-mechanical characteristics of the asphalt mixtures stabilized with
fibres

The physical-mechanical characteristics of the asphalt mixtures stabilized with fibres have to be
situated between the limits specified in table 9.

Table 9 Characteristics of the asphalt mixtures stabilized with fibre
Type of the asphalt mixture
Characteristics
MASF8 MASF16
Schellenberg Test, % max. 0,2 0,2
Characteristics on cylindrical laboratory samples:
- stability (S) at 60C KN, min.
- flow index (I) at 60C mm
- bulk density kg / m3 , mm
- voids volume %

7,0
1,5-3,5
2300
3-4

7,0
1,5-3,5
2300
3-4
Resistance to permanent deformations
- dynamic flow at 40C and 1800 pulsations 10-4 mm
max.

10000

10000
Temperature (
2
) - deformation speed at the wheel track test (VDOP), mm
/h 45C 60C 45C 60C
The average number of vehicles (
1
)< 1500 6,0 8,0 6.0 8.0
1500-3000 4,0 6,0 4,0 6,0
3000-6000 2,0 3,5 2,0 3,5
>6000 <2,0 <3,5 <2,0 <3,5
Depth of the ruts , mm
The average number of vehicles (
1
) < 1500 6,0 9,0 6,0 9,0
1500-3000 5,0 8,0 5,0 8,0
3000-6000 4,0 7,0 4,0 7,0
>6000 <4,0 <7,0 <4,0 <7,0
Elasticity modulus at 15 C Mpa, min. 3600 4000
Permanent deformation to tiredness (3600 impulses)
at15C, 10 4 max.
1200 1000
Note : 1) commercial vehicles or buses in 24 hours used for the long-term traffic
2) 45C cold climatic area; 60C warm climatic area;

3.2 Determination of the physical-mechanical characteristics

Determination of the physical-mechanical characteristics on cylindrical laboratory samples type
Marshall of the asphalt mixtures with bitumen and bitumen with additives, will be performed in
accordance with STAS 1338 / 1-84 and STAS 1338 / 2-87.

For the asphalt mixtures stabilized with fibres, the cylindrical laboratory samples will be made
depending on the traffic intensity, at the temperature of 135+ 5C, in accordance with the
regulations in force, and the determinations on cylindrical laboratory samples type Marshall will be
performed in accordance with STAS 1338 / 2-87.

The characteristics mentioned in the tables 7, 8 and 9 shall be determined in accordance with the
technical regulations in force.
The Schellenberg test will be executed in accordance with Annex B.

The characteristics of the bitumen extracted from the asphalt mixture

The bitumen contained in the asphalt mixture taken from the mixer and during the works execution
has to contain a softening point ring and ball having maximum 9C in plus than the bitumen
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initially used for the preparation of the asphalt mixture. Exception from this: checking the bitumen
extracted from the MASF asphalt mixtures.

The asphalt mixture will be taken for tests in accordance with SR EN 12697-27/2002, and the
preparation of the asphalt mixtures on order to extract the bitumen will be made in accordance with
SR EN 12697-28/2002.

3.3 Characteristics of the bituminous surface layers

The compaction degree

The compaction degree will be determined through laboratory tests on cores or determinations in-
situ in accordance with SR 174 / 2 -1997and it represents the ratio between the bulk density of the
asphalt mixture compacted in layer and the bulk density determined on Marshall laboratory
samples executed in the laboratory from the respective asphalt mixture.

The bulk density of the asphalt mixture in layer can be determined on cores taken from the already
executed layer or through determinations in-situ with the gamma-densimeter .

The laboratory tests performed to check the compaction degree comprise the determination of the
bulk density and water absorption on plates (100 x 100 ) mm or on cylindrical cores having the
diameter of (100-200) mm undisturbed.

The technical conditions for the bulk density, the water absorption and the compaction degree of
the asphalt mixture are in accordance with table 10.

Table 10 Characteristics of the asphalt mixtures for bituminous surfaces
Type of the asphalt mixture
Bulk density kg / m
3
,
min
Water
absorption %
volume
Compaction degree
% min.
Asphalt mixture stabilized with
fibres MASF8, MASF16
2300 2-6 97
Rough asphalt concrete
BAR16m
2300
BAR 16a
BAR16
2250
4-7 96
Asphalt concrete rich in
chippings BA16m
2300
BA8a, BA16a, BA25a,
BAPC16a,
BA8, BA16, BA25, BAPC16
2250
2-6 96
Open graded asphalt BAD25m 2250
BAD25a, BADPC25a,
BADPS25a, BAD25, BADPC25,
BADPS25
2200
3-8 96

Resistance to permanent deformations

The resistance to permanent deformation will be determined on cores taken from the executed
layer, respectively from the wearing course.
The admissible values, depending on the traffic, are presented in the Table 9.


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4 CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE SURFACE OF THE EXECUTED
LAYER

The characteristics for the surface and the technical conditions have to be in accordance with
Table 11.

Table 11 Characteristics for the surface of the executed layer
No. Characteristics Admissibility conditions Testing method
Evenness in longitudinal section
1)
Evenness index, IRI, m / km

- roads of technical class I-II < 2.5
- roads of technical class III < 3.5
- roads of technical class IV < 4.5
1
- roads of technical class V < 5.5
CD 155/2001 and
AND 563/2000
Uniformity in longitudinal profile
1)

Admissible roughness measured under
the screed of 3 m , mm

- roads of technical class I and streets of
technical category I-III
< 3.0
- roads of technical class II and streets
of technical category IV
< 4.0
2
- roads of technical class III- V < 5.0
SR 174 / 2-1997
Rugosity
2)

Rugosity with SRT pendulum, units SRT

- roads of technical class I-II > 80
- roads of technical class III > 70
- roads of technical class IV-V > 60
STAS 8849-1983
Geometrical rugosity, HS, mm
- roads of technical class I-II > 0.7
3
- roads of technical class III > 0.6
- roads of technical class IV-V > 0.55
STAS 8849-1983
3
Coefficient of friction ( GT)
- roads of technical class I II
- roads of technical class III - IV

0.95
0.7
Technical
regulations in force
with the measuring
apparatus Grip
Tester
4

Homogenity. Surface appearance
Aspect without
degradations as
bitumen in excess,
fissures, porous areas,
open graded, polished
visually
Note : 1) The eveness in longitudinal profile will be determined by measuring the eveness
index IRI, or the roughnesses under the screed of 3 m;
2) The rugosity will be determined with the SRT pendulum measures, or by
measuring the geometrical rugosity HS.

The determination of the surface characteristics for the bituminous pavements will be performed in
a month since their execution.

Rules and methods for verification the characteristics of the asphalt mixtures

The verification of the asphalt mixtures characteristics, provided in Tables 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 is
to be done in the following steps:
o elaboration of the preliminary study for establishing the composition of the asphalt mixture;
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o verification of the asphalt mixture characteristics on samples taken during the works
execution;
o verification of the characteristics for the executed bituminous layer.

The types of determinations, depending on the type of the asphalt mixture and the technical class
of the road, together with their frequency, are shown in Table 12.

Table 12 Types of determinations
Nature of the control or
test and the frequency
Characteristics Type of the asphalt mixture
Preliminary study for the
determination of the
asphalt mixture
composition
Physical-mechanical
characteristics on laboratory
samples Marshall
All the types of asphalt mixtures for
wearing and binder course (table 1 and
2) without taking into consideration the
technical class of the road or the
technical category of the street
MASF8, MASF16, without taking into
consideration the technical class of the
road or the technical category of the
street

Characteristics :
- The determined voids
volume (with the gyratory
compaction press)
- Resistance to permanent
deformations
- Elasticity modulus
- Resistance to tiredness
The asphalt mixtures destined to the
wearing course for the technical class of
the road I, II and the technical category
of the street I, II
Verification of the
asphalt mixtures
characteristics taken
during the execution
- frequency: 1/400
tonnes of asphalt
mixture
Physical-mechanical
characteristics on laboratory
samples Marshall
All types of asphalt mixtures for the
wearing and binder course (Table 1 and
2)
Quality verification of
the bituminous layer
executed on cores:
-frequency : 1 core /
7000 m
2

Characteristics :
- bulk density;
- water absorption;
- compaction degree.
All types of asphalt mixtures for the
wearing and binder course in
accordance with the Table 10
MASF8, MASF16

Resistance at permanent
deformations
The asphalt mixtures destined for the
wearing course for the technical class of
the road I, II and the technical category
of the streets I, II ( Table 1)


5 PREPARATION AND LAYING OF THE ASPHALT MIXTURES

5.1 Preparation of the asphalt mixtures

The composition of the asphalt mixtures that are to be used to execute the bituminous surfaces will
be established by the Contractor based on a preliminary study taking into account the fulfilment of
the technical conditions specified in the present Technical Specifications.

The preliminary study regarding the composition of the asphalt mixture has to be made in an
authorised laboratory.

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The mix formula for each type of the asphalt mixture, together with all studies and tests results
obtained in the laboratory, inclusively all the related documents, have to be presented to the
Engineer for his approval.

The report regarding the composition of the asphalt mixture submitted for approval has to include
at least the following documents:
the entire analysis of the materials used in the testing procedure (natural aggregates,
bitumen, filler, polymeric, additives, fibres etc.)
the Marshall test for 5 binder dosages distributed on one side and the other side of the
retained bitumen dosage.
The Marshall laboratory samples will be compacted in laboratory by applying 75 beats each
side. The parameters that have to be determined on the Marshall laboratory samples are
those provided in the Tables 7, 8 and 9.
The Conformity Certificates for the Materials Quality (natural aggregates, bitumen, filler,
fibres, polymeric, additives etc.)

All the dosages for natural aggregates and filler have to be established depending on the total
weight of the dry granulated material, including the fine parts, and the binder dosage will be
established depending on the weight of the asphalt mixture.

The grading of the natural aggregates for each type of the asphalt mixture has to be situated
between the limits indicated in the Tables 4 and 5 and in the Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8.

The proposed mix formula will be applied on the trial section.

5.2 Installation for preparing the asphalt mixture

The asphalt mixtures will be prepared in authorised plants, operated by authorized personnel.

The asphalt plant will have to be commissioned and will present the technical characteristics that
will allow the obtaining of the performances requested by different types of asphalt mixtures
specified in the Technical Specifications.
The asphalt plant has to be automatic and will have devices for the pre-dosage, drying, re-sizeing,
gravimetric and volumetric dosage of the aggregates with the bituminous binder, including the
additive dozer for bitumen.

The re-grading is compulsory for the installations with non-continuous flow.

For the installations with continuous flow, the humidity correction, meaning the correlation between
the natural aggregate quantity and the bitumen quantity put into the dryer-mixer, will be made
automatically.

Independently of the installation type, it has to have recording and displaying systems for the
bitumen temperature, the natural aggregates and the asphalt mixture and to assure the precision
of the dosage.

For the volumetric dosage of the bitumen, there will be taken into account the fact that its density
varies with the temperature so that for 150 C 180 C, 1 kg of road bitumen has a volume of
(1,09-1,11) litres.

The storing and the warming of the bitumen

The asphalt plant has to have tanks for storing a bitumen quantity more or at least equal with the
daily consumption average.
The tanks have to be provided with a level indicator and a heating system for the binder until the
necessary temperature is reached, avoiding its over-heating.
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There is forbidden to heat the natural aggregates and the bitumen over 190 C , to avoid the
modification of the binder characteristics in the technological process.

The storing of the filler

At the plant where the asphalt mixture is prepared, the filler has to be stored in bunkers provided
with devices for an appropriate supplying and extraction (pneumatic).
There is not allowed to use the filler containing lumps.

The storing, drying and re-grading of the natural aggregates

The storing conditions of the natural aggregates of different types are those provided at Chapter 1.
Materials point 1.1.

The installation for preparing the asphalt mixtures has to be provided with the necessary
mechanical equipment in order to uniformly supply the natural aggregates for assuring a constant
production.

The natural aggregates have to be gravimetrically treated, and the dosage devices have to
maintain the supplying of the aggregates in accordance with the mix formula already approved by
the Engineer regarding the composition of the asphalt mixture with the admissible deviations of the
grading on fractions specified in Table 13.

Table 13 Maximum deviations allowed for the dosage of the aggregates
Mixture components
Admissible deviations in comparison with the
dosage %

Aggregates 16 25 + 5
8 16 + 5
4 8 + 5
2 4 + 4
1 2 + 4
0,63 1 + 3
0,2 - 0,63 + 3
0,1- 0,2 + 2
< 0,1
+ 1.5
+ 1,0 pt. MASF
Bitumen +0,3

Technological flow for preparing the asphalt mixture

- Setting the installations pre-dozers by testing so that the mixture grading of the natural
aggregates to comply with the prescriptions, within the tolerance limits specified in Table
13.
- Insertion of the natural aggregates into the dryer or (dryer-mixer) where their drying and the
heating take place;
- re-sizing the natural aggregates and the gravimetric dosage by sizes (for the installations in
non-continuous flow)
- insertion of the warm natural aggregates into the mixer where they mix with the cold filler,
separately dosed;
- the dosage of the warm bitumen and its introduction into the mixer or the dryer-mixer;
- mixing the components of the asphalt mixture and its evacuation into the storage bunkers;
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- the mixing period, depending on the installation type, has to be sufficient to perform a
complete and uniform coating of the natural aggregates and of the filler with bituminous
binder;
- for the asphalt mixture stabilized with fibres, the mixing period of the natural aggregates
with the fibre has to be of 25-30 seconds (for assuring the dispersion of the fibre in the
mineral mixture and thus its homogeneity in the asphalt mixture), and after the introduction
of the bituminous binder, the mixing will go on another 40-50 seconds. The total period for
mixing will be comprised between 65-80 seconds.

The thermal regime applied for the preparation of the asphalt mixture, depending on the bitumen,
has to be within the limits specified in Table 14.

Table 14 Thermal regime for the preparation of the asphalt mixture
Temperature C depending on the type of bitumen Materials and the execution phase
D 60 / 80 D 80 / 100
- natural aggregates at the exit from the
dryer
170-190 165-185
-bitumen at the entrance into dryer 155-165 150-160
- Asphalt mixture
* at the exit from the dryer 165-175 160-170
* when laying
min 155 min 150
* at the beginning of the
compaction
min. 150 min. 145
* at the end of compaction min. 110 min. 105
The temperatures from the upper level of the interval will be applied when executing works in cold
climatic areas or when the atmosphere temperatures are situated at the minimum level of + 10C
and +15C for the asphalt mixtures stabilized with fibres.

The storage and the loading of the asphalt mixtures

At the exit from the mixer, there will be provided special devices to avoid the segregation of the
asphalt mixture during storage and/or loading it in the transportation means.

Control of the fabrication

The quality control of the asphalt mixture has to be done by preliminary tests and during execution,
with the frequency from Table 12.


5.3 Laying the asphalt mixture
The trial section
In order to establish the method statement, the equipment and the devices for laying and
compaction, before starting the works and having the Engineers approval, the Contractor will
perform a trial section of at least 200 m length, on the entire width of the way.

During the performance of the trial section, also the verification of the mixtures preparation plant
shall be done during exploitation, but also obtaining the constancy of the mixture characteristics
established in the laboratory (the method statement), as it has been approved by the Engineer.

The preparation and performance of the works, tests performance on the trial section, including the
wheel tracking test, will be done in the presence and having the Engineers approval.

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The preparation, the works and tests performance on the trial section will be done on the
Contractors expense.

The changing of the method statement involves the performance of a new trial section.

The results obtained on the trial section will serve to the final determination of the method
statement, which will become a reference document for the layer performance.

Preparation of the support layer

Before the laying of the asphalt mixture, the surface has to be cleaned, using a mechanical brush,
compressed air or, if necessary, washing with water under pressure.

When laying the bituminous surfaces, the working joints and the surface will be primed with
emulsion of cut back cationic bitumen, spread in thin layer. With approval of the Engineer, the
primer may be omitted, when there is not more than 3 days between layers.

The priming of the support layer will be carried out by a mechanical spray.

The quantity of the residual bitumen has to be (0,3-0,5) kg / mp.
The surface of the support layer on which the asphalt layers are to be placed, has to be dry.

The utilisation of any geo-grids, geo-textiles or geo-composites will be made in accordance with
the requirements of their Technical Agreements.

The transportation of the asphalt mixture

The asphalt mixture will be transported in trucks with clean and dry tipper body, provided with
tarpaulins to prevent the loss in temperature.

Laying the asphalt mixtures
Laying the asphalt mixture will be by pavers-finishers having grading systems and assuring pre-
compaction.

The laying of the asphalt mixtures has to be done when the ambient temperature is more than
+10C and for the asphalt mixtures stabilized with fibres (MASF) more than +15C.

Laying will not be permitted during havy rain.

During laying and compaction, the asphalt mixtures will have the temperature in accordance with
Table 14.

The laying of the asphalt mixtures will be in one pass for the full width of the carriageway.

The preparation, transportation and laying will be strictly co-ordinated to prevent creating the day
joints.

In case of interruptions that lead to the decrease in asphalt temperature below 120C that remains
non-compacted in the paver, the paver will be removed from the working area, the surface will be
immediately compacted and the remaining asphalt mixture will be removed from the site.

When laying works are resumed on the same lane or the adjacent lane, the areas related to the
working joints, longitudinal and/or transversal, will be cut on the entire thickness of the layer, so
that a vertical edge will result. When the adjacent lanes are executed in the same day, for the
longitudinal working joints the cutting is no longer necessary. The new surface resulted from the
cutting will be primed.

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The longitudinal and transversal working joints of the layers will be moved accordingly from the
working joints of the previous layer by at least 10 cm.

Compaction

The compaction of the asphalt mixtures will be done with rubber-tyred rollers or smooth roller
compactors, provided with appropriate vibrating devices, so that the technical characteristics
provided in Table 10 be obtained.

The compactors have to work without shocks, with a reduced speed at the beginning to avoid the
waving of the pavement.
The rubber-tyred rollers will be equipped with protection aprons and will stay no longer than 50 m
behind the paver-finisher.

6 CONTROL OF THE EXECUTION AND ACCEPTANCE OF WORKS

6.1 Verification of the geometrical elements

The geometrical elements and the maximum deviations for the geometrical elements have to
comply with the conditions in Table 15.

Table 15

The measured element/item
The admissible deviation
Thickness of the layer 10 %
Width of the layer 5 cm
Slope of the transversal profile 0,4 %
Height from datum line for the longitudinal and
transversal profiles
0,5 cm (respecting the designing scale)
Roughnesses (measured under the 3 m screed or
similarly)
0,3 cm

6.2 Characteristics of the bituminous surface

The hot rolled bituminous surface has to comply with the technical conditions provided in Table 15.

6.3 Acceptance of works

After finishing the works on a section, the completed works will be submitted for the Engineers
approval, prior to laying the next layer.

The inspection of the works that are to be covered has to provide information to confirm wether the
works have been executed in accordance with the design and the Technical Specifications.

The acceptance implies the verification of all records during execution and the tests results,
together with the examination of the works.

Following the verification, a report will be concluded in order to authorize the execution of the
following phase.
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ANNEX A




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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION





- 8 -
CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT
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Cement Concrete Pavement

Contents

1. GENERAL 126
2. REFERENCE PRESCRIPTIONS, STANDARDS AND NORMS. 128
3. MATERIALS 129
REFERENCE STANDARDS ................................................................................................ 129
TECHNICAL CONDITIONS AND QUALITY CONTROL OF MATERIALS........................... 129
SUPPLY, TRANSPORT, HANDLING AND STORAGE OF MATERIALS............................. 129
Cement ................................................................................................................................... 129
Aggregates.............................................................................................................................. 130
Fly ash .................................................................................................................................... 130
Admixtures.............................................................................................................................. 130
Steel........................................................................................................................................ 131
Miscellaneous materials.......................................................................................................... 131
Water ...................................................................................................................................... 131
4. CONCRETE FOR ROAD PAVEMENT MIX DESIGN 131
TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS OF MATERIALS................................................................. 131
PROPORTIONING............................................................................................................... 133
5. WORKS EXECUTION 136
PLANT AND EQUIPMENT APPROVAL............................................................................... 136
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT.................................................................................................... 136
BATCHING AND MIXING..................................................................................................... 136
SUBGRADE......................................................................................................................... 137
SUPPORT LAYER............................................................................................................... 137
TRANSPORT....................................................................................................................... 138
PLACING............................................................................................................................. 138
FINISHING........................................................................................................................... 139
CURING............................................................................................................................... 140
PROTECTION...................................................................................................................... 140
JOINTS................................................................................................................................ 141
General ................................................................................................................................... 141
Longitudinal construction joints. .............................................................................................. 141
Transverse construction joints................................................................................................. 141
Expansion joints. ..................................................................................................................... 141
Contraction joints. ................................................................................................................... 141
Joint sealing. ........................................................................................................................... 142
6. QUALITY CONTROL 142
PRELIMINARY QUALITY CONTROL................................................................................... 142
QUALITY CONTROL DURING EXECUTION....................................................................... 142
GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCES .......................................................................................... 146
QUALITY CONTROL AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE PAVEMENT ............................ 147
7. REFERENCE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS. 147
8. ACCEPTANCE OF THE WORKS 148
PRELIMINARY ACCEPTANCE OF THE WORKS................................................................ 148
FINAL ACCEPTANCE OF THE WORKS.............................................................................. 148


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1. GENERAL
Cement concrete pavements consist of concrete slabs, delimited by joints, usually executed in
single layer. The concrete in this case should be designed to resist the wearing action of the
traffic. Where a fixed form technology is used, the pavements may be constructed in two layers,
the upper layer concrete having the function and the characteristics of the wearing course, while
the lower layer has the role of the resistance layer.
Cement concrete pavements may be constructed using either slipform or fixed form technologies,
conforming to the regulations in force. Both methods produce satisfactory results, and it is up to the
Contractor as to which method is to be used.
The main criterion in the classification of concrete for road pavements is the flexural strength (R
inc.
)
that the concrete is expected to attain at 28 days.
The characteristic flexural strength, R
k
inc., is defined as the value below which no more than 5% of
the test results may fall.
The classification of the concrete for road pavements is given in Table 1.

Table 1
Concrete class R
k
inc
- MPa
Bc R 3.5 3.5
Bc R

4.0 4.0
Bc R 4.5 4.5
Bc R 5.0 5.0

Generally speaking, the criteria of road pavement concrete selection depends on the road class,
the traffic intensity and the geometrical characteristics of the road and are summarized in table 2.

Table 2
Traffic class
Very heavy
traffic
Heavy traffic Medium traffic Light traffic
Works Number of layer pavements

single layer
wearing
or single
layer
Resistan-
ce layer
wearing or
single
layer
Resistan
-ce layer
wearing or
single layer
Resist
an-ce
layer
Concrete class
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Motorways,
national roads,
county and
country roads,
and streets with
two or more
traffic lanes

Bc R 5.0
(BcR 4.5)

Bc R 5.0
(BcR 4.5)

Bc R 4.5
(BcR 4.0)

Bc R 4.5
(BcR 4.0)

Bc R 4.0
(BcR
3.5)

Bc R 4.0

Bc R
3.5
Reinforcing of
the existing road
structures at
roads and
motorways

Bc R 5.0
(BcR 4.5)

Bc R 5.0
(BcR 4.5)

Bc R 4.5
(BcR 4.0)

Bc R 4.5
(BcR 4.0)

Bc R 4.0
(BcR
3.5)

Bc R 4.0

Bc R
3.5
Service roads:
- with 2 traffic
lanes

Bc R 5.0
(BcR 4.5)

Bc R 5.0
(BcR 4.5)

Bc R 4.5
(BcR 4.0)

Bc R 4.5
(BcR 4.0)

Bc R 4.0
(BcR
3.5)

Bc R 4.0

Bc R
3.5
- with one traffic
lane

-

-

-

-

-

Bc R 3.5

-
Industrial roads
and platforms

BcR 4.5

BcR 4.5

BcR 4.0

BcR 4.0

BcR 3.5

Bc R 3.5

-
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Traffic class
Very heavy
traffic
Heavy traffic Medium traffic Light traffic
Works Number of layer pavements

single layer
wearing
or single
layer
Resistan-
ce layer
wearing or
single
layer
Resistan
-ce layer
wearing or
single layer
Resist
an-ce
layer
Concrete class
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
One traffic lane
streets and
carriage lanes

-

-

-

-

-

Bc R 3.5

-
Stopping places,
parking and
harbour
platforms

-

-

-

-

-

Bc R 3.5

-
Runways, and
airport platforms
for:
- national and
international use



Bc R 5.0 (Bc R 4.5) one layer
- work Bc R 4.5 (Bc R 4.0) for wear course or one course
Bc R 4.0 (Bc R 3.5) for strength course


NOTE: 1. On the basis of technical-economical reasons and with the
Employer/Designer/Engineer's approval, the concrete classes with the value in brackets
may also be used.
2. Bc R 5.0 and Bc R 4.5 concrete classes shall be mixed using CD 40 cement type, 42.5
or I 42.5R cement type I.
3. Bc R 4.0 and Bc R 3.5 concrete class shall be made using I 42.5 or I 42.5R cement
type.
4. Other cement types shall be used only with the approval of Road Specialized Institute
and with the approval of the Engineer and the Designer.

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2. REFERENCE PRESCRIPTIONS, STANDARDS AND NORMS.

1. SR 183-1. Cement concrete pavements executed using fixed form technology. Quality
technical conditions.
2. SR 183-2. Cement concrete pavements executed using slipform technology.
3. ne 014 - 2002. Norm concerning the construction of concrete pavements using fixed form or
slipform technology.
4. STAS 6400. Road works. Base and foundation courses.
5. C 16. Norms of construction and installation works carried out during cold weather.
6. C 56. Norm for quality control and acceptance of construction works and their equipment.
7. Law no. 10/1995. Law of construction quality.


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3. MATERIALS
REFERENCE STANDARDS
The materials used in concrete road pavement construction shall conform to the quality conditions
of the following standards:
ballast-pit natural aggregates - SR 662
quarry natural aggregates - SR 667
cement: I 42.5; I 42.5R and CD 40 type - SR 388 and STAS 10.092
Disan A additive - STAS 8625
water SR EN 1008
P 45 protection fluid - STAS 12.093
fast breaking cationic bituminous emulsion - STAS 8877
OB 37 concrete steel - STAS 438/1
resistant paper - STAS 3789
polyethylene sheet - STAS 8171
Non-parafinous bitumen for D 80/100 road type - SR 754
filler - STAS 539
other materials and materials for the joint sealing: made bituminous mastic; polyurethane,
silicon or butyl rubber flexible joints; neoprene sections or cords of special materials. All these
materials shall be approved by the Engineer.

TECHNICAL CONDITIONS AND QUALITY CONTROL OF MATERIALS
The quality control of materials shall be carried out:
Preliminarily, for approval of the suppliers and of the mix designs;
When the materials are delivered to site and before they are used, in conformity with Table
16;

SUPPLY, TRANSPORT, HANDLING AND STORAGE OF MATERIALS
The Contractor is responsible for checking the quality of the materials at the time of delivery and
maintaining the quality of the materials on site.

Cement
The cement shall be supplied in bulk, by train using special wagons or by truck trailers fitted with a
pneumatic unloading device. Alternatively, the cement may be delivered in paper bags, providing
that during transport the bags are protected from moisture and damage.
During transport, handling and storage the cement shall be protected from moisture and any kind
of contamination ( lime, fly ash, filler, coal, soil or whatever); mixing of different types of cements
shall also be avoided.
A quality certificate issued by the supplier must certify the quality of any shipment of cement
delivered to the site .
Cement supplied in bags shall be stored in warehouses with the maximum shelf time from the date
of cement production being 45 days. Bags shall be stacked a maximum of 10 bags high with a gap
of at least 50 cm left between the piles and the walls of the warehouse.
The silos and the warehouses shall be duly labeled, with a clear indication of the type of cement
stored. The Contractor shall keep records of the date of delivery of the cement and shall manage
the use of the cement accordingly. The Contractor shall provide facilities for the separate storage
of at least two different types of cement. The storage capacity for cement should correspond to at
least three days of full concrete production
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Cement with temperature over +50
0
C shall not be used.
When the maximum shelf time has been exceeded, the physical and mechanical characteristics of
the cement shall be checked. If the cement fails to meet the requirements of Table 5, it shall be
transferred to the lower class with which it does comply and used accordingly.
If the cement is contaminated by water it shall be used only in conformance with the provisions of
Table 3.
Table 3
Residuum (r %) Cement quality
0 Good

max. 10%
Deteriorated cement, to be used after checking the physical-
mechanical characteristics at 2 (7) days conforming to Tab. 5
provisions. Alternatively, the cement may be assimilated to III-V
32.5 type and used to produce concrete of max. Bc 5 class
over 10% Deteriorated cement, to be used only for mortar preparation

Aggregates

Natural aggregates shall be supplied to temporary stockpiles, to allow for checking and approval
before use.
Transport, handling and storage of natural aggregates shall be carried out so as to avoid the
mixing or contamination of the aggregates.
The aggregates shall be stored on concrete platforms, which have slopes and channels for
draining off water. To avoid mixing the different types of aggregate,each storage unit shall be fitted
with adequate partitions. The stockpiles shall be permanently identified by panels indicating the
source and the size of the relevant aggregate.
The aggregates shall not be placed on soil or on ballast platforms.
The access roads to the aggregate stockpiles shall be arranged so as to avoid any contamination
of the aggregates with mud or other materials. In the case of supply by railway, concrete ramps for
unloading shall be provided. The area were the wagons are unloaded shall be wide enough to
avoid the risk of aggregates mixing. The Contractor shall also provide an area were the rejected
aggregates can be stored temporarily.

Fly ash
Fly ash is produced by burning coal in power plants and is a material having pozzolanic properties,
i.e. in themselves possess little or no cementitious properties, but will chemically react with calcium
hydroxide in the presence of moisture to form compounds which do possess cementitious
properties.
The fly ashes shall be transported, handled and stored in order to avoid any contamination, and
any changes in their physical-chemical characteristics.
As for cement, fly ash may be delivered in bulk or in plastic bags and the same provisions shall
apply. The maximum shelf time of fly ash is 6 months.
Fly ash shall be stored in metal silos or in warehouses. The storage capacity for fly ash should
correspond to at least three days of full concrete production
The same provisions concerning fly ash shall also apply also to activating agents (hydrated lime in
powder, crushed hydrated lime etc.).

Admixtures
Admixtures are used to modify the properties of fresh or hardened concrete. Admixtures may be
delivered in powder form or in solution and shall be transported, handled and stored in order to
avoid contamination by moisture and deterioration of the packaging.
The conditions indicated by the producer and the provisions of the relevant regulations and norms
should be strictly observed.
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The storage capacity for the admixtures should correspond to at least three days of full concrete
production

Steel
Reinforcing steel shall be provided with a quality certificate. Each bundle or group of bars
connection shall be provided with labels providing at least the following information: diameter, type,
batch number and supplier together with the signature of the Quality Manager. Reinforcing steel
shall be transported, handled and stored in order to avoid any damage that may affect the
reinforcing bars or the concrete (erosion, scratching, overheating, bending etc.).

Miscellaneous materials
Other materials used in concrete pavement construction, including curing material, dowels, tie bars
and expansion joint filler, are covered by particular specifications.

Water

Water for mixing concrete shall be free from materials that affect hydration of the cement. Potable
water may be used without testing.

4. CONCRETE FOR ROAD PAVEMENT MIX DESIGN
TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS OF MATERIALS
Materials for road pavement concrete shall comply with the requirements of Tables 4, 5, 6 and 7.
Technical requirements for aggregates Table 4
Acceptable conditions
No Characteristics of natural
aggregates
sand gravel
crushed
gravel
chipping
s
Cru-
shed
sand
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 Impurity content:
- foreign bodies (wood pieces,
foliage, etc.);

Not allowed

Not
allowed

Not
allowed

Not
allowed

Not
allowed
- pieces of clay or adherent clay on
aggregate particles;

-

-

-
Not
allowed
Not
allowed
- free mica, % , max. 1 - - - -
- coal, %, max. 0.5 - - - -
- organic content (colour of sodium
oxide solution);
colourless
till yellow

-

-

-

-
- sulfates (in SO
3
), % max. 1 Not
allowed
- - -
- Fines content, % max. - 0.3 0.3 - -
2 Grading according to type
- fraction content bellow 0.09 mm:
- in type 8-16, % max.
- in type 16-25, % max.
- in type 25-40, % max.

-
-
-

-
-
-

-
-
-

1
0.5
-

-
-
0.3
3 Sand equivalent, min. 85 - - - -
4 Breaking degree, %, min. - - 65 - -
5 Crushing strength of aggregates in
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Acceptable conditions
No Characteristics of natural
aggregates
sand gravel
crushed
gravel
chipping
s
Cru-
shed
sand
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
saturated conditions, %, min. - 60 60 - -
6 Abrasion' the tip Los Angeles device
(LA), %, max.

-

35

25

25

25
7 Freeze-thaw strength:
- frost-cleftness index, %, max.
- freezing sensitivity, %, max.
- mass loss, % max.

-
-
-

-
-
10

-
-
10

3
25
-

3
25
-
8 Shape of aggregates grains with
min. size of 7(8) mm:
- ratio b/a; c/a min.
- content of flat and angular
particles: % max.
- shape index % max.


-


-


0.66;0.3
3

25
-


0.66;0.3
3

25
-


-

-
25


-

-
25


The aggregates shall come from uniform mineral rocks, with no signs of physical, chemical or
mechanical change. The aggregates shall not contain pyrite, limonite and soluble salts. Rock
aggregates with mycrocristaline silica or amorphic content which could react with alkalis in the
cement shall not be used.

Technical conditions for cement Table 5
Cement type

Cement characteristics
CD 40

I 42.5

I 42.5 R

Physical-mechanical characteristics:
- setting starts after
- setting ends after
- volume constance on pats;
-volume constance on Le Chatelier needles;
- grinding fineness expressed by specific
surface (guiding, remainer on sieve 0.1)
- overlapping resistance to flexture:
- after 2 days
- after 7 days
- after 28 days
- compressive strength:
- after 2 days
- after 7 days
- after 28 days

min. hours
max. hours
-
max. mm

cm
2
/g
min.
N/mm
2



min.
N/mm
2


2
10
good
10

10

3.5
5.0
6.5

15
26
40

1
-
-
10

-

-
-
-

10
-
42.5...62.5

1
-
-
10

-

-
-
-

20
-
42.5...62.5

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Technical conditions for Disan A additive Table 6
No. Physical-chemical characteristics of
DISAN A additive
Acceptable limits Testing as
1 Aspect Dark-brown
dust
visual
2 Content of dry substance %, min. 90
3 Water insoluble substance, %, max. 2
4 Reducing substance, %, max. 5.5
5 Content of ash, %, max. 16
6 pH solution 1% concentration 4.5...5.5
STAS 8625


The values in the table relate to dry material at 105
0
C 5
0
C.

Fly ash technical requirements Table 7
No. Characteristics of power station ash Acceptable conditions
1 Water content, %, max. 1
2 Residual fines on sieves with wire meshes of 0.2 ,
% max.

10
3 Combustible substance, %, max. 5
4 Total oxides (SiO
2
+ Al
2
O
3
+ Fe
2
O
3
), % max 70
5 Magnesium oxide (MgO), %, max. 4
6 Sulfa trioxide (SO
3
), %, min. 3
PROPORTIONING
Before any concrete is placed, trial mixes shall be prepared using materials from the sources to be
used for the production of concrete on the project.
The mixes shall be made in sufficient number to establish optimum proportions of the aggregates
and to represent a wide range of cement contents and water-cement ratios within the specified
requirements for air content and workability.
The road pavement concrete mix shall be checked and redesigned using this same procedure
anytime significant changes concerning the material sources occur and whenever major deviations
from the original design are found during the production quality control.
The aggregate types to be used in road concrete production are listed in Table 8.
Table 8

Pavement constructed Aggregate
description
Aggregate type
Grading of the
total aggregate
1 2 3 4 5
A In one layer natural sand 0-4
chippings 8-16 and 16-25
0-25

natural sand 0-4
chippings 8-16 and 16-25
Crushed sand 25-40
0-40
natural sand 0-4 0-31
crushed gravel 4-8, 8-16 and
16-25(31)
0-25(31)
B In two layers:
- wearing course;

natural sand

0-4
chippings 8-16 and 16-25

0,25
natural sand 0-4
crushed gravel 4-8, 8-16 and
16-25(31)
0-25(31)31
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- resistance layer natural sand 0-4
chippings 8-16 and 16-25
Crushed sand 25-40
0-40
natural sand 0-4
crushed gravel 4-8, 8-16 and
16-25(31)
0-25(31)

The concrete aggregate gradings for road pavements are listed in the Table 9
Table 9
Aggregate grading Limits Passes in mass % through the sieve:
ranges 0.2 1 4 8 16 25 31.5 40
Continuous grading:
0..25 mm for fixed shuttering
system

min.
max.

2
8

10
30

29
52

45
70

75
90

95
100

-
-

-
-
0...25 mm for slip form system min.
max.
2
8
18
30
38
52
55
70
80
90
95
100
-
-
-
-
0...40 mm for fixed shuttering
system
min.
max.
2
7
8
28
23
48
40
62
60
80
75
90
-
-
95
100
0...40 mm for slip form system min.
max.
2
7
17
28
33
48
50
62
70
79
82
90
-
-
95
100
0-31 mm for fixed shuttering
system
min.
max.
2
7
8
28
23
48
40
62
60
80
75
91
95
100
-
-
Discontinuous grading of fixed
shuttering aggregates:




0...25 mm without 8-16 sort
min.
max.
2
8
12
29
28
48
38
58
38
58
95
100
-
-
-
-
040 mm without 8-16

min.
max.
2
7
17
29
30
45
35
56
35
56
64
78
-
-
95
100
0...31.5 mm without 8-16

min.
max.
2
7
17
29
30
45
35
56
35
56
75
83
95
100
-
-
The cement and additive reference dosages and the water/cement ratio are listed in Table 10.
Table 10
Concrete class
Materials BcR 3.5 BcR 4.0 BcR 4.5 BcR 5.0 Observations
1 2 3 4 5 6
330-350

350-370

fixed shuttering

1. CD 40 cement, kg/m
3
*)

-
-
-
-
min. 310 min. 310 slip forms
310-330 330-350 350-370 350-370 fixed shuttering
2. I 42.5; I 42.5R cement *)
min. 310 slip forms
0.45 for continuous grading concrete fixed shuttering
3. Water/cement ratio, max. 0.47 for discontinuous grading concrete fixed shuttering
0.52 for concrete with ash added fixed shuttering
0.43 for continuous grading concrete slip forms
0.25...0.30 for continuous grading concrete fixed shuttering
4. DISAN A additive % of
cement mass
0.30...0.35 for discontinuous grading concrete and for
natural crushed aggregates
fixed shuttering
0.35...0.40 for discontinuous grading concrete and
ballast-pit natural aggregates
fixed shuttering
0.15 for thinning concrete fixed shuttering
as per technical specification to be observed slip forms
*) The quantities dont include technological loss of mass.
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The physical characteristics of fresh concrete are listed in Table 11.
Table 11
Fresh concrete characteristics
No. Value
Name Fixed shuttering Slip forms

1. Workability:
- by compression method, cm. max.

3

-
- by compacting method 1.15 ... 1.35 1.15 ... 1.35
- by Webe reshaping method, sec. - 10 - 15
2. Apparent density kg/m
3
2400 40 2400 50
3. Air content % 3.5 0.5 4 - 6


The technical requirements for the physical and mechanical characteristics of hardened concrete
are listed in Table 12. The characteristics of the concrete during the preliminary design tests
should comply with Table 12 requirements, increased by 10%. The values to be used as reference
in the preliminary study are listed in Table 13.
Table 12
No Technical conditions to be achieved by Concrete class
hardened concrete, during execution BcR 3.5 BcR 4.0 BcR 4.5 BcR 5.0
1. Flexural strength (R
k
inc
) determined at 28
days on prismatic samples of 150x150x600mm
MPa, min.


3.5


4.0


4.5


5.0
2. Average compressive strength (Rc)
determined at 28 days on cubes of 150(141)
mm side, prismatic pieces of 150 mm side
section, as per STAS 1275 or on cores as per
Instructions C 54. MPa, min..




30




35




40




45
3. Degree of concrete frost resistance, as per
STAS 3518-89

G 100

G 100

G 100

G 100

Table 13

No.
Technical conditions to be achieved by
hardened concrete
Concrete class
Preliminary tests BcR 3.5 BcR 4.0 BcR 4.5 BcR 5.0
0 1 2 3 4 5
1. Flexural strength (R
k
inc
) determined at 28
days on prismatic samples of
150x150x600mm MPa min.


3.5


4.0


4.5


5.0
2. Average compressive strength determined
on cubes or prisms pieces of 150 mm
section side (Rc med.) MPa


30


35


40


45
3. Frost resistance as per STAS 3518-89 G 100 G 100 G 100 G 100

NOTE . Compressive strengths on prismatic samples should be used for information only

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5. WORKS EXECUTION
PLANT AND EQUIPMENT APPROVAL
Plant and equipment should be selected having considered the provisions of the Contract, the
Design and the Technical Specification and should be submitted to Engineer for approval.
The Contractor shall provide the following plant and equipment: -
- concrete batching plant.
- Slipformer, fitted with electronic leveling system and vibrating screed or
- fixed form equipment , fitted with electronic leveling system and vibrating screed. The paving
machine shall have the following characteristics:
vibration frequency: 50...75 Hz
amplitude: about 1.0 mm
forward speed: min. 0.6 m/min.
width of vibrating beam at least equal to the slab thickness.
- pre-vibrating devices which must be used if the concrete layer is more than 20 cm thick.
- Vibrating slabs or beams with vibrating frequencies of 50...75 Hz and min. 3000 vibration/min.,
amplitude of 1 mm. The width of vibrating beam shall be at least equal to slab thickness.
- Finishing beam.
- Metal roller: 250 mm, long 3-4 m, weight of 150-200 kg.
- Metal rammers.
- Workers footbridge.
- Means of texturing the concrete surface (piasoner brushes, etc.).
- Joint cutters.
- Moving covers to protect the fresh concrete.
- Devices for spreading protection film.
- Equipment and materials for joint sealing, i.e. mechanical mixer, air compressor (miimum
6 atmospheres), wire brushes, ladles, brushes, etc., device for installing sealing cord.
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
The Contractor shall submit for approval to the relevant Authorities and to the Engineer, a traffic
management plan that includes a detailed description of all the measures deemed to be necessary
to minimize the effect of the construction activities on the traffic circulation in the area. The traffic
management shall fully comply with the local norms and regulations in force.
BATCHING AND MIXING
Concrete production shall conform with the provision of the Contractors Quality System, including
the quality manual, the quality system and the quality procedures, Method Statements, quality
plan, laboratory quality manual etc. The batching plant activities should be fully documented.
The batching plant shall be fully automatic and in the case of slip form technology, the productivity
should be adequate to maintain a uniform forward movement of the paver of not less than 0.75
meters per minute. However, the placement rate specified for pavements cnstructed during hot
weather shall also be taken into consideration when determining the plant capacity requirements.
The dosage of the aggregates, cement and admixture shall be by weight, whilst the dosage of the
water may be by weight or by volume. The dosage devices should be checked and calibrated
every week. The aggregates and cement scales in the batching plant shall be checked using
standard weights,
The acceptable dosage deviations of the batching plant are as follows:
3% for aggregates and admixtures.
2% for cement, water, lime.
5% for additives.
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The tolerances are expressed by weight of the theoretical weight of each material in accordance
with the plant settings.
Adjustment of the mixture proportions shall be made by the Contractor during production to
establish the mixture proportions best suited for conditions and the materials used. The Contractor
shall notify the Engineer prior to making any change to the approved mixture proportions and to
indicate the changes which are to be made.
The concrete production plant shall be equipped with heating for water and aggregates.
The mixing time shall be a minimum of 60 seconds (90 sec. when using fly ash) for fixed form
concrete pavements and between 90 and 120 sec. for slip form concrete.
Mixing plants shall be fitted with intermediary hoppers with a capacity to hold three batches. To
avoid segregation, discharge of the concrete into the hopper shall be carried out using a pipe and
a funnel at least 0.50 m high.
The concrete shall not be kept in the hopper for more than 15 minutes from the unloading of the
first charge, and the total time to loading into the means of transport shall not exceed
20 minutes. The hopper shall be cleaned at least twice per shift or at stoppages of more than 1
hour.
When the concrete leaves the plant it shall have a temperature between +5...+30
0
C, and when it is
placed, the temperature shall not exceed 30
0
C.
The use of different mixes at the same time is permitted providing that concrete having the same
characteristics (components, dosage, concrete workability, etc.) is used.
Before starting production, the correct operating of the batching plant shall be checked by means
of a running test. During the running test, the Contractor shall assess and verify the sequence of
discharge of the components into the concrete mixer. Materials dosage, mixing time, etc. shall be
in accordance with the technical specifications of and the relevant norms and regulations and this
Technical Specification.. During production, the concrete plant shall be tested periodically, at least
once every 3 months, in accordance with the existing Norms and Regulations.
The test results shall be recorded in the concrete production Method Statement.
The complete documentation concerning the concrete production unit shall be submitted to the
local branch of the Public Works Inspectorate (I.J.C.L.PU.A.T.) for authorization in conformity with
the Romanian Norms in force. Concrete production may start only after that the plant has been
authorized by I.J.C.L.PU.A.T. and approved by the Engineer.
The concrete laying devices shall be regularly checked. The working parameters (speeds, vibration
time, etc.) shall be assessed during the preliminary trial test. During the construction of the Works,
the efficiency of the plant shall be kept constanty under review.
SUBGRADE
Prior to the construction of the concrete road pavement, the quality, compaction, levels etc. of the
sub-grade shall be checked
The sub-grade layer shall have the same longitudinal and transverse falls as the concrete
pavement.
The unevenness, measured by means of a 3 m long straight edge, shall be within the following
limits:
2 cm in crossfall for ballast layers, crushed stone or mechanically stabilized materials;
1.5 cm in crossfall for granular materials stabilized with cement or pozzolanic binders;
7 mm in longitudinal fall.
SUPPORT LAYER
In the case of granular foundations, a layer of sand 2 cm thick and with EN (sand equivalent) >85
shall be laid between the longitudinal beams of the road former. After compaction of the sand
layer, the support layer shall comply with the requirements of this specification regarding levels and
slopes. The surface of the support layer shall be wetted before the concrete works commence.
Kraft paper, building paper, polyethylene sheets or other equivalent materials shall be placed on
the sand layer after compaction and leveling, ensuring overlapping of the sheet edges of 5 cm
longitudinally and 20 cm transversally. Paper or sheets shall be placed before the concrete is
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poured. Measures shall be taken to prevent displacement of the sheets by wind or other cause
before concreting.
In the case of cement stabilized foundations, the sand layer and the plastic/paper sheets may be
omitted.
The support layer shall checked and approved before pouring the concrete. In order to allow for
checking and correction, the preparation of the support layer shall be one full day ahead of the
paving equipment.
TRANSPORT
Plant mixed concrete may be transported in a truck agitator, in a truck mixer operating at agitating
speed or in approved non-agitating equipment. Non-agitating equipment shall have smooth,
watertight, metal bodies equipped with gates to permit control of the discharge of the concrete;
covers shall be provided to protect the concrete during transport. Concrete transported in non-
agitating equipment shall be discharged into the pavement forms or to the slip form paver within 45
minutes after the introduction of the mixing water and cement into the aggregates at the mixer.
When low slump plant-mixed concrete is transported, trucks equipped with vibrators may be
required to discharge the concrete and shall be required unless it is satisfactorily demonstrated
that the concrete can be discharged without delay. The tipper lorries shall be cleaned using a water
jet every 3-4 deliveries and whenever necessary.
PLACING
The concrete may be placed between fixed (or raising) forms or using approved slip form paving
equipment. The option is left with the Contractor as to the method to be used.
The slip form paver shall be fitted with one direction sensor, one level sensor and two vibration
units, conveyor belts and shuttering.
Before starting the Works, the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer the Method Statements
concerning cement concrete road pavement construction.
The procedure shall include the description of the construction technology adopted, which is to be
checked at the beginning of the concreting works on one trial section (~ 300 meters long), and
shall include the following information:
- Detailed description of the equipment.
- Detailed description of the whole process of construction of the Works, including preparation of
the pavement sub-grade, concrete production, transport, pouring and curing.
- The document should include information such as paver speed, intensity of concrete vibration,
thickness of concrete layer before vibrating, finishing of concrete layer, surface striking off,
protection of finished concrete, joint cutting and finishing.
Concrete placing shall be carried out without interruptions. In an emergency, when unforseen
interruption of the concrete laying occurs, slabs of a minimum 3.0 m long (in the case of slip forms)
or a minimum of 1.5 m long (in the case of fixed shuttering) ending with a transverse construction
joint, shall be constructed.
Depending on the longitudinal road profile slope, the concrete placing shall be carried out as
follows:
If the gradient is less than or equal to 3%, the works shall proceed in the uphill direction.
If the gradient is greater than 3%, the works shall proceed in the downhill direction, providing that
both concrete workability and rate of progress are suitable.
If fixed form technology is adopted, steel forms shall be used for all pavement construction. The
Contractor shall provide steel forms equal to the edge thickness of the majority of pavement slabs
for each paved area. Built-up forms may be used only where edge thicknesses exceed the
standard form depth.
Forms and guidance lines shall be installed well in advance of the concrete paving operations so
that the required checks and any necessary corrections can be made without stopping or hindering
the concrete placement.
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The pavement forms generally may be removed 12 hours after the concrete is placed. A longer
period will be necessary when the strength gain of the concrete is retarded because of delayed or
inadequate protection during cold weather.
The longitudinal beams shall be kept cleaned and should be treated in order to prevent adhesion
to concrete by applying suitable products which shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.
Distorted longitudinal beams shall not be used.
Side forms on slip form pavers shall be the full depth of the pavement.
The guidance lines shall be of high strength cord or wire.
Exceptionally, the concrete casting may be carried out at temperatures between 0
0
C and 5
0
C, but
only with the Engineer's approval and in full compliance with the provisions of Norm C 16. The
concrete temperature should be maintained above +5
0
C for a period of at least 3 days. Protection
should be provided by means of tarpaulins, or other means which provide a layer of air, 3 to 5cm
deep over the concrete surface and prevent frost damage. The air temperature shall be checked
and recorded during this period.
The construction of cement concrete pavements at temperatures below freezing is not permitted.
The production and laying of road pavement concrete shall be suspended in the case of rain. The
suspension of the concrete laying, shall correspond with a contraction joint, following the
construction of a slab with a minimum length of 1.5 m.
During hot weather, special precautions are necessary to prevent the formation of plastic shrinkage
cracks which result from an excessive loss of moisture from the concrete before curing. In no case
shall the temperature of the concrete exceed 30C . If the application of the curing medium should
for any reason lag behind the laying for a time sufficient to permit surface drying, the surface shall
be kept damp with a fog spray, and laying shall be suspended until corrective action can be taken.
In windy areas screens may be needed to protect the concrete from rapid evaporation caused by
wind.
Concrete shall be placed before reaching its initial set and within 45 minutes of the addition of
cement to the batch. The addition of water to the mix, in excess of that required by the mix
proportions, shal not be permitted.
Hand spreading of concrete will only be permitted when necessitated by odd widths or shapes of
slabs, or in emergencies such as equipment breakdown. Hand spreading, finishing and floating will
also be permitted if the benefits derived from the use of the paving equipment are not
commensurate with the cost of using such machines
Vibration requirements are influenced by many factors, such as the type and size of aggregate, mix
proportions, air entrainment, slump, workability of the mixture, pavement thickness etc. The
maximum spacing for vibrator units and the vibrating procedures shall consequently be based on
the site requirements and will be fully described in the relevant Method Statement to be submitted
by the Contractor to Engineer for approval prior the beginning of the Works. The screed vibration
units should be spaced at a maximum of
50 cm. At the screed edge, an additional vibration unit shall be installed a maximum of
20 cm from the slip form. In general terms, the vibration frequency shall be between 6,000 and
12,000 rotations/minute and the vibration time shall be between 30 and 60 sec. Particular attention
should be paid to vibrators along the edge of the paving lane to ensure that the edge is properly
consolidated.
The height of the slip form shall be equal to the thickness of the designed pavement. Even when
the concrete is laid using a slip form paver, metal forms should be readily available to retain the
plastic concrete in case of emergency.
FINISHING
Finishing operations are designed to achieve a dense, smooth surface true to the required grade.
Finishing shall be kept to the minimum necessary to achieve a high quality concrete on the
surface.
The finishing shall be carried out mechanically. Manual finishing by means of short floats shall be
used only where necessary to correct local surface unevenness. The hand finished areas shall
have the same surface characteristics as those areas finished by machine. A straightedge of the
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required length shall be used to smooth and check the surface. The surface shall be thoroughly
checked during the mechanical floating, and any necessary corrections made.
The final surface texture shall be provided by means of broom, artificial turf, wire comb, or
grooving. The method adopted shall provide an adequate skidding resistance on the concrete
surface and shall be approved by the Engineer.
The slabs shall be marked by punching of a slab number (at every 5 slabs) on the concrete surface
at the slab corner, 30 cm from the edge (the numbers being 10 cm high and 10 mm deep).
CURING
All equipment, materials and supplies for adequate curing and protection of the concrete shall be
available and ready for use before concrete placement begins. In general, curing shall be
accomplished using a pigmented membrane curing compound. However, other methods and
products may be specified and may be used with the approval of the Engineer.
The curing compound shall be applied by means of a power driven machine straddling the newly
paved lane and operated so that the spray covers the pavement surface completely and uniformly.
The rate of advance and spacing of the nozzles of the spraying machine shall be controlled so that
a two coat overlapping coverage is provided. When forms are removed and in the case of damage
to the membrane caused sawing operations, the concrete shall be resprayed with curing
compound.
The surface protection may be based on using P 45 protection fluid film (whose characteristics are
shown in the following table), Polisol or other similar non toxic compounds. The uniformity,
continuity and quantity of protection material per m
2
, shall first be checked.
Material such as Whitespirt STAS 44 shall be used for the dilution of the chemical compounds and
for washing of the equipment.
The quantity of P 45 fluid to be used for the protection of fresh concrete for temperatures over
+10
0
C shall be 0.25 0.05 kg/m
2
. For temperatures below +10
0
C, P 45 shall be diluted with
Whitespirt in the proportions 1 part P45 to 0.3/0.5 part of Whitespirt.

Technical conditions for P 45 protection fluid
No Characteristics Unit Acceptable
conditions
Testing method

1 Aspect - liquid, homogen,
mark brown
visual
2 Density g/cm
3
0.7 - 1.2 STAS 35
3 Engler viscousity at 20
0
C
0
E max. 10 STAS 117
4 Viscousity at 25
0
C
(viscousmetrical nat, nozzle of 3
mm)

sec

max. ART.

STAS 2096
5 Kinematic viscousity cSt max. 26 STAS 117
6 Inflammable point
0
C min. 30 STAS 5488
7 Drying time at 25
0
C ore max. 3 STAS 6 ART.0
8 Rest at evaporation % 43 3 STAS 10227/2
PROTECTION
Traffic of any kind (people, animals, vehicles) on fresh concrete is prohibited.
During the first 24 hours after the pavement surface has been protected with film, the workers may
walk only on the movable walkway. Vehicular traffic may be traverse the pavement only when the
conditions of Table 14 have been met.

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Table 14
Average temperature at work place
0
C Unit +5 +10 +15 +20 +25
Orientative terms for:
a. concrete used with CD 40 cement or
concrete with (thermopower station ash or
cinder) additions or with I 42.5



days



25



19



16



14



12
b. concrete used with I 42.5R or I 32,5R
cement

days

18

15

13

11

10
JOINTS
General
Joints are formed in concrete pavements to permit contraction and expansion of the pavement
without irregular cracking and as a construction expedient to separate the paved area into strips
necessary for handling and placing of concrete.
There are three general type of joints: construction, expansion and contraction. The joints can be
longitudinal or transverse in relation to the road center line.

Longitudinal construction joints.
These joints are formed between pavement lanes at the spacing indicated on the drawings. They
may be thickened, keyed, keyed and tied or doweled.
Keyed joints should be used in case of slab thickness exceeding 25 cm. The dimensions of the
keyed joint are critical, it being essential therefore that both key dimensions and the location of the
key in the joint conform with the details on drawings.
Tie bars are used in longitudinal construction joints avoid movement between adjacent slabs.
Bent tie bars shall be inserted into the plastic unconsolidated concrete automatically when slip form
pavers are used or manually in case of fixed form equipment.
Details of the longitudinal construction joint are included in SR 183-1/95 and in SR 183-2/98.

Transverse construction joints.
When concrete placement is stopped or interrupted for 30 minutes or longer, these joints are
installed across the pavement lane. Insofar as practicable, these joints shall be installed at the
location of a planned joint.
Details of the transverse construction joint are included in SR 183-1/95 and in SR 183-2/98.

Expansion joints.
When expansion joints are required within a pavement, joint assemblies supporting both the joint
filler and the dowels shall be installed before placing concrete. Accurate location and alignment of
joint filler and dowels are necessary for the proper functioning of the joints. The assemblies
supporting embedded items shall be rigid and capable of resisting all movement and distortion
during the paving operation. The Contractor shall provide a template for checking the position of
the dowels.
Details of the transverse construction joint are included in SR 183-1/95 and in SR 183-2/98.

Contraction joints.
Contraction joints use a groove to form a weakened plane in the concrete. As the concrete
undergoes shrinkage, a crack forms through the concrete below the groove. Load transfer is
provided by aggregate interlock in the fracture plane below the joint groove and by dowels.
Suitable dowel supporting assemblies shall be used and care taken to ensure proper alignment of
the dowels in the completed pavement.
Longitudinal contraction joints shall be installed in the case of lanes exceeding 5.0 m. in width.
Contraction joints may be constructed by sawing a groove in the hardened concrete. When sawing
cannot be carried out without undue uncontrolled cracking due to unusual conditions, provisions
shall be made for using inserts. Sawing shall be carried out as soon as the concrete is ready, i.e.
usually between 6 and 24 hours after placing according to the provisions of Table 15. Taking into
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consideration that concrete is placed mainly during daylight hours,a large portion of sawing will
have to be done at night, and adequate lighting must be provided for this purpose.

Table 15
Air temperature
Cement type 5-13
0
C 13-22
0
C 22-30
0
C
Time limits to saw joints
I 42.5 R; I 32.5R 12-24 hours 8-12 hours 6-8 hours
CD 40, I 42,5 18-24 hours 10-18 hours 8-10 hours

Details of the transverse construction joint are included in SR 183-1/95 and in SR 183-2/98.

Joint sealing.
The sealing of all types of joint shall be ensured using suitable products and materials, which shall
be submitted for approval to Engineer.

6. QUALITY CONTROL
PRELIMINARY QUALITY CONTROL
The Engineer shall preliminarily approve:
- the sources and the suppliers of the materials;
- the plant and the equipment;
- the formulae and trial sections;.
- the construction method statements.
QUALITY CONTROL DURING EXECUTION
During execution, the quality of materials shall be regularly checked.
The implementation of the provisions of the present Technical Specification and of the relevant
norm and regulations in shall be constantly checked, particularly with respect to:
- records of concrete transport bills.
- design observance.
- conditions of concrete placing, operation of concrete placing plants, preparation of the platform
for concrete placing.
- maintenance of longitudinal beams at required levels.
- positioning of tie bars and steel dowels.
- execution of joints: position, materials, dimensions, finishing.
- concrete surface curing and protection.
- concrete surface finishing.
Characteristics of materials shall be regularly checked for conformity with the provisions of this
document and of the relevant norms and regulations in force.
Characteristics of materials shall be checked before use in accordance with Table 16.
Characteristics of fresh and hardened concrete shall be checked against the provisions of Table 11
and 12.
These characteristics shall be checked for conformity with the frequencies indicated in Table 16,
on samples taken at the batching plant or on site.
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Table 16

No.
Material or
execution
stage
Action, testing method,
characteristics to be

Purpose of action or
testing

Minimum frequency

Laboratory
type
tested II III
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
A. AT MATERIALS SUPPLY IN SPARE STORES OR TO CONCRETE STATIONS
A.1 Cement a. Quality or guarantee
certificate examination
The supplier shall
confirm the quality
At each supplied
batch

YES

YES
b. Stability Avoiding of an
unnoticed irror at
manufacture control
One test at each
transport, but no
less than one test

YES

YES
c. Start of setting time signaling of
impurifications
appeared during
transport
at 100 t on an
average sample
YES YES
d. Mechanical strengths
by fast method as STAS
5296
Guiding appreciation of
cement band
Optional
YES

-
e1. Mechanical
strengths at 2(7) days
as per SR EN 196-1 (if
there are fast method
tests or the results of
this method are
impropriate)

Acknowledging of
cement class
One test at 200 t
for less than 100 t
batches

YES

-
e2. Mechanical
strengths at 28 days, as
per SR EN 196-1 (idem
above)


Taking data for
recording of used
cement quality
One test at 500 t
for more than 100 t
batches

YES

-
f. Taking of conter tests
which shall be kept min.
45 days (in metallic
boxes or in sealed
polyethylene bags)

Further tests in case of
litigation
At each supplied
batch, the tests
shall be taken in
the presence of
Employer's
representant

YES

YES
g. Preservation
condition only if the
guarantee forms is
exceeded or distorted
factors have appeared
Avoiding of distorted
cement supply
One test at each
transport or at max.
100 t on an
average samples

YES

YES
A.2 Aggregates a. Quality certificate
examination
Quality acknowledging
by the supplier
At each supplied
batch`

YES

YES
b. type grading as per
STAS 4606 for sand
and gravel and per
STAS 730 for chipping
Acknowledging of
supplied batch quality
One test at max.
500 m
3
for each
sort, and in the
case of same
source supply, one
test a week max.)
for each sort and
source

YES

YES
c. Geometrical
characteristics (grains
shope, feattening index)
as per STAS 4606 and
STAS 730
Taking of data for
recording of aggregates
quality
Whenever changes
have been noticed
during supply from
the same source or
whenever the
source is changed

YES

YES
d. Wear strength Los The supplier shall find At each supplied
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No.
Material or
execution
stage
Action, testing method,
characteristics to be

Purpose of action or
testing

Minimum frequency

Laboratory
type
tested II III
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Angeles the quality batch and
whenever changes
have been noticed
during supply
YES YES
A.3 Thermo-power
station ash as
per STAS
8819/2
a. Quality certificate
examination observing
the conditions of ART.4
The supplier shall find
quality guarantee
At each supplied
batch

YES

YES
b. Fineness as per SR
227/2
Acknowledging of
standard characteristics
At each supplied
batch

YES

-
c. Volume constance as
per STAS 3832/7
Avoiding of using of an
inadequate batch
At each supplied
batch

YES

-
d. Work index at 24
hours
Acknowledging of
guarantee
characteristics
At each supplied
batch of type A ash

YES

-
A.4 Additives Quality certificate
examination
The manufactures shall
find the guarantee
quality
At each supplied
batch

YES

YES
A.5 Sealing
materials for
joints
Quality certificate
examination
The manufactures shall
find the guarantee
quality

At each supplied
batch

YES

YES
A.6 Chemical
materials for
concrete curing
Testing of technical
characteristics of
materials

Acknowledging of
physical-mechanical
characteristics
At each supplied
batch

YES

YES
A.7 Structural-steel Quality certificate
examination

Testing of technical
characteristics
The manufactures shall
find the guarantee
quality

Acknowledging of
technical characteristics
At each supplied
batch

Minimum 2 tests for
each batch

YES

YES
B. BEFORE USING MATERIALS
B.1 Cement a. Storage time
examination
Conformance with the
guarantee terms
At each supplied
batch

YES

YES
b. Preservation
condition only if the
storage term has been
exceeded or other
distorted factors have
occurred

Avoidance of using
deteriorated cement
2 tests on silo (up
and down) or on
max. 50 t of used
cement

YES

YES
B.2 Aggregates a. Impurity and foreign
bodies content as per
STAS 4606 and STAS
730
Noticing of impurities in
receiving store occurred
during local handling

Whenever
impurifications
occurred, but at
least once a week

YES

YES
b. Testing grading sorts
as per STAS 4606 and
STAS 730
Adopting of concrete
formula depending on
obtained results
One test at 400 m
3

concrete, at least
once a week
whenever occurring
of elements which
can modify the
grading at each
sort


YES

YES
c. Water content STAS Adopting of concrete One test at 200 m
3

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No.
Material or
execution
stage
Action, testing method,
characteristics to be

Purpose of action or
testing

Minimum frequency

Laboratory
type
tested II III
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
4606 formula depending on
obtained results
of concrete and
whenever a change
occurs during
meteorological
conditions. At over
200 m
3
of
concrete/day, the
min. frequency is of
one test a day
YES YES
B.3 Additive Solution density as per
technical norms in force
(if the additive is mode
at concrete station)
Concentration
adjustment
One test at each
charge of mode
additive

YES

YES
B.4 Water Chemical test Using of a proper water
at concrete preparation
One test at the
works starting if it
does not come
from a drinking
source water

YES

-
C. DURING CONCRETE PREPARATION AT CONCRETE PLANT
C.1 Fresh concrete a. Workability Adjustment of
technological process
and observing of
technological conditions
under Table 11
Twice a shift for
each concrete and
concrete mixer type

YES

YES
b. Apparent density YES YES
c. Temperature (at air
temperatures below
+5
0
C and over +25
0
C)
Adjustment of
technological process
and observing of
technological conditions
of +5
0
C...+25
0
C

4 tests on each
concrete type and
shift

YES

YES
d. Aggregate grading
concrete admixture
Aggregate grading
observing of concrete
formula
Optional
YES

YES
e. Air Content Preparation adjustment
and observing technical
conditions in Table 11

One test a shift
YES

YES
C.2 Hardened
concrete
a. Bending strength on
prismatic samples of
150x150x600 mm, at 28
days
Control of quality
conditions for provided
concrete class
A series of 3
prismatic samples
per shift for each
concrete and
concrete mixer
type, but at least a
series of 100 m
3


YES

YES
b. Compressive strength
on prism samples with
side section of 150 mm
or on cubic samples
with 150 (141) mm side
at 28 days
Control of concrete
compression strength
One series of 3
prismatic samples
per shift for each
concrete and
concrete mixer
type, but at least a
series of 100 m
3


YES

-
c. Testing of
compressive strength on
cubic samples, at 7
days
Operating testing of
concrete formula
Optional
YES

-
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No.
Material or
execution
stage
Action, testing method,
characteristics to be

Purpose of action or
testing

Minimum frequency

Laboratory
type
tested II III
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
d. Testing of degree of
frost-resistance
Control of Table 12
conditions fulfilling
It is tested at
concrete formula
establishing

YES

-
D. AT PLACE OF LAYING
D.1 Fresh concrete a. Transport certificate
examination
Finding of guarantee
quality by the producer
and observing of
transport time
At each transport
-

YES
b. Workability
(consistency)
Acknowledge of
required concrete
characteristics
One test for each
concrete type and
shift, but at least
one test on 20 m
3

of concrete

-

YES
c. Temperature (at air
temperature below +5
0
C
and above +25
0
C)
Acknowledge of
required concrete
characteristics
4 tests on each
concrete type and
shift

-

YES
D.2 Hardened
concrete
Testing of compressive
strength on cylindrical
samples (cores) taken
out of performed
pavement
Testing of concrete
quality
2 cores for each km
of concrete
pavement lane or
at least 3 cores of
each pavement
areas with quality
doubts

YES

-

The contractor shall keep a daily record in "The Record Register of concrete preparation and
Laying" in accordance with Table 16.
GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCES
The thickness of the cement concrete pavement layers shall be in accordance with the Design, and
shall not be less than 18 cm.
The permissible variation in thickness shall be between - 10 and +15 mm.
The permissible variation in lane width shall be within 15 mm.
The crossfall of cement concrete pavements shall be in accordance with the Design. The permitted
variation in the crossfall is 0.04%. Crossfalls and permissible variations for roads with
superelevated curves and parking areas will be indicated in the Design, but must ensure the
discharge of water.
Longitudinal gradients shall conform with the Design. Permissible variations of pavement levels
along the center line of the lanes when compared to Design levels shall within 20 mm.
Acceptable unevenness of the pavement surfaces on cross sections under a straight edge of
length equal to the concrete lane width, and in a longitudinal direction under a straight edge
3 m long, on each concrete lane and over the whole surface shall be as follows:
4 mm, for pavements with a design speed over 100 km/h.
5 mm for pavements with a design speed between 50 and 100 km/h.
6 mm for road pavements with design speed below 50 km/h.
conforming to the Design for other works.
The distance between two points having maximum permissible unevenness shall be at least 20 m.
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Acceptable level differences between two adjacent concrete slabs is 2 mm in the case of
carriageways having two cross falls.
Acceptable unevenness at transverse joints is:
0 mm for the design speed of 100 km/h and over 100 km/h
2 mm for the design speed below 100 km/h
2 mm at construction joints, for any design speed.
Cracks at the pavement surface are not permitted. (widths over 3 mm).
The roughness of the pavement surface shall be tested using the sand height method, the
reference minimum value being 0.6 mm. In the case of gradients over 6%, where curve radii are
below 125 m and at crossroads, the reference value shall be 0.8 mm.
QUALITY CONTROL AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE PAVEMENT
When a concrete pavement section is completed, the following checks shall be carried out:
Visually assessment of the quality of the surface in order to identify any failures which may
affect the concrete (surface voids or pavement side voids, segregation, spalling, cracking, etc.).
It is advisable that the checking should be carried out in the first half of the day, preferably
during cold weather.
Checking of the conformity of the concrete pavement with the geometrical provisions of this
document and of the relevant norms and regulations.

With respect to the frequency of the checking of the geometry of the concrete pavement, the
following provisions shall be met :
pavement thickness shall be checked by direct measurements performed at the edge of each
concrete lane every 200 m and on pavement cores.
pavement width shall be checked by tape measurements carried out between the concrete
lanes every 200 m.
pavement surface unevenesses in the longitudinal direction shall be checked using a 3 m long
straight edge and a graduated wedge 20 cm long and no more than 3 cm wide, having a slope
of 1:10 and graduations along the inclined side corresponding to 1 mm of height.
Longitudinally, the tests shall be carried out on each concrete lane or traffic lane, along the
lane center line. Readings exceeding the acceptable unevenness shall be recorded. The
frequency of testing for approval shall be every 50m.
pavement surface unevenness in cross section shall be checked using a straight edge having a
length equal to the width of the lane and a wedge as described in the previous paragraph. The
checking shall be carried out to correspond with the Design cross sections.
pavement crossfall shall be checked using the straight edge used for the cross section
measurements, a plumb line and a graduated wedge with the lengths of the two straight sides
being 1.5 cm and 9 cm respectively and having graduations on the inclined side corresponding
to 1 mm of height. This control test shall also be carried out to correspond with the Design
cross sections.
Random checking of the roughness of the pavement surface shall be carried out on a regular
basis.

7. REFERENCE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.

Grading of natural aggregates STAS 730
Aggregate water content STAS 4606
Sand equivalent STAS 730
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Aggregate impurity content STAS 4606
Fines content STAS 4606
Fraction content below 0.1 mm STAS 730
Crushing strength of natural aggregates STAS 4606
Wear strength with Los Angeles machine STAS 730
Breaking degree of crushed aggregates STAS 730
Particle shape (shape index, b/a and c/a ratios; content of flat and
angular particles)

STAS 730
Aggregates strength at freeze-thaw
- frost susceptibility STAS 730
- mass loss STAS 4606
Quality index STAS 730
Rock mass at crushed aggregates STAS 730
Apparent porosity at normal temperature STAS 6200/13
Cement, concrete, pavement
Stability and start of cement setting time SR EN 196/3
Cement check determination SR EN 196/7
Cement preservation condition NE 012 - 99
Cement mechanical strength SR EN 196-1
Concrete workability STAS 1759
Apparent density STAS 1759
Concrete mechanical strengths SR EN 12390-6 / 2002
and NE 014
Air space content STAS 5479
Frost-resistivity STAS 3518
Pavement surface ruggedness STAS 8849
Extractions, repairs, tests on cores SR EN 12390-6 / 2002
Density of P 45 protection fluid STAS 35
Viscousity of P 45 protection fluid STAS 117/STAS 2096
Softening point of bituminous mastic SR EN 1427 / 2002
Asrobit penetration STAS 2922
Asrobit stability STAS 9199
8. ACCEPTANCE OF THE WORKS
PRELIMINARY ACCEPTANCE OF THE WORKS.
When a pavement section has been completed, full compliance of the executed works with the
Technical Specifications provisions shall be checked. The test results shall be also recorded in
"Quality Acceptance Certificate". Any non-conformity shall be corrected before opening to traffic.
FINAL ACCEPTANCE OF THE WORKS.
The final acceptance of the works consists, but may not be limited to:
- site examination and coordinate checking against the Design and the Technical Specification
provisions.
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- examination of the quality control documents with regard to the quality of the materials and of the
works.
- random testing and checking as required by the Acceptance Committee.
- checking of the finishing and operation of the collecting, drying and water discharge works and
the earthworks slope protection, and of other additional works relating to the finished road section
submitted for acceptance.
The Acceptance Committee shall record the test results in the "Acceptance at Work Completion
Certificate", specifying any possible additions or necessary amendments and the terms for their
resolution.
The completed Works shall be finally accepted on the basis of the documents concerning the
construction and completion of the works and after evaluation of the behaviour of the Works after a
period of operation when further imperfections will not be permitted.
The Acceptance Committee shall record the final acceptance in "Final Acceptance Certificate" of
the section of roadworks.


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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION








- 9 -
ROAD SIGNING
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Road Signing

SUMMARY


GENERAL PROVISIONS....................................................................................... 152

1 TYPES OF SIGNS, SIZES ............................................................................ 153
1.1 Type of Signs........................................................................................ 153
1.2 Size of the signs ................................................................................... 153

2 MANUFACTURE THE SIGNS....................................................................... 154

3 MANUFACTURE AND PAINTING THE POLES............................................ 154

4 CONTROL OF EXECUTION AND ACCEPTANCE OF WORKS................... 154
4.1 Photometrical analysis.......................................................................... 155
4.2 Mechanical characteristics.................................................................... 158
4.3 Verifying the resistance against environment agents............................ 158
4.4 Control of the execution of the panels .................................................. 159
4.5 Acceptance of works............................................................................. 159


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GENERAL PROVISIONS

The Technical Specifications refer to manufacturing, mounting as well as to the acceptance of the
road signs. It includes classifications according to size, images, shape and technical
recommendation, which have to be met.

All the traffic signs shall comply with the stipulations of STAS 1848/1, 2 and 3-86.

The Contractor shall perform in an authorized laboratory all the tests and assessments requested
by the Technical specifications and any other test required by the Engineer.

Apart from the Technical Specifications, the Contractor shall respect the stipulations of the
standards and norms in force.

The Contractor shall make sure that by all the execution method statements, he fulfils the
requirements for the Technical Specifications.

The Contractor shall record on a daily basis data regarding the execution of the works and the
results further to measurements, tests and investigations.

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1 TYPES OF SIGNS, SIZES

1.1 Type of Signs

Warning Signs

Are: - equilateral triangles with red frame, showing a black symbol on a white background
- rectangular or red arrow, indicating the direction of the bend, on white background

Regulatory Signs

Priority: White arrows in red frame;
White equilateral triangle in red frame;
Red octagon with STOP in white;
Yellow square in white frame to indicate priority road;
Circle in red frame with two arrows, one red the other white;
Square on blue background with two arrows, one red the other white

Prohibitory or restrictive signs Circle in red frame with black or red engravings on white or
blue background


Obligatory signs: Circle with white symbols on blue background.

Directional and information signs

Are rectangular or arrow shape panels, with lettering and symbols on background:
o Green for motorways;
o Blue for other roads;
o Yellow for temporary diversions.


Directional Signs: Rectangular or arrow shape, lettered (localities name, etc.), white
colored on green or blue background.

Information signs: Square or rectangular shape, on blue background, with symbols for
utilities: pedestrian crossing, first aid point, motorway, restaurant,
telephone, services etc.
The signs that precede the junctions on a motorway, designating the
name of destinations which are reached by other class of roads, are
to be on a blue background in a white frame, within the green
background of the sign.

Additional signs: Rectangular or square shape mounted under the signs to draw the
drivers attention to some features of the road section.


1.2 Size of the signs

The size of the signs shall comply with STAS 1848/1-86 and 1848/2-86.

On the motorway and for the junctions, very big size indicators shall be used. For the other roads,
big size indicators shall be used.
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2 MANUFACTURE THE SIGNS

All the signs shall be manufactured using aluminum, with the size and shapes as indicated.

The signs in shape of triangle, round or rectangular with the maximum size less than 1m, and
those in shape of an arrow, shall be executed of aluminum sheet with a minimum thickness of
2mm, with the frame reinforced by double bending.

The rectangular or square panels, with the smallest size greater or equal to 1m, shall be braced
with aluminum, vertically joined.

The aluminum shall be in accordance with:
o For sheet: 99,5 HD (according to Romanian standards)
o For sections: ALMGSI-0,5 F 22 (according to DIN)

The fixing shall be executed using screws. The screws and all parts used for mounting on poles
shall be protected against corrosion.

The rear of the sign panels and the double bent zone (rebordul) shall be painted in grey.
The margins of the indicators will be double-bended.

The preparation of the surface of the signs prior to the application of the retro-reflective film shall
be carried out according to the recommendations from the film manufacturer.

The types of retro-reflective material applied on road signs are:
o Class 3 diamond- for motorways;
o Class 2 high intensity for European roads;
o Class 1 engineering grade for other roads.

In case of using the diamond film, taking into account the rigidity of the film, it is recommended
that a transparent colored film is used for the background for the indicators with inscriptions.
Lettering and symbols are cut from this colored film and laid over sheets of diamond film.
For the regular signs (triangle, circle, rhombi, square) the engraving shall be executed by
serigraphy.

3 MANUFACTURE AND PAINTING THE POLES

For the poles that support triangle, round and arrow shapes panels, as well as for the square or
rectangular panels with the maximum dimension less than 1m, steel tubes with a minimum
thickness of 3mm and diameter between 48-51mm shall be used or poles type .

The Contractor may propose for the Engineers approval the type of poles that he wants to use.

As supporting devices for panels with the minimum dimension more than 1m, steel tubes or
sections shall be used; the size shall vary according to the surface area of the panel.

The characteristics of the panels shall be specified in the Working Drawings.

The poles shall be cast in a concrete C 6/7,5 foundation.

The supporting elements for the panels shall be painted in grey, including all necessary primers
and undercoats.

4 CONTROL OF EXECUTION AND ACCEPTANCE OF WORKS

The three classes of retro-reflective films utilized in Romania are:
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o Class 1 Engineering grade, composed of micro balls made of glass, incorporated in a
transparent material based on resin
The film has an adhesive on both sides and is applied under cold or heat;
o Class 2 High intensity, as Class 1, with a layer of air between the micro balls layer and
the external side of the film
o Class 3 Diamond, as Class 2, but with glass prisms instead of micro balls.

The tests consist of:
o Photometrical analysis;
o Mechanical tests
o Resistance to aggressive agents.

For all films submitted for the Engineers approval, the Contractor shall present the technical
agreement.

The processing and application of the retro-reflective films shall be carried out in compliance with
the manufacturer instructions.

The film samples for testing shall be placed on aluminum plates of 2mm thickness, kept at a
temperature of 23
o
C 2
o
C and relative humidity of 50% 5%, 24 hours prior to testing.

The results of the tests are given as an average of at least 3 sets of results of 3 samples tested in
similar conditions.

4.1 Photometrical analysis

Determining the retro-reflection coefficient R

The retro-reflection coefficient R allows the determination of the visibility level during night-time. It
is given in Cd/lux/m
2


The tests shall be performed on samples of 150 mm x 150 mm, at an incidence angle of the
lightning source of 5
o
, 30
o
and 40
o
to the perpendicular on the film, and at reception angle de
0,2
o
, 0,33
o
, 1
o
, 2
o
towards the incident fascicle.

The retro-reflection coefficient R shall be measured in accordance with CIE no.54/1982 Retro-
reflection for the light source A (temperature of the color 2856
o
K shall be given in cd/lux/m
2
). The
value R shall be an average of the determinations in different points on the surface of the sample.
The minimum allowed values are indicated in tables A1 and A2. For the white films with
transparent colors, R shall be at least 70% of the values of R for colored films indicated in tables
A1 and A2.

Table A1: Minimum ratio R of retro-reflection [Cd/Lux/m
2
]
Luminance: CIE Standard of luminance A

White Yellow Red Green Blue Brown Orange
Films class 1
5
o
70 50 14,5 9 4 1 25
30
o
30 22 6 3,5 1,7 0,3 7 0.2
o

40
o
10 7 4 1,5 0,5 0,1 2,2
5
o
50 35 10 7 2 0,6 20
30
o
24 16 4 3 1 0,2 4,5 0.33
o

40
o
9 6 1,8 1,2 0,4 - 2,2
5
o
12 7,5 2 1,5 0,5 0,2 1,7
30
o
6 3,5 1 0,7 0,2 0,1 1,0 1
o

40
o
2 1 0,7 0,5 0,1 - 0,7
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White Yellow Red Green Blue Brown Orange
5
o
5 3 0,8 0,6 0,2 - 1,2
30
o
2,5 1,5 0,4 1,3 0,1 - 0,6
2
o

40
o
1,5 1 0,3 0,2 - - 0,4
Films class 2
5
o
250 170 45 45 20 12 100
30
o
150 100 25 25 11 8,5 60 0.2
o

40
o
110 70 15 12 8 5 29
5
o
180 122 25 21 14 8,5 65
30
o
100 67 14 12 8 5 40 0.33
o

40
o
95 64 13 11 7 3 20
5
o
15 9 2,5 2 0,5 0,4 4,5
30
o
7,5 4,5 1,5 1 0,3 0,2 2,5 1
o

40
o
4,5 3 1 0,5 0,2 0,1 2
5
o
5 3 0,8 0,6 0,2 0,2 1,5
30
o
2,5 1,5 0,4 0,3 0,1 0,1 0,9 2
o

40
o
1,5 1 0,3 0,2 - - 0,8

Table A2: Minimum coefficient of retro-reflection for white color films class 3

o
0,33 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0
= 5
o

R 310 280 70 18 6,2

o
0,33 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0
= 15
o

R 300 230 65 17 4,7

o
0,33 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0
= 30
o

R 150 100 31 9 3,5

o
0,33 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0
= 40
o

R 83 50 13 4 1,7

Minimum coefficient of retro-reflection compared with the white color for film class 3:

Yellow Red Orange Blue Green Green2
Ratio to white color 0,8 0,25 0,5 0,05 0,1 0,07

For the yellow films with enamel transparent red, R shall be of at least 50% of the value for the red
color indicated in tables A1 and A2.

The purpose of the tests is to:
o Measure the visibility during night-time;
o Evaluate the deterioration in time of the retro-reflection for different environment conditions;
o Establish the level of the retro-reflection at the end of the Defects liability period;
o Establish the frequency of the replacement of the signs;
o Evaluate the general behavior of the serigraph retro-reflection films with transparent ink

Color

The color of the retro-reflective films shall be determined on samples of 50x50 mm applied on
aluminum plates. The color shall be measured using a colorimeter, according to CIE no. 15.2,
1986. The sample shall be illuminated using a standard source D 65, at a 45
o
angle with the
perpendicular of the sample and with a measuring direction of 0
o
(measurement geometry 45/0).

For the reflective films of different colors, the color span is determined from the co-ordinates of the
corner points of the diagram CIE 1931. The tables B1, B2 and B3 indicate the chromatic field for
new retro-reflective films.
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Chromatic co-ordinates

Table B1 Films class 1 and 2
Chromatic colour
1 2 3 4
X 0,305 0,335 0,325 0,295
White
Y 0,315 0,345 0,355 0,325
X 0,494 0,470 0,513 0,545
Yellow
Y 0,505 0,480 0,437 0,454
X 0,660 0,610 0,638 0,690
Red
Y 0,340 0,340 0,312 0,310
X 0,110 0,170 0,170 0,110
Green
Y 0,415 0,415 0,500 0,500
X 0,130 0,160 0,160 0,130
Blue
Y 0,090 0,090 0,140 0,140

Table B2 - Films class 3 daytime
Chromatic color
1 2 3 4
Luminosity
factor
X 0,305 0,335 0,325 0,295
White
Y 0,315 0,345 0,335 0,325
>/- 0,40
X 0,494 0,470 0,513 0,545
Yellow
Y 0,505 0,480 0,437 0,454
>/- 0,24
X 0,735 0,700 0,610 0,660
Red
Y 0,265 0,250 0,340 0,340
>/- 0,03
X 0,610 0,535 0,506 0,570
Orange
Y 0,390 0,375 0,404 0,429
>/- 0,12
X 0,110 0,170 0,170 0,110
Green
Y 0,415 0,415 0,500 0,500
>/- 0,03
X 0,170 0,220 0,245 0,210
Green2
Y 0,525 0,450 0,480 0,550
>/- 0,01
X 0,130 0,160 0,160 0,130
Blue
Y 0,090 0,090 0,140 0,140
>/- 0,01


Table B3 Films class 3 night-time
Chromatic color
1 2 3 4
X 0,475 0,360 0,369 0,515
White
Y 0,452 0,415 0,370 0,409
X 0,513 0,500 0,545 0,575
Yellow
Y 0,487 0,470 0,425 0,425
X 0,652 0,620 0,712 0,735
Red
Y 0,348 0,348 0,255 0,265
X 0,645 0,613 0,565 0,595
Orange
Y 0,355 0,355 0,405 0,405
X 0,007 0,200 0,322 0,193
Green
Y 0,570 0,500 0,590 0,782
X 0,007 0,200 0,322 0,193
Green 2
Y 0,570 0,500 0,590 0,782
X 0,033 0,180 0,230 0,091
Blue
Y 0,370 0,370 0,240 0,133

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Table C Chromatic Co-ordinates for grey and black films non-retro-reflective
Chromatic color Illuminating factor

1 2 3 4 Maxim Minim
X 0,305 0,350 0,340 0,295
Grey
Y 0,315 0,360 0,370 0,325
0,08 0,10
X 0,300 0,385 0,345 0,260
Black
Y 0,270 0,355 0,395 0,320
< 0,02 < 0,02

4.2 Mechanical characteristics

Adherence to support

The retro-reflective films has to present a very good adherence to the support.
The test consists of checking samples of 100x150 mm; the film will be removed with a blade on a
surface of 20x20 mm; the rest of the film will be manually removed; the adherence is considered as
satisfactory if the film is destroyed during removal.

Resistance to shocks

The test consists of checking samples of 150x150 mm; A steel ball having 51 mm diameter and
540 g weight falls from a high of 250 mm; the film is considered satisfactory if there are no visible
fissures and/or removals.

4.3 Verifying the resistance against environment agents

Resistance to dry hot weather conditions

The samples having 75 x 150 mm will be maintained for 24 hours in the drying closet at the
temperature of 71 3 C, then they are re-conditionned for 2 hours at the room temperature,
after which the test can be interpreted. It will be considered as satisfactory if the sample does not
have defects as fissures, barkings or removals from the support.

Resistance to coldness

The samples, having dimensions of 75 x 150 mm will be maintained for 72 hours in the refrigerator
at the temperature of -35 3 C, after which they are re-conditionned for 2 hours at the room
temperature and then the test is interpreted. The test is considered as satisfactory if the sample do
not have defects as fissures, barkings or removals from the support.

Resistance to corrosion

A 5% potassium chloride is dissolved in distilled water at a temperature of 35
o
C 2
o
C. Samples of
150x150 mm will be sprayed with salt solution in 2 cycles of 22 hours each.
After each cycle, the samples will be dried at room temperature for at least 2 hours.
In order to study the samples they will be washed with distilled water and than dryed.
The film is considered suitable if it does not show visible deterioration of the surface and the retro-
reflective ratio and the chromatic fields are according to Tables A, B and C.

Resistance to bad weather action

The samples will be placed in different climatic areas for a 2 years period, facing South and
inclined at 45
o
. The surfaces will be periodically washed to remove the dust.

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The test result is inappropriate if deterioration of the surface is visible (i.e. bubbles, barks, cracks
and detachment from the support)
The retro-reflective ratio for the angle = 0.33
o
and = 5
o
is less than the values of Table A
multiplied by the following indices:
Class 1 Film 50%
Class 2 Film 80%
Class 3 Film the values of the retro-reflective ratio are less than the values from Table D:


Table D
Colour

o

o

White Yellow Red Orange Blue Green Green2
0,33 5 248 198 62 124 12 25 17
0,33 30 120 96 30 60 6 12 8
1 5 56 45 14 28 3 6 4
1 30 25 20 6 13 1,3 2,5 1,8


The chromatic values are outside the colour fields no. 3 and 4.
The illuminating factors are smaller than the minimal values from Table C.

4.4 Control of the execution of the panels

The Contractor shall provide to the Engineer the technical agreement and the Certificate of Quality
for each type of film that are to be approved by the Engineer.

When executing the traffic signs made of retro-reflective films, they shall be applied on the
aluminum support according to the recommendation from the manufacturer. In case there are used
painted supports, the paint shall have a high resistance to exterior conditions.
The Certificate of Quality shall indicate the results for the exposure test for 5 years under
atmospheric conditions.

On the back of the sign panels, the following shall be marked clearly and durably:
o Identification data of either the manufacturer or the seller;
o Type of reflective material used;
o Date when the panel is assembled.

4.5 Acceptance of works

After completing the signing this shall be submitted for the Engineers approval.

An acceptance note shall be concluded further to verification.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION






- 10 -
ROAD MARKING
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Road Marking

SUMMARY


GENERAL PROVISIONS....................................................................................... 162
1 MATERIALS.................................................................................................. 163
1.1 Technical conditions regarding marking............................................... 163
1.2 Quality control of the paint for road marking ......................................... 163
2 TYPES OF ROAD MARKING........................................................................ 163
2.1Longitudinal marking............................................................................... 163
2.2Transverse marking ................................................................................ 164
2.3Other marking......................................................................................... 164
3 EXECUTION OF THE ROAD MARKING....................................................... 165
4 CONTROL OF EXECUTION AND ACCEPTANCE OF WORKS.................. 166
ANNEX 1: Technical record White paint for marking........................................... 167
ANNEX 2: Technical record Primer ..................................................................... 168

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GENERAL PROVISIONS

The Technical Specifications refer to the conditions for the execution of the road marking and
includes the technical requirements, which have to be met.

The Contractor shall perform in an authorized laboratory all the tests and assessments requested
by the Technical Specifications and any other tests required by the Engineer.

Apart from the Technical Specifications, the Contractor shall respect the stipulations of the
standards and norms in force.

The Contractor shall make sure that by all execution method statements he fulfils the requirements
of the Technical Specifications.

The Contractor shall record on a daily basis data regarding the execution of the works and the
results further to tests and investigations.

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1 MATERIALS

1.1 Technical conditions regarding marking

For the road markings the following materials can be utilized:
o White paint for marking, which is ecological, type plastic mass, single- component, diluted by
water (without organic solvents) and dried up in air for marking in continuous layer or in
structured model.
This paint shall ensure visibility irrespective of conditions. The paint shall be executed over
suitable priming coat. The liability in exploitation of the road marking shall be of minimum 18
month. It will be take into consideration the maintain of quality and/or renewing of the road
marking during all defect liability period. The quality of the paint shall be established according
to the technical specifications as indicated in Annex 1. The quality of priming coat shall be
established in compliance with the Technical NOTE indicated in Annex 2.

The Contractor shall present to the Engineer the technical agreement for all the materials, which
he intends to use and for which he has to obtain the Engineers approval.
The Quality Certificates issued by international laboratories [at least equivalent with BAST
(microballs) and LGA (paint)] shall be enclosed to the materials.

1.2 Quality control of the paint for road marking

Sampling and testing shall be carried out according to the stipulations of the Technical Instructions
for Road Marking NAR-CESTRIN.

2 TYPES OF ROAD MARKING

2.1 Longitudinal marking

The longitudinal road marking are generally classified as follows:
Marking to separate the traffic direction on two traffic lane roads;
Marking to separate the traffic lanes;
Marking to separate the carriageway.

These markings are indicated by:
Simple or double continuous line;
Simple or double interrupted line;
Double line composed of a continuous line and an interrupted one.

Longitudinal marking to separate the traffic direction on two traffic lane roads

One single interrupted line, with spaces between segments according to the road condition;
One continuous line and an interrupted one, joined each other, which allows overtaking only for
the traffic direction along the interrupted line;
One double continuous line, which not allows overtaking irrespective of the traffic direction.

Marking to separate the traffic lanes

One interrupted line, with spaces between segments according to the road conditions.

Marking to separate the carriageway

Simple continuous lines on highways, national roads and on the exterior of dangerous bends;
Simple interrupted lines that mark the acceleration, deceleration lanes and the turning lane
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Marking for widening in bends

For widening < 1m, all the widening shall be marked on the interior side of the bend;
For widening > 1m, the interior side of the bend shall be marked with 1m + 60% of the
remaining widening more than 1 m and the exterior traffic lane shall be marked with 40% of
what is left over 1 m.

2.2 Transverse marking

Marking for stopping

Continuous line with the width of 400 mm

Marking Allow crossing

Discontinuous line with a width of 400 mm, which can be preceded by a triangle

Marking for pedestrian crossings

Lines with 400mm width at 1.0 m distance, parallel with the centre line;
lines with 3000mm length for a speed < 50 km/hour;
lines with 4000mm length for a speed 50km/hour.
Stopping lines with 400mm width, transverse on the centre line, shall be marked
600mm before the pedestrian crossing for each traffic lane.

Marking for bicycles

Two interrupted lines.

2.3 Other marking

Guiding road marking

Utilized to indicate the direction, which the vehicles shall follow in the junction.

Marking for prohibited areas

Parallel inclined lines framed by a continuous contour line.

Marking for parking areas

at 90
o
on the line, which separates the edge of the road;
inclined on the line, which separates the edge of the road;
parallel with the line, which separates the edge of the road;

Marking for dangerous bends that follows a long road alignment

marking to reduce the speed, the width is 400 mm

Marking using arrows and lettering

This marking indicates the destination of the slope upwards, speed limitation and have
different dimensions according to the area where applicable and the approaching speed.
The color for these road markings is white.
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The road markings are, generally, executed mechanically using adequate equipment. The
marking by arrows, lettering, symbols as well as other marking with reduces surface can be
manually executed using suitable templates.

3 EXECUTION OF THE ROAD MARKING

Before starting the marking works, a trial section will be performed, having minimum 200 m length.
The passing to the performance itself shall be done only after the Engineer gives his approval for
the trial section.

The road marking executed using white marking paint, which is ecological, contains a single
component and is diluted by water, shall ensure the visibility irrespective of situations (night and
day). The paint shall be executed over an appropriate primer.

The thickness of the marking film will be of 600m.

When executing the road marking using paint, the surface of the carriageway shall be perfectly dry
and at a minimum temperature of +15
o
C.

Preparatory works

The road marking can start only after the Contractor has obtained the necessary approvals.

Spotting out the road marking

The spotting out of the points shall be carried out using suitable equipment;
The surfaces shall be cleaned and dried before starting the execution of the road
marking;
The surfaces, which are already marked shall be mechanically cleaned;
The primer and the paint shall be coat according to the instructions from the
manufacturer;
The Engineer shall verify the spotting out before the execution of the permanent road marking.

When executing the road marking, it shall be taken into account the following:
The type of the road pavement and the roughness of the surface;
The updated book for the road marking (marking film);
Road marking method statement (pre-marking, preparation of the equipment,
preparation of the surface, preparation of the paint)
Dosage of paint, dosage of the micro balls

Execution of the works shall be carried out according to the instructions from the manufacturer, as
follows:
- Pre-signing of the works
- Marking
- Cones placing to protect the wet paint
- Protection of the wet paint in order to not occur deterioration of the road marking by
the time it dries
- Recovering the cones
The road marking shall be signaled using signs and lightning warning devices.

The road marking shall be done minimize any effect on the continuity of the traffic flow.

Each category of marking shall be executed according to STAS 1848/7-85.

During the execution of the road marking there shall be performed verifications of the dosage of
both paint and micro balls.
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The marking strip shall have an even contour, with micro balls uniformly distributed over the length and width
of the paint strip.

4 CONTROL OF EXECUTION AND ACCEPTANCE OF WORKS

The Contractor shall submit for the Engineers approval the execution method statement for the
road marking not less than 14 days before starting the works.
This shall contain, without being limited to, the following:
Measures that ensure an homogenous content of the paint
Periodic verification of the thickness of the paint film and of the quantity and distribution of
the micro balls.

The quality control of the paint and micro balls shall be performed in a laboratory authorized by the
Employer and the tests shall be at the Contractors expense.

The Contractor shall respect the dosage as indicated by the authorized laboratory, which are
updated according to the traffic, type and characteristics of the road surface, type of paint and
surrounding conditions.

Acceptance of the Road Marking

When accepting the works, the verification is carried out as follows:
It shall be verified the lay out of the marking, according to the stipulations of STAS 1848/7-85
The dosage of paint and micro balls as well as the thickness of wet film, as well as of the dry
film, shall be verified.
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ANNEX 1: Technical record White paint for making, ecological, single
component, diluted by water (without organic solvents), reflective on dry and
wet surfaces

Characteristics of liquid paint
Type of binding acrylic
density according to the manufacturer
non-volatile substances minimum 85%
viscosity according to the manufacturer
ash % at 450
o
C according to the manufacturer
duration of storage minimum 6 month

Characteristics of the film

Bulletin BAST min 4 Mio for a wet film
Thickness of the film 2000 m (wearing test)
report BAST no.
retro-reflection minimum 150 mcd/Lx/m
2

on a wet surface
luminosity factor minimum 0,40
SRT minimum 40
Wearing resistance minimum 85%
Thickness of wet film 2000 m
Type of micro balls bulletin BAST
Dosage of micro balls g/m
2
bulletin BAST
Time for drying up bulletin BAST
Effect of the rain after drying according to the manufacturer
Guarantee for paint and micro balls
Paint bulletin LGA - BAST
Micro balls Lloyd certificate or from another European laboratory,
agreed by the Employer
Conditions for execution
Temperature for execution
air according to the manufacturer
sol according to the manufacturer
Hygrometry according to the manufacturer
Dilution according to the manufacturer
Marking vehicle according to the manufacturer

Toxicity and protection of the environment according to regulation 91/155/EWG
Specifications for transport, processing according to the manufacturer
and safety storage
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ANNEX 2: Technical record Primer that dries under the effect of air

It is used to ensure the adherence of the paint to the road surface, for the permanent marking. The
primer shall be executed over the bituminous surfaces, both existing and new or over the old road
marking.


Characteristics of the primer:
Type of binding acrylic
Density according to the manufacturer
Viscosity according to the manufacturer
Duration of storage minimum 6 month
Conditions for execution:
Temperature of the air according to the manufacturer
Temperature of the surface according to the manufacturer
Relative humidity % according to the manufacturer
Execution method according to the manufacturer
Thickness of wet film according to the manufacturer
Time for drying maxim 3-6 minutes
Effect of the rain after drying maxim 15 minutes
Toxicity and protection of the environment according to stipulation 91/155EWG
Specifications for transport, processing according to the manufacturer
and safety storage


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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION








- 11
TRAFFIC SAFETY
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Traffic Safety
CONTENTS
Section 1 Guide posts
Chapter 1 General information
Chapter 2 Types of guide posts. Technical execution conditions
Chapter 3 Technical quality conditions
Chapter 4 Wrapping, transportation, storage
Chapter 5 Posts reception
Chapter 6 Posts mounting
Section 2 Retro-reflective studs
Chapter 1 General information
Chapter 2 Executing and mounting the studs
Chapter 3 Quality conditions
Chapter 4 Wrapping, transportation and storage
Chapter 5 Studs reception
Section 3 The sign cantilever "pedestrian crossing" with focused light lamp
Chapter 1 General information
Chapter 2 Technical quality conditions
Chapter 3 The regulation for quality checking
Chapter 4 Checking methods at reception
Chapter 5 Guarantees
Chapter 6 Locating the sign cantilever "pedestrian crossing" with focused light
lamp
Chapter 7 Labor protection measures and protection against fire
Section 4 Traffic calming devices - "rumble strips"
Chapter 1 General information
Chapter 2 Used materials and equipment
Chapter 3 Application, remaking of the strips and correction of the deficiencies
Chapter 4 Quality control and the Contractor's responsibilities
Chapter 5 Protecting the applied strips
Section 5 Traffic calming devices - "convex road bumps"
Chapter 1 General information
Chapter 2 Used materials and equipment
Chapter 3 Application
Chapter 4 Quality control and Contractor's responsibility
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SECTION 1 - GUIDE POSTS

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL INFORMATION


1.1. Object and application field

The present job description refers to the execution of the guide posts made of plastic material and
to the reception of this type of products.
The guide posts are located on roads, with average annual traffic of minimum 300 vehicles/24
hours, for optical guidance of the vehicles, especially during the night, by their reflecting devices
colored in white and red.
The mounting of the guide posts is done on the road shoulders on vertical position, lined up on the
platform, at a distance of 0,25 m from its exterior edge, so that the red color device should be
visible on the right side of the traffic direction, and the white colored one should be visible from the
left side.
The guide posts are located on both sides of the road, in all cases when no parapets are needed.
The posts are located alternatively along the road, on one side and on the other of the road, in
different cross sections (in zigzag).
The location of the guide posts is done on only one side of the road section platform when
parapets are needed on the other side of the platform.
The distances between the posts are different depending on the road geometrical elements and
they are provided in STAS 1848/1-91.


1.2. General provisions

The manufacturing of the guide posts and their quality must comply with the provisions of the
present job description. The supplier must present the agreement document of the product
according to the law in force.
The supplier will ensure by his own means making the tests and the determinations that result by
applying the present job description.
At the Beneficiarys request, the provider must make additional checking compared to those
provided in the present job description.
In case there will be noticed deviations from the present job description, the manufacturer will
replace on his expense the inappropriate products.
The Constructor can also use other types of approved guide posts, according to the legislation and
the Romanian norms in force, only with the Consultant and Beneficiarys approval. It is mandatory
to present a guide post sample to both of them.


NOTE: For the works eliminating the black spots only the posts with retro-reflective elements will
be used.


CHAPTER 2 - TYPES OF GUIDE POSTS. TECHNICAL EXECUTION CONDITIONS


2.1. Tubular guide posts

The guide post is made of polyethylene, in tubular shape, closed at its superior side. In cross
section, it has triangular shape with round corners. The post is located on the ground so that the
apical angle made by the lateral sides (on which the reflective elements are applied) should be
positioned towards the carriageway.

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The post must have a length of L=1150 mm, with an allowed deviation of 50 mm.
The shape and the detailed dimensions of the post are according to the schedule presented in
Annex I.

The tubular post is made of two distinct parts: the white post itself and a black cover, fixed on the
post itself.

In the center of the lateral sides of the post, at a distance of 150 mm measured from the superior
edge of the post, are two niches (with sharp edges) with the following dimensions 150 mm x 40
mm, to which are applied the elements made of white and red reflective leaves. The niche depth
must be minimum 0,5 mm.

On the back side of the post, at a distance of 400 mm from the superior side, there will be applied,
by piercing, in an ellipse, the AND sign (the height of the letter being minimum 7 mm and its
depth minimum 0,5 mm).

On the lateral sides of the post, at a distance of approx. 150 mm from the inferior side, there will be
cut a slit and a diamond-shaped piece of material, bent towards the exterior, which should avoid
the easily pulling out of the post, after its mounting (according to the detail in Annex I).

On the back side of the post, at a distance of 400 mm from the inferior side, the length which is
buried in the ground, will be limited by a bit or a hollow.

2.2. Lamellar guide posts

The guide post is made of polyethylene, in lamellar shape. In cross section it has the shape of a
circular curve.
The post must have a length of L=1150 mm, with an allowed deviation of 50 mm.
The shape and the detailed dimensions of the post are according to the schedule presented in
Annex II.
The pile color is white.
On the center on the sides, at a distance of 50 mm measured from the superior edge of the post,
there will be executed a niche, on which is inserted a device, with plain sides, with the following
dimensions 180 mm x 40 mm on which is applied the reflective foil. The white reflective foil
corresponds to the convex side and the red foil corresponds to the concave side of the post. The
niche depth must be of minimum 0,5 mm.
On the convex side of the post, at a distance of 400 mm from the superior edge will be applied by
piercing in an ellipse, the AND sign (the height of the letter being minimum 7 mm and its depth
minimum 0,5 mm).

On both sides of the post, at the distances of approx. 150 mm and respectively 300 mm from the
inferior side will be executed either a ridge, either cuttings similar to those of the tubular post,
which should avoid the easily pulling out of the post, after its mounting.
The inferior side of the post is cut in angle in order to be easily stuck in the ground.
On the back side of the post, at a distance of 400 mm from the inferior side, the length which is
buried in the ground, will be limited by a bit or a hollow.

CHAPTER 3 - TECHNICAL QUALITY CONDITIONS

3.1. Elasticity:

When a car passes over a guide post, this one must bend and return to its initial position. The
attempt to manually bend the guide post at 90 the tubular one and at 180 the lamellar one,
verifying their returning to the initial shape. After burying the post in the ground, on a depth of 0,40
m, after a cars crossing over the post (the crossing being between the wheels), this one must
return to its initial position. The maximum allowed deviation is 15.

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3.2. Resistance to high temperatures:

After keeping it for 15 minutes in a space heated at 50 C and then maintaining it for 15 minutes in
leaned position, on the horizontal, on two bearings At 3,0 cm from the post edges, it does not have
to present a bending over its own weight. After its exposure at this temperature, the post must
maintain its elasticity resisting at the manually bending test.

3.3. Resistance to low temperatures:

They should resist at the elasticity tests, described at point 3.1. at a temperature of minus 15C.

CHAPTER 4 - WRAPPING, TRANSPORTATION, STORAGE

4.1. Wrapping

The posts will be delivered wrapped (each one will be wrapped in polyethylene foil or adhesive
paper for protection) in order to avoid the dirtying and deterioration of the reflective foil. The posts
are wrapped in lots of 5 pieces the tubular ones and 10 pieces the lamellar ones.
The lot is tied with thread of polyethylene leaves.
Each lot is labeled. The label includes:
- the manufacturer;
- the receiver;
- the number of pieces;
- the net and gross weight;

4.2. Transportation

The posts are transported by cars, or if it is the case, according to the contractual clauses.

4.3. Storing

For long term storing, the posts are stored wrapped, placed in vertical position, protected against
bad weather conditions. The rooms must lack active chemical agents, noxae, mildew, fungi and
condensation water.


CHAPTER 5 - POSTS RECEPTION


Upon delivery, the quality certificates issued by the supplier will accompany the lots of products.
Besides the specific elements, the quality certificates will guarantee the service life of 5 years, in
conditions of normal exploitation and maintenance.
A lot of products can include the product made during the same shift. The products
reception is made in lots, by investigation and it includes the following phases:
The verification of the quality certificates and comparing them with the results
obtained, with data from the quality certificates;
Verification of the general aspect;
Verification of the integrity of the reflective foil and of the appropriateness of its
mounting;
The verification of the dimensions, is made with measuring tape (the measured
values are compared with the dimensions from the documentation);

In case 10% of the products of a lot present deviations, the entire lot of products is refused, the
manufacturer replacing on his expense the inappropriate lot.



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CHAPTER 6 - POSTS MOUNTING

The post mounting is done according to the Manufacturers technology.

SECTION 2 - RETRO-REFLECTIVE STUDS

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL INFORMATION


1.1. Object and application domain

This present job description refers to the execution of the road retro-reflective studs of permanent
type, in order to complete the markings.
The road studs are devices provided with retro-reflective elements that reflect the incident light, in
order to warn, guide or inform the traffic participants.
The retro-reflective studs are widely used in many countries due to their incontestable positive
effect on the traffic safety. The advantages of the retro-reflective studs consist in:
- the retro-reflective elements have superior retro-reflective characteristics as compared to the best
retro-reflective marking applied on the carriageway;
- the retro-reflective elements of the studs that are planted in the pavement, can be seen from a
bigger distance than the marking applied on the surface of the road pavement, because they are
inclined towards the carriageway;
- on rainy weather, when the water practically makes the marking applied on the pavement
invisible, the studs above the water represent the only traffic guiding means.


CHAPTER 2 - EXECUTING AND MOUNTING THE STUDS

2.1. The elements of the studs

2.1.1 The road studs are made of a metallic part, on which two bezels were executed
by cutting, inside these bezels the retro-reflective element is applied.
The metallic part is made of FC 150 cast iron that is resistant to the loads in the traffic. The width of
the stud has to be 120-mm 2 mm (equal to the distance between the parallel lines of the double
marking).
The aspect and dimensions of a stud are presented in annex 1 and annex 2.

2.1.2 The retro-reflective elements are made of special foil and they can be applied on
one of the sides or on the two sides (unidirectional and bi-directional studs), depending on the
traffic participants to which they are addressed for one or both directions.
The retro-reflective elements are rectangular shaped and catadioptres made of polymers with
metallic protection are used on the carriageway and at the pedestrian crossings.
The retro-reflective studs made of reinforced glass or with catadioptres made of glass micro-pearls
are applied on curbs or inside the traffic separating islands.
The colors of the retro-reflective elements of the studs may be different, but they have to be
chosen in such a way so that the driver should have the same reaction as in any usual situation
met on the road, as follows:
The studs that complete the markings separating the two directions have to be
white, just like the lights of the vehicles moving in the opposite direction. The studs are of
bi-directional type (with retro-reflective elements on both sides) since they address to both
directions;
The studs completing the marking that separates the lanes on the same direction,
including the marking that separates the acceleration, deceleration or the curve lanes, must
be yellow (attention marking). The studs are unidirectional (provided with retro-reflective
elements on a single side). They are mounted with the retro-reflective element oriented
towards the direction to which it addresses;
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The studs installed in front of the marking for the pedestrian crossing, the ones
installed in front of the stop line before the traffic lights, as well as those installed on the
roads without right-of-way, before the stop line regarding the yielding or stopping, must be
unidirectional, and yellow;
The studs that complete the delimitation marking of the main roads carriageway at
the level of the entrance on a lateral way, along the area where the access is allowed, must
be green. If the access on the main road is allowed from both ways, the studs are
unidirectional. If the access is allowed only from one way, by turning to right, the studs are
bi-directional. The mounting process is performed by using retro-reflective elements
oriented towards the traffic way or ways on the main road for which they are destined;
The studs that complete the delimitation marking of the main roads carriageway at
the level of the exit from a lateral road, along which the access to the main road is
forbidden, must be red, unidirectional or bi-directional, as it is needed, as well as the green
studs;
As a rule, the delimitation marking of the carriageway is not completed with studs,
because the road platform is usually delimited by means of guide posts or guard rails that
present retro-reflective elements. In case that it is still necessary to complete the road with
retro-reflective studs (narrow the carriageway, in front of the guard rails on the bridges, that
separate the carriageway from the space destined for the pedestrians etc.); the studs will
be red.

2.1.3. The superior constructive elements of the studs are necessary in case they are
mounted on kerbs or inside the flow separating isles, consisting of a vertical stem on the middle of
the studs bottom. The stem must present a thicker part in order to prevent taking out the stud, and
it will also present a channel part that prevents turning the stud. Also, the stem must have max =
20mm and lmax = 60mm so that it should not produce cracks in the kerbs.

2.2. The technology used for mounting the studs.

2.2.1. Mounting the studs on the carriageway involves the following operations:
Marking the points where the studs are to be mounted, in a similar manner as
performed for the preliminary marking;
Mechanically dig by milling the place where the stud is mounted;
Mixing the component substances of the resin used for mounting;
Air blasting the place where the stud is to be mounted;
Pouring the fixing mixture into the place where the stud is to be mounted;
Introduce the stud and press it by foot (or by means of other technologies
recommended by the constructor) until the inferior limit of the central area of the stud is
firmly supported on the pavements surface.
The excess of the adhesive should appear on the edges of the stud. In case that the quantity of
resin is greater, the excess must be cleaned.
If the technology for mounting the studs is different from what has been mentioned above,
the manufacturers technology will be respected, after it has been approved by the Consultant and
by the Beneficiary.

2.3. Places where the studs are installed. Distance between the studs.

The retro-reflective road studs will be mounted especially in the following situations:
in the areas identified as dangerous locations (black spots);
before pedestrian crossings;
at the level crossings with the railway;
at the major intersections at level (especially for the arranged ones);
in extremely dangerous curves, that lack visibility;
in narrow places (including lateral studs);
on some of the ramps of several bridges, road passes, viaducts;
inside the road tunnels;
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The distances between studs, in the longitudinal direction of the road, are the following:
6.0 m when they accompany the continuous marking lane, on the left side of the
making on the direction of the mileage, respectively in between the lanes, for the marking
with double continuous lane;
12.0 m when they accompany a discontinuous marking or a marking represented by
a continuous lane doubled by a discontinuous one, in the interval between the segments of
the discontinuous lane.

The distance in between the studs, in the cross direction, for the pedestrian crossings, is of 1.0 m;
one stud at the level of each lane parallel to the roads axle of the pedestrian crossing. In
longitudinal direction, the stud is located at the middle of the distance in between the above-
mentioned lane and the cross lane for stopping that precedes the pedestrian crossing.
CHAPTER 3 - QUALITY CONDITIONS

3.1. The studs must be accompanied by guarantee certificates, which should mention
the service period, expressed in years.
In the guarantee certificate the retro-reflective type foil will be mentioned, as well as its
manufacturer.
The visible sides of the metallic part must have a uniform color, without bits.


3.2. The retro-reflective elements must entirely occupy the milled place in the metallic
part, and should not present detachments, scores, or air bubbles.
The water must drain entirely from the retro-reflective foil and from the studs metallic
surface.
The glass elements must have retro-reflective characteristics so that it should not disperse
the light. The glass elements shouldnt have scratches or degradations of the surface or inside
flaws that could influence the retro-reflective quality.


3.3. Photo-metric characteristics

3.3.1. Color
The color of the road studs is defined by the chromatic coordinates of the corner points from the
color chart, according to table 1.

Table 1
Color Points X Y
1 0.390 0.410
2 0.440 0.440
3 0.500 0.440
4 0.500 0.390
WHITE
5 0.420 0.370
1 0.539 0.460
2 0.530 0.460
3 0.580 0.410
YELLOW
4 0.589 0.410
1 0.665 0.335
2 0.645 0.335
3 0.721 0.259
RED
4 0.735 0.265
GREEN 1 0.030 0.385
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Color Points X Y
2 0.228 0.351
3 0.321 0.493

4 0.302 0.692

3.3.2 Visibility at night
The photo-metric characteristics of the road studs at night, are measured by the coefficient of light
intensity, expressed in candel per lux ( cd / l
x
) and noted with an R.
In accordance with the European provisions, the minimum value of the coefficient
of light intensity is 150 mcd /l
x
determined at an incidence angle of 5 and at a viewing angle of
0,3 for the new studs.

3.3.3. Visibility at daytime
It is characterized by the coefficient of luminance b, determined by the tri-chromatic components X
Y Z, at the geometry of 45 / 0 and lightning type A.

CHAPTER 4 - WRAPPING, TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE

4.1. Wrapping

The studs will be delivered wrapped. The wrapping is made on the suppliers responsibility so that
the retro-reflective foil shouldnt get dirty or deteriorated. Each lot is labeled. The label will contain:
the name of the product;
the manufacturer;
the receiver;
the no of pieces;
the net weight, gross weight

4.2. Transportation

The studs are usually transported by motor vehicles, or if it is the case, according to the contractual
clauses.

4.3. Storage

In case of long term storage, the studs are stored packed, in rooms without humidity, active
chemical agents, polluting factors, and condensation.

CHAPTER 5 - STUDS RECEPTION

Upon delivery, quality certificates issued by the supplier will accompany the lots of products.
Besides the specific elements, the quality certificates will guarantee a 10-year service period,
under normal operating and maintenance conditions. The reception of goods will be made on a
sample of 10 pieces for lots of less than 100 pieces, on samples of 20 pieces for lots between 100
and 500 pieces and on samples of 30 pieces for lots that overpass 500 pieces. The reception
process consists in:
checking the general aspect;
checking the dimensions is done with the ruler and the caliper square (the measured
values are compared to the dimensions stipulated in the documentation);
checking the integrity of the retro-reflective foil and the correctness of its mounting;

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If more than 10% of the sample does not comply with the quality conditions, the entire lot is
rejected or, if the beneficiary accepts it, every pieces of the lot will be checked, and only the ones
complying with the conditions will be accepted.

SECTION 3 - THE SIGN CANTILEVER PEDESTRIAN CROSSING WITH
FOCUSED LIGHT LAMP
CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL INFORMATION

1.1. Scope

The sign cantilever Pedestrian Crossing is a type of bracket made up of a cantilever destined to
support the road indicator Pedestrian Crossing.

1.2. Notation System

The sign cantilever Pedestrian Crossing is executed according to the annexed Working Drawings
and to the General Drawings, and is noted C.I.T.P.

1.3. Constructive and Functional Requirements

The sign cantilever Pedestrian Crossing was designed in order to ensure the supporting of the
road indicator Pedestrian Crossing in the following conditions:
Environment temperature: -30 + 40C.
Wind dynamic pressure: max. 0.55 kN/m
2
at 800 m altitude (C area) according to STAS
10101/20-90.
Nominal height of the horizontal bar compared to the level of the carriageway axle: 5925
mm.
Cantilever length of the bracket: 4000 mm. The metalic post will be located on the footway,
at 0.5 m in regard to the carriageway edge.
Clearance, on the free crossing height: 5500 mm.


CHAPTER 2 - TECHNICAL QUALITY CONDITIONS

2.1. Materials

The sign cantilever Pedestrian Crossing will be made of the materials stipulated in the Working
Drawings.
The necessary materials can be classified as follows:
a. Weldless steel pipes, drawn-pipe or cold-rolled, according to STAS 530/1-87, made up of OLT
45, in accordance with STAS 8183-80.
b. Thick plates for cupping and cold-bending made up of A21, in accordance with STAS 1501-80.

2.2. Forms and Dimensions

The forms and the dimensions of the spares will correspond to the ones in the Working Drawings.
The limit drifts to the linear and angular dimensions of the welded spares will be in accordance with
STAS 9101/1-89.

2.3. Chemical and Mechanical Characteristics

2.3.1. Thick plate for cupping and cold-bending:
Chemical composition
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C. max. Mn. max. Si. max. P. max. S. max. Al. min.
0.120 1.01 0.350 0.040 0.040 0.300

Minimum chemical characteristics
Liquid Limit
c (daN/mm
2
)
Fracture Strength
r (daN/mm
2
)
Elongation strain A
(%)
Impact Ductility
KCV300/2 J/cm
2

(daN/mm
2
)
21 34 44 25 67 (7)

2.3.2. Rolled steel for OLT 45 pipes STAS 8183-80:
Chemical composition
C. Mn. Si P. max. S. max.
0.17 0.29 0.40 0.80 0.17 0.37 0.040 0.045

Minimum mechanical characteristics
Liquid Limit
sc (daN/mm
2
)
Fracture Strength
r (daN/mm
2
)
Elongation strain A
(%)
25 44 21

2.4. Aspect

The beads will be executed continuously, without interruptions.
After the welding process took place, the seams will be hammered in order for the crust to be
eliminated, in order to remove the weld sprinkling and eliminate the internal tensions.
The process of welding and relieving the stress exercised on the markers will be executed only in
proper places.

2.5. Allowed Defects

For the rolled steels (pipes and plates) small, isolated defects, cracks or traces resulting from the
laminating process are allowed, given the condition that these defects should be included in the
thickness limit drifts. Thickness drifts are allowed only in the ascending direction of the laminated
thickness.
The allowed drifts of the linearity for large markers consist in maximum L/1000 arrows, where L =
the length of the respective marker.

2.6. Conditions regarding the functioning aptitudes

The sign cantilever Pedestrian Crossing must resist both to the stress from the gravitational
loading as well as to the bending and twisting stresses due to the dynamic pressure exercised by
the wind on the indicator Pedestrian Crossing at the environment temperatures such as -30
0
C
+40
0
C.

2.7. Non-corrosive Protection

The non-corrosive protection will be performed by means of dying process with epoxy products
applied in 3 - 4 layers, as follows:
1 2 base coat layers;
2 dye layers.

2.8. Marking, Wrapping, Delivery
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The marking process is performed by piercing the manufacturers symbol, the beneficiarys
acronym and the fabrication dates. In order to protect the zinc layer or the dye layer, the product
will be packed in polyethylene tape, in between the parcels, and hammered in asbestos thread.
The parcel will be provided with a label made up of thin plate, manufactured of metal or of plastic
material; the label will have inscribed the following: Sign Cantilever Pedestrian Crossing; the
inscription will be made so that it will be preserved until the parcels are placed in the train.

The following elements will be inscribed on the label:
- the factory mark of the producing company;
- the recipients name;
- the CTC sign;
- the products name.
Upon delivery, Quality Certificates, elaborated in compliance with the legislation in force will
accompany the markers of the Sign cantilever Pedestrian Crossing.

CHAPTER 3 - THE REGULATION FOR QUALITY CHECKING
3.1. General information

The sign cantilever Pedestrian Crossing will be submitted to type checks, lot checks and
periodical checks.

3.2. Type checks

The type checks will be performed on minimum 3 subsets, at the beginning of the manufacturing
process and when introducing technological constructive modifications or material that may affect
the products quality.
The type checks consist in checking all the technical conditions from point 6.2 and will be made in
the order indicated in the following table:

Crt. No Name of check
Technical
Condition
Checking method
1 Material check 6.2.1 6.4.1
2 Form and dimensions check 6.2.2 6.4.2
3
Checking the chemical and mechanical
characteristics
6.2.3 6.4.3
4 Execution check and aspect
6.2.4;
6.2.5;
6.4.4
5 Checking the functioning aptitudes 6.2.6 6.4.5
6 Checking the non-corrosive protection 6.2.7 6.4.6
7 Checking the marking 6.2.8 6.4.7

If at least one of the components of the sign cantilever Pedestrian Crossing does not comply with
the technical conditions mentioned at point 6.2, measures eliminating the causes, after repeating
all the checks, shall be taken; afterwards, all the checks shall be repeated.

3.3. Lot Checks

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The quality checks of the products lots, based on the acceptable quality level, are made in
accordance with STAS 3160/2-84.
The lot acceptance and rejection conditions are in accordance with the following table:

The number of improper pieces that
determine:
Lot size
(pieces)
Code letter
(c.l.)
The volume
of the sample
(piece) Lot acceptance Lot rejection
0 25 A 3 0 1
26 50 B 5 0 1
51 90 C 5 0 1
91 150 D 8 0 1
151 280 E 13 0 1
281 500 F 20 1 2
501 1200 G 32 1 2

3.4. Periodical Checks

The periodical checks are performed at least once at 2 years, if no constructive, technological or
material modifications were performed.
They consist in checking the status of the non-corrosive protection and of the weld status.


CHAPTER 4 - CHECKING METHODS AT RECEPTION

4.1. Materials Check

Materials check consists in examining the Documentation elaborated by the Producing Company
and confronting it with the received materials.

4.2. Form and Dimensions Check

The checking of the end-products form and dimensions is made with the usual measuring and
control means.

4.3. Checking the Chemical and Mechanical Characteristics

If there are doubts regarding the quality of the provided materials, the checking of the chemical
composition is made in the Laboratory, and the checking of the mechanical characteristics is made
by mechanical tests in the testing Laboratory. The results are confronted with the data from the
quality certificates issued by the manufacturer of these materials.

4.4. Execution Check

The execution check is made visually for the esthetic and finishing aspect as well as with the help
of the measure and control instruments for the execution precision. The beads should not have
pores, cracks and interruptions of the bead, according to STAS 7084/2-86.

4.5. Checking the Functioning Aptitudes

The checking of the functioning aptitudes is done on the test stand that was specially arranged.
Here, the sign cantilever Pedestrian Crossing is checked at maximum stress.

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4.6. Non-corrosive Check

The checking of the covering aspect is done visually and the checking of the zinc dye layer
thickness will be done in compliance with STAS 8009-80.

4.7. Checking the Marking

The marking checking is done visually.


CHAPTER 5 - GUARANTEES

In normal conditions of exploitation, and by maintaining it periodically, the Sign Cantilever
Pedestrian Crossing must preserve its functional characteristics within the period guaranteed by
the manufacturer and accepted by the beneficiary.

CHAPTER 6 - LOCATING THE SIGN CANTILEVER PEDESTRIAN CROSSING WITH
FOCUSED LIGHT LAMP

In order to locate the Pedestrian Crossing road indicator on the following phases will be taken
into account:
Providing the sign cantilever Pedestrian Crossing;
Transporting it to the place where it will be set up, on field;
Pegging out of the cable alignment;
Digging the hole for the cantilever, for the conduit and for the manhole chimney, removing
and transporting the material resulted after the digging;
The concrete is prepared and then the walls and the manhole chimney plate are prepared,
leaving several holes in the walls and in the plate, in order to introduce the cables;
The cables will be placed there, and the pedestrian traffic surface will be remade, if
necessary;
Introducing a 121 x 5 x 1500 pipe for the cantilever, fixing it in the center, vertically;
Casting the foundation concrete around the pipe;
After hardening of concrete, the Sign Cantilever Pedestrian Crossing will be introduced in
the 121 x 5 pipe by welding it on the outline;
Setting up and fixing the Pedestrian Crossing indicators (Fig. 105b) and the additional
indicator Disabled Persons (additional j) on the cantilever, as well as of the focused light
lamp;
Measures will be taken in order to avoid the accidental future modification of the indicators
position and of the lamp on the cantilever;
Connecting the lamp to the electric network;
Carrying out the functional tests.

CHAPTER 7 - LABOR PROTECTION MEASURES AND PROTECTION AGAINST
FIRE


7.1. Labor Protection Measures and Protection against Fire

These measures are listed in the Specific Technical Norms. Among these, the following measures
must be respected:
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Before starting the works, the possible existence of underground utilities will be precisely
established;
When executing the holes, the labor protection Norms regarding diggings will be respected;
In case that the executed holes remain uncovered during the night, they must be covered
and adequately pointed out;
Elevating and manipulating the cantilever will be effectuated with proper mounting tools and
devices, respecting the Norms regarding their use and their exploitation;
The persons who carry out works must wear the adequate protection and work equipment
in accordance with the instructions stipulated in the Norms in force, corresponding to the
activities that they must complete during the execution process;
For the activities performed under traffic conditions, it is obligatory to signal the work points,
in accordance with the provisions of the Norms regarding the closing or instituting the
traffic restrictions in order to perform works in the area of the public road or for the roads
protection.
For the works regarding the connection to the electric network, the workers must wear
adequate protection equipment, in accordance with the Norms in force.

For the works that take place in closed areas, it is mandatory to ensure proper ventilation.

SECTION 4 - TRAFFIC CALMING DEVICES RUMBLE STRIPS

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL PROVISIONS

The strips made of thermoplastic material are used for executing the new rumble strips made out
of thermoplastic material, in accordance with the drawings and descriptions in the project. They
can also be used for applying symbols or words on the carriageway and on the pedestrian traffic
zone or on the cycle track.
Precast strips and markings may be used.

CHAPTER 2 - USED MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

2.1. Materials

Only thermoplastic or precast materials that are accompanied by a Technical Agreement and a
Quality Certificate will be used. The new materials have to comply with the requirements of SR EN
1824/2001, as well as with the Consultant and Beneficiarys requirements for the initial works
regarding the application of strips and markings or the joining between the strips that were applied
additionally to the ones already applied.
If the thermoplastic or precast marking is not provided with micro-balls in order to ensure the retro-
reflective characteristics according to SR EN 1824/2001 its use will not be accepted.

2.2. Used equipment

The equipment will be used in order to install the thermoplastic material that is warmly applied, built
to ensure a continuous, uniform calefaction at temperatures over 200C; also the equipment will be
used in order to mix and stir the materials reservoir. As well, this equipment will be used as a
device for applying the strips in order to prevent the accumulation and clogging. All the spares of
the equipment that come into contact with the material will be fabricated so that they can be
cleaned and maintained.
The equipment to be used will maintain the thermoplastic material at a temperature that preserves
the plastic properties, for all the mixture and transportation spares, including the device needed to
apply the strip. Arm mixers, belt carriers or other similar devices, inferior to the applying device, are
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not to be used. The equipment that can perform various strip widths and marking will be used and
it will comply with the following requirements:
- they must be mobile and run at a uniform, predetermined speed, both upgrade and
downgrade, in order to uniformly apply the thermoplastic material and to manipulate it easy so that
straight lines are lain out, and the normal curves may be effectuated in a real arch;
- they must ensure the application of glass micro-balls at the surface of a finished strip by
means of an automatic device for micro-balls application, attached to the execution tool of the
strips so that the micro-balls should be applied directly on the back of the executed line. The
device that will be used for the glass micro-balls application will be provided with automatic control
switching-off synchronized with the interruption of the thermoplastic material flow. This device
applies the glass micro-balls so that they are visible on the entire surface of the strips and of the
road markings, being up to 50%-60% incorporated. Each bean will be provided with adequate line
guide paths, metal shells, or air blast nozzles.
- must be endowed with a special device in order to melt and heat up the thermoplastic
material. This must be endowed with an automatic device control of the temperature and a
thermometer for the material whose role is to control the positive temperatures and to prevent
overheating or boiling of the thermoplastic material;
- must fulfill the requirements of the National Association for Protection against Fire, as well
as those of the state and local authorities.


CHAPTER 3 - APPLICATION, REMAKING OF THE STRIPS AND CORRECTION OF
THE DEFICIENCIES

3.1. Application of rumble strips

The thermoplastic material is applied on the pavement either by spraying, extruding or by other
methods approved by the Consultant and Beneficiary.
The strips and road markings that do not comply with the requirements of this Section are removed
and replaced, with no additional costs for the Department.

The Constructor must ensure that:
- the existing road markings are removed and that no deterioration or traces of the
markings come into conflict with the new strips and markings;
- before applying the new strips and markings, any material that would negatively affect the
adherence of the strips and markings was removed;
- the strips are applied only on dry surfaces, and when the temperature of the air and of the
surface is minimum 13C or higher;
- the recommendations of the manufacturer for the application temperature are respected. It
is accepted that the markings should be applied when the wind may cause the spraying of dust
particles;
- all the works regarding the application of rumble strips are finalized before opening the
road for traffic;
- after the rumble strips are applied, their thickness will be of max. 5mm.

3.2. Remaking or completing the rumble strips

The remaking works are performed under the same conditions under which the additional
thermoplastic material is applied to the existing strips and road markings. If the Consultant decides
that the remaking of the strips and of the road markings will produce a thickness that exceeds the
maximum admissible value, the road strips and the markings may be completely removed and re-
applied or removed at a thickness that will comply with the criteria of minimum and maximum
thickness when the remaking process takes place.

The operation of joining the strips additionally applied to the new ones already applied is
performed under the conditions provided by the Manufacturer and approved by the Consultant and
Beneficiary.
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3.3. Deficiency correction

If the Consultant decides that corrections are necessary at the applied rumble strips, the
Constructor is obliged to perform the works necessary to reach the quality level required by
Consultant.

The correction of the deficiency with additional thermoplastic material or by completely removing
and re-applying the thermoplastic markings will be made without additional costs for the
Constructor.

The final thickness of the rumble strips will not exceed 5mm after the remaking process took place.


CHAPTER 4 - QUALITY CONTROL AND THE CONTRACTORS RESPONSABILITIES


4.1. Deficiency corrections

White markings that will reach an initial minimal retro-reflection of 300-mcd/lxm2 will be applied.
The Constructor will ensure that the intermittent and final retro-reflection of the white road markings
will not be less than 150-mcd/lxm2. This is not applied to the markings of the cycle tracks.
Thermoplastic white material will be used, the color will be pure white, without hues and variations
from the standard of magnesia color, that should be higher than:

Scale Definition Magnesia Standard Sample
RD 100 minimum 75%
Reflection Factor
a. Red-Green 0 Between 5 and +5
b. Yellow-Blue 0 Between 10 and 10

The yellow thermoplastic material will be used because, from a visual point of view, it corresponds
to SR EN 1824/2001 and also it will respect the following criteria for the tri-chromatic coordinates
(x, y):

X 0,455 0,510 0,472 0,530
Z 0,444 0,485 0,400 0,456

The durability represents the measured percentage of the thermoplastic material completely
removed from the pavement. The losses of the thermoplastic material line must not exceed 5.0%
of the surface.

4.2. The Contractors Responsibility to Notify.

The notification given by the Consultant before applying the thermoplastic materials. The strip lots
will have inscribed on them the manufacturers name and the LOT numbers of the thermoplastic
materials and of the glass micro-balls that are going to be used. The approved LOT numbers must
appear on the packages of the thermoplastic materials as well as on those of the glass micro-balls.
The Consultant will receive a bulletin of test certificates that must indicate the fact that the
materials are in accordance with all the specific requirements.

CHAPTER 5 - PROTECTING THE APPLIED STRIPS

Do not allow the traffic to develop in the areas with road strips and markings recently applied, until
these are in a status that allow the vehicles to cross on them without deteriorating them. Remove
and replace any area that presents road strips and markings deteriorated by the traffic in progress
or by any other cause, without additional expenses for the Department.
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SECTION 5 - TRAFFIC CALMING DEVICES CONVEX ROAD BUMPS

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL PROVISIONS

The convex bumps will be made of rubber (recommended), of metal sheets, bitumen or other
precast materials. They are used at executing thresholds at the level of the carriageway that allow
the crossing over them with a reduced speed, depending on the dimensions of these bumps.


CHAPTER 2 - USED MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

2.1. Materials

Precast elements that are accompanied by the Technical Agreement and the Quality Certificate will
be used. The new materials have to comply with the Consultant and Beneficiarys requirements for
the bumps application works. In the case when the bump is applicable over the asphalt, it will be
provided with asphalt gripping devices that should prevent its pulling away or deterioration under
traffic. The bumps can be continuous, made of round elements arranged in zigzag or of any type
that can induce a traffic calming effect. The Beneficiary and the Consultant can choose the bumps
types.

2.2. Used materials

The equipment recommended by the Manufacturer will be used at the bump installation. It is
mandatory that all the work stages, equipment or transport means should not produce the
deterioration of the carriageway. Should such deterioration be noticed, the Contractor is the one to
remedy the damages on its own expense.

CHAPTER 3 - APPLICATION

3.1. Bumps application

The bumps are mounted on a plane, clean surface and in such a way so that the holes made for
gripping should not produce cracks along the road surface. If after the bumps mounting areas
where water can infiltrate are left, they are sealed with bituminous material.

If the layer in which the bumps are fixed is not strong enough, solutions approved by the Designer
and agreed upon by the Consultant and Beneficiary will be adopted.

CHAPTER 4 - QUALITY CONTROL AND CONTRACTORS RESPONSABILITY


4.1. Quality control

The bumps will be delivered only if Technical Agreement and Quality Certificate accompany them.
A sample will be presented to the Consultant and to the Beneficiary. It is mandatory that the bumps
will not be deteriorated by the traffic. In case this happens, the bump debris must be removed so
that it should not cause accidents, deteriorate vehicles or endanger the life and the physical
integrity of the pedestrians.

4.2. The Contractors Responsibilities

The contractor is responsible for choosing the bump model, for setting it up, as well as for the
possible accidents or the damage that might occur due to a non-adequate choice or setting up of
the bumps.

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SPECIFICATIONS





2.2 ANCILLARY WORKS
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CONTENTS

1. GENERAL SPECIFICATION
2. INTERCEPTION DRAINS
3. BALLAST MATTRESSES REINFORCED WITH
GEOSYNTHETIC MATERIAL
4. REINFORCED EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES WITH
GEOSYNTHETICS
5. GABION STRUCTURES
6. CONCRETE RETAINING STRUCTURES WITH MASONRY
FACE, REPAIRS OF EXISTING MASONRY RETAINING
STRUCTURES
7. CONCRETE RETAINING STRUCTURES WITH DIRECTLY
FOUNDATION
8. MICROPILES OF DRY MIXTURE WITH CEMENT, LIME AND
SAND
9. CONCRETE CULVERTS
10. PROTECTION WORKS WITH CONCRETE REVETMENT
11. NORMATIVES, TECHNICAL NORMS AND STANDARDS
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION




GENERAL SPECIFICATION
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GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS


CONTENTS


1. GENERAL INFORMATION 191
2. PRELIMINARY WORKS 192
3. SITE CLOSING UP 192
4. WORKS RECEPTION 192
4.1 Reception for each phase 192
4.2 Reception of the works 192
4.3 Final reception 192
5. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION 193
6. WORK PROTECTION 193
7. PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE 193







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GENERAL INFORMATION
The general specifications listed below can apply to any type of work and refer to the
Contractors obligations regarding works preparation, the execution, the measurements, the
tests, the sampling, the laboratory analyses etc, presented in the specialized Technical
Specification Manuals.
The Contractor has to comply with the provisions of the standards and norms in force.
The Contractor must take the technological and organizational measures within the
quality system that should cause the strict complying with the provisions of the job
descriptions; works execution will be done according to the provisions of the quality
standard SR EN ISO 9001:95.
After receiving the technical documentation of execution, the Contractor will ensure the
project acknowledgment by all factors which will contribute to the work
accomplishment.
All materials used for the permanent works will be submitted to the Consultants
approval. Before purchasing, the Contractor will submit to the Consultants approval all
the materials used for the permanent works and also the sources / providers of these
materials. No material will be used in the permanent works before being approved by
the Consultant.
All the materials proposed to be used have to be agreed with from the technical point of
view or to have certificates of conformity.
The Contractor will make in an authorized laboratory all the tests and determinations
required by the present Technical Specification and any other tests and determinations
required by the Consultant. It is also compulsory for him to keep in evidence of the
samples and of the tests in the technical specifications.
The Contractor will daily register information regarding the works execution and the
results obtained after the measurements, the tests and the investigations.
At least 28 days before starting each consolidation work, the Contractor will submit to
the Consultants approval the procedure of executing the corresponding work. No work
will start before the execution procedure of that work is approved by the Consultant. At
executing the works, the Contractor will follow the execution procedure, as it was
approved by the Consultant.
The Contractor has to make sure that by all the procedures applied, he fulfills the
requests stipulated by the present Technical specification.
The Contractor must request all the factors which have to participate at checking the
works submitted to the determining phase and to assure their accomplishment in order
to obtain the works agreement.
The Designer proposes within the project the determining phases of execution and
participates on site at the quality control procedures.
It is absolutely forbidden the reception of the works which hide defects of the resistance
structures or which prevent the access or their correct repair.
In all cases when a result obtained from a visual checking or a test made during the
execution works regarding the resistance, stability or durability of the works goes beyond the
limits admitted, the decision in what concerns the works contents could be taken only with
the Consultants written agreement and with the Designers approval.
In case the unexpected character of the geotechnical or hydro-geological conditions which
have been encountered in the work imposes the modification of the work execution, the
Contractor will immediately inform the Consultant regarding this situation.
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PRELIMINARY WORKS
Within the site, the Contractor will provide workshops, offices, toilets and security places,
waterproof platforms on which will be built sheds, store rooms and warehouses for storing
materials, laboratories for tests (if it is necessary) and also connecting them to different
sources: water, the sewage system, phone line, electric power, etc.
The Contractor will mark the working area and will request the authorities to limit the traffic
speed of the cars which are leading through.
The Contractor will carry out the access roads and the work platforms for plants and the site
will be surrounded by pegs.
SITE CLOSING UP
The Contractor will take all the necessary measures for closing up the site, will make all the
necessary arrangements for bringing into initial service of the land and will eliminate all the
effects and the possible sources of pollution of the land (production base, repair workshops,
fuel warehouses, etc.)
WORKS RECEPTION
The reception represents a component of the quality system in constructions and the
reception document certifies the fact that the Contractor has fulfilled his obligations according
to the contract provisions and of the execution documentation.
The works reception will be done in compliance with the Government Decision no.
273/14.06.1994 and with Norms C 56-1985, NE 012-99 and NE 013-2002.
Reception for each phase
The reception for each phase (of hidden works) will check if the part of the work which is
received was carried out according to the project and it attest the conditions imposed by the
execution documentation and of the technical specifications.
After the checking takes place, an official report for reception for each phase is elaborated,
which confirms the possibility of moving to the next execution phase.
At the reception for each phase, take part the representative of the State Inspectorate for
Constructions, the Contractor and the Designer.
The official reports register for hidden works will be made available for the control authorities
and also for the preliminary and final reception commission.
Reception of the works
The commission checks the works execution according to the compliance with the provisions
of the construction authorization, with the contract provisions, of the execution
documentation, and also of the approvals issues by the authorities.
The Contractor has to communicate the Client the date of finishing all the works stipulated in
the contract.
The Designer, as author of the construction project, will elaborate and present before the
reception commission his point of view regarding the construction execution.
After the examination has been finished, the commission composed of the Client and the
commission assigned by him, together with the Contractor, will record the observations and
the conclusions of the office report of reception, including the recommendation of approval
with or without objections of the reception.
Final reception
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The final reception is requested by the Client 15 days after the end of the warranty period
stipulated in the contract.
At the final reception will take part: the Client, the reception commission assigned by the
Investor, the work Designer and the Contractor.
ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION
During the execution period, the main sources of pollution will be: the works execution, the
site traffic and the site organization (the concreting and bituminous mixtures plants, the
materials and fuel storages, dining hall etc). The impact on the natural and human factors will
be felt on a limited period of time and on a restricted area.
The work technologies, the site organizations, the temporary works of traffic deviation or for
the development of the technological process will be established by the Contractor who must
obtain all the approvals and agreements necessary for carrying out the works.
The works foreseen in this project dont emanate toxic or residual substances in the
environment which should alter in any way the water, air, soil or underground quality. The
carrying out of the drainage works, of the slopes consolidations, the discharge of the
meteoric waters, planting etc, contribute to the stabilization of the slopes affected by
landslides.
The Contractor will take into consideration the measures stipulated in the Environment
Protection Law no. 137/21.12.1995 republished in the Official Monitor no. 70/17.02.2000.
WORK PROTECTION
During the works execution, the technical norms of security, protection and work hygiene
provided in the normative acts into force will comply with:
- Work protection law no. 90/12.07.1996 with subsequent republishing (The Official
Monitor no. 47/29.01.2001).
- Order of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection no. 136/17.04.1995 regarding the
approval of the Norms of work security for concrete preparation and pouring and the
execution of works of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete.
- Order no. 8/26.01.1994 regarding the approval of the Norms of works security for
metal processing by welding and materials cutting.
- Regulations regarding the labor protection and hygiene in constructions approved
by the Order of the Ministry of Public Works, Transportation and Houses no.
9/N/15.03.1993, published in the Constructions Bulletin no. 5-8/1993.
- General norms of work protection, 2002 approved by The Ministry of Labor, Social
Solidarity and Family and by the Ministry of Health, by Order 508/20.11.2002 and by
the Ministry of Health and Family by Order 933/25.11.2002.
- Order no. 58/1991 Individual protection equipment.
The workers training will be done according to the provisions stipulated in the Orders
mentioned above.
The Contractor will assign and train the staff responsible for marking and warning against the
dangerous areas.
PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE
During the works execution, the provisions of the following normative regarding protection
against fire will comply with:
- Normative P118/1999, Normative of fire protection of the constructions approved by
Order 27/N/07.04.1999.
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- Normative I 7/1998,
- Government Decision no. 51/1992, Decision regarding some measures for improving
the activities of fire preventing and extinction, republished in the Official Monitor no.
49/07.03.1996.
- Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs no. 381/04.03.1993 regarding the General
Norms of fire preventing and extinction.
- Order of the Ministry of Public Works, Transportation and Houses no. 7/N/03.03.1993
regarding the General Norms of fire preventing and extinction.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION












INTERCEPTION DRAINS
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INTERCEPTION DRAINS


CONTENTS

1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 197
2. MATERIALS 197
2.1 Draining material ..............................................................................................197
2.1.1 Ballast 197
2.1.2 Gravel197
2.2 Draining tubes ..................................................................................................197
2.2.1 Corrugated tubes 197
2.2.2 Non-perforated smooth tubes made of PVC or PE 197
2.3 Filter Membrane ...............................................................................................197
2.4 Concrete...........................................................................................................198
2.5 Precast Reinforced Concrete Elements............................................................198
2.6 Steel Concrete..................................................................................................198
3. PRELIMINARY WORKS 198
4. Works Execution 198
4.1 Excavation........................................................................................................198
4.2 Backfilling the drainage trench..........................................................................199
4.3 Drain top...........................................................................................................199
4.4 Airshafts............................................................................................................199
4.5 Drain head........................................................................................................199
4.6 Manholes..........................................................................................................199
5. CONTROL OF CONSTRUCTION 199
5.1 Verification of works quality ..............................................................................199


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1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
These Technical Specifications are applied to all works that include flexible drains in open
excavation that have the following roles:
collecting and conducted drainage of the seepage waters;
lowering the level of the phreatic water, when it unfavorably influences the conduct of
the pavement or of other works;
reinforcing the slopes, the earthworks and the flanks.
These Technical Specifications include the conditions that must be obeyed during the
execution of works. Also these Technical Specifications include the quality inspection and the
criteria for the reception of works.

2. MATERIALS

2.1. Draining material

2.1.1. Ballast

The draining material from the drain body is made up of river ballast that must be in
accordance with the requirements stipulated in the SR 662/2002 chap. 2.3.4.1. Table 13. The
attempts must be in accordance with the chapter. 5.2. Table 19.
Foreign matter is not accepted, and the content made up of fines will be in accordance with
STAS 1667/76.

2.1.2. Gravel

The gravel must be in accordance with SR 662/2002, within the fraction 8 31mm.

2.2. Draining tubes

2.2.1. Corrugated tubes

In order to collect and to evacuate the water inside the drains, corrugated perforated PVC or
polyethylene tubes will be used.
The slits from the perforated tubes, of 1,0 x 5,0 mm or of 1,5 x 8,0 mm, must ensure an
active surface (openings for water penetration into the tube) of 24 ... 50 cm
2
for a length of 1
m of pipe.

2.2.2. Non-perforated smooth tubes made of PVC or PE

The non-perforated smooth tubes are used to made up the airshafts tops for the fishbone
drains and to connect the corrugated tubes to the inspection manhole.
The quality conditions of the tubes are in accordance with STAS 6675/2.
The tubes diameter is stipulated in the project.

2.3. Filter Membrane

The drain shall use geo-textile material, non-woven and non-ingrained as a filter membrane,
according to the Normative for the use of geo-synthetic materials in construction works
Indicative NP 075-2002. This type of material has the following characteristics:
ultimate tensile strength: min. 7kN/m;
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strain at break: <70%;
coefficient of cross permeability: K
T
>1 x 10
-4
m/s;
piercing with CBR >1000N;
the dimension of the pores that retain 90% of the quantity of particles that can be
retained by the geo-textile: d90<0,15mm.

2.4. Concrete

In order to protect the drain heads (for longitudinal, reinforcement and the fishbone drains)
and in order to execute the manhole raft the C16/20 concrete is used. This type of concrete
is prepared and executed in accordance to the NE 012/2002 and to the Technical
Specifications entitled Concrete Retaining Structures with direct foundation.

2.5. Precast Reinforced Concrete Elements

In order to execute the manholes there will be used tubular elements. These tubular
elements have the diameter d=1000 mm in accordance with STAS 816-80. Also, precast
reinforced concrete tops will be used in accordance with NE 013/2002.

2.6. Steel Concrete

For the access stairs and for the cover tops of the manholes, the steel reinforcements that
will be used are OB 37 and PC 52 type in accordance with the Technical Specifications
entitled Concrete Retaining Structures with direct foundation.

3. PRELIMINARY WORKS

Prior to excavation, the Contractor shall perform the following preliminary works:
signing the work area;
verification of existence and possible location of utilities in or near the works area; all
the necessary measures will be taken in order to execute the works safely;
works marking;
ensuring water drainage from the location.

4. WORKS EXECUTION

4.1. Excavation

The longitudinal slope of drains with elastic raft is established based on the relief, ensuring
the water drainage (between 0,2% and the maximum admitted slope for unprotected ditches
and gutters, according to STAS 2916-87).
The works shall be executed from down to upstream, permanently ensuring the water
drainage.
Each drain shall be filled with draining material during the same day of work.
The excavations shall be performed with vertical walls, without wall supports, down to the
depth of:
1,0 m in plastic consistent soils and dense sands;
1,5 m in hard soils.
Below these depths, the excavations shall be done with wall supports or slopes.
The minimum distance between the edge of the excavation and the limit of traffic is 1.5 H
2.0 H (where H is the drain depth).
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4.2. Backfilling the drainage trench

After laying the geo-textile filter and the drain tube, the trench is manually compacted in
layers, over the entire length of the section. The first 30 cm will be sieved gravel 8 31 mm,
on top of which a ballast backfill will be executed.
The geo-textile strips have to overlap on a length of 20cm.
4.3. Drain top

The waterproof drain top is made of clayey ground, well compacted, protected with sown
topsoil for the reinforced drains or is made of the roads concrete gutter over the longitudinal
drains.


4.4. Airshafts

At the upstream end of the drains, the Contractor shall provide PVC tubes, with 110 mm,
adapted at the upper end to have apertures, which ensure the natural ventilation. The
airshafts are fixed at the ground level through a foundation raft C16/20 with the following
dimensions 0.40 x 0.40 x 0.30m.

4.5. Drain head

The drain head controls the discharge of the waters collected in the drain and ensures the
conditions for inspection and maintenance.
The drain head is made of C16/20 concrete, with the dimensions according to the drawings.

4.6. Manholes

For the operative control of the drains during and after their execution, manholes will be built
at 4070 m on the entire length of the drain. Manholes will also be built when the drain
direction is changed or at the junction between two or more drains.
The manhole is made of precast concrete tubes, with a diameter of 1000 mm and has a
cover with holes for natural ventilation.
The raft of the manholes is made of concrete class C16/20. The rafts level will be 0.50m
below the level of tube of the manhole access drain.
The inlet and outlet tubes are 1.00 m long and are made of PVC smooth tubes, with the
same diameter as the diameter of the perforated tubes. The inlet tube has to be at least
10cm over the outlet tube.
The drilled area around the smooth tubes, in the concrete tube is filled up with cement mortar
M100.
Note: When constructing the drain, consideration shall be given to Departmental Technical
Instructions concerning the design, execution and maintenance of the drains for public roads
No. AND 513/2002.

5. CONTROL OF CONSTRUCTION

5.1. Verification of works quality

During works construction, the following verifications shall be performed:
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Phase Checking
- draining tube type, dimension, active surface
- geo-textile certificate of quality, characteristics
- ballast particle size, foreign bodies, fines fraction
Preliminary- approvals
of materials
- gravel particle size
- marking
- reception of foundation ground Excavation
- declivity of drain bottom
- geo-textile way of laying, overlaying Drain body
- draining filling and drain cover
Drain head - dimensions


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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION










BALLAST MATTRESSES REINFORCED
WITH GEOSYNTHETIC MATERIAL
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BALLAST MATTRESSES REINFORCED WITH GEOSYNTHETIC
MATERIALS



CONTENTS


1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 203
2. MATERIALS 203
2.1 Granular Material ..............................................................................................203
2.2 Geo-synthetic materials....................................................................................203
2.2.1 Geo-grids............................................................................................203
2.2.2 Geo-textile...........................................................................................204
2.2.3 Purchasing and storage of materials geo-synthetic.......................... 204
2.3 Quality control of materials ...............................................................................204
3. EXECUTION OF WORKS 204
3.1 Preliminary Works.............................................................................................204
3.2 Trial Section......................................................................................................205
3.3 Execution of the Ballast Mattress .....................................................................205
4. CONTROL OF WORKS EXECUTION 205
4.1 Verification of Works Quality.............................................................................205













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1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
These Technical Specifications apply to the works of geo-synthetic reinforced ballast
mattresses. The Specifications contain the technical requirements that must be complied
during construction, and also the quality control and criteria of works acceptance.
The geo-synthetic reinforced ballast mattresses represent a solution of increasing the
bearing capacity of founded ground with weak physical-mechanical characteristics, on which
the road structure will be built, when the natural existent ground cannot be replaced.
In order to fill in these Technical Specifications, the Contractor shall comply with the
provisions stipulated in the standards and norms in force.
All the materials necessary for the permanent works shall be submitted to the Engineers
approval. Before supplying, the Contractor shall submit the sources / suppliers of these
materials to the Engineers approval. No material shall be used for permanent works unless it
is firstly approved by the Engineer.

2. MATERIALS

2.1. Granular Material

For the mattress, river ballast shall be used as filling material, strictly observing the
conditions specified in SR 662/2002, table no.13:
The quality checking shall be carried out by sampling (one sample at 1000m
3
), and then for
each sample the particle size analysis shall be run.
The Normal Proctor grade of compaction must be:
95% road base;
98% ballast course from mattress.
The ballast shall be laid when the moisture content is optimum and shall not differ by more
than 4% from the optimal moisture content.

2.2. Geo-synthetic materials

The geo-synthetic materials adopted in the work will be in conformity with:
NP 075-2002 Normative for the use of the geo-synthetic materials at the construction
works, approved of the Ministry of Public Works, Transportation and House with order
no. 1228/03.09.2002;
Technical agreement, etc.

2.2.1. Geo-grids

The biaxial geo-grid must have the following characteristics:
made of high density polypropylene or polymer with the same properties;
rigid knots;
specific density 0.30Kg/m
2
;
ultimate tensile strength 30KN/m;
elongation strain on both sides 2% 10KN;
elongation strain on both sides 5% 20KN;
maximum size of the eyes 40mm;
must resist at temperatures ranging between -30C 50C;


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2.2.2. Geo-textile

The geo-textile material shall be non-woven and non-impregnated and shall have the
following characteristics:
- mass: min 300g/mp;
- tensile strength: Lmin. = 20daN/5cm;
Tmin. = 35daN/5cm
- breaking elongation: Lmin. = 70%
Tmin. = 60%
- cross permeability coefficient: K
T
> 1x10
-4
m/s;
- piercing with CBR >1000N.

2.2.3. Purchasing and storage of materials geo-synthetic

When purchasing, the identification labels for each product shall be checked, establishing if
this corresponds to those provided in the project.
Each package has to be protected by its wrapping against the thermal and transportation
influences and it may be identified by its label. The packages have to be put on a plain and
clean surface. The packages can be put on top of one another in parallel rows, but it is not
allowed to lay other loadings on top of them.

2.3. Quality control of materials

The materials used for the construction of consolidation works shall be tested and tried in
accordance with the prescriptions of the product standards.


3. EXECUTION OF WORKS

3.1. Preliminary Works

Before the inception of works, the Contractor shall perform the following preliminary works:
signaling the working area;
verifying the existence and the location of possible utilities inside or in the proximity of
the construction limits; the Contractor shall take all the necessary measures to perform
the works under safety conditions;
pegging out the works;
removing of topsoil;
soil excavation up to the designed level stipulated in the project;
compaction of works area;
ensuring the water drainage from the location.
The platform shall be performed with cross falls of 0.5-1.0% from the axle to the edge of the
works area.
To prevent the negative effects produced by the heavy precipitations on the ballast mattress
bed, the Contractor shall perform discharge ditches.
The works area is compacted with proper mechanical equipment, to reach a compaction at
50 cm depth, at a 95% normal Proctor grade of compaction.
The surface of the works area must exceed the dimensions of the consolidated land L1 x L2
with a layer equal to 1m, or minimum h (height) (thickness of ballast mattress).


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3.2. Trial Section

In order to establish the Methods Statement, the equipment and the devices necessary to lay
and compact, the Contractor shall perform, with the Engineers approval, a trial section,
before starting the works.
The quantity of water which should be added in order to obtain the best compaction
moisture content, shall be established in the site laboratory. The water shall be added by
sprinkling, in order to bring the material to the optimal moisture content.
The allowed tolerances regarding the moisture content of the mixture are more than 1%, less
than 2% comparing to the optimal moisture content level.
The specific characteristics for ballast compaction shall be established utilizing the Modified
Proctor test, in compliance with the stipulations of STAS 1913/13-83:

max.PM
= maximum density in dry condition (g/cm
3
);
W
opt.PM
= optimal humidity for compaction (%).
The preparation, the works performance and the measurements performed on the trial
section shall be carried out in the presence of the Engineer.
The preparation, the works performance and the measurements performed on the trial
section shall be carried out at the Contractors expense.
The results from the trial section shall be used when completing the Methods Statement,
which is a reference document for the execution of the works.

3.3. Execution of the Ballast Mattress

The construction of the ballast mattress consists of:
locating and fixing the geo-textile and the geo-grid, the strongest fiber being
perpendicular on the road axis;
filling construction, on layers, as stated after completing the trial sections;
turning, extending and fixing the geo-grid on the performed level, in accordance with
the project;
setting up the geo-textile on the superior part of the mattress;
the transversal continuity of geo-grids shall be provided by their overlapping on 20 cm.
The mattress body will be constructed of successive layers of max. 20cm after compaction.

4. CONTROL OF WORKS EXECUTION

4.1. Verification of Works Quality

During works construction, the following verifications shall be performed:

Phase Checking
Topsoil removal Acceptance of the quota level and soil type
Execution of works area
slope
Land survey verifications
Compaction grade of the
foundation ground
Compaction degree min. 95%
Geo-grid and geo-textile
positioning and fixing
Extension, fixing and overlapping verifications
Each filling course Compaction degree (98%)





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REINFORCED EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES WITH
GEOSYNTHETICS



CONTENTS



1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 207
2. MATERIALS 207
2.1 Geosynthetic materials .....................................................................................207
2.1.1 Geo-cells 207
2.1.2 Geo-grids 207
2.1.3 Geo-textiles 207
2.2 Grain materials .................................................................................................208
2.3 Materials quality control ...................................................................................208
2.4 Purchasing and the storage geosynthetics.......................................................208
3. WORKS EXECUTION 208
3.1 Preliminary works .............................................................................................208
3.2 The trial section ................................................................................................209
3.3 Execution of the geo-synthetic retaining structure............................................209
3.4 Exposed face....................................................................................................210
4. CONTROL of WORKS EXECUTIONS 210
4.1 Quality control of the works ..............................................................................210









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1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
The present Technical Specification applies to the support works of the fill with reinforced retaining
earth structures with geosynthetics. It includes the technical conditions which have to be fulfilled
during the works execution and also the quality control and the works reception criteria.
The reinforced earth retaining structures with geosynthetics are provided for the support of the
pavement of its adjacent embankments, where no embankments with normal slopes can be
elaborated.
In order to complete the present Technical Specification, the Contractor has to comply with the
provisions of the standards and norms into force.
All materials which are needed for the permanent works will be submitted to the Engineers
approval. Before the purchasing, the Contractor will submit to the Engineers approval the sources
/ providers of these materials. No material will be used for the permanent works before being
approved by the Engineer.
2. MATERIALS
2.1. Geosynthetic materials

The geosynthetic materials adopted in work will be in conformity with:
NP 075-2002 Normative for the use of the geo-synthetic materials at the construction works,
approved of the Ministry of Public Works, Transportation and House with order no.
1228/03.09.2002;
Technical agreement, etc.

2.1.1. Geo-cells

The geo-cells must have the following characteristics:
to be made of high density textured, perforated polyethylene;
the cells number /m2 = 20 pierces;
resistance to spalling of the connection >2290N;
density = 0.935 0964g/cm3;

2.1.2. Geo-grids

The biaxial geo-grid must have the following characteristics:
Made of polypropylene or polymer with the same properties, with high density;
Rigid knots;
Specific density 0.30Kg/m
2
;
Ultimate tensile strength 30KN/m;
Elongation strain on both sides 2% 10KN;
Elongation de 5% 20KN;
The maximum dimension of the eyelets 40mm;
must resist at temperatures between -30C 50C;

2.1.3. Geo-textiles

The geo-textile material used as filter for the drain behind the retaining structure shall be non-
woven and non-ingrained and shall have the following characteristics:
mass: min 300g/mp;
tensile strength: Lmin. = 20daN/5cm;
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Tmin. = 35daN/5cm
breaking elongation: Lmin. = 70%
Tmin. = 60%
coefficient of cross permeability: KT > 1x10-4 m/s;
piercing with CBR >1000N.
dimensioning the pores that retain 90% of the quantity of particles that may be retained by
the geo-textile: d90<0,15mm.

2.2. Grain materials

The filling material will be river ballast and shall comply with the following provisions of SR
662/2002 chapter 2.3.4.2 table 14:
The internal angle of response of the granular material has to be the same with the value
mentioned in the project.

2.3. Materials quality control

The materials used during the carrying out of the reinforcement works, shall be tested and checked
according to material standards.
The type of materials and the frequency of the material checking are shown in the table below:

Material Checked tests or characteristic
Examining the data in the quality certificate
The grading of the sorts Aggregates
The density in amount, in mellow and dry state
Geo cells Examining the data in the quality certificate
Geo grid Examining the data in the quality certificate
Geo textiles Examinarea datelor din certificatul de calitate

2.4. Purchasing and the storage geosynthetics

When purchasing, the identification labels for each roll will be checked, establishing if the type of
geo-grill corresponds to those provided in the project.
Each package has to be protected by its wrapping against the thermal and transportation
influences and it can be identified by its label. The packages have to be put on a plane and clean
surface. The packages can be put on top of one another in parallel rows, but the laying of other
loading on top of them is not allowed.
3. WORKS EXECUTION
3.1. Preliminary works

Prior to starting the works, the Contractor shall perform the following preliminary works:
Signing the work area;
Verification of possible existence and location of utilities in or near the works area, all the
necessary measures will be taken in order to execute the works safely;
Works signing;
Excavating the natural soil until a good ground is encountered but the excavation shall be at
least 50 cm deep;
Leveling and compacting the ground at the level of digging until reached the degree
compacting a Normal Proctor of 95%;
Ensuring water drainage from the location.


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3.2. The trial section
Before starting the works, the Contractor shall execute a 50cm trail section, with the Consultants
approval, in order to establish the execution procedure of the plants and of the laying and
compacting devices.
The water quantity that may be added in order to obtain the optimal moisture for compaction shall
be established at the site laboratory. The water shall be added by spraying, so that the material
should be brought to the optimal level of moisture.
The admissible levels in the mixtures moisture are 2% +1%.
The compaction characteristics of the ballast shall be established by using the modified Proctor
load, in accordance with STAS 1913/13-83):

max.PM
= the maximum density in dry status (g/cm
3
);
W
opt.PM
= the optimal compacting moisture (%) .
The preparation and execution of works and the measures performed on the trial section shall be
made in the presence of the Ingineer.
The preparation and execution of the works and the measures performed on the trial section shall
be made on the Contractors expense.
After executing the trial section, the execution procedure shall be completed with informations
regarding the laying and compacting technology:
the characteristics of the compacting equipment (weight, width, tire pressure, vibration
characteristics, speed);
number of crossings with or without vibrations in order to perform the compacting level,
according to the provisions of this Technical Specification;
the number of under-layers in which each step of the reinforced wall shall be executed;
the thickness of under-layers before compacting;
The Contractor has to ensure that, by appying all the procedures, it complies with the requirements
provided in this Technical Specification.
The Contractor shall daily record the data regarding the works execution and the results obtained
after the measures, tests and test pits.

3.3. Execution of the geo-synthetic retaining structure

The work consists in:
Compacting the ground until a Normal Proctor compacting level of 98% is reached;
Laying the geo-textile at the base and on the earthwork;
Mounting the first row made up of geo-cells.
The positioning of geo cells shall be effectuated according to the details stipulated in the execution
plans, assuring their mounting in a chess-like pattern. The existence of the continuous joints is not
permitted. The fixing anchors of the (J type) geo cells are thrust into the soil according to the
specifications mentioned by the details, and the geo cells units are mounted over these anchors
and shall be stretched so that they form a specific honeycomb-like structure. The anchors are
perfectly thrust into the soil, up to the superior edge of the geo cells walls, having the role of
maintaining the geo cells fix into the soils.
The adjacent unit cells are joined together by using the electro-plated clinchers, making use of a
pneumatic pistol.
- Filling the geo cells
The geo cell units must be entirely filled with granular material characterized by the qualities
specified.
Each geo cell layer filled with granular material is compacted with the vibrating tamper, while
adding granular material until a 200mm compacted smooth thickness is obtained. Each geo cell
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layer is anchored by linking it to the inferior one, in the same way as the first basic layer was
anchored. Each of the next layers is filled and compacted using the same procedure.
For the visible geo cell layers, 50 60% of the volume shall be filled with vegetal soil seeded with
grass. During the germination period of the grass seeds, the embankments shall be sprinkled with
water.
Mounting the geo-grids involves the following phases:
positioning and fixing geo-grids with the strongest fiber disposed perpendicularly on the road
axis;
gripping from the elements of the exposed face;
the overlapping of the strips in the longitudinal direction of the structure shall be of min.
20cm;
the filling in the body of the reinforced structure in accordance with the results of the trial
section. The compaction level shall be 98%;
the exposed face shall be performed in accordance with the details presented in the project.


3.4. Exposed face

The exposed face of the reinforced earth structure shall be made in accordance with the details in
the project, and could be made up of:
gabions;
pre-cast elements made of reinforced concrete;
geo-cells;
only sown.
The exposed face, according to their types, shall be made in accordance with the provisions from
the specific Technical Specifications:
Exposed face from - Technical Specification
Gabions - Gabions Structures
Precast elements - Culverts, chapter: Precast elements
Geo-cells - According to chapter 3.3 presented above
4. CONTROL of WORKS EXECUTIONS
4.1. Quality control of the works

During works constructions, the folowing verifications shall be performed.
Phase Checking
Etching and removing the
vegetal layer
-the quota and nature of the foundation soil
-compacting level of the basic ground
Drain filling in the body of the
retaining structure and behind
the retaining structure
-the 98% compaction level necessary under the
retaining structure is checked minutes for the hidden
works
Positioning and fixing the
geo-synthetics
- elongation, fixing and grippings
Exposed face - position in plan
- inclination

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION













GABION STRUCTURES
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GABION STRUCTURES



CONTENTS



1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 213
2. MATERIALS213
2.1 Steel Concrete..................................................................................................213
2.2 Natural Stone for the Dry Masonry ...................................................................213
2.2.1 Technical Conditions 213
2.2.2 The Quality Control of the Rubble Stone 213
2.2.3 Testing 214
2.3 Wire Net............................................................................................................214
2.4 Geo-textile ........................................................................................................214
3. EXECUTION OF WORKS 214
3.1 Preliminary Works.............................................................................................214
3.2 Diggings............................................................................................................214
3.3 Carrying out of the foundation ..........................................................................214
3.4 Gabions and Mattresses Manufacturing ...........................................................215
3.4.1 Manufacturing the box frames for gabions and mattresses 215
3.4.2 Dry masonry made of natural stone 215
3.4.3 The mounting of the geo-textile 215
4. CONTROL OF CONSTRUCTION 215
4.1 Verification of works quality ..............................................................................215





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1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
These Technical Specifications refer to the execution of the gabion structures used for the
supporting of the embankments, slopes, steeps, bottom sills, and rivers banks in compliance with
the project details.
These Technical Specifications include the technical and the quality conditions of the materials as
well as the works quality assurance.
2. MATERIALS
2.1. Steel Concrete
The steel concrete that shall be used is OB37 and PC52 type and must comply with STAS 438/1-
89.
Manufacturing and mounting of bars shall be carried out in strict accordance with the design
provisions.
At the delivery, a Quality Certificate issued by the Producer must accompany the steel concrete.
The control of the steel concrete consists in:
checking the dimensions of the section, the net weight;
examining the aspect;
checking the product brand, the type of the reinforcement, the sign Quality Control;
checking the cold bending;
checking the mechanical characteristics (failure strength, yield strength, strain at failure).
The reinforcing steel used for reinforcements shall be stored according to their types, so that good
conditions are ensured in order to avoid the bars corrosion, soiling; also, the storage shall be
ensured so that each item can be easily identified according to its type and diameter.
2.2. Natural Stone for the Dry Masonry
2.2.1. Technical Conditions
The natural stone will derive from igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary rocks.
The rock must be homogenous as structure and petrographic composition namely mineralogical;
it must not have visible physical or chemical weathering marks, or contain pyrite, brown hematite,
or soluble salts.
The natural stone must correspond to the conditions stipulated in SR 667-2001 and STAS 5089-
71.
For the gabion mattresses, river stone shall be used. This stone results from igneous, metamorphic
or sedimentary rocks with homogenous structure.
The used item shall be ranged between 5 20 kg/item so that it can be manually manipulated.
2.2.2. The Quality Control of the Rubble Stone
The checking will be made on lots of maximum 2,000 tones.
The Quality Certificate must accompany each lot. The number of the quality certificate will be
specified in the minutes regarding the procurement of the lot.
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2.2.3. Testing
The nature of the rock shall be determined according to SR EN 932-3/1998 and STAS 6200-
4/1981. The rubble stone defined according to STAS 5089/1971 must correspond to the conditions
stipulated in SR 667/2001.
2.3. Wire Net
The wire net for the manufacturing of the box frames for gabions and for the mattresses shall be
made of double winded wire and must be in compliance with SR EN 10223-3/1999 provisions; the
wire protection will be in accordance with SR EN 10244-2/2002 provisions.
2.4. Geo-textile
The geo-textile material used as a filter for the filling material in the box frames of the gabions,
shall be non-woven and non-impregnated; this material shall be checked according to the NP 075-
2002 Normative Normative regarding the use of geo-synthetic materials in construction works,
published in the Constructions Bulletin no. 13/2002 and must have the following particularities:
tensile strength: min. 7KN/m;
elongation strain: <70%;
cross permeability coefficient: KT>1x10-4m/s;
piercing with CBR>1000N;
the dimension of the pores that retain 90% of the quantity of particles that may be retained by
the geo-textile: d90<0.15mm;
3. EXECUTION OF WORKS
3.1. Preliminary Works
Before actually starting the works, the Contractor shall carry out the following preliminary works:
signaling the work area;
checking the existence and the position of the possible utilities near the site; all the needed
measures shall be taken in order to perform the works safely;
setting out of the works;
ensuring the water drainage on site;
if necessary, detour the local water course during the time the works are carried out.
3.2. Diggings
The diggings will be carried out in accordance with the Technical Specifications for the earthworks.
When the execution of the diggings implies uncovering some existing underground networks
(water, gas, electrical networks, etc) that must still function, several protection measures must be
taken so that these networks should not be deteriorated. If these networks are not identified and
they are revealed during the digging, the works shall be seized and the Consultant shall be notified
so that the necessary measures can be taken.
3.3. Carrying out of the foundation
There where the project stipulates that the gabion structure must be founded on a concrete
foundation, the provisions from the Technical Specifications-Concrete retaining structures on
direct foundation shall be applied.
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3.4. Gabions and Mattresses Manufacturing
3.4.1. Manufacturing the box frames for gabions and mattresses
The box frames of the gabions and of the mattresses may be purchased directly from the provider,
being accompanied by the Quality Certificate issued by the producer, or manufactured by the
Contractor.
The gabions and the mattresses are made up of wire net plated wire net that may or may not be
mounted on a metallic web made up of concrete steel.
The dimension of the wire holes shall be of 60 mm.
Also, in transverse plan, wire net diaphragms shall be carried out, and then placed at the distances
stipulated in the project.
The wires shall be fastened to the metallic web with soft zinc wire which diameter shall be of
minimum 2.2 mm.
3.4.2. Dry masonry made of natural stone
The dry masonry of the gabions is made of rubble stone or of river stone in accordance with the
provisions of Standard STAS 2917/79.
When the dry masonry is carried out, it must be placed on broad, in rows that must be as
horizontal as possible, so that they can prop on each other on a large surface, and the volume of
the holes should be as small as possible.
The holes between stones are filled with smaller stones of corresponding size in order to limit the
subsequent deformations.
The stones used for executing one layer have to be as uniform as possible as resistance and
density.
A special attention will be paid to the arranging of the stones on the outer face, by interchanging
them, so that the voids volume be minimum.
For the outer sides, larger stones are used.
3.4.3. The mounting of the geo-textile
The geo-textile is mounted according with the projects details.
4. CONTROL OF CONSTRUCTION
4.1. Verification of works quality
During works constructions, the following verifications shall be performed:
Phase Checking
Excavation
-position in plan
-dimension of excavations
Gabions and mattresses of gabions
-dimensions of the boxes
-interlocking of the dry stone
Foundation concreting -fresh concrete and the cubes
Geo-textile -mounting

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION






CONCRETE RETAINING STRUCTURES
WITH MASONRY FACE,
REPAIRS OF EXISTING MASONRY
RETAINING STRUCTURES
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CONCRETE RETAINING STRUCTURES WITH MASONRY FACE
REPAIRS OF EXISTING MASONRY RETAINING STRUCTURES

CONTENTS


1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 218
2. MATERIALS 218
2.1 Water ................................................................................................................218
2.2 Cement .............................................................................................................218
2.2.1 Characteristics 218
2.2.2 Quality control 218
2.2.3 Delivery 218
2.2.4 Storage 218
2.3 Natural aggregates ...........................................................................................219
2.3.1 Aggregates quality control 219
2.3.2 Aggregates transportation 219
2.3.3 Aggregates storage 219
2.4 Natural Stone for the Dry Masonry ...................................................................219
2.4.1 Technical Conditions 219
2.4.2 The Quality Control of the Rubble Stone 219
2.4.3 Testing 220
2.5 Concrete...........................................................................................................220
2.5.1 Fresh concrete 220
2.5.2 Hardened concrete 221
2.6 Reinforcing steel ...............................................................................................221
2.7 Shuttering and support elements......................................................................221
2.8 Admixtures........................................................................................................221
2.9 Additions...........................................................................................................222
2.10 Other materials .................................................................................................222
2.10.1 Asphalt board 222
2.10.2 Geo-textile material 222
2.10.3 Bitumen 222
2.11 Cement mortar..................................................................................................222
3. WORKS EXECUTION 222
3.1 Preliminary works .............................................................................................222
3.2 Digging .............................................................................................................222
3.3 Shuttering .........................................................................................................223
3.3.1 Shuttering checking and reception 223
3.4 Reinforcements shaping and mounting ............................................................223
3.5 Pouring and protection of concrete...................................................................223
3.6 Removal of shuttering.......................................................................................224
3.7 Waterproofing...................................................................................................224
3.8 Executing the Draining System.........................................................................224
3.9 Reparations of the degrade joints.....................................................................224
3.10 Masonry face of the natural stone ....................................................................224
3.10.1 Remake of the existing face wall 224
3.10.2 New masonry face wall 224
4. CONTROL OF WORKS EXECUTION 225
4.1 Quality control of the works ..............................................................................225
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1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
The present Technical Specification applies to the new concrete retaining structures (embankment
retaining wall, cutting retaining wall, partial or integral remaking of the existing ones and repairs of
the joints of the existing masonry retaining walls.
It includes the technical and quality conditions to be met during the execution of the works as well
as the quality control and acceptance criteria of the works.
The concrete retaining structures are foreseen for supporting the road or its adjacent slopes in
areas where full length slopes can not be executed.

2. MATERIALS

2.1. Water

It may come out of the public water supply network or from another source, but in this case it must
comply with SR EN 1008/2003. If the water comes from another source, the evaluation will be
carried out by a specialized laboratory and it must meet the provisions of the above mentioned
standard.
During the operations on the site, one must avoid to pollute the water with detergents, organic
maters, vegetable oils, clays etc.

2.2. Cement

2.2.1. Characteristics

The cement physical characteristics will be determined in compliance with: SR EN 197-1/2002, SR
EN 196-1/95SR EN 196-4/95, SR 227/2-94, SR 227/5-94, NE 012-1999.
The cement used is specified on the execution drawings in compliance with Normative NE
012/1999.

2.2.2. Quality control

Upon supply: by checking the quality certificate / warranty certificate issued by the
manufacturer or by the delivery site;
Before use: by an authorized laboratory.

2.2.3. Delivery

If the user obtains the cement from a deposit (delivery site), the cement delivery procedures will
be accompanied by a declaration of conformity, where one will specify:
The type of cement and the manufacturing plant;
The date of its arrival at the deposit;
The number of the quality certificate issued by the manufacturer;
The number of the cement quality analysis certificate, from the authorized laboratory.

2.2.4. Storage

The cement storage will be carried out as it follows:
Into wracks, into casings of the silo type, where no other materials have been previously
stored;
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packed into sacks, stored in closed rooms, deposited into stacks on boards with enough
clearance to allow ventilation.
The cement must be used before the expiration of the validity period.

2.3. Natural aggregates

The natural aggregates used for concrete and mortar preparation and for the retaining structure
drain (ballast, sand, gravel, crushed stone) have to comply from the point of view of the quality with
the provisions of STAS 1667/76, STAS 4606/80.

2.3.1. Aggregates quality control

In case of acquiring the aggregates as they are, they should be purchased from authorized
manufacturing stations.
The aggregates quality control will be carried out for every supplied batch, according to the
provisions of Annex VI.1 point A2 and VI.1 point B2 of the Code of Practice NE 012/1999, while the
evaluation methods will take into account the STAS 4606/1980.
The site laboratory will keep the record of the aggregates quality parameters as it follows:
A file will include all the quality certificates from the supplier;
A register (Aggregates test register) will list the results of the determinations made within the
laboratory.

2.3.2. Aggregates transportation

The aggregates will be delivered by clean and well fastened means of transportation. Each
shipment will be accompanied by the delivery documents that specify: the number and date of the
documents issuing, the brand of the plant (the gravel pit), the addressee, the kind and type of the
aggregates, the quantity delivered, the number of the quality certificate.

2.3.3. Aggregates storage

The aggregates will be stored on concrete cast platforms, provided with declivity and gutters for the
water drainage. In order to store the different sorts of aggregates it is necessary to set up
compartments having the adequate height, in order to avoid the mixing of the different sorts of
aggregates.
It is not allowed to store the aggregates directly on the ground or on ballasted platforms.

2.4. Natural Stone for the Dry Masonry

2.4.1. Technical Conditions

The natural stone will derive from igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary rocks.
The rock must be homogenous as structure and petrographic composition namely mineralogical;
it must not have visible physical or chemical weathering marks, or contain pyrite, brown hematite,
or soluble salts.
The natural stone must correspond to the conditions stipulated in SR 667-2001 and STAS 5089-
71.
For the gabion mattresses, river stone shall be used. This stone results from igneous, metamorphic
or sedimentary rocks with homogenous structure.
The used item shall be ranged between 5 20 kg/item so that it can be manually manipulated.

2.4.2. The Quality Control of the Rubble Stone

The checking will be made on lots of maximum 2,000 tones.
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The Quality Certificate must accompany each lot. The number of the quality certificate will be
specified in the minutes regarding the procurement of the lot.

2.4.3. Testing

The nature of the rock shall be determined according to SR EN 932-3/1998 and STAS 6200-
4/1981. The rubble stone defined according to STAS 5089/1971 must correspond to the conditions
stipulated in SR 667/2001.

2.5. Concrete

The main requirements that the concrete must meet shall comply with The Code of Practice for
the execution of the concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete works, NE 012-99.
According to the way of exposure for the constructions presented in the herein reference material
that have been designed in compliance with the environment conditions, the result was the
exposure class (table 5.1 - NE 012-99).
The classification of the retaining structures in exposure classes, concrete classes and the minimal
requests of durability insurance are specification of the drawing from project.

2.5.1. Fresh concrete

2.5.1.1. Concrete composition

The concrete structure is defined by means of the ratio in volumes of the different dry aggregate
categories, by the weight of the binding agent corresponding to one cube meter of already cast
concrete and by the water volume. The necessary quantities for each concrete component will be
determined before the Contractor starts to mix it.
The dosage of concrete components (after having established the recipe), the following deviations
are allowed:
aggregates 3%;
cement and water 2%;
additions 3%;
admixtures 5%
The determination of the fresh concrete physical characteristics and also the admitted limits should
comply with table 2.5.1.1.

Table 2.5.1.1.
Characteristic determination
According to
standard
Allowable value
Workability:
- by means of the slump method
- by means of the compaction degree
STAS 3622 - 1986
Apparent density STAS 1759 - 1988
Air content (% vol.) STAS 5479 - 1988
Slump workability SR EN 206/1 - 2002
Compaction degree STAS 1759 - 1988
Concrete spreading ISO 9812
According to
NE 012/1999


2.5.1.2. Concrete preparation and transportation

The specifications regarding these operations will comply with NE 012/1999 chapter 16.4.3
.

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2.5.2. Hardened concrete

The concrete class is defined based on the characteristic compressive cylinder (cube) strength of
concrete f
ck cil
(f
ck cub
), which represents the resistance to compression rendered in N/mm
2
calculated
for 150/300mm cylinders (or for cubes with 150mm sides) at the age of 28 days; below these
values, only 5% at the most of the results may statistically be ranged.
The concretes specified by the project will be the 'heavy' type, with the apparent density of the
hardened concrete at 28 days, that is a value between
2201-2500 kg/m
3
.
Class definition takes into account that the laboratory samples are kept and stored according to
STAS 1275/88.
The work quality control with respect to site poured concretes will be put into operation according
to STAS 1275-88, STAS 1759-88, STAS 2320-88, STAS 2414/91.


2.6. Reinforcing steel

The reinforcing steel to be used will be of OB37 and PC52 types and it will comply with STAS
438/1-89.
The application fields for these kinds of reinforcements are specified in STAS 10107/0-90.
The execution and assembly of the girders will be done in compliance with the projects
specifications. Upon delivery, the reinforcement concrete will be accompanied by the quality
certificate issued by the manufacturer. The checking of the reinforcement shall consist of:
the checking of the section's dimensions, of the net weight;
aspect evaluation;
product brand, reinforcement type, the CTC mark;
the checking of the bending;
the checking of the mechanical characteristics (fracture strength, liquid limit, elongation
strain).
The storage of the reinforcement shall be done according to types, so that one may prevent the
corrosion of the reinforcement, the contamination with earth or other materials and in order to
easily identify each type and diameter.
Bar joining will be done according to the project's provisions and according to STAS 10107/0-90.
Usually the reinforcement joining is carried out by overlapping procedures, without welding or by
means of regular welding (electrical spot welding, butt welding by intermediate melting, manual
welding by electric arc and by fish plate overlapping).

2.7. Shuttering and support elements

The shuttering may be executed out of: wood, or wood based materials, metal or polymer based
materials.
The materials that are to be used for the execution of the shuttering must comply with the following
STAS:
balls resinous round poles: STAS 1040-85;
girders - beech collar beams STAS 1961-80 and resinous collar beams SR EN 1313-
1+A1/2001;
8 and 15mm tego plywood: SR EN 313-1/1996 and SR EN 314-1/1996;
nails: STAS 2111-90.
At manufacturing the shuttering, NE 012/1999 chapter 11 will comply with.

2.8. Admixtures

Admixtures are chemical products that are added to the concrete in small quantities or equal to 5%
substance as compared to the cement mass in order to modify/ improve the concrete, in its fresh
and/or in its hardened stage.
At using the additives, the provisions of NE 012/1999 chapter 4.4 and of annex I.3 will comply with.
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2.9. Additions

The additions are fine inorganic materials which can be added to the concrete in quantities of over
5% dry substance compared to the cement mass, in order to improve its characteristics or to
create special properties.
At using the additions, the provisions of NE 012/1999 chapter 4.5 will comply with.

2.10. Other materials

2.10.1. Asphalt board

Asphalt board for separation joints between wall sections, in compliance with SR 138/1994;

2.10.2. Geo-textile material

Geo-textile material used as a filter for the drain behind the retaining and the guardrail foundation,
un woven and not-impregnated type and it will be verified according to the Standard NP 075-02 -
Technical norms concerning use of geo-synthetic materials in constructions, published in the
Construction Gazette no. 13/2002 and it will meet the following characteristics:
- tensile strength: min. 7KN/m;
elongation strain: <70%;
cross permeability parameter K
T
>1 x 10
-4
m/s;
pressure stamping with CBR >1000N;
the dimension of the pores that hold 90% of the particles quantity can be obtained by a geo-
textile: d90<0,15mm.

2.10.3. Bitumen

For the construction of the vertical waterproofing at the intrados of the retaining structures.

2.10.4. Cement mortar

The basic requests that mortars must fulfill will be accordingly to STAS 1030/85 Usual mortars for
masonry and revetments and STAS 2634/80 Usual mortars for masonry and revetments. Testing
methods
3. WORKS EXECUTION

3.1. Preliminary works

Before starting the works, the Contractor shall execute the preliminary works:
signaling the working area;
verifying the existing utilities and their location within the construction limits; the Contractor
shall take all the necessary measures to ensure the safety execution of the works;
pegging out the works;
ensuring the water drainage from the working areas.

3.2. Digging

When digging, the Contractor shall respect the stipulations from the Technical Specifications for
earthworks.
When the digging implies also the uncovering of some existing underground networks (water, gas,
electrical, etc.) that will still be functional, there will be taken measures for protecting them against
being damaged. If these networks are not known and they show up during the execution of the
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digging, the works will stop and the Consultant will be announced in order to take the necessary
measures.
The last 30 cm until the foundation level shall be excavated immediately prior to concreting, in
order to avoid deterioration of the embedment soil and of the shape of the foundation.

3.3. Shuttering

The shuttering and the support elements must be elaborated so that they should comply with the
conditions of Annex III.1 and with table III.1.1. from NE 012-99:
To ensure the shape, the dimensions and the degree of finishing stipulated in the project for
the elements which are to be executed, in compliance with the admitted errors (length of the
shuttering elements 15mm, width 6mm, height 10mm);
To be leak free so that they should not allow the cement grout leakage;
they should be stable under the pressure that appear during the execution process.
Before starting the shuttering set up procedures, the surfaces that will come in contact with the
concrete to be poured will be cleaned and made ready, while the reinforcements position will be
verified and corrected if necessary.
In order to reduce the adherence between the concrete and the shuttering, they are covered with
de-shuttering agents on the sides that will come into contact with the concrete immediately after
setting up.
For the architectural treatment of the outer side of the elevation, on the shuttering imprinting
elements will be set up as designed.
The shuttering set up will include the following operations:
shuttering mark-out;
the panels provisional assembly and support;
joining, coupling and final shuttering support.


3.3.1. Shuttering checking and reception

Checking will be carried out according to the following stages:
The preliminary stage, by verifying the preparing works and the components or sub-
assemblies of the shuttering and of the support elements;
During the execution works, by checking the positioning with respect to the marking out and
to the components fixing ways;
The final stage, when the shutterings are received and the remarks are written down in a
register for official reports.
For the shuttering that close after the reinforcements setting up, the official report will be drawn up
for both shuttering and reinforcement structures.

3.4. Reinforcements shaping and mounting

The shaping of the reinforcements will be made of OB37 and PC52, as designed.
These operations will be performed in accordance with the European Norm 012/1999 chapter
10.5. and STAS 10111/87 chapter 6.7.
The connectors will be made of PC 52 reinforcement steel and will be fixed in the existing concrete
with cement grout or epoxy resins in holes realized in a network with dimensions of 0.5m.

3.5. Pouring and protection of concrete

The concrete will be poured and subsequently treated in accordance with the provisions of the
European Norm 012/1999 chapter16.4.4. and chapter 16.4.5. and NP 093-03 Design Norm for the
units made of concrete of different ages and connectors for the revetments and over pouring
works
The concrete has to be poured after:
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Finishing the excavation;
Receiving the quota and the nature of the foundation ground;
Setting up and receiving the shutterings;
Setting up the reinforcements;
Setting up the weepers;
Mounting the asphalt board in the joint between the road sections;
According to the conditions stipulated above, on the basis of the minutes concluded for the hidden
works and/or for the phases determined, the inception of the concreting works shall be ordered.
The foundation concrete shall be poured adherently to the digging walls.
The concrete must be spread uniformously along the element, so that there result several strata of
maximum 50cm height; also the casting of the new stratum before the casted concrete begins to
strengthen must be previously poured.
The concretes free height at fall must not exceed 1.5 m. The work joints must be avoided, and in
case that they cant be avoided they shall be treated in accordance with the Code of conduct for
the execution of concrete works, reinforced concrete and precast concrete indicative NE 012-99.

3.6. Removal of shuttering

At shuttering removal the provisions of NE 012/1999 chapter 14 will comply with.
3.7. Waterproofing

The waterproofing will be carry out by sprinkling in three layers with bitumen emulsion.

3.8. Executing the Draining System

The drain of the wall is made up of rubble stone, granulated material and geotextile or of
geocomposite material, as stipulated in the project details.
The surface of the gutter shall be mashed off with cement mortar M100, and the ends of the
weepers shall be connected to the gutter of the drain.

3.9. Reparations of the degrade joints

This work consist of:
Dislocation of mortar between the masonry joints on a depth of 5-7cm
Joints cleaning with air and water spur
Filling the joints with mortar cement

3.10. Masonry face of the natural stone

The masonry face of the natural stone shall be made in conformity with STAS 2917/79 Masonry
works. Natural stone masonry. Manufacturing prescription.

3.10.1. Remake of the existing face wall

This work consists of:
Dislocation of the stones from the disintegrated masonry
recovery, cleaning and remaking the masonry with mortar cement.
Finishing the joints

3.10.2. New masonry face wall

This work consists of making a new masonry face wall with mortar cement mortar realized in the
same time with the pouring of the elevation concrete.

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4. CONTROL of WORKS EXECUTION

4.1. Quality control of the works

During works construction, the following verifications shall be performed:

Phase Checking
Diggings
-position in plan
-size of foundations
Shuttering
-completion of the shuttering and the internal size of the
shuttering
Reinforcement
-checking the mounting of the reinforcements and of the
weepers
Concreting the foundation and
the elevation
- verifying the fresh concrete and the cubic samples
Drain behind the wall
-gradient of the drain gutter
-drain carrying out



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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION










CONCRETE RETAINING STRUCTURES WITH
DIRECTLY FOUNDATION
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CONCRETE RETAINING STRUCTURES WITH DIRECT FOUNDATION

CONTENTS
1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 228
2. MATERIALS 228
2.1 Water ................................................................................................................228
2.2 Cement .............................................................................................................228
2.2.1 Characteristics 228
2.2.2 Quality control 228
2.2.3 Delivery 228
2.2.4 Storage 229
2.3 Natural aggregates ...........................................................................................229
2.3.1 Aggregates quality control 229
2.3.2 Aggregates transportation 229
2.3.3 Aggregates storage 229
2.4 Concrete...........................................................................................................229
2.4.1 Fresh concrete 230
2.4.2 Hardened concrete 230
2.5 Reinforcing steel ...............................................................................................230
2.6 Shuttering and support elements......................................................................231
2.7 Admixtures........................................................................................................231
2.8 Additions...........................................................................................................231
2.9 Other materials .................................................................................................231
2.9.1 Asphalt board 231
2.9.2 Geo-textile material 232
2.9.3 Bitumen 232
3. WORKS EXECUTION 232
3.1 Preliminary works .............................................................................................232
3.2 Digging .............................................................................................................232
3.3 Shuttering .........................................................................................................232
3.3.1 Shuttering checking and reception 233
3.4 Reinforcements shaping and mounting ............................................................233
3.5 Pouring and protection of concrete...................................................................233
3.6 Removal of shuttering.......................................................................................234
3.7 Waterproofing...................................................................................................234
3.8 Executing the Draining System.........................................................................234
4. CONTROL of works EXECUtion 234
4.1 Quality control of the works ..............................................................................234

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1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
The present Technical Specification applies to the concrete retaining structures (embankment
retaining wall, cutting retaining wall, revetment walls for the existing walls, continuous foundation
for guardrail made of cast-in-place concrete and reinforced gutters made of concrete or reinforced
concrete).
It includes the technical and quality conditions to be met during the execution of the works as well
as the quality control and acceptance criteria of the works.
The concrete retaining structures are foreseen for supporting the road or its adjacent slopes in
areas where full length slopes can not be executed.
2. MATERIALS
2.1. Water
It may come out of the public water supply network or from another source, but in this case it must
comply with SR EN 1008/2003. If the water comes from another source, the evaluation will be
carried out by a specialized laboratory and it must meet the provisions of the above mentioned
standard.
During the operations on the site, one must avoid to pollute the water with detergents, organic
maters, vegetable oils, clays etc.
2.2. Cement
2.2.1. Characteristics
The cement physical characteristics will be determined in compliance with: SR EN 197-1/2002, SR
EN 196-1/95SR EN 196-4/95, SR 227/2-94, SR 227/5-94, NE 012-1999.
The cement used is specified on the execution drawings in compliance with Normative NE
012/1999.
2.2.2. Quality control
Upon supply: by checking the quality certificate / warranty certificate issued by the
manufacturer or by the delivery site;
Before use: by an authorized laboratory.
2.2.3. Delivery
If the user obtains the cement from a deposit (delivery site), the cement delivery procedures will be
accompanied by a declaration of conformity, where one will specify:
The type of cement and the manufacturing plant;
The date of its arrival at the deposit;
The number of the quality certificate issued by the manufacturer;
The number of the cement quality analysis certificate, from the authorized laboratory.
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2.2.4. Storage
The cement storage will be carried out as it follows:
Into wracks, into casings of the silo type, where no other materials have been previously
stored;
packed into sacks, stored in closed rooms, deposited into stacks on boards with enough
clearance to allow ventilation.
The cement must be used before the expiration of the validity period.
2.3. Natural aggregates
The natural aggregates used for concrete preparation and for the retaining structure drain (ballast,
sand, gravel, crushed stone) have to comply from the point of view of the quality with the
provisions of STAS 1667/76, STAS 4606/80.
2.3.1. Aggregates quality control
In case of acquiring the aggregates as they are, they should be purchased from authorized
manufacturing stations.
The aggregates quality control will be carried out for every supplied batch, according to the
provisions of Annex VI.1 point A2 and VI.1 point B2 of the Code of Practice NE 012/1999, while the
evaluation methods will take into account the STAS 4606/1980.
The site laboratory will keep the record of the aggregates quality parameters as it follows:
A file will include all the quality certificates from the supplier;
A register (Aggregates test register) will list the results of the determinations made within the
laboratory.
2.3.2. Aggregates transportation
The aggregates will be delivered by clean and well fastened means of transportation. Each
shipment will be accompanied by the delivery documents that specify: the number and date of the
documents issuing, the brand of the plant (the gravel pit), the addressee, the kind and type of the
aggregates, the quantity delivered, the number of the quality certificate.
2.3.3. Aggregates storage
The aggregates will be stored on concrete cast platforms, provided with declivity and gutters for the
water drainage. In order to store the different sorts of aggregates it is necessary to set up
compartments having the adequate height, in order to avoid the mixing of the different sorts of
aggregates.
It is not allowed to store the aggregates directly on the ground or on ballasted platforms.
2.4. Concrete
The main requirements that the concrete must meet shall comply with The Code of Practice for
the execution of the concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete works, NE 012-99.
According to the way of exposure for the constructions presented in the herein reference material
that have been designed in compliance with the environment conditions, the result was the
exposure class (table 5.1 - NE 012-99).
The exposure classes, concrete classes and the minimal requests of durability insurance are
specification in the drawings project.
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2.4.1. Fresh concrete
2.4.1.1. Concrete composition
The concrete structure is defined by means of the ratio in volumes of the different dry aggregate
categories, by the weight of the binding agent corresponding to one cube meter of already cast
concrete and by the water volume. The necessary quantities for each concrete component will be
determined before the Contractor starts to mix it.
The dosage of concrete components (after having established the recipe), the following deviations
are allowed:
aggregates 3%;
cement and water 2%;
additions 3%;
admixtures 5%
The determination of the fresh concrete physical characteristics and also the admitted limits should
comply with table 2.4.1.1.

Table 2.4.1.1.
Characteristic determination
According to
standard
Allowable value
Workability:
- by means of the slump method
- by means of the compaction degree
STAS 3622 - 1986
Apparent density STAS 1759 - 1988
Air content (% vol.) STAS 5479 - 1988
Slump workability SR EN 206/1 - 2002
Compaction degree STAS 1759 - 1988
Concrete spreading ISO 9812
According to
NE 012/1999
2.4.1.2. Concrete preparation and transportation
The specifications regarding these operations will comply with NE 012/1999 chapter 16.4.3.
2.4.2. Hardened concrete
The concrete class is defined based on the characteristic compressive cylinder (cube) strength of
concrete f
ck cil
(f
ck cub
), which represents the resistance to compression rendered in N/mm
2
calculated
for 150/300mm cylinders (or for cubes with 150mm sides) at the age of 28 days; below these
values, only 5% at the most of the results may statistically be ranged.
The concretes specified by the project will be the 'heavy' type, with the apparent density of the
hardened concrete at 28 days, that is a value between
2201-2500 kg/m
3
.
Class definition takes into account that the laboratory samples are kept and stored according to
STAS 1275/88.
The work quality control with respect to site poured concretes will be put into operation according
to STAS 1275-88, STAS 1759-88, STAS 2320-88, STAS 2414/91.
2.5. Reinforcing steel
The reinforcing steel to be used will be of OB37 and PC52 types and it will comply with STAS
438/1-89.
The application fields for these kinds of reinforcements are specified in STAS 10107/0-90.
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The execution and assembly of the girders will be done in compliance with the projects
specifications. Upon delivery, the reinforcement concrete will be accompanied by the quality
certificate issued by the manufacturer. The checking of the reinforcement shall consist of:
the checking of the section's dimensions, of the net weight;
aspect evaluation;
product brand, reinforcement type, the CTC mark;
the checking of the bending;
the checking of the mechanical characteristics (fracture strength, liquid limit, elongation
strain).
The storage of the reinforcement shall be done according to types, so that one may prevent the
corrosion of the reinforcement, the contamination with earth or other materials and in order to
easily identify each type and diameter.
Bar joining will be done according to the project's provisions and according to STAS 10107/0-90.
Usually the reinforcement joining is carried out by overlapping procedures, without welding or by
means of regular welding (electrical spot welding, butt welding by intermediate melting, manual
welding by electric arc and by fish plate overlapping).
2.6. Shuttering and support elements
The shuttering may be executed out of: wood, or wood based materials, metal or polymer based
materials.
The materials that are to be used for the execution of the shuttering must comply with the following
STAS:
balls resinous round poles: STAS 1040-85;
girders - beech collar beams STAS 1961-80 and resinous collar beams SR EN 1313-
1+A1/2001;
8 and 15mm tego plywood: SR EN 313-1/1996 and SR EN 314-1/1996;
nails: STAS 2111-90.
At manufacturing the shuttering, NE 012/1999 chapter 11 will comply with.
2.7. Admixtures
Admixtures are chemical products that are added to the concrete in small quantities or equal to 5%
substance as compared to the cement mass in order to modify/ improve the concrete, in its fresh
and/or in its hardened stage.
At using the additives, the provisions of NE 012/1999 chapter 4.4 and of annex I.3 will comply with.
2.8. Additions
The additions are fine inorganic materials which can be added to the concrete in quantities of over
5% dry substance compared to the cement mass, in order to improve its characteristics or to
create special properties.
At using the additions, the provisions of NE 012/1999 chapter 4.5 will comply with.
2.9. Other materials
2.9.1. Asphalt board
Asphalt board for separation joints between wall sections, in compliance with SR 138/1994;
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2.9.2. Geo-textile material
Geo-textile material used as a filter for the drain behind the retaining and the guardrail foundation,
un woven and not-impregnated type and it will be verified according to the Standard NP 075-02 -
Technical norms concerning use of geo-synthetic materials in constructions, published in the
Construction Gazette no. 13/2002 and it will meet the following characteristics:
- tensile strength: min. 7KN/m;
elongation strain: <70%;
cross permeability parameter K
T
>1 x 10
-4
m/s;
pressure stamping with CBR >1000N;
the dimension of the pores that hold 90% of the particles quantity can be obtained by a geo-
textile: d90<0,15mm.
2.9.3. Bitumen
For the construction of the vertical waterproofing at the intrados of the retaining structures.
3. WORKS EXECUTION
3.1. Preliminary works
Before starting the works, the Contractor shall execute the preliminary works:
signaling the working area;
verifying the existing utilities and their location within the construction limits; the Contractor
shall take all the necessary measures to ensure the safety execution of the works;
pegging out the works;
ensuring the water drainage from the working areas.

3.2. Digging
When digging, the Contractor shall respect the stipulations from the Technical Specifications for
earthworks.
When the digging implies also the uncovering of some existing underground networks (water, gas,
electrical, etc.) that will still be functional, there will be taken measures for protecting them against
being damaged. If these networks are not known and they show up during the execution of the
digging, the works will stop and the Consultant will be announced in order to take the necessary
measures.
The last 30 cm until the foundation level shall be excavated immediately prior to concreting, in
order to avoid deterioration of the embedment soil and of the shape of the foundation.
3.3. Shuttering
The shuttering and the support elements must be elaborated so that they should comply with the
conditions of Annex III.1 and with table III.1.1. from NE 012-99:
To ensure the shape, the dimensions and the degree of finishing stipulated in the project for
the elements which are to be executed, in compliance with the admitted errors (length of the
shuttering elements 15mm, width 6mm, height 10mm);
To be leak free so that they should not allow the cement grout leakage;
they should be stable under the pressure that appear during the execution process.
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Before starting the shuttering set up procedures, the surfaces that will come in contact with the
concrete to be poured will be cleaned and made ready, while the reinforcements position will be
verified and corrected if necessary.
In order to reduce the adherence between the concrete and the shuttering, they are covered with
de-shuttering agents on the sides that will come into contact with the concrete immediately after
setting up.
For the architectural treatment of the outer side of the elevation, on the shuttering imprinting
elements will be set up as designed.
The shuttering set up will include the following operations:
shuttering mark-out;
the panels provisional assembly and support;
joining, coupling and final shuttering support.
3.3.1. Shuttering checking and reception
Checking will be carried out according to the following stages:
The preliminary stage, by verifying the preparing works and the components or sub-
assemblies of the shuttering and of the support elements;
During the execution works, by checking the positioning with respect to the marking out and
to the components fixing ways;
The final stage, when the shutterings are received and the remarks are written down in a
register for official reports.
For the shuttering that close after the reinforcements setting up, the official report will be drawn up
for both shuttering and reinforcement structures.
3.4. Reinforcements shaping and mounting
The forming of the reinforcements will be made of OB37 and PC52, as designed.
These operations will be performed in accordance with the European Norm 012/1999 chapter
10.5. and STAS 10111/87 chapter 6.7.
The connectors will be made of PC 52 reinforcement steel and will be fixed in the existing concrete
in the holes of a network ? with cement grout or epoxy resins
3.5. Pouring and protection of concrete
The concrete will be poured and subsequently treated in accordance with the provisions of the
European Norm 012/1999 chapter16.4.4. and chapter 16.4.5.and
NP 093-03 Design Norm for units composed of concrete of different ages and connectors for
works consisting of revetments and over pouring.
The concrete has to be poured after:
Finishing the excavation;
Receiving the quota and the nature of the foundation ground;
Setting up and receiving the shutterings;
Setting up the reinforcements;
Setting up the weepers;
Mounting the asphalt board in the joint between the road sections;
According to the conditions stipulated above, on the basis of the minutes concluded for the hidden
works and/or for the phases determined, the inception of the concreting works shall be ordered.
The foundation concrete shall be poured adherently to the digging walls.
The concrete must be spread uniform along the element, so that there result several strata of
maximum 50cm height; also the casting of the new stratum before the casted concrete begins to
strengthen must be previously poured.
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The concretes free height at fall must not exceed 1.5 m. The work joints must be avoided, and in
case that they cant be avoided they shall be treated in accordance with the Code of conduct for
the execution of concrete works, reinforced concrete and precast concrete indicative NE 012-99.
3.6. Removal of shuttering
At shuttering removal the provisions of NE 012/1999 chapter14 will comply with.
3.7. Waterproofing
The waterproofing will be carry out by sprinkling in three layers with bitumen emulsion.
3.8. Executing the Draining System
The drain of the wall is made up of rubble stone, granulated material and geotextile or of
geocomposite material, as stipulated in the project details.
The surface of the gutter shall be mashed off with cement mortar M100, and the ends of the
weepers shall be connected to the gutter of the drain.
4. CONTROL OF WORKS EXECUTION
4.1. Quality control of the works
During works construction, the following verifications shall be performed:
Work Checking
Diggings
-position in plan
-size of foundations
Shuttering
-completion of the shuttering and the internal size of the
shuttering
Reinforcement
-checking the mounting of the reinforcements and of the
weepers
Concreting the foundation and
the elevation
- verifying the fresh concrete and the cubic samples
Drain behind the wall
-gradient of the drain gutter
-drain carrying out

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION











MICROPILES OF DRY MIXTURE
WITH CEMENT, LIME AND SAND
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MICROPILES OF DRY MIXTURE WITH CEMENT, LIME AND SAND



CONTENTS



1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 237
2. MATERIALS 237
2.1 Water ................................................................................................................237
2.2 Cement .............................................................................................................237
2.3 Lime..................................................................................................................237
2.4 Aggregates (Sand)............................................................................................237
2.5 The admixture...................................................................................................238
3. WORKS EXECUTION 238
3.1 Preliminary works .............................................................................................238
3.2 The working platform........................................................................................238
3.3 The drilling of the road structure.......................................................................238
3.4 Tests.................................................................................................................238
3.5 The execution micro piles.................................................................................239
3.6 Filling the drilling with a sand-cement-lime mixture ..........................................239
4. CONTROL OF WORKS EXECUTION 240
4.1 Quality control of the works ..............................................................................240


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1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
The present Technical Specification applies for improvement of the road bearing capacity by
pressing the local soil when executing the drilling and by naturally hydrating the cement-lime-sand
mixture.
The small diameter piles made up of a dry mixture of cement, lime and sand will be set using a
continuous sneck of dislocation. The sneck passes through a bunker that supplies it with addition
material. The sneck spins reversely towards its advancing directions, thus facilitating the transport
of the dry mixture into the ground. The mixture is hydrated by the phreatic water or by the water
coming out of the pores.
The diameter of the piles generally varies between 12 and 18 cm. The piles can be drilled in
cohesive soils, from very soft soils to stiff soils, or can be drilled in organic soils, or even in non-
cohesive layers.
2. MATERIALS
The materials used for the construction of the C.S.V.-piles will be in accordance with the project
provisions and with the prescriptions in force. The replacement of the indicated materials will be
done only with the designers approval.
2.1. Water
It may come out of the public water supply network or from another source, but in this case it must
comply with SR EN 1008/2003. If the water comes from another source, the evaluation will be
carried out by a specialized laboratory and it must meet the provisions of the above mentioned
standard.
During the operations on the site, one must avoid to pollute the water with detergents, organic
maters, vegetable oils, clays etc.
2.2. Cement
For the necessary mixture cement type II, will be used the resistance category being of 32,5,
according to SR EN 197-1/2002, SR EN 196-1/95SR EN 196-4/95, SR 227/2-94, SR 227/5-94.
2.3. Lime
Powder hydrated lime will be used and will be delivered in wrack or in sacks in accordance with SR
EN 459-1:2003 Lime for construction. Definitions, characteristics and conformity criteria, SR EN
459-2:2003 Lime for construction. Methods of testing, SR EN 459-3:2003 Conformity
Assessment.
2.4. Aggregates (Sand)
The aggregates will be in accordance with the requests foreseen in the specific technical
regulations (STAS 1667-76 and, if it is the case STAS 662-2002 and SR 667-2001).
The aggregates dont have to be contaminated with other materials during transportation and
storage. The aggregates storage has to be done on concrete platforms with slopes and gutters for
water drainage. The storage directly on the ground or on ballasted platforms is not allowed.
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The aggregates grading is checked by sieves or screens having the size of the holes according to
the standards into force (STAS 1667-76).
2.5. The admixture
The admixture will be produced only in specialized stations which can provide the dry admixture
and a homogenous distribution of the constituent materials. Generally, the admixture will be made
in asphalt/batching plants, which offer the possibility of drying the sand before it is used.
The transportation is made with covered vehicles. The admixture will be thus protected against the
outside humidity and against impurities during storage and transportation.
The Manufacturer will submit to the User, for every supply of mixture, a Certificate of Quality,
comprising the following basic information:
- name of the producing plant;
- day and hour of loading;
- registration number of the vehicle;
- mixture quantity;
- mixture composition and humidity.
The deliveries and the used materials will be recorded in a book, on site.
3. WORKS EXECUTION
3.1. Preliminary works
Before starting the works, the Contractor shall execute the preliminary works:
signaling the working area;
verifying the existing utilities and their location within the construction limits; the Contractor
shall take all the necessary measures to ensure the safety execution of the works;
pegging out the works;
ensuring the water drainage from the working areas.
3.2. The working platform
The existing surface of the road will be used as a working platform for the drilling equipments. This
allows the removal of the equipment from the site for the night or in case of breakdown.
3.3. The drilling of the road structure
At each and every point where micropiles, will be executed, the drilling operations will
initially be performed through the road structure. The drillings diameter will be of at least
133mm. The drilling operations will be carried out in a 0,90m grid (along the road) and
0.60m (across the road). The last two piles near the road slope will be drilled at a 7
3angle.
3.4. Tests
Before the micropiles are executed, 1-3 calibration micropiles will be erected in order to calibrate
the work parameters of the installation during the execution of the micropiles, as follows:
the auger advancing speed, rotation speed and crowding force;
the auger withdrawing speed, rotation speed.
The calibration is done based on the geotechnical soil parameters.
In total two load tests will be executed as follows:
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One test on natural unconsolidated soil;
Second test will be performed on micro piles together with consolidated surrounding soil.
Tests of loading the micropiles with plates will be carried out after at least 28 days from the
completion date, but only after hardening of the mixture.
The loading process is done with the help of a hydraulic press, that presses on a circular plate with
a diameter of 500 mm, concentrically placed on the micropiles.
The loading process will be done in minimum 5 steps of approximate 50KPa each. Readings at
each 5 minutes will be done. The loading process will be stopped when the settlement increase is
stabilized.
After discharging, the residual soil settlements will be interpreted.
According to the 2914/4-89 Standard, the equivalent linear deformation module E
c equiv
and the
admisible

pressure p
adm
will be find out from the recorded data interpretation:
p
adm
= p
cr
m k
k = 0.7 uniformity coefficient
m = 0.9 work conditions coefficient.
3.5. The execution micro piles
The total length stipulated for the C.S.V.-piles will be of approx. 8.00 m, and it comprises 1,00m of
drilling in the road structure and 7m of pile executed in the backfill body.
The final length of the micropiles will be of approx. 7m, according to the geo-technical data. In case
that the advancement of the sneck is obstructed due to the soil consistence, the length of the
micropiles will be considered as executed so far as the depth it reached, and the execution
process (of the respective pile) completed.
According to the execution procedure, the soil improvement will be made by use of admixture and
not by replacement of the soil having also as purpose, simultaneously with the micropiles
execution, the consolidation of the surrounding soil by using the pressing procedure. Except the
boring area through the road foundation, during the micropiles execution process the excavating of
material from the reinforced land is not allowed.
3.6. Filling the drilling with a sand-cement-lime mixture
As addition material will be used a dry mixture of 20% cement, 5% free lime (Ca(OH)
2
) and 75%
sand (procente de masa) .The mixture will be prepared in statii de amestec uscat (statii de mixturi
asfaltice) and delivered to the site.
With the sneck, which spins reversely towards its advancing direction, the mixture will be
impressed, while the soil on the top of the sneck will be pushed on the sides when advancing, the
pressed area acting like a tube that supports the walls of the hole. This will be done for the entire
length of the pile. At withdrawing the sneck, the mixture adding will also fill the gap left by the
sneck, it also being compacted.
The pile thus constructed will be consolidated by combining the mixture with the underground or
macro-pore water present in the soil.
Note: The recipe of the dry mixture will be establish by the performer based on his own site and lab
investigations concerning the geotechnical characteristics of the different types of layers.
For each minipile an execution data sheet will be elaborated according to the specifications
established in the Technical Manual of the plant executing the work (length, head pression,
interruptions, rotation speed, advancing speed, snack extraction).





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4. CONTROL OF WORKS EXECUTION
4.1. Quality control of the works
During works construction, the folowing verifications shall be performed:
Phase Checking
Drilling minipiles
-position in plan
-minipiles length
-drilling data sheet, introducing the mixture
Lime-cement-sand mixture
-recipe
-the volume introduced in each minipile
Tests of assay with slab
-establishing the modulus of the liniar deformation of the
consolidated soil
-the calculation of the admissible pression


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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION












CONCRETE CULVERTS
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CONCRETE CULVERTS


CONTENTS


1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 244
2. MATERIALS 244
2.1 Water ................................................................................................................244
2.2 Cement .............................................................................................................244
2.2.1 Characteristics 244
2.2.2 Quality control 244
2.2.3 Delivery 244
2.2.4 Storage 245
2.3 Natural aggregates ...........................................................................................245
2.3.1 Aggregates quality control 245
2.3.2 Aggregates transportation 245
2.3.3 Aggregates storage 245
2.4 Concrete...........................................................................................................245
2.4.1 Fresh concrete 246
2.4.2 Hardened concrete 246
2.5 Reinforcing .......................................................................................................247
2.5.1 Reinforcing steel 247
2.5.2 Welded nets 247
2.5.3 Dead-drawn wire for reinforced concrete 247
2.5.4 Prestressed reinforcements 247
2.6 Shuttering and support elements......................................................................247
2.7 Metallic Patterns ...............................................................................................248
2.8 Admixtures........................................................................................................248
2.9 Additions...........................................................................................................248
2.10 Precast elements made of reinforced concrete and prestressed reinforced concrete
248
2.10.1 Procurement of precast elements 248
2.10.2 Mounting of precast elements 249
2.10.3 Joining of the precast elements 249
2.10.4 Caulking the joints 249
2.11 Other materials .................................................................................................249
2.11.1 Asphalt board 249
2.11.2 Geo-textile 249
2.11.3 Bitumen 249
2.11.4 Geo-membrane for horizontal hydro-insulation 249
3. WORKS EXECUTIONS 250
3.1 Preliminary works .............................................................................................250
3.2 Digging .............................................................................................................250
3.3 Shuttering .........................................................................................................250
3.3.1 Shuttering checking and reception 250
3.4 Reinforcements shaping and mounting ............................................................251
3.5 Pouring and protection of concrete...................................................................251
3.6 Removal of shuttering.......................................................................................251
3.7 The Slope Concrete..........................................................................................251
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3.8 Waterproofing...................................................................................................252
3.8.1 Vertical waterproofing 252
3.8.2 Horizontal waterproofing 252
3.9 Waterproofing Protection..................................................................................252
3.9.1 Cast Asphalt Mortar MAT (CAM) 252
3.9.2 Precast Concrete Slabs 252
3.10 Road System....................................................................................................252
3.11 Executing the Draining System.........................................................................253
3.12 Rubble Stone Mattresses .................................................................................253
3.13 Embankments connection to the culvert ..........................................................253
3.13.1 Wings and precast reinforced concrete edge elements 253
3.13.2 Cone Quarter 253
4. CONTROL OF WORKS EXECUTION 253
4.1 Quality control of the works ..............................................................................253



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1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
This Technical Specification applies to the following types of culverts:
pipe culverts d=500mm made of precast reinforced concrete for the service roads and for
estate roads;
slab culverts with a span of 2.00m, 3.00m, 4.00m and 5.00m, made of precast reinforced
concrete with substructures made of monolith concrete or of precast reinforced concrete and
direct foundations made of monolith concrete;
culverts made of precast reinforced concrete frames with a span of 2.00 m, mounted on the
simple monolith concrete foundation;
The Technical Specification comprises the technical and quality conditions that have to be
complied with by materials, works quality control and works reception criteria.
2. MATERIALS
2.1. Water
It may come out of the public water supply network or from another source, but in this case it must
comply with SR EN 1008/2003. If the water comes from another source, the evaluation will be
carried out by a specialized laboratory and it must meet the provisions of the above mentioned
standard.
During the operations on the site, one must avoid to pollute the water with detergents, organic
maters, vegetable oils, clays etc.
2.2. Cement
2.2.1. Characteristics
The cement physical characteristics will be determined in compliance with: SR EN 197-1/2002, SR
EN 196-1/95SR EN 196-4/95, SR 227/2-94, SR 227/5-94, NE 012-1999, NE 013-2002.
The used cement is specified in the execution drawings in accordance with the exposure class
specified in Normative NE 012/1999 for the monolith concretes and in NE 013-2002 for the precast
elements made of simple concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed reinforced concrete.
2.2.2. Quality control
upon supply: by checking the quality certificate / warranty certificate issued by the
manufacturer or by the delivery site;
before use: by an authorized laboratory.
2.2.3. Delivery
If the user obtains the cement from a deposit (delivery site), the cement delivery procedures will be
accompanied by a declaration of conformity, where one will specify:
the type of cement and the manufacturing plant;
the date of its arrival at the deposit;
the number of the quality certificate issued by the manufacturer;
the number of the cement quality analysis certificate, from the authorized laboratory.
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2.2.4. Storage
The cement storage will be carried out as follows:
into wracks, into casings of the silo type, where no other materials have been previously
stored;
packed into sacks, stored in closed rooms, deposited into stacks on boards with enough
clearance to allow ventilation.
The cement must be used before the expiration of the validity period.
2.3. Natural aggregates
From the qualitative point of view, the natural aggregates used for preparing the concrete and the
drain have to comply with the provisions in STAS 1667/76, STAS 4606/80 NE 012-1999 and NE
013-2002.
The natural stone for executing the mattress has to comply with SR 667/2000 and STAS 5089/71.
2.3.1. Aggregates quality control
In case of acquiring the aggregates as they are, they should be purchased from authorized
manufacturing stations.
The aggregates quality control will be carried out for every supplied batch, according to the
provisions of Annex VI.1 point A2 and VI.1 point B2 of the Code of Practice NE 012/1999 and NE
013-2002 chapter 4.2, while the evaluation methods will take into account the STAS 4606/1980.
The site laboratory will keep the record of the aggregates quality parameters as it follows:
a file will include all the quality certificates from the supplier;
a register (Aggregates test register) will list the results of the determinations made within the
laboratory.
2.3.2. Aggregates transportation
The aggregates will be delivered by clean and well fastened means of transportation. Each
shipment will be accompanied by the delivery documents that specify: the number and date of the
documents issuing, the brand of the plant (the gravel pit), the addressee, the kind and type of the
aggregates, the quantity delivered, the number of the quality certificate.
2.3.3. Aggregates storage
The aggregates will be stored on concrete cast platforms, provided with declivity and gutters for the
water drainage. In order to store the different sorts of aggregates it is necessary to set up
compartments having the adequate height, in order to avoid the mixing of the different sorts of
aggregates.
It is not allowed to store the aggregates directly on the ground or on ballasted platforms.
2.4. Concrete
The basic requirements that the concretes have to comply with shall be in accordance with
Practice Code for executing the works made of concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed
concrete, Indicative NE 012-1999 and Practice code for executing the precast elements made of
concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete, Indicative NE 013-2002. As the
constructions stipulated in the documentation are presented, according to the environment
conditions, the exposure class is established for monolith concrete and chapter 6.14 NE 013-
2002 precast concrete elements.
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The exposure class, the concrete class and the minimum requirements for ensuring the durability
are specified in the project drawings.
2.4.1. Fresh concrete
2.4.1.1. Concrete composition
The concrete structure is defined by means of the ratio in volumes of the different dry aggregate
categories, by the weight of the binding agent corresponding to one cube meter of already cast
concrete and by the water volume. The necessary quantities for each concrete component will be
determined before the Contractor starts to mix it.
The dosage of concrete components (after having established the recipe), the following deviations
are allowed:
aggregates 3%;
cement and water 2%;
additions 3%;
admixtures 5%
The determination of the fresh concrete physical characteristics and also the admitted limits should
comply with table 2.4.1.1.

Table 2.4.1.1.
Characteristic determination
According to
standard
Allowable value
Workability:
- by means of the slump method
- by means of the compaction degree
3622 - 86
Apparent density 1759-88
Air content (% vol.) 5479 88
Slump workability 206-1/2002
Compaction degree 1759-88
Concrete spreading ISO 9812
According to
NE 012-1999
NE 013-2002
2.4.1.2. Concrete preparation and transportation
The specifications regarding these operations will comply with NE 012/1999 chapter 16.4.3 and NE
013-2002 chapter. 9 and chapter. 12.2.2.
2.4.2. Hardened concrete
The concrete class is defined based on the characteristic compressive cylinder (cube) strength of
concrete f
ck cil
(f
ck cub
), which represents the resistance to compression rendered in N/mm
2
calculated
for 150/300mm cylinders (or for cubes with 150mm sides) at the age of 28 days; below these
values, only 5% at the most of the results may statistically be ranged.
The concretes specified by the project will be the 'heavy' type, with the apparent density of the
hardened concrete at 28 days, that is a value between
2201-2500 kg/m
3
.
Class definition takes into account that the laboratory samples are kept and stored according to
STAS 1275/88.
The work quality control with respect to site poured concretes will be put into operation according
to STAS 1275-88, STAS 1759-88, STAS 2320-88, STAS 2414/91.
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2.5. Reinforcing
2.5.1. Reinforcing steel
The reinforcing steel to be used will be of OB37 and PC52 types and it will comply with STAS
438/1-89.
The application fields for these kinds of reinforcements are specified in STAS 10107/0-90.
The execution and assembly of the girders will be done in compliance with the projects
specifications. Upon delivery, the reinforcement concrete will be accompanied by the quality
certificate issued by the manufacturer. The checking of the reinforcement shall consist of:
the checking of the section's dimensions, of the net weight;
aspect evaluation;
product brand, reinforcement type, the CTC mark;
the checking of the bending;
the checking of the mechanical characteristics (fracture strength, liquid limit, elongation
strain).
The storage of the reinforcement shall be done according to types, so that one may prevent the
corrosion of the reinforcement, the contamination with earth or other materials and in order to
easily identify each type and diameter.
Bar joining will be done according to the project's provisions and according to STAS 10107/0-90.
Usually the reinforcement joining is carried out by overlapping procedures, without welding or by
means of regular welding (electrical spot welding, but welding by intermediate melting, manual
welding by electric arc and by fish plate overlapping).
2.5.2. Welded nets
The nets welded from steel bars, used for reinforcing the slope concretes shall be in accordance
with Indicative 106 GQ 126 SR 438/3-1998 Steel products for concrete reinforcement. Welded
nets.
2.5.3. Dead-drawn wire for reinforced concrete
Dead-drawn wire for reinforced concrete complies with STAS 438/2-89 Steel products for concrete
reinforcement. Round dead-drawn wire
2.5.4. Prestressed reinforcements
The prestressed reinforcements shall be in accordance with Technical Specifications, Guide for
technical certification GAT 253 (MLPAT) for imported prestressed reinforcements and NE 012-
1999 second part chapter 3.
2.6. Shuttering and support elements
The shuttering may be executed out of: wood, or wood based materials, metal or polymer based
materials.
The materials that are to be used for the execution of the shuttering must comply with the following
STAS:
balls resinous round poles: STAS 1040-85;
girders - beech collar beams STAS 1961-80 and resinous collar beams SR EN 1313-
1+A1/2001;
8 and 15mm tego plywood: SR EN 313-1/1996 and SR EN 314-1/1996;
nails: STAS 2111-90.
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At manufacturing the shuttering, NE 012/1999 chapter 11 will comply with.
2.7. Metallic Patterns
The metallic patterns for precast elements have to comply with the provisions of STAS 7721-90
and NE 013-2002 chapter 2.
2.8. Admixtures
Admixtures are chemical products that are added to the concrete in small quantities or equal to 5%
substance as compared to the cement mass in order to modify/ improve the concrete, in its fresh
and/or in its hardened stage.
At using the additives, the provisions of NE 012/1999 chapter 4.4 and of annex I.3 and NE 013-
2002 chapter.4.4.
2.9. Additions
The additions are fine inorganic materials which can be added to the concrete in quantities of over
5% dry substance compared to the cement mass, in order to improve its characteristics or to
create special properties.
At using the additions, the provisions of NE 012/1999 chapter 4.5 will comply with.
2.10. Precast elements made of reinforced concrete and prestressed
reinforced concrete
2.10.1. Procurement of precast elements
The used precast elements made of reinforced concrete and prestressed reinforced concrete are
the following:
central and marginal slabs D2, D3, D4, D5;
box-like elements C2, C2, C2;
elements type ;
elements type L0, L1, L2, L3;
wings A0, A1, A2, A3;
edge elements, type CP2;
tympan type T2.
tubes 500mm.
The precast elements made of reinforced concrete and of prestressed reinforced concrete are
executed in authorised specialized units, through specific tehnical procedures and by complying
with provisions from NE 012/1999-vol.I,II, NE 013/2002, STAS 6657/1,2,3/1989 (precast
elements), STAS 7721/1990 (metallic patterns), Normative C16/1984 (pouring concretes on
exterior tracks, on cold weather) etc.
The Manufacturer of the precast elements shall present to the Executor of the culverts works and
to the Consultant the procedures of finalization, transport and mounting of these elements in
accordance with the specific technical reglementations and with the provisions of the quality
assurance system.
Upon delivery, the precast elements shall be accompanied by a quality certificate. The reception of
the precast elements on site and their control before mounting shall be done in accordance with
NE 013/2002 annex 17.1.
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2.10.2. Mounting of precast elements
The precast elements are mounted on the foundation or on the elevation, with a 2cm thick M 100
mortar layer only after the mounting quotas have been checked. Before mounting, the distance
between the joining reinforcements between the substructure and the superstructure (slabs) is
checked.
2.10.3. Joining of the precast elements
The precast slabs of D2 type are joined with the elevations by means of a reinforced concrete
cross beam, according to the detailed drawings. The precast slabs D3, D4 and D5 are joined by
introducing cement mortar in the holes fixing the precast elements on the elevations.
2.10.4. Caulking the joints
The joints between the precast elements shall be caulked along their entire length with M100
cement.
2.11. Other materials
2.11.1. Asphalt board
The asphalt board is used for separation joints between wall sections, in compliance with SR
138/1994.
2.11.2. Geo-textile
Geo-textile material used as a filter for the drain behind the bridge abutments, un woven and not-
impregnated type and it will be verified according to the Standard NP 075-02 - Technical norms
concerning use of geo-synthetic materials in constructions, published in the Construction Gazette
no. 13/2002 and it will meet the following characteristics:
- tensile strength: min. 7KN/m;
elongation strain: <70%;
cross permeability parameter K
T
>1 x 10
-4
m/s;
pressure stamping with CBR >1000N;
the dimension of the pores that hold 90% of the particles quantity can be obtained by a geo-
textile: d90<0,15mm.
2.11.3. Bitumen
The bitumen used for executing the vertical hydro-insulation ai the culvert soffit has to comply with
the characteristics specified in STAS 5088-75.
2.11.4. Geo-membrane for horizontal hydro-insulation
Geo-membrane or other products (pulverulent, liquid mixtures with rapid hardening) must comply
with the characteristics specified in S.R. 137-95 and in Normative AND no. 577-2002.
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3. WORKS EXECUTIONS
3.1. Preliminary works
Before starting the works, the Contractor shall execute the preliminary works:
signaling the working area;
verifying the existing utilities and their location within the construction limits; the Contractor
shall take all the necessary measures to ensure the safety execution of the works;
pegging out the works;
ensuring the water drainage from the working areas.
3.2. Digging
When digging, the Contractor shall respect the stipulations from the Technical Specifications for
earthworks.
When the digging implies also the uncovering of some existing underground networks (water, gas,
electrical, etc.) that will still be functional, there will be taken measures for protecting them against
being damaged. If these networks are not known and they show up during the execution of the
digging, the works will stop and the Consultant will be announced in order to take the necessary
measures.
The last 30 cm until the foundation level shall be excavated immediately prior to concreting, in
order to avoid deterioration of the embedment soil and of the shape of the foundation.
3.3. Shuttering
The shuttering and the support elements must be elaborated so that they should comply with the
conditions of Annex III.1 and with table III.1.1. from NE 012-99:
To ensure the shape, the dimensions and the degree of finishing stipulated in the project for
the elements which are to be executed, in compliance with the admitted errors (length of the
shuttering elements 15mm, width 6mm, height 10mm);
To be leak free so that they should not allow the cement grout leakage;
they should be stable under the pressure that appear during the execution process.
Before starting the shuttering set up procedures, the surfaces that will come in contact with the
concrete to be poured will be cleaned and made ready, while the reinforcements position will be
verified and corrected if necessary.
In order to reduce the adherence between the concrete and the shuttering, they are covered with
de-shuttering agents on the sides that will come into contact with the concrete immediately after
setting up.
For the architectural treatment of the outer side of the elevation, on the shuttering imprinting
elements will be set up as designed.
The shuttering set up will include the following operations:
shuttering mark-out;
the panels provisional assembly and support;
joining, coupling and final shuttering support.
3.3.1. Shuttering checking and reception
Checking will be carried out according to the following stages:
The preliminary stage, by verifying the preparing works and the components or sub-
assemblies of the shuttering and of the support elements;
During the execution works, by checking the positioning with respect to the marking out and
to the components fixing ways;
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The final stage, when the shutterings are received and the remarks are written down in a
register for official reports.
For the shuttering that close after the reinforcements setting up, the official report will be drawn up
for both shuttering and reinforcement structures.
3.4. Reinforcements shaping and mounting
The forming of the reinforcements will be made of OB37 and PC52, as designed.
These operations will be performed in accordance with the European Norm 012/1999 chapter
10.5. and STAS 10111/87 chapter 6.7.
3.5. Pouring and protection of concrete
The concrete will be poured and subsequently treated in accordance with the provisions of the
European Norm 012/1999 chapter16.4.4. and chapter 16.4.5.and
NP 093-03 Design Norm for units composed of concrete of defferent ages and connectors for
works consisting of revetments and overcasting.
The concrete has to be poured after:
Finishing the excavation;
Receiving the quota and the nature of the foundation ground;
Setting up and receiving the shutterings;
Setting up the reinforcements;
Setting up the weepers;
Mounting the asphalt board in the joint between the road sections;
According to the conditions stipulated above, on the basis of the minutes concluded for the hidden
works and/or for the phases determined, the inception of the concreting works shall be ordered.
The foundation concrete shall be poured adherently to the digging walls.
The concrete must be spread uniformously along the element, so that there result several strata of
maximum 50cm height; also the casting of the new stratum before the casted concrete begins to
strengthen must be previously poured.
The concretes free height at fall must not exceed 1.5 m. The work joints must be avoided, and in
case that they cant be avoided they shall be treated in accordance with the Code of conduct for
the execution of concrete works, reinforced concrete and precast concrete indicative NE 012-99.
3.6. Removal of shuttering
At shuttering removal the provisions of NE 012/1999 chapter14 will comply with.
3.7. The Slope Concrete
The slope concrete represents the base layer of the horizontal hydro-insulation. It is cast over the
precast elements, after the welded wire net was previously set up.
When casting the slope concrete, the provisions stipulated in NE 012-1999 shall be strictly
observed. The intensified slope concrete over which the waterproofing is set must comply with the
following minimum requirements:
minimum 28 days from casting;
compact aspect, without holes, uneveness, cracks, splits, segregations;
the concrete slope must be in accordance with the project stipulations;
it should not contain lime cement thin coatings, oil stains, mud, etc;
it should not present moss;
the allowed maximum uneveness measured with the leveling board having a width ranging
between 3.00m 1.52.0 mm;
the surface must be cleaned up by air pressure blowing or by paving;
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the moisture measured with Fentron humidometer must range in the admissible limits
stipulated in the technical specifications of the material used as waterproofing.
3.8. Waterproofing
The hydro-insulation is performed immediately after the conditions described in chap 3.7. have
been respected, as well as complying with the provisions of 577 AND/2002 Normative.
3.8.1. Vertical waterproofing
The vertical hydro-insulation is carried out by sprinkling three layers of bituminous emulsion or
other similar product so that it should evenly cover the entire concrete surface.
3.8.2. Horizontal waterproofing
The horizontal hydro-insulation is made up of geo-membrane or of other products (pulverous
mixtures, fast drying liquids) that shall be applied in accordance with the technical specifications
stipulated in the technological sheet of the producing company, but also respecting the following
minimum obligatory conditions:
min 5 C assembling temperature;
the surface onto which the hydro-insulation is applied must be completely dry;
the coating shall be continuous, from the edge towards the center;
the possible superposition areas should be of min. 10 cm;
holes, bloating, air bubbles, detached margins, etc. are not allowed.
3.9. Waterproofing Protection
The waterproofing protection is carried out as follows:
3.9.1. Cast Asphalt Mortar MAT (CAM)
The asphalt mortar cast with a 2 cm minimum thickness for the culverts where the asphalt layers
are executed on the precast elements. The quality conditions must comply with STAS 11348/87.
3.9.2. Precast Concrete Slabs
The precast concrete slabs are used for culverts made up in backfill, over which fillings or a
complete road system is executed. The slabs are made up of C12/15 concrete and measure
20x20x5 cm; this type of concrete is set up on a M100 mortar cement layer, 2 cm thick.
3.10. Road System
The road system on the culvert is executed according to the current road system, complying with
the following conditions:
minimum 10 cm asphalt layers for the culverts that have the way directly set on the precast
elements;
complete road system for the culverts that are executed in the backfill.
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3.11. Executing the Draining System
The drain is made up of rubble stone, granular material and geo-textile or of geo-composite
material, as stipulated in the project details.
The surface of the gutter shall be mashed off with cement mortar M100, and the ends of the
weepers shall be connected to the gutter of the drain.
3.12. Rubble Stone Mattresses
The rubble stone mattresses are executed of dry masonry made up of raw stone or of river stones
and sand, in accordance with the project details and with the STAS 291/79 specifications.
3.13. Embankments connection to the culvert
The embankments connection to the culvert is performed as follows:
3.13.1. Wings and precast reinforced concrete edge elements
These elements made up of precast reinforced concrete are set up on simple concrete
foundations, on a mortar layer; behind these elements, the drain and the embankments shall be
executed.
3.13.2. Cone Quarter
The cone quarter is made up of soil protected with concrete slab lining or with rubble stone, jointed
with cement mortar. The reinforced concrete backwall, executed for the connection to the
embankments between the culverts elevation and its cone quarter, shall comply with the project
details.
The connection type was chosen according to the specifications made in the drawings.
4. CONTROL OF WORKS EXECUTION
4.1. Quality control of the works
During works construction, the following verifications shall be performed:

Phase Checking
Diggings
-position in plan
-size of foundations
Shuttering
-completion of the shuttering and the internal size of the
shuttering
Reinforcement, weepers
-checking the assembling of the reinforcements and of the
weepers
Concreting the foundation and
the elevation
- verifying the fresh concrete and the cubic samples
Drain behind the abutment
-gradient of the drain gutter
-drain carrying out
Geo-textile -setting the geo-textile behind the drain
Horizontal waterproofing -mounting
Vertical waterproofing -leveling of the sprinkling process

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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION




PROTECTION WORKS WITH
CONCRETE REVETMENT
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PROTECTION WORKS
WITH CONCRETE REVETMENT

CONTENTS


1. GENERAL PROVISIONS 256
2. MATERIALS 256
2.1 Materials for filter and draining suport layer......................................................256
2.1.1 GEOTEXTIL FOR REVETMENT FILTER 256
2.1.2. CRUSHED STONE 256
2.2 Concrete (for the bearing beam and slab revetment) .......................................257
2.2.1 Water ..............................................................................................................257
2.2.2 Cement ...........................................................................................................257
2.2.3 natural aggregates..........................................................................................257
2.2.4 Concrete..........................................................................................................258
2.2.5 Reinforcing steel ..............................................................................................259
2.2.6 Shuttering and support elements.....................................................................259
2.2.7 Admixtures.......................................................................................................259
2.2.8 Additions..........................................................................................................260
3. CONSTRUCTION OF WORKS 260
3.1 Preliminary works .............................................................................................260
3.2 Earthworks........................................................................................................260
3.3 Concrete beam at the revetment basis..............................................................260
3.4 Draining support layer........................................................................................260
3.5 Concrete slab revetment....................................................................................261
4. WORKS EXECUTION CONTROL 261
4.1 Works construction verification........................................................................261










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1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

This Technical Specification refers to the general technical conditions to be accomplished at the
phases of preparation and construction of the earthwork works and protection of riverbed bank with
concrete revetment.

The specifications contain the technical requirements that must be met during execution, and also
the quality control and criteria of works acceptance.

During execution of water works, the Contractor shall install an own gauge, in the site, the measured
water level being recorded in a file kept on site.

At the end of the working day, all equipment, shuttering, and materials unused shall be stored in
places away from possible effects that might be caused by the flooding as a sequence of fast rising of
the wather level on the riverbed.

In the case of deviations from these Technical Specifications, the Consultant shall dispose the works
to be ceased and measures to be taken for all necessary remedies.

2. MATERIALS
2.1. Materials for filter and draining suport layer
2.1.1. Geotextil for revetment filter
The geotextil used by filter on the earthwoks under the draining layer made of crushed stone of
protection revetment shall have to fulfill the following technical characteristics:
Mass minim 300g/m
2

Resistance to stress:
Geo-synthetic that is not woven minim 12kN/m
Breaking elongation <70%
Pores diameter maxim 0.12mm
CBR punching minim 2000N

The geotextile shall be accompanied by a certificate of quality and specific instructions for laying,
given by Supplier.
2.1.2. Crushed stone
The crushed stone is used as draining layer. The Contractor shall respect the characteristics of
petrography, and physical-mechanical, shapes and limit deviations prescribed by SR 667/2001.

The crushed stone shall be stored on dry platforms, on sizes, in conditions that will keep them
away from impurities. The crushed stone delivered by organized quarries shall be accompanied by
certificate of quality which will correspond to the standard requirements.

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2.2. Concrete (for the bearing beam and slab revetment)
2.2.1. Water
It may come out of the public water supply network or from another source, but in this case it must
comply with SR EN 1008/2003. If the water comes from another source, the evaluation will be
carried out by a specialized laboratory and it must meet the provisions of the above mentioned
standard.
During the operations on the site, one must avoid to pollute the water with detergents, organic
maters, vegetable oils, clays etc.
2.2.2. Cement
Characteristics
The cement physical characteristics will be determined in compliance with: SR EN 197-1/2002, SR
EN 196-1/95SR EN 196-4/95, SR 227/2-94, SR 227/5-94, NE 012-1999.
The cement used is specified on the execution drawings in compliance with Normative NE
012/1999.
Quality control
Upon supply: by checking the quality certificate / warranty certificate issued by the
manufacturer or by the delivery site;
Before use: by an authorized laboratory.
Delivery
If the user obtains the cement from a deposit (delivery site), the cement delivery procedures will
be accompanied by a declaration of conformity, where one will specify:
The type of cement and the manufacturing plant;
The date of its arrival at the deposit;
The number of the quality certificate issued by the manufacturer;
The number of the cement quality analysis certificate, from the authorized laboratory.
Storage
The cement storage will be carried out as it follows:
Into wracks, into casings of the silo type, where no other materials have been previously
stored;
packed into sacks, stored in closed rooms, deposited into stacks on boards with enough
clearance to allow ventilation.
The cement must be used before the expiration of the validity period.
2.2.3. Natural aggregates
The natural aggregates used for concrete preparation and for the retaining structure drain (ballast,
sand, gravel, crushed stone) have to comply from the point of view of the quality with the
provisions of STAS 1667/76, STAS 4606/80.
Aggregates quality control
In case of acquiring the aggregates as they are, they should be purchased from authorized
manufacturing stations.
The aggregates quality control will be carried out for every supplied batch, according to the
provisions of Annex VI.1 point A2 and VI.1 point B2 of the Code of Practice NE 012/1999, while the
evaluation methods will take into account the STAS 4606/1980.
The site laboratory will keep the record of the aggregates quality parameters as it follows:
A file will include all the quality certificates from the supplier;
A register (Aggregates test register) will list the results of the determinations made within the
laboratory.
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Aggregates transportation
The aggregates will be delivered by clean and well fastened means of transportation. Each
shipment will be accompanied by the delivery documents that specify: the number and date of the
documents issuing, the brand of the plant (the gravel pit), the addressee, the kind and type of the
aggregates, the quantity delivered, the number of the quality certificate.

Aggregates storage
The aggregates will be stored on concrete cast platforms, provided with declivity and gutters for the
water drainage. In order to store the different sorts of aggregates it is necessary to set up
compartments having the adequate height, in order to avoid the mixing of the different sorts of
aggregates.
It is not allowed to store the aggregates directly on the ground or on ballasted platforms.
2.2.4. Concrete
The main requirements that the concrete must meet shall comply with The Code of Practice for
the execution of the concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete works, NE 012-99.
According to the way of exposure for the constructions presented in the herein reference material
that have been designed in compliance with the environment conditions, the result was the 2b
exposure class.
Concrete class 18/22.5
Exposure class 2b
Minimal level of impermeability P8
Minimal level of frost cleftness G100
A/C report 0.50
Type of cement I, II/A 32.5
Fresh concrete
a) Concrete composition
The concrete structure is defined by means of the ratio in volumes of the different dry aggregate
categories, by the weight of the binding agent corresponding to one cube meter of already cast
concrete and by the water volume. The necessary quantities for each concrete component will be
determined before the Contractor starts to mix it.
The dosage of concrete components (after having established the recipe), the following deviations
are allowed:
aggregates 3%;
cement and water 2%;
additions 3%;
admixtures 5%
The determination of the fresh concrete physical characteristics and also the admitted limits should
comply with table:

Characteristic determination
According to
standard
Allowable value
Workability:
- by means of the slump method
- by means of the compaction degree
STAS 3622 - 1986
Apparent density STAS 1759 - 1988
Air content (% vol.) STAS 5479 - 1988
Slump workability SR EN 206/1 - 2002
Compaction degree STAS 1759 - 1988
Concrete spreading ISO 9812

NE 012/1999

b) Concrete preparation and transportation
The specifications regarding these operations will comply with NE 012/1999 chapter 16.4.3.
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Hardened concrete
The concrete class is defined based on the characteristic compressive cylinder (cube) strength of
concrete f
ck cil
(f
ck cub
), which represents the resistance to compression rendered in N/mm
2
calculated
for 150/300mm cylinders (or for cubes with 150mm sides) at the age of 28 days; below these
values, only 5% at the most of the results may statistically be ranged.
The concretes specified by the project will be the 'heavy' type, with the apparent density of the
hardened concrete at 28 days, that is a value between
2201-2500 kg/m
3
.
Class definition takes into account that the laboratory samples are kept and stored according to
STAS 1275/88.
The work quality control with respect to site poured concretes will be put into operation according
to STAS 1275-88, STAS 1759-88, STAS 2320-88, STAS 2414/91.
2.2.5. Reinforcing steel
The reinforcing steel to be used will be of OB37 and PC52 types and it will comply with STAS
438/1-89.
The application fields for these kinds of reinforcements are specified in STAS 10107/0-90.
The execution and assembly of the girders will be done in compliance with the projects
specifications. Upon delivery, the reinforcement concrete will be accompanied by the quality
certificate issued by the manufacturer. The checking of the reinforcement shall consist of:
the checking of the section's dimensions, of the net weight;
aspect evaluation;
product brand, reinforcement type, the CTC mark;
the checking of the bending;
the checking of the mechanical characteristics (fracture strength, liquid limit, elongation
strain).
The storage of the reinforcement shall be done according to types, so that one may prevent the
corrosion of the reinforcement, the contamination with earth or other materials and in order to
easily identify each type and diameter.
Bar joining will be done according to the project's provisions and according to STAS 10107/0-90.
Usually the reinforcement joining is carried out by overlapping procedures, without welding or by
means of regular welding (electrical spot welding, butt welding by intermediate melting, manual
welding by electric arc and by fish plate overlapping).
2.2.6. Shuttering and support elements
The shuttering may be executed out of: wood, or wood based materials, metal or polymer based
materials.
The materials that are to be used for the execution of the shuttering must comply with the following
STAS:
balls resinous round poles: STAS 1040-85;
girders - beech collar beams STAS 8689-86 and resinous collar beams SR EN 1313-
1+A1/2001;
8 and 15mm tego plywood: SR EN 313-1/1996 and SR EN 314-1/1996;
nails: STAS 2111-90.
At manufacturing the shuttering, NE 012/1999 chapter 11 will comply with.
2.2.7. Admixtures
Admixtures are chemical products that are added to the concrete in small quantities or equal to 5%
substance as compared to the cement mass in order to modify/ improve the concrete, in its fresh
and/or in its hardened stage.
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At using the additives, the provisions of NE 012/1999 chapter 4.4 and of annex I.3 will comply with.
2.2.8. Additions
The additions are fine inorganic materials which can be added to the concrete in quantities of over
5% dry substance compared to the cement mass, in order to improve its characteristics or to
create special properties.
At using the additions, the provisions of NE 012/1999 chapter 4.5 will comply with.


3. CONSTRUCTION OF WORKS
3.1. Preliminary works
Before starting the works, the Contractor shall execute the preliminary works:
signaling the working area;
verifying the existing utilities and their location within the construction limits; the Contractor
shall take all the necessary measures to ensure the safety execution of the works;
pegging out the works;
ensuring the water drainage from the working areas.
3.2. Earthworks
The execution of earthworks, including filling, for dike enbankment will be realized according with
Technical Specification Earthworks.

When the digging implies also the uncovering of some existing underground networks (water, gas,
electrical, etc.) that will still be functional, there will be taken measures for protecting them against
being damaged. If these networks are not known and they show up during the execution of the
digging, the works will stop and the Consultant will be announced in order to take the necessary
measures.
3.3. Concrete beam at the revetment basis

The concrete beam shall be carried out at the protection basis acting as support for the concrete
slabs.

The beam shall be made of C18/22.5 hydro-technical cast-in-situ concrete.
3.4. Draining support layer
The revetment of protection of concrete slabs shall be constructed on a draining layer of crushed
stone. For each type of protection work, the crushed stone layer is 15 cm thick. The draining layer
of crushed stone shall be lain on geotextile.
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3.5. Concrete slab revetment
The concrete slabs can be cast in situ or can be mounted after they are manufactured in a precast
shop. It is compulsory to execute a reverse filter under the slabs, or a draining support layer on
geotextile filter.
To execute the slabs, the Contractor shall use hydro technical concrete, class C18/22.5.

For the slabs cast in situ, contraction joints shall be set at 3.0m 5.0m for the plain concrete. The
expansion joints shall be designed at approx. 20.0m.

In case when why have precast slab revetment this whil be realise whit concret class C35/37 and
may be reinforced whit steal bars OB37 and PC52 or whelded nets.
The precast slabs shall be designed with handling hooks and shall be verified for the tensions
given by the storing, transport and their handling while being incorporated in works.
The execution of the concrete slab revetment has the following stages:
execution of the riprap prism and of the concrete beam or only of the concrete beam, in
conformity with the working drawings;
execution of the crane platform for the mechanical assembling of all elements that need
to;
verification of the precast elements that are to be installed on the slope as designed, in
order to choose the intact ones, with no cracks;
the concrete beams are installed from down upwards, starting with the first row of
precast elements which are born on the support beam;
the precast elements are cast-in-situ from the first row of support beam with cement
mortar M100;
the second row of precast elements are installed, and the following, until the slope os
totally covered. It is compulsory to fix the elements after each executed layer.

4. WORKS EXECUTION CONTROL
4.1. Works construction verification
Protection whit revetment concrete slabs
Work Verification
Fundation beam
-marking
-fresh concrete and testing cube
Geotextile -embakement geotextile fixing
Crushed stone draining layer -caracteristics of executing layer
Monolit pouringo of concret
revetment
- fresh concrete and testing cube
- thickness slab
- joint made


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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION











NORMATIVES, TECHNICAL NORMS
AND STANDARDS
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NORMATIVES, TECHNICAL NORMS AND STANDARDS

NORMATIVES

Order no. 58 / 1991
- Individual protection equipment.
Government Decision no. 51 / 1992
- Measures for improving the activities of fire preventing and extinction, republished in the
Official Monitor no. 49/07.03.1996.
Order of the Ministry of Public Works, Transportation and Houses
no. 7 / N / 03.03.1993
- General norms of fire preventing and extinction.
Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs no. 381 / 04.03.1993
- General norms of fire preventing and extinction.
Order of the Ministry of Public Works, Transportation and Houses
no. 9 / N / 15.03.1993
- Regulations regarding work protection and hygiene in constructions.
Order no. 8 / 26.01.1994
- Labor security norms for metal processing by welding and metal cutting.
Government Decision no. 273 / 14.06.1994
- Regulations of construction works reception and the corresponding installations.
Order of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection no. 136 / 17.04.1995
- Labor security norms for concrete preparation and pouring and for the execution of the
works of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete.
Law no. 137 / 21.12.1995
- Environment protection law.
Law no. 90 / 12.07.1996
- Work protection law.
Indicative 106 GQ 126 SR 438 / 3 - 1998
- Steel products for concrete reinforcement. Welded nets.
Order of the Ministry of Labor and Social Solidarity no. 508 / 20.11.2002 and Order of the
Ministry of Health and Family no. 933 / 25.11.2002
- General norms of labor protection.
Order of the National Administration of Roads no. 513 / 2002
- Technical instructions regarding the design, execution, examination and maintenance of
the drains for public roads.
TECHNICAL NORMS

Normative C 116 - 1984
- The execution of concrete works on cold time.
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Normative P 118 - 1999
- Normative for security against fire of the constructions.
Normative I 7 - 1998
- Normative for security against fire of the constructions.
Normative C 56 - 1995
- Normative for quality control and reception of the construction works and of the
corresponding installations.
Normative NE 012 - 1999
- Practical code for the execution of the concrete, reinforced concrete works.
Normative NE 013 - 2002
- Practical code for the execution of the precast elements made of pre-stressed concrete.
Normative NP 075 - 2002
- Normative for the use of the geo-synthetic materials at the construction works.
Normative NP 093 - 2003
- Design Norm for the units made of concrete of different ages and connectors for the
revetments and over pouring works.
STANDARDS

SR 137 - 1995
- Bitumen waterproofing materials. Methods of checking.
SR 138 - 1994
- Asphalt boards.
SR 227 / 2 - 1994
- Concretes. Physical tests. Determining the grinding fineness by sieving on the 100 g
sample.
SR 227 / 5 - 1996
- Concretes. Determining the grinding fineness by sieving on the 100 g sample.
SR 662 - 2002
- Road works. Gravel pit natural aggregates. Quality technical conditions.
SR 667 - 2001
- Natural aggregates and processed stone for road works. Quality technical conditions.
STAS 438 / 1 - 1989
- Steel products for reinforcement. Steel concrete heat-rolled. Brands and quality
conditions.
STAS 438 / 2 - 1989
- Steel products for concrete reinforcement. Round dead-drawn wire.
STAS 438 / 3 1989
- Knit mesh for concrete reinforcement.
STAS 816 - 1980
- Tubes and sewage parts made of concrete.
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STAS 932 / 3 - 1998
- Test for determining the general characteristics of aggregates. Procedure and terminology
for simplified petrographical description.
STAS 1030 - 1985
- Usual mortars for masonry and revetments.
STAS 1040 - 1985
- Resinous round timber for constructions. Round poles and perches.
STAS 1275 - 1988
- Test merges on concrete types. Test merges on consolidated concrete. Determining the
mechanical resistance.
STAS 1667 1976
- Heavy natural aggregates for types of concrete and mortars with mineral binders.
STAS 1759 - 1988
- Test merges on concrete types. Test merges on fresh concrete. Determining the apparent
density of the workability, of the fine aggregate content and of the binding process.
STAS 1913 / 13 - 1983
- Foundation ground. Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics.
STAS 1961 - 1980
- Beech tree timber. Quality class.
STAS 2111 - 1990
- Steel wire pins.
STAS 2320 - 1988
- Test merges on concrete types and mortars. Metallic detachable stencils for
manufacturing the concrete test specimens.
STAS 2414 - 1991
- Concrete types. Determining the density, the consolidation, the water absorption and the
porosity of the consolidated concrete.
STAS 2561 / 4 - 1990
- Foundation ground. Drilling pills of large diameter. General prescriptions of design,
execution and checking.
STAS 2634 - 1980
- Usual mortars for masonry and revetments. Testing methods.
STAS 2914 / 4 - 1989
- Road and railway works. Determination of the deformation linear modulus.
STAS 2916 - 1987
- Road and railway works. Embankments and ditches protection. General design
prescription.
STAS 2917 - 1979
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- Masonry works. Natural stone masonry. Manufacturing prescription.
STAS 3622 - 1986
- Cement concrete. Classification.
STAS 4606 - 1980
- Heavy natural aggregates for mortars and concrete types with mineral binders. Test
merge methods.
STAS 5088 - 1975
- Bridge works. Waterproofings. Prescriptions for design and execution.
STAS 5089 - 1971
- Natural stone products for constructions. Terminology.
STAS 5479 - 1988
- Concrete test merges. Test merges on fresh concrete. Determining the quantity of
occluded air.
STAS 6200 / 4 - 1981
- Natural stone for constructions. Prescriptions for the determining of the petrographic, and
mineralogical characteristics and of the chemical composition.
STAS 6482 / 1,2 - 1980
- SBP mesh for reinforcement concrete and pre-stressed concrete.
STAS 6657 / 1 - 1989
- Precast units made of concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete. Quality
technical general conditions.
STAS 6657 / 2 - 1989
- Precast units made of concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete. Principles
and methods for quality checking.
STAS 6657 / 3 - 1989
- Precast units made of concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete.
Procedures and devices for checking the geometric characteristics.
STAS 6675 / 2 - 1992
- Polymerized vinyl non/plastified chloride. Dimensions.
STAS 7221 - 1990
- Metallic plating. Zinc technical plating. Technical quality conditions.
STAS 7721 - 1990
- Metallic formwork for precasts made of concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed
concrete. Quality technical conditions.
STAS 10107 / 0 - 1990
- Civil and industrial constructions. The calculation and the composition of the concrete,
reinforced concrete and precast concrete structural elements.
STAS 10111 / 2 - 1987
- Railway and road bridges. Concrete, reinforced concrete and precast concrete
superstructrues. Design prescriptions.
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STAS 11348 - 1987
- Road works. Asphalt layers for bridges. Quality technical general prescriptions.
SR EN 196 / 1 - 1995
- Test merges for the cements. Determining the mechanical resistance.
SR EN 196 / 2 - 1995
- Test merges for cements. Cement chemical analysis.
SR EN 196 / 3 - 1995
- Test merges for the cements. Determining the binding and stability time.
SR EN 196 / 4 - 1995
- Cement test merges. Quantity determination of the components.
SR EN 197/ 1 - 2002
- Cement. Composition, specifications and conformity criteria of the usual cements.
SR EN 206 / 1 2002
- Concrete. Specification, performance, manufacturing and conformity.
SR EN 313 / 1 - 1996
- Plywood. Classification and terminology. Classification.
SR EN 314 / 1 - 1996
- Plywood. Sizing quality. Test merges.
SR EN 459 / 1 2003
- Lime for construction. Definitions, characteristics and conformity criteria.
SR EN 459 / 2 2003
- Lime for construction. Methods of testing.
SR EN 459 / 3 2003
- Conformity Assessment.
SR EN 1008 - 2003
- The preparation water for concrete. Specifications for sampling, testing and evaluation of
the water recovered from the processes of the concrete industry, as preparation water for
concrete.
SR EN ISO 1460 - 2002
- Metallic plating. Zinc plating for iron materials. The mass gravimetric determination on the
surface unity.
SR EN ISO 9001 2001
- Quality management systems. Requirements.
SR EN 10223 / 3 1999
- Steel wire nets and wire products for fencing. Steel wires with hexagonal stitches for
industrial uses.
SR EN 10244 / 2 - 2002
- Wires and slit steel products. Metallic non-iron plating on steel wires. Zinc plating or zinc
alloys.
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SPECIFICATIONS




2.2 BRIDGE WORKS
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CHAPTER 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS (not applicable)
CHAPTER 2 CULVERTS (not applicable)
CHAPTER 3 SUBSTRUCTURE - DIRECT FOUNDATIONS

3.1 GENERALITIES
The subject of this Chapter is the foundation of bridges and overpasses, namely:
foundations in sites shored-up by means of wood sheet piling, metal poling boards,
steel sheeting;
foundations by means of open caisson.
For the design and construction of surface foundations in special situations: humidity sensitive,
contractile soils etc, special technical conditions shall be drafted in accordance with the Norms in
force.
The selection of the foundation system must be made on the basis of the geo-technical study,
knowing the ground conditions, the underground water level and the degree of natural or artificial
aggressiveness.

3.2 EXECUTION OF FOUNDATIONS IN SHORED-UP EXCAVATIONS
The Contractor shall submit the method of construction for the Engineers approval.
The documentation shall include:
site dimensions (length, width, depth), layout according with the setting-out co-
ordinates of the substructure axes;
solutions and details for the enclosure lining;
the excavation and lining execution technology of the enclosure (including their
recovery, transport and storage);
the concrete casting technology according with the actual Norms of concrete casting,
including the proposals to assure the concrete quality and to eliminate any
unconformity (measures of monitoring, for avoiding the heat build up, to avoid the
contraction cracks, special measures for working in cold weather, the possible need of
additives, etc.)
conditions for the execution of the site;
the means of following the execution by the Contractor;
steps to avoid the deformability of the site during the excavation;
concrete composition and parameters;
the procedure for concrete casting inside the overall height of the foundation.

The Contractor will take all necessary measures to for maintain the enclosure form, keeping on the
position during the excavation until reaching the proposed depth, taking account of the tolerances
required by Norms.
Before the start of the excavation, the Contractor must request the Engineer, the checking of the
layout, dimensions, tolerances and also the operating of the excavation equipment.
After arriving at the foundation level and after the finish of the excavation, the Contractor shall
request the Engineer, the checking of the position and stability, the foundation ground nature and
foundation level and to approve the start of the concrete works.
The nature, origin and quality of the necessary materials shall correspond to the class of the
concrete provided by the design.
If the concrete has to be poured under water, the conditions provided by the approved procedure
using several tremie-pipes, shall be adopted to ensure the homogeneity of the concrete and to
avoid stratification.

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3.3 TECHNICAL CONDITIONS FOR THE EXECUTION OF DIRECT FOUNDATION IN
CAISSONS
The Contractor shall submit the method of construction for the Engineers approval. The
documentation shall include:
details regarding the caisson formwork and his timbering elaboration;
steps concerning the general dimensioning of the caisson;
conditions for the installation of the caissons, launching in position, (to ballast if
necessary, lowering to the foundation level);
the excavation procedure inside the caisson, including the transportation means and
the storage of the resulted earth from the excavation;
the concrete casting procedure inside the caisson;
concrete casting technology inside the caisson;
forecast measures to assure the works quality, for all the execution phases;
concrete composition and parameters;
The Contractor shall take all the necessary steps to deliver the caisson, to maintain it in position, to
lower it vertically to the required level, to maintain it in position, taking account of the specified
tolerances.
Before the start of the lowering operation, the Contractor shall request the Engineer to check the
layout dimensions, tolerances, and also that the lowering equipment is operating.
After the arrival of the caisson at the required level, and after completion of the excavation inside
the caisson, the Contractor shall again request the Engineer to check the position and stability of
the caisson and to approve the start of the concrete casting inside the caisson.
The nature, origin and quality of the necessary materials must correspond to the class of the
concrete specified by design and to the local conditions.
The methods necessary for concrete casting under water shall be adopted, if such is required.
If the concrete has to be poured under water, the conditions provided by the approved procedure
using several tremmie-pipes, shall be adopted to ensure the homogenity of the concrete and to
avoid layering or segregation.
During the whole lowering operation, the Contractor must keep the distribution of the loads in such
a manner as to ensure the stability and safety of the work. If the soil is heterogeneous or of low
consistency, the Contractor must take steps to avoid rapid sinking or unacceptable rotation.

CHAPTER 4 SUBSTRUCTURE - INDIRECT DEEP FOUNDATIONS

4.1 GENERALITIES
4.1.1 Field of application
The provisions of this Chapter apply to the indirect deep foundations of bridges, overpasses and
viaducts.
These provisions may apply also to culverts, retaining walls or other types of road consolidation
works. In this case, they have to be completed with specific instructions.
Deep foundations mean the works between the bottom of the raft and the foundation level.
The rafts are elements connecting the foundation and pier/abutment structure, and they shall be
constructed observing the provisions of this Technical Specification.
The present Chapter contains the Technical Specification for the construction of the following types
of foundation:
bored piles of large diameter;
column foundation;
bored piles;
driven pre-cast piles.
4.1.2. Geological, geo-technical and hydro-geological survey and study
The Engineer shall put at the disposal of the Contractor, the geological, geo-technical and hydro-
geological data used for the design, to make possible the cost estimation of the works and of the
site organization.
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It must be emphasized that these data about the terrain are not part of the contract documentation
and the Contractor has no right to claim, if there is any inaccuracy.
4.1.3 Unforeseen technical conditions
If any unforeseeable feature of the geotechnical or hydro-geological conditions is encountered
during the works, which impose a radical change of the works procedure, the Contractor may
propose to the Engineer alternative designs. The decision of the Engineer shall be provided in
writing.
4.1.4 Design concept
The design shall take into account the actions and combinations of the loads and the design
assumptions established in accordance with the appropriate Standards and with the present
Technical Specification.
The Contractor may carry out structural analysis of some construction elements observing the
appropriate technical instructions and taking into account the actual properties of the materials
(masonry, concrete, reinforced or pre-stressed concrete, steel, wood) and the provisions of this
Chapter.

4.2 TECHNICAL CONDITIONS FOR BORED PILES OF LARGE DIAMETER
4.2.1 Type of piles
The bored piles are constructed by casting reinforced concrete in a bore.
Cased bored piles
The concrete is poured by means of a tremie pipe, in a cased bore.
The casing may be temporary and be introduced by vibration, ramming or pushing (with or without
twisting).
Columns are foundation elements of the same category, being composed of reinforced concrete or
steel tubes inserted into the ground by vibration, with the inside soil removed. In reality, columns
are piles cast in-situ in bores with unrecoverable tubing.
Piles cast-in-situ under drilling mud
The concrete is poured by means of a tremmie pipe with the bore supported by drilling mud (for
example bentonite slurry).
4.2.2 Nature, origin and quality of materials
The concrete
The concrete from the bored piles shall be C 20/25 (Bc 25).
The brand and the mark of the cement shall be established by means of laboratory tests, taking in
account the class of the concrete and the aggressiveness of the medium.
For piles in soils with aggressive water, the composition of the concrete shall comply with the
provisions of SR 3011-1996 and STAS 3349/1,2-83.
The minimum cement content shall be:
350 kg/m
3
for concrete pouring in dry boring;
400 kg/m
3
for concrete pouring under water or under drilling mud.
The aggregates must be of dredged gravel, graded and washed.
The maximum size of the aggregate shall be the smallest from the following values:
1/4 of the diameter of the reinforcing cages;
1/2 of the thickness of the reinforcements cover;
1/4 of the interior diameter of the tremie pipe;
31 mm.
The water cement ratio shall be a maximum of (0.6).
Use of plasticising agents to increase the concrete workability, and/or retarding admixture if
necessary, is permitted.
The consistency of the concrete by the slump test shall be:
10 -15 cm for concrete poured in dry medium;
15 - 18 cm concrete poured under water or under bentonite slurry.
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Reinforcement
The steel for the reinforcing cages of bored piles must be weld able and this feature must be
guaranteed on the quality certificate. Steel bars type PC52 (high yield deformed bars) and type
OB37 (round smooth bars), shall be used, or steel bars of similar nature.
4.2.3 Characteristics and design procedure of the piles
Pile type, length, cross section, and number, also the layout of the piles, their inclination, the
control and installation equipment shall be established by design on the basis of the geo-technical
study and of the settlement resulting from the action of the loads.
For the stress analysis the interaction of the piles with the soil shall be taken in account and the
pile shall be considered as a girder in an elastic medium.
The foundation proposals shall be approved by the Engineer.
4.2.4 The layout of piles
The Contractor shall draw up the layout of piles based on the design data and shall submit it for
approval to the Designer and the Engineer.
The layout of piles may be established at the working platform level or at other levels, for instance
at the foundation raft lower level, but this must be stated in the design.
The layout of piles must include at least the following data:
number (item) of identification;
dimension of the cross section, reinforcement composition, reinforcement element (or
cage);
inclination and orientation;
piles foot level;
working platform level;
piles head concrete pouring level;
length of the restraining zone in the pile foundation raft;
the sequence of operations for the execution of the boring or for the driving of the
casing.
4.2.5 Tolerances
a. The tolerance limit for the plan position at the raft foundation base level is as follows:
7.5 cm for piles in a single row;
10 cm for piles in several rows.
b. The tolerance limit for batter of the pile axis is 2%.
c. The tolerance limit for dimensions:
diameter - 2 cm;
piles foot level 20 cm;
piles head level 5 cm.
For geo-technical reasons, the foundation level may vary, subject to Engineers approval.
4.2.6 Construction equipment
The Contractor must obtain the Engineers approval of the construction plant and equipment.
These must be selected on the basis of the piles parameters, lay out, geological, geo-technical
and hydro-geological features, and taking in account the necessary protection of near-by built-up
areas or existing buildings.
Contractors proposals shall emphasize: type of the driving or boring equipment; the procedure for
installation of the cages, as well as their method of connection; the equipment for the control of
concretes continuity and strength; the equipment for injection at the piles base; the concrete
mixing and casting technology; material, dimensions (diameters, length, wall thickness,
tolerances), the method of connection between the sections of the permanent casing.
Flaring of the foot of the piles is allowed only if they penetrate a highly cohesive stratum with a
compression strength with lateral deformation of min. 300 kPa.
The flaring may be conical, with the height equal at least to the diameter of the cross section, and
the base area a maximum of three (3) times the area of the cross section.
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4.2.7 Preliminary works
The work on platforms shall be arranged for easy access, circulation and operation of the
construction plant in conditions of quality and safety.
Any works necessary for site consolidation, unforeseen by the design, shall be performed only with
the Engineers approval, which is also required for the nature and quality of the materials.
4.2.8 Pile reinforcement
The piles shall be reinforced by means of cages composed of longitudinal bars, spiral
reinforcement, ring templates and spacers.
The reinforcing cage may have constant or variable cross section area along the pile, as a result of
the structural analysis.
The longitudinal bars shall be of min 14 mm diameter, at least 8 bars per cage, and the distance
between the bars shall be min. 10 cm and max. 35 cm or stated in the design.
The arrangement of the bars in two (2) rows shall be avoided, with the exceptions of piles with
heavy loads.
The longitudinal bars are welded to ring templates every 3-4 m along the cages.
The transverse reinforcement shall be a spiral of minimum 8 mm diameter, or at least 0.4 times the
diameter of the longitudinal bars. The pitch of the spiral shall be no greater than 35 cm or 15 times
the diameter of the longitudinal bars.
At the top of a cage and in connection areas, the pitch of the spiral shall be maximum 15 cm for a
length equal to the piles diameter.
If the length of the pile requires the assembly of the reinforcing cage in several sections, their
connections shall be made according to the designs provisions and STAS 10107/0-90.
Taking into account the connections are made in situ, the interior cage shall be held by supporting
devices during the jointing.
The cage shall not be allowed to rest on the bottom of the bores and steps must be taken to avoid
its displacement during concrete pouring.
The spiral reinforcement may be fixed to the longitudinal bars, and the longitudinal bars to the ring
templates, by spot welding.
The chosen method must be approved by the Engineer.
For the centering of the cage in the bore, spacers shall be fixed on the exterior of the longitudinal
bars; these spacers may be concrete rollers, 4 pieces in cross section, every 3 - 4 m along the
cage.
The minimum thickness of the concrete cover to the reinforcement shall be:
4 cm for pile with permanent casing;
6 cm for piles with recovered casing and for piles without casing (bored in dry medium);
8 cm for piles bored under mud protection.
4.2.9 Pile boring
The boring without casing or mud protection is permitted only in cohesive soils and above the
underground water level.
In this case, the concrete pouring must follow the boring as soon as possible (maximum duration
delay being 24 hours), in order to avoid wall collapsing due to relaxation, sun or rain exposure,
equipment vibration etc. The walls of the bore shall be protected by metallic tubes extending at
least 1,5 m deep from the surface.

Boring underwater in recoverable casing
This may be applied in any soil condition, with excavating tools adapted to the nature of the soil
strata. The foot of the casing must be provided with a toothed crown.
If the boring is performed under water, in sand and low cohesive soils, due to the excavation speed
and to the piston effect of the grab bucket, hydrodynamic phenomena may occur, such as soil
scouring at the piles base, causing the loosening of the soil and the decrease of the bearing
capacity of adjacent piles or existing foundations. To avoid such risks, the following steps shall be
taken:
it is forbidden to sink the casing by mean of water jet under pressure;
suction equipment for excavation shall be avoided;
the base level of the casing shall be always deeper than the bottom of the drilling, by at
least half the diameter of the drilled hole (advanced casing);
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the water level inside the drilling shall be always kept 1 m above the hydrostatic level;
the speed of the excavation shall be moderate and the grab bucket shall be raised
smoothly.
The concrete pouring must begin a maximum of 36 hours, after the finish of the boring.

Boring under bentonitic mud
The walls of the bore are protected by a drilling mud (bentonite slurry) prepared according to SR
EN 1536-2005.
The boring under mud of a pile spaced less than 3m from the wall of an adjacent pile may
commence only after the concrete cast in the previous pile has hardened.
The level of the mud shall be always kept at least 1 m above the hydrostatic level.
It is recommended to protect the top of the walls or the bore by steel pipes at least 1,5 m deep.
The concrete casting must begin a maximum of 8 hours after the completion of the boring.

Boring under water with permanent casing
The casing is of reinforced concrete or metallic cylindrical sections, introduced in the ground by
driving, vibrations, pushing and/or twisting. The sections shall be assembled in step with the
sinking. The earth inside the bore shall be excavated by means of tools adapted to the soils
nature. The two (2) operations: the casing sinking and the boring are coordinated step by step until
foundation level is realized.
Boring under the casings bottom (advanced drilling) is allowed in hard clay or compact rocks only.
Boring under water in sand or loose soil shall conform to the provisions of this Technical
Specification.

4.2.10 Cleanliness of the base of the bore
The cleanliness of the base is compulsory for any boring procedure and it shall be done before the
installation of the reinforcement cage and the casting concrete.
In case of boring under mud, the base shall be cleansed at most 3 hours before concrete pouring.
In sand or loose soils, it is forbidden to cleanse the bottom by mud circulation (with Mammoth
pumps).

4.2.11 Concrete casting
Concrete casting of the uncased bore in dry medium
It is forbidden to cast the concrete directly from the mouth of the bore.
The concrete casting shall be performed by means of a funnel centered on the axis of the pile, and
of a concrete chute lowered in the hole and raised in step with the concrete pouring.
The concrete casting may also be made by means of the concrete pumps hose, lowered in the
hole.
Concrete casting under water or mud
The concrete casting is performed by means of tremie pipe, to avoid contact between water or mud
and the concrete.
The diameter of the tremie pipe depends on the aggregate size and the piles diameter, but must
not be less than 20 cm.
Concrete casting under water or mud shall be managed as a continuous operation, performed in a
single stage. The flow of the concrete depends on the diameter and length of the pile must not be
less than 4m
3
/h. The first batch must ensure the separation of concrete from water or mud and the
priming of the tremmie.
The base of the tremmie pipe must always be at least 2 m and at most 4 m under the concretes
level.

4.2.12 The injection of the base of piles
Depending on the nature of the soil in the base of the bore, in order to increase the bearing
capacity, the base of the pile may be injected with a solution (cement grout usually) by means of
injecting pipes embedded in the piles body and being lowered together with the cage into the bore.
The decision for injection to the base is specified in the Project.
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The composition of the solution, the technology and the injection pressure shall be established for
every pile, depending on the nature of the foundation soil.
4.2.13 Pile head preparation
The upper portion of a pile shall always have concrete cast to a higher level than the final one, as
follows:
a) For dry bored piles, the additional height of concrete is to be at least 0.5d but no less than 0.5m
for piles max. 20m long and least 0.75m for piles longer than 20 m (where d is the diameter of
the pile);
b) For piles bored under water or mud the additional height of concrete shall be at least 1d but no
less than 1.00m for piles up to 20m long and at least 1.50d but no less than 1.50m for piles
more than 20m long.
After hardening, that portion of the concrete found to be substandard shall be removed and the pile
top shall be made up if necessary to ensure the minimum restraining height in the pile foundation
mat, provided by the design and in accordance with SR EN 1536-2004.

4.2.14 Quality control
Quality control during the construction
The quality control shall be made at every stage of the pile construction, according to the
provisions of SR EN 1536-2004 Execution of special geo-technical work Bored piles.
In the case of boring under mud, the site laboratory must check the quality of the drilling mud
throughout the execution, by samples taken from the batching plant and directly from the boring.
If the mud from the boring is substandard, it will be re-circulated in order to reach the standard
parameters.
For the concrete works, following tests shall be performed:
for every 10 m
3
of concrete cast in the bore, a slump test shall be made on samples
taken on the site;
for every 20 m
3
of concrete, but at least once for every pile, 3 cube samples shall be
taken for the concrete strength test, according to STAS 1275-88. The Consultant could
ask for a set of more 3 cubes, for supplementary checking;
for each pile, a concrete pouring diagram must be drawn up, showing the concrete
consumption all along the pile. If abnormal consumption occurs (under the geometric
volume or above it by more than 30%), the necessary steps shall be taken.
Quality control after execution
The quality control of the piles may include:
checking of the position and slope of the piles;
quality checking of the concrete in the body of the pile;
checking the integrity of the piles body;
load tests on piles.
The quality control of the cast concrete shall be done as follows:
a) for the piles where samples have failed to reach the prescribed class of concrete, in the strength
test;
b) for the piles where some deficiency occurred during the concrete pouring;
c) for a number of piles, established by the design, or by agreement between the Engineer and the
Contractor.
The control may be made:
by uncovering the piles;
by coring (after uncovering or by core drilling);
by non destructive examination.
The checking of the piles body integrity may be done by:
core drilling on all the length of the pile. The procedure requires special equipment and
it is used only for piles where the data from the drilling-concrete pouring report or other
observations show possible discontinuity;
non destructive testing (sonic sounding, radioactive sounding, mechanical impedance,
etc.).
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The sonic sounding is recommended: for this test, 2-4 pipes shall be introduce in the drilled hole
together with the reinforcing cage and shall be embedded in the pile.
These same pipes may be used afterward as injection pipes for the base of the pile.
4.2.15 Acceptance of bored piles of large diameter
The bore shall be accepted after the checking of the position and slope of piles, the examination of
the foundation ground, and of the compliance with the data of the geo-technical study.
The pile shall be accepted after examination of the data concerning the concrete pouring and of
the quality control reports.
The following documents must be presented:
the concrete casting report of every pile;
the foundation works register; both documents need the Contractor approval.
base injection report.
The deviation from plain position and from pile axis inclination, comparing to those from the Project
shall be in accordance with STAS 2561/4-90.
4.3 TECHNICAL CONDITION FOR THE PILES WITH PERMANENT CASING
In reality, columns are cast in situ bored piles with permanent casing.
Usually the casing is made of reinforced concrete sections jointed by metallic flanges or by
concrete casting.
For columns of great length, the weight of the reinforced concrete tubing may exceed the driving
capacity of the vibrating equipment. In this case metallic tubing may be used. The metallic pipes
being corroded in time, the tubing is considered as non structural formwork and the structural
analysis of the pile shall be made accordingly.
The usual reinforced concrete columns are tubes of 1.00-2.50 m diameter, with walls 10-14 cm
thick, in sections 6-10 m long.
The tubes may be cast on site or in Contractors pre-cast plant, by pouring the concrete in vertical
moulds. The reinforcement must be able to support the strain resulting from the driving and the
design strain. Usually, the sections are jointed by screwed flanges.
The metallic tubing is helically welded steel pipe or shell of steel plate manufactured in the
workshop. The diameter of the metallic tubing is 1.00 3.00 m, with walls 10 30 mm thick.
The jointing of the sections is made by welding, in step with the sinking.
The design, construction and acceptance of the columns shall observe the conditions under
section 4.2 of this Specification.

4.4 CONSTRUCTION OF PRE-CAST PILES
The reinforced or pre-stressed concrete piles require a high consumption of steel, increasing with
the length and the size of the cross section.
Therefore, they shall be used only if the technical-economical study proves their economic
efficiency in comparison with the bored piles.
For bridge works the following pre-cast piles are normal: 35 x 35 cm and 10 18 m long, 40 x 40
cm and 12 20 m long, 45 x 45 cm and 15 20 m long.
Pre-stressed concrete piles are recommended for piles longer than 14 m, because they need less
steel the saving in steel might be of 30 50%.
The minimum class of the reinforced concrete is C 16/20 (Bc 20).
If the medium is aggressive, the concrete composition shall be established accordingly and the
surface of the piles may be protected (for instance in bath of citom).
The reinforcement of the piles must be able to support the strains occurring in the different stages;
manufacture, transport, storage, driving, service.
The technical and quality conditions provided by the STAS 7484 74 and by the Practice Code
concerning the construction of concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete works - NE
013-2002 must be fulfilled.
The reinforcement is made of longitudinal bars and binders, in number, diameter and pitch
established by design.
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Taking into account the driving strain, the head of the pile shall be supplementary reinforced by
mats of round bars, 6 to 8 mm diameter, with openings of 5 6 cm and spaced 5 cm from each
other.
The foot of the pile shall be protected by a metallic shoe provided with a mandrel 30 40 mm
diameter, if the pile encounters boulders or rock.
The length of the peak of the mandrel shall be equal to the diameter or maximum dimension of the
pile.
The pile' sinking may be performed by driving, vibrating, pushing or screwing, but the most usual
are the driving and the vibrating procedures.
The pile drivers may operate on land or on water and may be of several types: with free fall
hammer, with single or double acting steam hammer or with Diesel hammer.
The type of the pile driver and the weight of the hammer must be established for every work
function of the pile's dimensions, features of the ground and location (on land or on water).
The head of the pile shall be protected with a driving helmet, with wood damper, to avoid the pile's
damage by driving.
In the case of pile's sinking by vibration, the type of the pile vibrator and the max shaking force
shall be established according to the parameters of the pile and of the soil.
The procedure of sinking by vibration may have an unfavorable influence over the soil and its
bearing capacity, therefore it is recommended:
a) to use the vibrating procedure mostly in sandy soils and, in lesser measure, in silty
clays of low consistency;
b) not to use the vibrating procedure in clay of high consistency, in non- cohesive coarse
soils (gravel, pebbles). In these soils the vibrating procedure is not recommended.

4.5 EXECUTION OF THE EXCAVATED PILES
4.5.1 General
The excavated piles are foundation structures performed by concrete pouring of a quasi
rectangular hole excavated in the ground.
The trench, forming the body of the pier is excavated by means of special foundation plants, also
used for the performance of diaphragm walls, and namely:
type Kelly Soletanche, ESGH, ESH20, ESH30, which are recommended in sandy soils
(including clayey sands), in clayey and silty soils of any consistency and, seldom, in
weathered gravelly soils (weak sandstone, weathered marl). They cannot work in soils with
boulders, or in gravelly or semi gravelly rocks. The shape of the trench complies roughly
with the geometry of the bucket and the trench's bottom is normally plane.
type Else operates at best in sandy soils (including clayey sand) but is less efficient in clay
of high plasticity, due to the strong adherence of the clay to the straight bucket. It is not
recommended in cemented sands, semi-gravelly weathered rocks and can not operate in
gravelly or semi-gravelly rocks, or in soil with boulders.
The plants made in Romania perform excavations for drilled piers of the following dimensions:
type Kelly: width between 0.60 and 1.00 m, length 2.20 to 2.70 m and depth 20 30
m;
type Else: width 0.40 1.00 m, length 3.50 3.80 m and depth 30 35 m.
The excavated piles and the bored piles of large diameter have the same range of utilization.
However, the excavated piles are recommended under following conditions:
the soil strata contain upper layers of high compressibility (clayey or silty soils of low
consistency, loose sand, silt. etc.).
the plant may perform the restraining of the pier in a stratum of high bearing capacity
and of low compressibility (compacted sand or gravel, hard clay, gravelly or semi
gravelly rocks etc).
the foundation has to support very heavy axial and transversal loads, exceeding the
bearing capacity of other types of foundations.
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The excavated piles are deep foundations of high bearing capacity, but they may be made also in
shorter length as a variant to the direct foundations.
The bearing capacity of the excavated piles, estimated by calculation, must be tested on site. The
tests shall be carried out on sample piers, performed outside the layout of piers included in the
works.
The construction methods of the excavated piles and of the bored piles under mud protection,
being similar, the design, execution and acceptance shall comply with the specifications under:
this Technical Specification;
SR EN 1536-2004 Execution of special geo-technical work Bored piles;
technical specifications for the execution of strips - P 106/85.
Loading tests and their values shall be done according to Bid Drawings, Standards, Regulations,
Norms, and to Chapter 20 of this Technical Specification.


CHAPTER 5 SUBSTRUCTURE - ABUTMENTS, PIERS

5.1 GENERALITIES
Abutments are substructure elements which ensure support for bridge ends and realize the
connecting with the slope.
Piles are also substructure elements which ensure support for two adjacent spans of the
superstructure.

5.2 ABUTMENT AND PIER EXECUTION CONDITIONS
The bridge piers and abutments shall be constructed on the basis of a design. They may have
direct or indirect foundations.
The foundation depth is established taking into account both the resistance and stability to the
statically and dynamical loads and also against scouring.
The substructure must observe the conditions provided in the design and in NP 115-04 Norms for
the design of concrete and reinforced concrete bridge substructures.
The foundation level shall be below the frost depth as it is provided in STAS 6054-77 Foundation
ground. Maximum frost depth. Romania's territory zoning.
The construction of the substructure without adequate geo-technical study is not permitted.
The Contractor must compare the adequacy of the foundations shown on the drawings with the
foundation structure constructed on the site and inform the Engineer of any discrepancy.
The Contractor shall mark the axes of the foundation, before starting the construction; also the
Contractor must request the Engineer to accept the marking and to approve the start of the work. After
completion of the foundations, the Contractor must make a new survey; if there has been any
deviation from the initial marking, the Contractor must submit for the Engineer's approval the
necessary remedial measures. Topographic measurements shall be made also after the completion
of the substructures, in order to establish accurately the length of the superstructure. Possible
remedial works may be carried out but only with the approval of the Engineer and Designer.
The foundation, mat foundation, elevation etc may be constructed only on the basis of the designs.
The method of shuttering and finishing of the substructure surfaces shall be to the Engineer's
approval and shall be performed on the basis of the architecture design, if required by the Engineer.

5.3 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FOR BRIDGE SUBSTRUCTURES
5.3.1 The aggregates
The aggregates must comply with the provisions of SR EN 12620-2003 and to the Practice Code
concerning the construction of concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete works ind. NE
- 012-99.
The used sand must be only of natural origin. The use of crushed sand is prohibited. The maximum
fines content is 2 %.
The gravel shall be of river origin, types 7-16 and 16-31. Fines content for gravel is 0.5 %.
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The mixing of the types, sand 0-3; 3-7, gravel 7-16 and 16-31 must have the grading boundaries also
in the very good zone of the grading diagram.
All the supplied aggregates must be screened, washed and sorted.
The Contractor must take steps to avoid the deposit of dust on the stored aggregates.

5.3.2 The cement
The cement shall correspond to SR EN 197-1:2002, SR 3011-1996 and SR 7055-1996;
The cement shall be supplied in quantities necessary for use within a maximum of 2 months, to avoid
a longer period of storage;
It is strictly forbidden to mix together different classes and types of cement.
Each type of cement must have its separate store room, silo or container. The state of preservation
must be checked periodically according to the previsions of Practice Code concerning the
construction of concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete works NE 012-99.

5.3.3 Reinforcement
The reinforcement must comply with the working drawings for the project. For other specifications see
Chapter about reinforcement hereinafter.

5.3.4 Concrete
The concrete must comply to the classes shown on the drawings. The concrete mixing shall observe
the provisions from the Chapter about "Concrete" and the concrete pouring with the provisions from
the Chapter about "Substructure indirect deep foundations" depending on the foundation way. Also
according to the Practice Code concerning the execution of concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-
stressed concrete works - NE 012-1999.

5.3.5 Water
The water used for preparing and spraying the concrete must comply with the technical conditions of
SR EN 1008 / 2003.

5.4 REMEDIAL WORKS
If the entire substructure or parts of it does not meet the provisions of the design and of the Technical
Specifications, the Contractor is obliged to carry out the necessary remedial works.
After the survey and the analysis of the defects, the Contractor must submit to the approval of the
Engineer the program of the repairs that will be agreed by the Designer.
The remedial works are at the Contractor's expense.
For defects affecting the quality of the structure, the safety and durability in service, it must be
proceeded as follows:
a detailed survey of the defects shall be drafted;
the causes shall be searched and supplementary tests, investigations and analysis shall
be done;
the short and long term consequences shall be estimated;
a repair file (proposal) shall be drafted including all the necessary explications.
Depending on the findings and on the conclusions of the study, the Engineer may proceed as follows:
to approve the repair proposal, with possible observations;
to order the demolition of the whole work or of a part of it;
to request a certified bridge expert to elaborate the remedial solutions.
For defects concerning the geometry of the construction, the quality or the colour of the surfaces, but
not affecting the safety and the bearing capacity of the construction, the remedial works shall be done
as follows:
minor defects may be corrected by decreasing, washing, planing or plastering with special
mortar;
for more important defects the contractor shall draft a repair program submitted for the
approval of the Engineer.
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On visible surfaces, with fine facing, the repairs with simple cement wash are forbidden.
The open cracks, which may compromise the durability and the appearance of the works must be
sealed by injection and cleansed afterward with compressed air according with Norms C 149-88
and Chapter 18 hereinafter.

5.5 FINAL DISPOSITIONS
The apparent concrete surfaces of the substructure shall be painted with anticorrosive protection
materials, in accordance with the prescriptions from Chapter 18 herein after.

CHAPTER 6 SUPERSTRUCTURE of REINFORCED CONCRETE

6.1 GENERALITIES
The subject of this Chapter is reinforced concrete works or parts of works to the bridge
superstructures, namely:
reinforced concrete beams, on two supports or continuous;
reinforced concrete slabs, cast in place;
reinforced concrete frame structures, arches and vaults;
pre-cast units (carriage-way slabs, sidewalk slabs, cast units for railings, slabs for
composite superstructures)
concrete for stitching pre-cast units.
If the structure is also pre-stressed, the provisions under Chapter 11: Superstructures of pre-stressed
concrete shall be followed.
For special structures, with new and other design materials or construction details than those precise
hereinafter, special specification works will be written up.
Bridge superstructures of reinforced concrete may be constructed only on the basis of a design, and
strictly observing the provisions of STAS 10111/2-87 Bridge superstructures of concrete, reinforced
concrete and pre-stressed concrete, design prescriptions and the present Technical Specification.
Pre-cast units may be used in a superstructure only if accompanied by quality certificates. Their
manufacturing shall comply with the provisions of NE 013 2002 Practice code for execution of
precast elements in concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete.
The design of the reinforced concrete superstructure shall contain the working drawings of the
superstructure and the program of the quality control.
The site arrangements for every project shall address especially the place and the conditions of
storage and maintenance of the materials, components, pre-cast units and equipment necessary for
the construction.
The working drawings, accompanied by calculation notes, shall contain all the data necessary for the
construction, including technical drawings for each successive stage of the construction.
The working drawings shall include structural and reinforcement drawings for the entire superstructure
and for parts of it. In areas of high stress which are heavily reinforced, the working drawings must
show, at a convenient scale, the conformity between the reinforcement design and the method of
concrete casting.
The structural drawings must include all the details regarding dimensions, tolerances and appearance
of the face concrete.
The reinforcement drawings must contain all the data regarding the setting out and position of the
reinforcement, diameters, partial and total length. The drawings must include also:
type of the bars;
position tolerances;
position of the laps and lap details;
position, shape and nature of spacers and other locating devices;
position of handling lugs of the pre-cast units;
Also, the reinforcement drawings must show the position of concrete joints and the treatment of the
surface and of the reinforcing bars at these joints.
The sections with dense reinforcement shall be shown at large scale, with details at full scale of the
bending radii and of the bars diameter.
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The bending schedules shall include: a bar mark for every bar, the steel type, the diameter, a sketch
of the bar, partial and total lengths, nominal weight and the number of bars with the same mark.
The schedules may be on the drawings or in annexes.
The construction of bridge superstructure of reinforced concrete shall comply with the provisions of
the design, the Practice Code concerning the construction of concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-
stressed concrete works - NE 012-99, the Practice code for execution of precast elements in
concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete - NE 013 2002 and of the Technical
Specifications.

6.2 TEMPORARY WORKS
Bridge superstructures of reinforced concrete are constructed using temporary works, namely:
scaffolding and shoring for beams and slabs;
centering, scaffolding and shoring for arches and vaults.
The Contractor shall design the temporary works. The design shall include working drawings and
calculation notes. The Engineer may ask for the design, but only before the start of the construction.
The temporary works must be carried out in such a way as to guarantee the resistance, shape and
appearance of the permanent works.
Temporary works shall ensure that the final works comply with the tolerances set down in Annex no.
III. 1 of the Practice Code NE 012-99 concerning the execution of concrete, reinforced concrete and
pre-stressed concrete works.
The construction of the temporary works shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 7 Scaffolding
and Centerings hereinafter.

6.3 FORMWORK
Formwork for the reinforced concrete superstructure shall comply with the quality conditions provided
in the drawings. The quality types are:
ordinary formwork for hidden surfaces;
formwork for face concrete (girders, slabs, arches, vaults, pillars);
special formwork for face concrete finishing for edge beams, sidewalk cornice, railing etc.
The Contractor may has his own proposals for treating the exposed face of concrete, with the
Engineer approval.
Formwork for reinforced concrete superstructures shall comply with the provisions of the "Practice
Code NE 012-99 concerning the execution of concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete
works" and with the provisions of Chapter about Formwork.
Manufacturing of the precast elements shall comply with the provisions of Practice code for execution
of precast elements in concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete NE 013 2002 and
from the Chapter about Formwork.
6.4 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

6.4.1 Aggregates
The aggregates must comply with the provisions of STAS 1667-76 Natural heavy aggregates for
concrete and mortar with mineral binders, SR EN 12620-2003 Aggregates for concrete, of the
Practice Code concerning the construction of concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed
concrete works - NE 012-99 and of the Practice code for execution of precast elements in concrete,
reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete NE 013 2002.
The sand shall be only of natural origin. The use of crushed sand is prohibited.
The gravel shall be of river origin or crushed stone (chipping), type 7 (8)-16 and 16-31 (25), with the
grading curve in the very good area of the grading diagram.
Depending on the class, the concrete may be composed of 3 or 4 sorts of aggregates:
sand types 0-3 and 3-7;
gravel types 7-16 and 16-31;
chipping types 8-16 and 16-25.
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The mixing of the 3 (or 4) types must be in the very good area of the grading diagram.
All the supplied aggregates shall be screened, washed and sorted.
The Contractor must take steps to avoid the deposit of dust on the stored aggregates.

6.4.2 Cement
The cement shall correspond to SR 388 - 1995 Cement Portland, SR 1500 -1996, SR 3011 1996
and SR 7055 - 1996.
The cement shall be supplied in quantities necessary for use within a maximum of 2 months, to avoid
a longer period of storage. It is strictly forbidden to mix together different classes and types of cement.
Each type of cement must be stored in separate storerooms, silo or container. The state of
preservation must be checked periodically according to the provisions of Practice Code concerning
the construction of concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete works- NE 012-99 and
NE 013 2002 Practice code for execution of precast elements in concrete, reinforced concrete and
pre-stressed concrete.

6.4.3 Reinforcement
The reinforcement must comply with the working drawings for the project. The delivered steel bars
shall correspond to the provisions of STAS 438/1-89 Hot rolled steel bars for reinforced concrete and
of STAS 438/2-91 Drawn wire for reinforced concrete and must have a quality certificate from the
manufacturer.
The range of application, the construction procedure and the bending of the bars shall comply with the
provisions of the Practice Code NE 012-99 concerning the construction of concrete, reinforced
concrete and pre-stressed concrete works and of the Practice code for execution of precast
elements in concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete - NE 013 2002.
Before bending, the bars must be cleansed of dust, mud, rust, oil spots and other impurities.
The replacement of bars of a certain diameter by bars of another diameter may be made only with the
agreement of the Engineer.
The Contractor must prove the mechanical properties (tensile test, flow limit, strain at failure, number
of flexures at failure etc), in the conditions provided by the Practice Code NE 012-99 concerning the
construction of concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete works and Practice code NE
013 2002 for execution of precast elements in concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed
concrete.
The supply, bending and fixing of the reinforcement shall also comply with the provisions of Chapter
Reinforcement.

6.5 CONCRETE

The composition of the proposed concrete is established on the basis of preliminary tests, according
to Practice Code NE 012-1999 for concrete and Practice Code NE 013 2002 for precast elements,
using the supplied materials, made and tested by an authorized laboratory.
When designing the concrete mix at the batching plant, account shall be taken of the capacity and
type of the concrete mixer, the aggregate humidity and, in the cold season, the temperature of
aggregates and concrete.
The concrete is to be mixed in approved and certified concrete plant.
The batching of the concrete shall be weight batching.
The admissible tolerances shall be according to the provisions of Chapter about "Concrete"
hereinafter, as per "Practice Code concerning the construction of concrete, reinforced concrete and
pre-stressed concrete works" - NE 012-99 Annex III-1.
The use of plasticizing, air-entraining agents and so on is allowed only with the approval of the
Engineer and taking into consideration of provisions from Chapter about "Concrete" hereinafter.
The humidity of aggregates must be checked daily and at every change in weather conditions.
During the pouring, it must be ensured that the concrete completely fills the forms and no void
remains. The mixed concrete, which will normally have a pouring temperature in the range 5-30C,
must be poured in the Formwork within a maximum of 1 hour in the case of using normal cements
and 1/2 hours in the case of quick hardening cements. Where concrete has temperatures higher than
30C additional measures shall be taken, such as the inclusion of retarding additives for slow
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hardening, in accordance with Practice Code NE 012-99 and NE 013-2002. It is prohibited to add
water to the already mixed concrete. When pouring the concrete, the provisions of Code NE 012-99
and NE 013-2002 must be observed. The concrete chutes, the lorries for concrete haulage etc shall
be kept clean and shall be washed at every stoppage of the works.
For concrete compaction, the following mechanical tools shall be used: vibrators, form vibrators,
vibrating tables. During the compaction of the fresh concrete care shall be taken to avoid
displacement of reinforcement and damage to form work.

6.6 PRE-CAST UNITS. ERECTION AND STITCHING
For structures of pre-cast beams and slabs, the pre-cast units shall be listed, and shall have paint
inscriptions with the manufacturing date and the type of the unit.
The erection of the pre-cast units must be managed by a specialist engineer and supervised by skilled
foreman with training in such works.
The erection is preceded by specific preliminary works, depending on the type of the unit and on the
shape of the structure.
The erecting plant must ensure the safety of the erection.
The laying on supports shall ensure the correct lay out, the necessary supporting length and the
proper contact with the bearing surface. The pre-cast units shall only be released from the suspension
hooks after a proper bearing has been achieved. It is compulsory to ensure the stable equilibrium of
all erected units.
The permanent joints shall be achieved in the shortest time possible after erection.
The surfaces of the units in contact with the binding concrete or with the mortar layer shall be well
cleaned with a wire brush, adequately washed or blown by air jet.
The erection of pre-cast units shall be checked in accordance with Annex III.1 of the Practice Code
NE 012-99 concerning the construction of concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete
works.
Remedy of defects from the erection must not cause damage to the pre-cast units.
Pre-cast beams and slabs must be stitched monolithically as shown in the drawings.
Pre-cast slabs for composite structures (steel and concrete) shall also be stitched by filling the voids
with concrete and by providing reinforcement to bind together the structural reinforcement in the slabs.
In the pre-stressed area of the slabs, sleeves shall be provided to allow continuity of the pre-stressing
cable at the joints.
The concrete cast for monolithic binding shall be of the same class as the concrete of the pre-cast
unit.
The mix formula of the concrete for monolith binding shall be established by means of tests.
For tensioning, blocking and injection of the pre-stressing cables for the floor slabs of the composite
structures, the provisions under Chapter XI of the Practice Code NE 012-99 concerning the
construction of concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete works - Part B prestressed
concrete and of the Practice Code NE 013-02.
The tolerances allowed for the dimensions of the pre-cast units are shown in STAS 6657/1-89, STAS
7009-79 and STAS 8600-79.
For other tolerances than dimensional (lengths, widths and thickness) see the Practice Code NE 012-
1999 concerning the construction of concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete works
and the Practice code for execution of precast elements in concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-
stressed concrete NE 013 2002.


6.7 WORKS ACCEPTANCE
6.7.1 Testing of works
The Contractor shall bear the costs of the trials required by the project or by current standards and
normative.
The tests shall be devised by an authorized person, approved by the Designer and the Engineer.
The Contractor shall supply the lorries or convoys necessary for the trials and the scaffolds and
gangways for performing the measurements.
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The test design shall be elaborated by an authorized person, approved by the Designer and the
Engineer.
The tests and data processing shall be carried out by only one specialized company, approved by the
Designer and the Engineer.

6.7.2 Remedial works
If the entire superstructure or parts of it does not correspond to the requirements of the drawings and
of the Technical Specifications, the Contractor is obliged to carry out the necessary remedial works.
After the survey and the analysis of the defects, the Contractor must submit for the approval of the
Engineer the program of repairs. Remedial works, approved by the Engineer, shall be at the
Contractors expense.
For defects affecting the quality of the structure and/or the safety and durability in service, the
following procedures shall be carried out:
a detailed survey of the defects shall be drawn up;
evaluation of the possible consequence for short or long time;
supply of technical expertise by a certified bridge expert who will evaluate the technical
state and will give the remedial solutions;
realizing of documentation for repairs, including all the necessary indications;
placement of the necessary control devices and ensuring the safety of the construction
personnel
Depending on the findings and on the conclusions of the study, the Engineer may proceed as follows:
to approve the repair documentation, with possible variations;
to order the demolition of the whole or parts of the structural element and reconstruction at
the Contractors expense.
For defects concerning the geometry of the construction, the quality or the colour of the surfaces, but
not affecting the safety and the bearing capacity of the work, the remedial works shall be carried out
as follows:
minor defects may be corrected by cutting back, washing, planing or joint pointing;
for more significant defects the Contractor shall draft a repair program to be submitted for
the approval of the Engineer.
On visual surfaces, with fine facing, repair with simple cement wash is prohibited. When it shall
applied anyhow, this shall be realized with the Consultant approval.
Open cracks, which might compromise the stability and durability of the works will be repaired
following the provisions of Standard C 149-88, which sets down the methods for the repair at concrete
and reinforced concrete. The fissures can be treated with special materials, based on a technology
approved by the Engineer and according the specifications of material appliance.
At the completion of the works the Contractor shall check the whole construction and clear the area
removing the scaffolds, shoring, debris etc to ensure the free operation of the structure.

CHAPTER 7 SCAFFOLDING, TEMPORARY SUPPORTS AND SOFFIT SCAFFOLDING

7.1 GENERALITIES
This Chapter concerns the temporary works that are used to achieve the permanent works and
may be divided, depending on their use, into:
scaffolding and soffit scaffolding to support the structures during construction;
service scaffolds for the movement of the workmen with tools and materials;
protection devices for workers adjacent to live traffic and where works are carried out at
different levels (for instance against falling of materials or tool falls).
The temporary works are executed by the Contractor as required by the project and are approved
by the Engineer, based on the Designer agreement.

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7.2 DESIGN OF TEMPORARY WORKS
The design of the temporary works may be carried out by the Contractor and must be agreed by the
Engineer.
The project must fulfill following conditions:
to ensure the security of workmen and of the permanent works;
to take account of the factors imposed by the permanent works;
to adopt simple static scheme, avoiding elements with bending stress, or which have
great deformations;
to be rigid and resistant;
to permit rapid mounting and slow strike through the non-centering devices;
must not obstruct the river bed and to assure free space under the bridge;
deformations of the temporary works must not damage the permanent works during
setting or hardening time;
to include the detailed succession of construction;
to contain working drawings and technical report.
A complete copy of the design must be permanently on site for the Engineer's use.
The drawings must define the setting out of the temporary works, as well as the nature and
parameters of all the component units.
The drawings must also emphasize:
the measures for the stability and protection of the foundations;
the procedure for assembling the component units of scaffolding and centering;
the supports of the bearing elements, which must be compatible with their own stability
and with the stability of the units upon which they rest;
the bracing system for ensuring the stability in space;
the rules to be observed during handling and for all the operations of adjustment, keying,
non-centering, form stripping and dismantling;
the bonding and the tolerances driving operation;
the concrete casting procedure; the free movement of the concrete due to contraction and
pre-stressing;
the control equipment for the measuring of deformation and settlement;
The technical report must contain:
the specification of necessary materials;
instructions for the erection of temporary works;
instructions regarding the units whose failure might affect the security of works.

7.3 ERECTION AND USE OF TEMPORARY WORKS
The quality of the materials, new or re-used, must correspond to the provisions of Standards in force.
The Contractor must present quality certificates for the new materials; for the re-used materials the
Contractor must guarantee the equivalence of their quality to that of new materials. The use of re-
usable elements or materials is allowed as long as the deformation or the effect of fatigue does not
risk compromising the safety of the works.
The Contractor must indicate on the drawings the permitted number of re-uses.
The element out of specification shall be disposed or repaired in workshops. In the latter case proof of
the repair shall be provided.

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7.4 EXECUTION, USE, CONTROL
The tolerances of the temporary works depend on the tolerances of the permanent works.
The deformation of the temporary works must be checked by the Contractor; the control leveling shall
be related to the benchmarks accepted by the Engineer. The results of the measurements shall be
advised to the Engineer and Designer.
The Contractor must take the steps necessary to avoid deformation.
The Contractor must ensure the regular maintenance of the temporary works.

7.5 COMPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS CONCERNING SCAFFOLDING AND SOFFIT
SCAFFOLDING
The design of the centering and scaffolding must be approved by the Engineer.
For secondary scaffolds, proposals in principle are permitted. The design of proposals for temporary
scaffolds shall be presented for the Engineer's approval, 15 days at least before the start of the
erection.


CHAPTER 8 FORMWORK
8.1 GENERALITIES
Formwork is temporary works usually made of re-usable units, which, after erection are in the
proposed shape of the concrete.
Formwork includes the propping, bracing, and the corresponding supporting devices, bolts, claps, tie-
bars, spacers, contributing to the achievement of the required shape.
Formwork are carried out by authorized person and on the basis of complying with the provisions of
STAS 7721-90 and fulfilling the following conditions:
to ensure the shape, dimensions and finishing proportions provided by the design, for the
construction to be achieved, observing the permitted tolerances under annex III.1 of the
Practice Code NE 012-99 concerning the construction of concrete, reinforced concrete
and pre-stressed concrete works;
to ensure the even surfaces without voids, cracks and other defects;
to be tight enough to avoid loss of cement slurry;
to be stable and resistant to the loads appeared during the construction;
to ensure the established order of erection dismantling, without harming the continuous
concrete elements or the components of the form-work or propping;
to allow an easy dismounting of the entire formwork;
to permit, at stripping, a gradual loading of the concrete structure;
to permit the closing of the joints, avoiding the formation of wedges or sills;
to permit the easy closing of the openings for the control inside the form-work and for the
discharge of waste water, before the start of the concrete pouring;
the surfaces in contract with the concrete must be clean, without cracks or other defects;
the materials used for the formwork execution must correspond to the valid norms.
The formwork design must also include the sequence of erection and removal.
The formwork may be divided in:
fixed formwork, processed and erected on the site and used for a single concrete casting;
stationary dismantling formwork, made up of reusable elements or sets of reusable
elements for a number of concrete castings;
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mobile dismantling formwork, which are moved and take successive positions in step with
the concrete pouring (sliding or stepping forms).

8.2 TECHNICAL CONDITIONS FOR FORMWORK EXECUTION
Besides the general conditions herein before, the Formwork must also satisfy the following specific
conditions:
to permit the proper placement in position of the reinforcement and of the pre-stressing
cables;
to permit the safe fixing in conformity with the design, of units embedded in the head
zones of beams (reparation plates, sheaths etc);
to permit a good compaction of the concrete, especially in the anchoring zones of the pre-
stressed beams;
to afford working and moving facilities for the crew carrying-out the concrete casting,
avoiding their standing on the pre-stressed reinforcement;
to provide for the elastic shortening due to pre-compression and the gradual loading of
self weight, as allowed for in the design;
if necessary, to be fitted with handling lugs and with equipment for the fitting of the form
vibrators;
the mounted spacers must not affect the concrete durability, appearance or introduce
supplementary charges;
the metallic formwork shall be free from fabrication defects and spots of rust on the
contact faces with the concrete.

8.3 FORMWORK TYPES AND TRANSPORTATION
The formwork may be also divided into:
wood or wood lined forms;
tego plywood forms;
DOKA, PASCHAL, PERI, etc. joined or treated with resins, or similar material types;
metallic forms.
The formwork is classified from the following point of view:
A. Position of the formwork from concrete casting to the striping:
stationary formwork;
mobile formwork ( sliding form-work, stepping form-work)
B. The component utilization:
inventory formwork, which are means of inventory and may be used many times;
single use formwork (wood formwork usually) which components are used only once;
permanent formwork, which are included at the concrete casting on site;
virtual formwork when the concrete is poured in spaces already constructed
(foundation pit). For the last mentioned formwork the tolerances are those specific to the
earthwork and not those specific to the concrete elements pored in real formwork;
C. The quality of the concrete surface obtained after striping:
formwork for fair facing concrete;
formwork for rough concrete, the obtained surfaces being covered by plastering or with
plywood.
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8.4 PRELIMINARY WORKS AND ACCEPTANCE
Before each re-use, the formwork shall be revised and repaired. The number of re-uses shall be
established with the Engineers agreement.
In order to re-use, the formwork shall be treated as follows:
they shall be carefully cleaned, repaired and washed before and after the re-use.
Cleaning the forms only by air jet is not permitted;
the surfaces in contact with the concrete shall be oiled by a solution allowing easy
release; if the solution is oily lubricant, contact with the reinforcement must be avoided.
The oil solutions must be applied in uniform layers on the interior side and must not have
any damaging influence over the concrete surface (to stain the concrete, affect the
concrete durability, to provoke the formwork corrosion). The releasing agents must be
easily applied and unaffected by the climatic conditions at execution.

8.5 FORMWORK ERECTION
The formwork erection includes following works:
the marking of the position;
provisional assembling and supporting of the panels;
control and position correcting of the panels;
joining, fixing and permanent propping and bracing.

8.6 FORMWORK SUSTAINING
If the supporting elements of the formwork rest on the ground, compensation of the loads shall be
made accordingly, taking into account the compaction of the ground and the possibility of
softening, in order to avoid settlement.
If the ground is frozen or exposed to frost the supporting manner must avoid displacement due to
temperature change.

8.7 CHECKING AND ACCEPTANCE OF FORMWORK
For the correct execution of the formwork each stage of the operation shall be checked, namely:
before the erection, the preliminary works and the units or sets of units of the formwork
and propping;
during the execution, the correct position and the manner of the units fixing;
finally, the acceptance of the formwork, inscribing the findings in the Register of reports
concerning the quality control of concealed works.


CHAPTER 9 REINFORCEMENT

9.1 GENERALITIES
This Chapter contains the necessary Technical Specifications for the design, supply, storing and
erection of the reinforcement for reinforced concrete superstructures of the bridges.
For specific conditions concerning the foundations, the elevations of the substructures, reinforced
concrete and pre-stressed concrete superstructures the provisions on Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 11 and 13
shall apply.
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9.2 STEEL FOR REINFORCEMENT
The steel bars for concrete reinforcement must fulfil the technical conditions of STAS 438/1-89; 438/2
- 91; 438/3 - 89 and STAS 6482/1-73; 6482/2,3,4-80.
The normal types and the range of application are shown in the following Table, corresponding to the
provisions of the Practice Code NE 012-99 concerning the construction of concrete, reinforced
concrete and pre-stressed concrete works.
Table
TYPE OF THE STEEL SYMBOL FIELD OF APPLICABILITY
Round smooth bars STAS
438/1-89

OB 37
Strength or distribution reinforcement
Drawn smooth wire of reinforced
concrete STAS 438/2-91

STNB
Strength reinforcement of welded wire
fabric or welded cages distribution
reinforcement
Welded wire fabric for reinforced
concrete SR 438/3/1998
STPB
Deformed bars for reinforced
concrete. Concrete steel by
periodical structure
PC 52 Strength reinforcement for concrete of
min C 12/15 (Bc 15) class
STAS 438/1-89 PC 60 Strength reinforcement for concrete of
min C 16/20 (Bc 20) class
Pre-stressed reinforcement
-smooth wire STAS 6482/2-80
-deformed wire STAS 6482/3-80
-strands

SBPI and SBP II
SBPAI and SBPAII
TBP

Strength reinforcement for concrete of
min C 25/30 (Bc 30) class

For imported steel, the quality certificate from the import company is mandatory. Imported steel must
be technically defined identifying the field of applicability.
In this certificate the corresponding type of steel from STAS 438/1, 2, 3 - 89, 91, 98 and STAS
6482-80 shall be indicated. This must take into account all the quality parameters.
If doubts do exist, concerning the equivalence, the Contractor may use the steel only after laboratory
tests, with the written agreement of a specialized institute and the approval of the Engineer.
For imported steel, a quality certificate from the import company is mandatory. Imported steel must
be technically defined identifying the field of applicability.

9.3 DELIVERY AND MARKING
The delivery of the steel bars shall be made according to confirmed orders and shall be accompanied
by a quality certificate (quality inspection certificate; conformity declaration) and after the steel bars
have been certified by an authorized company, by a copy of the conformity certificate.
The documents that accompany the steel bar delivery should contain:
name and type of steel bars, used STAS;
information for the identification of the batches;
net weight;
defined values concerning the performance criteria.
Each strand or bundle of bars or welded wire should bear a label containing.
the mark;
the reinforcement type;
the number of the batch and of the roll of bundle;
the net weight;
the quality control.
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Steel delivered by intermediary suppliers shall be accompanied by a quality certificate containing all
the data in the quality documents issued by the steel bar manufacturer.

9.4 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE
The reinforcement bars, welded wires and prefabricated reinforcement cages shall be handled and
stored so that they do not deteriorate or contaminated with substances that could affect the
reinforcement and/or concrete or the concrete - reinforcement bond.
Steel for reinforcement should be stored in types and diameters in special spaces so that they can
ensure.
the avoidance of the conditions that lead to reinforcement corrosion;
the avoidance of contamination by earth or other materials;
easy identification of each range and diameter.

9.5 QUALITY CONTROL
The quality control of the steel is made according to the provisions of Chapter 17 from the Practice
Code NE 012-99 and Annex 7.1 from Practice Code NE 013 - 2002.
9.6 BENDING, ERECTION AND TYING OF REINFORCEMENT
The steel bars shall be bound and the reinforcing cages shall be made and erected, in strict
conformity with the provisions of the design.
Before starting the works, the Contractor shall carry out an analysis of the design, comparing his own
method of erection with the technology of concrete casting and compaction. If necessary, the
Contractor may request the Designer through the Engineer to re-examine the reinforcing proposals
provided by the design.
The reinforcing bars must be cut, bent and handled so as to avoid:
mechanical deterioration (scratches, bending);
weld breaks in welded cages or wire;
contact with substances that may affect the bond or may cause corrosion.
The reinforcing bars to be bent must be clean and straight with no evidence of the following:
impurities on the bars surface;
rust, especially where bars are to be spliced up by welding.
After the removal of rust, the decrease in cross-section of a bar must not exceed the tolerances
provided in the product standard.
The steel delivered in roll or in bent bars must be straightened before cutting and bending but without
deforming the profile (when straightening by winding the maximum lengthening shall not exceed 1
mm/m).
The cut and bent bars shall be stored in labeled packs in such a manner as to avoid confusion and to
keep them clean and without deformation.
It is forbidden to bend the reinforcing bars at temperatures below -10C. Deformed bars of more than
25 mm diameter shall be hot bent.
Recommendations regarding bending, erection and binding of reinforcing bars are given in the Annex
II.1 from Practice Code NE 012-99 and in the Chapter 10 from Practice Code NE 013-2002.
Pre-stressed reinforcement
The following conditions shall be respected for any type of pre-stressed reinforcement:
the quality certificate of the steel batch shall be checked; in its absence or if the conditions of
transport and storage are in doubt, the quality shall be checked according to SR EN 206-
1:2002 by means of mechanical tests (tensile strength, alternating bending, etc.);
the steel bars or wires shall be classed, the non adherent rust shall be removed, in order to
ensure an adequate bond with concrete or injection grout;
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steel showing signs of corrosion may be used only after trials proving that the physical-
mechanical properties were not affected;
reinforcement to be simultaneously pre-stressed should be, if possible, from the same batch;
the portion of bars having suffered local bending and remaining deformed shall not be used,
straightening being prohibited. However, slight deformation due to transport or storage may be
mechanically straightened at temperatures over +10C.
for individually pre-stressed reinforcement, the profile shall be established by a licensed
laboratory on short samples, according to STAS 6605-78 Tensile strength test of steel bars,
wire and wire products for pre-stressed concrete;
for pre-stressed reinforcement the actual value of the elastic modulus shall be established on
the site at the same time as the determination of the loss of tension due to the friction along
this cable route.
For the calculus, design, preparation, erection and placement of the pre-stressed reinforcement and
also for the tensioning anchoring and injection, the provisions of STAS 10111/2-87 Chapter 7.9; 3, 4,
8 and 9, the Practice Code NE 012-99 and the Chapter 10 from Practice Code NE 013-2002 are
mandatory.

9.7 CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES
The allowable tolerances for the bending and cutting of reinforcement are given in the Annex II.2 of
the Practice Code NE 012-99.
If tolerances quoted on drawings are lower than values in the Code, then the values on drawings shall
be used.

9.8 PARTICULAR REQUIREMENTS FOR WELDED WIRE REINFORCEMENT
Drawn smooth wire STNB or profiled wire STPB may be used to reinforce concrete elements in
accordance to STAS 10107/0-90.
The fabrication and use of welded wire shall be carried out according to the technical regulations in
force.
Welded wires shall be stored in covered places without direct contact with the ground or substances
that may affect the reinforcement or concrete, in batches of the same type and with corresponding
labeling.
Loading, unloading and transport of welded wire shall be done carefully, avoiding hitting and
deformation or breaking of the welds.
Trials or investigations specific to welded wires, including checking of the knot (hitch; bend) welding
quality shall be carried out according to STAS 438/3-1998.
Where the wires are covered with rust, this must be removed by brushing.
After the removal of the rust the decrease in cross-sectional area of the bars must not exceed the
tolerances provided in the product standards.

9.9 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
The minimum distance between reinforcement and the minimum diameters permitted for in-situ
reinforced or pre-cast concrete for the different types of units shall determined in accordance with
STAS 10111/2-87 and NE 012-99.

9.10 REINFORCEMENT BARS SPLICING
The method for splicing shall be in accordance with the provisions of the design and of STAS
10111/2-87 and NE 012-99. Usually the splicing of reinforcement is achieved by thickening with or
without welding according to the diameter and type of the bars, up to the strength of the element
areas (potential plastic areas or elements included in ante seismic structures).
The splicing can be done by:
duplication;
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welding;
metallic-thermal hose (muff);
pressing hose.
Reinforcement splicing by thickening must be in conformity with the provisions of STAS 10111-2-87.
Reinforcement splicing by normal welding (electric welding) shall be carried out according to this
Technical Specifications and Norms regarding the welding of reinforcement (C 28-1983 and C 150-
1999) where the minimum length of the welding seam and the execution conditions are defined.
It is forbidden to use welding on splicing of reinforcement of steel with mechanically improved quality
(drawn wire). This prohibition does not include knots of industrially welded wires.
When the distance between the reinforcement bars is determined, one should take into account the
supplementary (extra) spaces of the cover plate, mould, etc and the thickness of the splicing system
used.
Use of the splicing up systems by mechanical devices (metallic - thermal hoses by pressing or other
procedures) is allowed only on the basis of the specific technical regulations or technical agreements.

9.11 THE CONCRETE COVER LAYER
In order to ensure durability of reinforcement in structures, protection against corrosion and adequate
bonding with concrete, a concrete cover layer is necessary.
The minimum thickness of the layer is determined according to the element type, category exposure
conditions, reinforcement diameter, concrete class degree of fire resistance, etc.
The thickness of the layer will be established in the design.
The thickness of the concrete covering layer in an environment without chemical aggressiveness will
be established according to STAS 10111/2-87. The thickness of the layer in an environment with
chemical aggressiveness is determined according to special Technical Specifications.
The thickness of the concrete cover for reinforcement for elements/structures on the ground is given
in Annex II.3 of the Practice Code NE 012-99.
Mortar spacers shall be fixed to reinforcement in order to ensure the required concrete cover is
achieved. The use of metallic or wooden spacers is prohibited.

9.12 SUBSTITUTION OF THE REINFORCEMENT GIVEN IN THE DESIGN
In case the types and diameters stated in the design are not available, their substitution is permitted
only with the Engineers approval.
The minimum or maximum distances between bars and minimum diameters shall comply with STAS
10107/2-90, STAS 10111/2-87 and NE 012-99.
The substitution will be recorded in the construction records that accompany the Construction
Certificate.

9.13 REINFORCEMENT ANTI-CORROSIVE PROTECTION
If reinforcement is fixed in the formwork but concrete is not poured for more than three (3) months due
to suspensions or delays, then the reinforcement or specific reinforcement areas will be protected.
The costs will be borne by the Contractor.
Anti-corrosion protection shall also be applied to the following where concrete is not poured for more
than three (3) months; at construction joints where reinforcement has already been cast in adjacent
concrete elements; pre-stressed concrete elements which shall be erected with an in-situ concrete
stitch. This protection will be the first operation carried out.
This corrosion protection will be applied only if after cleaning, the cross section of the same element is
decreased by up to 5%. Otherwise, the Contractor shall propose a solution for the approval of the
Engineer, eventually adding new reinforcement bars.
The anti-corrosion protection of reinforcement consists of cleaning bars to remove iron rust, fats,
impurities etc and application of specific protection materials. The cleaning and application method for
protection materials will be in accordance to the specifications for each product.
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The use of protection materials will be in accordance with the manufacturers specification and
technical warranty agreement. These shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval and Designer
agreement.

CHAPTER 10 CONCRETE

10.1 GENERALITIES
This Chapter contains the general specifications necessary for the design and manufacture of
concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete for bridge structures.
The construction of concrete works for foundations, substructures, reinforced or pre-stressed concrete
superstructures shall also comply with the specific provisions of this Chapter. Additionally, the
concrete must comply with the following; the specifications under Annexes I.1, I.2, I.3, I.4, I.5 and I.6
of Practice Code NE 012-99 for the construction of concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed
concrete works, approved by MLPTL by Order 59/N of August 24 1999; the provisions of STAS
10112/2-87.
The concrete class is established according to NE 012-99 on the basis of the typical strength f.ck.cil.
(f.ck.cub), which is the compressive strength in N/mm
2
, on cylinders of 150/H300 mm or on 150 mm
cubes at 28 days. The specimens (samples) shall be stored according to STAS 1275/88.
For the correlation between the concrete classes in Practice Code NE 012-99 and the concrete types
together with the recommendations or the minimum classes of concrete for various elements of
bridges is shown on the following Table:
Concrete class acc. NE 012 - 99 Concrete class acc. STAS 10111/2-87
0 1
C 4/5 Bc 5
C 8/10 Bc 10
C 12/15 Bc 15
C 16/20 Bc 20
C20/25 Bc 25
C 25/30 Bc 30
C 30/37 -
C 35/45 Bc 35
C 40/50 Bc 50
C 45/55 -
C 50/60 Bc 60

The concrete classes marked with (*) are not in the European Norms and remain valid only until the
Design Romcodes (according to Eurocode 2) will come into forces.
To ensure the durability of bridges, the design must take in account the regime of exposure and the
nature and degree of the environmental aggressiveness, according to the Practice Code NE 012-99,
Chapter 5 - Demands regarding the concrete features, out of which:
subchapter 5.1 Resistance demands;
subchapter 5.2 Durability demands.
If, after the analysis of the location's conditions, special measures are needed, the class of concrete
shall be established accordingly and also the following parameters:
the impermeability degree;
the type of cement;
the minimum cement content;
the maximum water-cement ratio.
For very important and special bridges, the collaboration of academic specialists and laboratories is
recommended in order to carry out detailed mix design, to undertake sufficient testing, to produce
special specifications and to provide technical assistance during the construction.

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10.2 MATERIALS FOR CONCRETE PREPARING
10.2.1 Cement
The cement should satisfy the demands of the national standards or professional standards.
The normal types of cement can be classified as follows:
Portland cement (type I) according SR EN 197-1:2002;
composed Portland cement (type II) according SR EN 197-1:2002;
furnace cement (type III) according SR EN 197-1:2002;
furnace cement (type IV) according SR EN 197-1:2002;
composed cement (type V) according SR EN 197-1:2002.
The normal types of cement, their properties, the range and conditions of applicability are described in
Annex I.1 and Annex I.2 of the Practice Code NE 012-99 and in the Practice Code NE 013-2002.
Delivery and transport
The cement shall be delivered in bulk or packed in paper sacks and transported in road vehicles or rail
wagons and shall be accompanied by a quality certificate.
The cement in bulk shall be transported only in road vehicles with special tanks or rail wagons type
ZVC with pneumatic unloading.
The cement shall be protected against humidity and impurities during storage and transport.
Where the user obtains the cement from a warehouse (supply, base) the cement delivery will be
accompanied by a certificate of conformance identifying.
the type of cement and manufacturer;
the date of arrival in the warehouse;
the number of the quality certificate issued by the manufacturer and the dates written in it;
the guarantee of compliance the storage conditions;
the number of the analysis report for the quality of the cement carried out by an
authorized laboratory and its date and indicating the conditions or use in all cases when
the expiry date has passed.
The supplier's obligations concerning the cement guarantee shall be included in the contract between
the supplier and the user.
Taking of the cement samples shall be carried out with the manufacturer and contractor present,
according to the Norm SR EN 196/7-95 for checking the conformity of a delivery or of a batch with the
standard provisions, with the demands of a contract or with the specification of an order. Taking of the
cement samples may also take place in the presence of the Beneficiary and a Representative whose
fairness is recognized both by the manufacturer and contractor.
Taking of samples is normally carried out before or during delivery. If necessary, it can be carried out
after delivery but not later than 24 hours after receipt.
Storage
The cement shall be stored only after the quantitative and qualitative reception according to Annex
VI.1 from the Practice Code NE 012-99 including the checking of the quality certificate and after
checking the available capacity or the silos allocated for the respective type of cement or of the
specially arranged store rooms.
Until then the cement will be stored and clearly labeled.
The bulk cement shall be stored in silos, which have not previously contained other materials, visibly
marked with the cement type. The cement in sacks shall be stored in closed store - rooms.
Throughout the time in service of the silos, the batches of cement will be accounted for, by daily
registering of receptions and deliveries. Sacks shall be laid in piles on wooden boards with spaces to
ensure air circulation at the bottom and with a free space of 50 cm from the roof for circulation. The
piles will have 10 lines of stalled sacks as a maximum.
It is forbidden to exceed the expiry date, set down by the manufacturer for the type of cement used.
Cement stored for a longer time or in bad conditions will be used for concrete or reinforced concrete
works, only after having checked the state of preservation and the physical properties.
The cement quality control
The cement quality control shall be carried out as follows:
at reception by checking the quality/guarantee certificate issued by the manufacturer or by
the supplier in accordance with point a) in accordance with Annex VI.1 point A.1 of the
Practice Code NE 012-99;
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before use, by an authorized laboratory in accordance with Annex VI.1 point B.1 of the
Practice Code NE 012-99.
The testing procedures are regulated by SR EN 196-1/95, SR EN 196-3/97, SREN 196-6/94, SR EN
196 -7/95.

10.2.2 Aggregates
Aggregates for concrete shall have a density between 2201 and 2500 kg/m
3
and shall be of crushed
stone or of natural origin.
The aggregates must fulfill the technical conditions of SR EN 12620-2003.
For concrete preparation the grading of the total aggregate is established so that it is a function of the
cement content and concrete consistency in accordance with Annex I.4 of the Practice Code NE 012-
99 and for precast elements in accordance with NE 013 - 2002.
Production and delivery of aggregates
The owners of ballast pits or quarries must present the quality certificate of the aggregates and the
conformity certificate, issued by an accredited authority.
The aggregate (ballast pit) will work on the basis of a certificate issued by an internal agent in the
presence of a representative named by the State Inspectorate I.S.C..
The pits will be certified. For that, they must have their own quality control system (or they must
function as part of an organized agency with a system for ensuring quality) assuring the quality of the
supplied aggregates according to the regulations orders or contracts. The State Inspectorate
representative shall be certificated by County Inspectorate. The re-certification of the quarry shall be
carried out every 2 years.
The quarries for producing aggregate shall have:
the licence necessary for the exploatation of the ballast pit and the documents proving the
nature of the deposit;
the documents regarding the system of ensuring the quality (quality manual; general
system procedures, operational procedures, quality plan, working rules, staff files etc);
aggregate deposits with platform arrangement having separate compartment's marked for
the required number of aggregate types;
sorting devices etc., in working conditions, certified by CNAMEC (National Committee for
Technical Attestation) Comisia Nationala de atestare a masinilor si echipamentelor de
constructie;
staff who have knowledge and the necessary experience for this kind of activity assessed
in accordance with the provisions of the quality system;
an authorized laboratory or the proof of collaboration by agreement or contract with
another authorized laboratory.
The certifying commission will consist of:
a president of the technical head of the organized agency (having special experts) or a
specialist certified by M.L.P.T.L. as Technical executive for execution full time or part
time employed;
members;
an expert in quality control;
an engineering expert;
the head of the authorized laboratory or of the laboratory with which there is a co-
operation agreement or contract.
In the situation where the functions of the expert in quality control are carried out by a number of
offices (in conformity with the adopted system of quality assurance) by a person named in the agency,
the participation of the quality control expert is unnecessary.
The engineering expert may test the pit on a part-time basis and will have the knowledge necessary to
assess the equipment and apparatus used.
The attesting commission will carry out their checks on a 3 monthly basis in order to maintain the
necessary conditions and the function of the quality system.
To resolve any non-conformities found at the 3 month checking or on inspections carried out by the
appointed body, the organized agency will take preventive or correction measures, as required. The
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completion of the proposed correcting actions shall be communicated to the identifying body in order
to decide, in conformity with the following provisions:
In case of finding deficiencies which affect the aggregates quality the following measures shall be
taken:
CEASING of aggregate delivery for concrete if at least one (1) of the following deficiencies is found.
the deterioration of the walls of the compound for aggregate storage;
the deterioration of the platform for aggregate storage;
absence of the qualified staff at the quarry;
failure to observe the equipment maintenance instructions;
other deficiencies that may affect the aggregate quality.
CEASING of the function of the station for producing aggregates in the basis of one (1) of the
following findings:
deterioration of the aggregate sorting/washing equipment;
bad results regarding the aggregate quality;
failure to carry out tests according to the regulations in force;
failure of the quality control system.
In these cases the resumption of normal working will only be made on the basis of the reissue of
certification by the commission.
The determination of the maximum size of the aggregates will be carried out in accordance with the
paragraphs The mix design.
The aggregates used in the concrete preparation if exposed to a wet environment must be checked
by analysis for their reactivity to the alkalis in concrete.
Transport and storage
The aggregates must not be contaminated with other materials during haulage or storage.
The aggregates must be stored on concrete platforms having slopes and drains for water drainage.
For separate storage of different types of aggregate, compartments will be constructed sufficiently
high to avoid mixing with other types. The compartments will be marked with the type of aggregate
stored.
It is forbidden to store aggregate directly on the ground or on ballast platforms.
The quality control of the aggregates
The quality control of the aggregates shall be carried out in accordance with Annex VI.1 of the
Practice Code NE 012-99 and the methods for checking are given in STAS 4606/80.
The precast elements shall observe the requirements of Annex 7.1 from Practice Code NE 013-2002
10.2.3 Water
The water used for concrete preparation comes from the public water supply. If another source is
used it must conform to the conditions in SR EN 1008-83.
10.2.4 Additives
Additives are used in concrete for heavilyreinforced elements, thin concrete sections or when
pouring concrete from height.
It has purpose as follows:
by making concrete workable for pumping;
for improving the impermeability for the structures exposed to weather or in an aggressive
environment;
improving the freezing-thawing resistance;
making concrete of higher class;
adjusting the hardening time, by accelerating or by retarding, as a function of the technical
requirements;
increasing the durability and improving the homogeneity of the concrete.
The additives have to comply with the requirements of the specific locations or the technical
requirements in force.
Additives must be used in the preparation of concrete in the cases listed in the following table:
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Item Category of concrete Recommended additive Notes
1 Concrete exposed to repeated
freezing thawing
air stimulator
2 Concrete with reduced
permeability
water reducer - plasticizer as the case may be:
- intense reducer
superplasticizer
3 Concrete exposed to intense
and very intense aggressive
ground conditions
idem as the case may be:
- intense reducer -
superplasticizer
- corrosion inhibition
4 Resisting concrete of class C
12-15 and C 30/37 included
plasticizer or
superplasticizer
Concrete settling:
T3-T3/T4 or T4/T5-T5
5 Monolith concrete class C
35/45
superplasticizer - intense
water reducer

6 Fluid concrete - with settling of
T 5
superplasticizer
7 Massive concrete - concrete
poured by special technology
(vibration)
(plasticizer)
superplasticizer +
hardening retardant
(retarder)

8 Concrete poured on warm
weather
hardening retarder + super-
plasticizer (plasticizer)

9 Concrete poured on cold
weather
anti-freezing + hardening
accelerator

10 Concrete with high resistance
on short term
hardening accelerator

Even if they are not referred to in the table, if the Contractor requires a certain type of additive, the
Engineer's approval shall be requested and enter in the construction records.
The type of additive or combination of additives proposed by the Contractor or concrete supplier, will
be submitted to the Engineer for approval, having in view the recommendations in the table Annex I.3
and I.4 points 3.2.2. of the Practice Code NE 012-99 and for the precast elements there shall be
observed the Practice Code NE 013 - 2002.
If two (2) types of additives are used without knowing the compatibility and behavior together,
preliminary trials and approval of a specialized institute are required.
The technical conditions for the component materials (other than the normal ones) the preparation,
haulage, placing in the works and the treatment of concrete shall be established and the function of
the type of additive used and they will be entered in the concrete casting technical sheet.

10.2.5 Admixtures
Admixtures are fine inorganic materials that can be added in concrete in quantities over 5% dry
substance to the cement mass in order to improve its features or properties.
The admixtures may improve the workability, the impermeability, and the degree of resistance to
aggressive chemical agents in the ground.
There are two (2) types of admixtures:
non active (inert), part substitute of the fine part in aggregates, when the sand of 0-3 mm
in the aggregates is reduced by 10%. The use of non active admixture improves the
workability and compatibility of the concrete;
active, when the hydraulic properties of the admixture are seen. The active admixtures
are: granulated furnace slag, ash and silicon sand, etc.
In the case of admixtures with hydraulic properties, when, the ratio W/C is calculated, the quantity of
admixture in concrete as binder should be taken into account.
The admixtures must not contain substances that may influence in a negative way the concrete
properties or that may induce reinforcement corrosion.
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Power plant ash will only be used after approval by appointed bodies of the Minister of Health with the
issue of a sanitary certificate.
The admixture shall be transported and stored so that the physical-chemical features do not change.

10.3 REQUIREMENTS REGARDING THE CONCRETE FEATURES
The composition of concrete will be chosen so that the requirements regarding resistance and
durability are ensured.
10.3.1 Requirements for resistance
The relation between the W/C ratio and the resistance to compression of the concrete must be
determined for each type of cement, type of aggregates and for a given age of the concrete. The
admixtures in concrete may alter the value of the W/C ratio.
The characteristic resistance (f.ck.) determined on cylinder or on cube test samples are:

Concrete of
resistance class
C 4/5 C 8/10 C 12/15 C 16/20 C 20/25
f.ck.cil. N/mm
2
4 8 12 16 20
f.ck.cub. N/mm
2
5 10 15 20 25
Concrete of
resistance class
C 25/30 C30/37 C 35/45 C 40/50 C 45/55
f.ck.cil. N/mm
2
25 30 35 40 45
f.ck.cub. N/mm
2
30 37 45 50 55

10.3.2 Requirements for durability
To produce durable concrete - resistant to exposure to the environment in the bridge area and
protecting the reinforcement against corrosion, the following requirements must be met:
the selection of the component materials of the concrete so that they don't contain
impurities that could damage the reinforcement;
choosing the composition so that the concrete:
satisfies all the performance criteria specified for the hardened concrete;
may be poured and compacted to form a compact structure to protect the reinforcement;
avoid the inner actions that may damage the concrete (e.g. alkali aggregate reaction);
resist the external influences of the environment;
mixing, transport, placing in the works and compacting of concrete shall be done so that
the component materials of the concrete are uniformly dispersed in the mix, not
segregated and the concrete acts as compact structure;
the concrete treatment to obtain the desired properties of the concrete and the
corresponding protection of the reinforcement.
The durability requirements necessary to protect the reinforcement against corrosion and the
maintaining of the concrete features at physic-chemical actions during its life are related to the
concrete permeability.
The permeability degree of the concrete will be an established function of the exposure class to which
the bridge is subject. The exposure classes shall conform with the Practice Code NE 012-99.
The levels of performance of concrete impermeability are:
The max depth of water penetration
100 200
Permeability degree

Water pressure (bars)
P
10
4

P
20
4
4
P
10
8

P
20
8
8
P
10
12

P
20
12
12

The degree of impermeability shall accord with STAS 3622-86.
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The freezing - thawing resistance of the concrete characterizing the frost resistance degree function of
the number of freezing thawing cycles, will be found in the provisions of Table 5.4 of the Practice
Code NE 012-99.

The levels of performance at frost resistance of the concrete are:
Concrete of frost resistance degree Number of freezing-thawing
cycles
G 50 50
G 100 100
G 150 150

The base value of the specific deformation at 28 days of concrete due to contraction for normal
concrete in normal hardening conditions is 0,25% according to STAS 10107/0-90.

10.4 REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CONCRETE COMPOSITION
The provisions of this Technical Specification correspond with the concrete composition established in
the mixing of concrete designed at the plant by an authorized laboratory.

10.4.1 General conditions
The selection of the component materials and the establishing of the designed concrete composition
is made by the producer on the basis of some preliminary mixings and checked by an authorized
laboratory. In the absence of previous data, the preliminary mixes are recommended. In this case, the
concrete supplier designs the concrete mix so that it has the necessary consistency, will not
segregate and is easily compacted. The hardened concrete must comply with the technical
requirements for which it was designed and in particular have the required resistance at compression.
In these cases, the trial mix of the concrete in hardened state must be subjected to tests to determine
the features they were designed for.
The concrete must be durable and perform a good protection of the reinforcement.
Data regarding the concrete composition
In the case of the designed mix, the following must be specified:
a) The resistance class;
b) The maximum size of the aggregate grain;
c) The consistency of the wet concrete;
d) Data regarding the concrete composition (the max. W/C ratio, type and minimum cement content)
as a function of the use of this concrete (simple reinforced concrete), exposure conditions, etc. in
conformity with the provisions of the Practice Codes NE 012 - 99 and NE 013 - 2002.
The concrete plant and user
The concrete supplier shall only supply concrete in accordance with the above clauses. The
contractor shall provide the supplier with a delivery schedule for each type of concrete mix.
The concrete delivery
The concrete delivery must be accompanied by a concrete delivery haulage document.
The concrete composition
The concrete composition is established and checked by an authorized laboratory; the mix formula
shall be made:
at the plant's start up;
at cement or/and aggregate changes;
at additive type changes;
at the preparation for construction of some bridge structures that require concrete of
special characteristics different from these normally prepared, or of equal or higher class
than C 20/25.

10.4.2 The mixing design
Requirements regarding the concrete consistency
The workability is the capacity of the wet concrete of being poured in different pre-established
conditions and correspondingly compacted by.
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The workability is determined on the basis of the concrete consistency.
The wet concrete consistency may be determined by: the cone testing re-modeling VE - DE, or
compacting and spreading degree according to the provisions of the Practice Code NE 012-99.

Requirements of the aggregates grading
Aggregate grading shall be complied with the provisions of chapter 6.2.2 of the Practice Code NE
012-99 .
Requirements regarding the type of cement, the cement content and the W/C ratio
The recommendations regarding the cement type are given in Annex I.2 of the Practice Code NE 012-
99.
The W/C ratio is an established function of the conditions of resistance applied to concrete.
The values are given in Annex I.4 table I.4.2 of the Practice Code NE 012-99.
The composition is determined by preliminary trials to achieve the requirements.
Requirements for the additive and admixture selection
The additives and admixtures will be added in the mixture only in quantities that do not decrease the
concrete durability or produce reinforcement corrosion.
The additives are to be used in accordance with the provisions of Annex I.3 of the Practice Code NE
012-99 on the basis of the using instructions, that must comply with the regulations or technical
agreements based on experimental determinations.
Recommendations for deciding the concrete composition are given in Annex I.4 and I.5 of the Practice
Code NE 012-99.

10.5 PERFORMANCE LEVELS OF THE CONCRETE
10.5.1 Wet concrete
Consistency
Consistency of wet concrete shall be determined by one of the four methods presented in the Practice
code NE 012 99, point 7.1.1 and in the Practice Code NE 013 - 2002
Apparent density
The density determination on wet concrete shall conform with STAS 2414/91

10.5.2 Hardened concrete
Resistance to compression
The concrete class is determined on the basis of the characteristic compression strength N/mm
2

determined on 150/300 mm cylindrical or 150 mm (temporarily 141 mm) cube samples. The values
shall confirm with chapter 7.2.1 of the Practice Code NE 012-99.
The development of the concrete resistance
In some special cases it is necessary to observe the development of the concrete resistance at
certain time periods, on samples of similar sizes, with those of the concrete class determinations.
The samples will be kept in similar conditions to those of the exposed structure and they will be
tested at pre-established time periods. When there are no samples, non-destructive trials or tests
on the structure will be carried out.
Resistance to water penetration
The characteristic values comply with table 7.2.2 of Practice Code NE 012 99.
Freezing thawing resistance
The characteristic values comply with table 7.2.3 of Practice Code NE 012 99.
Concrete density
Concrete is classified as:
light concrete, concrete with apparent density in dry condition (105 C) of max.
2000 kg/m
3
. They are entirely or partially produced using porous aggregates;
concrete with normal density (medium heavy and heavy) concrete with apparent
density in dry condition (105C) more than 2000 kg/m
3
but not more than 2500 kg/m
3
;
very heavy concrete, concrete with apparent density in dry condition (105 C) more
than 2500 kg/m
3
.
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10.6 CONCRETE PREPARATION
The personnel charged with producing and testing the concrete will have the necessary knowledge
and experience and will be certified for this kind of work.
Preparation shall comply with the provisions of art. 9.1.1. of the Practice Code NE 012-99 and the
precast elements shall comply the Practice Code NE 013 - 2002.
The concrete plant is a unit that produces and supplies concrete, having one or more sections for
the concrete preparation and concrete mixes. The concrete quality certification must be made by
the producer in conformity with the procedures in Law 10 for quality in constructions of 1995 and in
the Regulations concerning the quality certification in construction.
The concrete plants will work on the basis of a certificate issued at the plants start up in conformity
with the Practice Code NE 012-99.
When adding the component elements of the concrete, the following deviations are permitted:
aggregate 3%
cement and water 2%
admixture3%
additives5%
Concrete mixing and loading into the means of transport
Concrete mixers with powered mixing or free fall may be used for mixing, only in the case of
aggregate with particle size greater than 40 mm.
A homogenous distribution of the component materials and a constant workability must be
obtained by mixing.
The order of introduction of the component materials in the concrete mixer, will begin with the
largest particle size aggregate.
The component materials of the concrete will be mixed till a homogenous mixture is obtained. The
mixing time depends on the type and composition of the concrete, on the environment and on the
type of installation.
The mixing time is at least 45 sec. From the introduction of the last component material.
The mixing time will be increased, as the case may be for:
using of additives or admixtures;
cold weather;
aggregate with particle size greater than 31 mm;
low workability concrete.
The temperature of the wet concrete in the pouring room is recommended to be between 5C and
30C.
The loading time into the means of transport or the keeping of the concrete in the concrete chute
shall not exceed 20 min.
At the end of a shift or a break in the concrete preparation of more than 1 hour, the concrete mixer
shall be cleaned with: water jet or water mixed with gravel and then immediately emptied.
For already mixed concrete (prepared at plants or concrete factories) the Contractor shall be
informed by the producer giving the concrete composition in order to pour and treat the concrete
correspondingly, to evaluate with passage of the time the resistance and durability of the concrete
in the structure.
The user should be given this information before the supply or at the time of supply. The producer
shall inform the user, on request, for each concrete supply:
the suppliers name;
the name of the body that certified the concrete conformity, the registration series of
the certificate and the plants attestation certificate according to point 9.2.2. of the
Practice Code NE 012-99;
date and time of loading (time of the first contact between cement and water, if
necessary);
the registration number of the means of transport;
concrete quantity (m
3
).
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The supply certificate should contain:
*For the designed mix (composition):
resistance class;
concrete consistency class;
concrete type, class and cement content;
the aggregate type and the maximum size of particles;
additives and admixture types;
special characteristics of the concrete, the degree of impermeability, frost resistance
etc. All the data regarding the concrete characteristics will be noted according to
6.1.1.2. of the Practice Code NE 012-99.
This information may come from the catalogue of the concrete producer which should contain
information regarding the concrete, resistance and consistency, cement content and other data
relevant to the concrete composition.
*For the prescribed admixture:
details regarding the concrete composition and the content of cement, types of
additives or admixtures;
the consistency class.
In both cases the date and time of the concrete arriving on the working site, the concrete receiving
confirmation, the concrete temperature at receiving and the environment temperature must be
written in the supply certificate.
In 30 days from the concrete supply the producer must issue a quality certificate for the concrete.
Poor results obtained for the hardened concrete samples will be communicated to the user in 30
days from the concrete supply.
This condition will be written in the contract signed by the parties.

10.7 TRANSPORT AND POURING OF THE CONCRETE
10.7.1 Concrete transport
All necessary measures shall be taken to prevent segregation, component loss or concrete
contamination during transport.
The means of transport must be adequately sealed to avoid the loss of the cement slurry.
The transport of concrete with a slump greater than 50 mm shall be made by motor stirrer and of
the concrete with slump max. 50 mm by means of dump body trucks.
The local transport of the concrete may be made by means of concrete buggy, pump, trolley,
conveyer, concrete chute and wagon.
In hot or rainy weather, in the case of haulage distances longer than 3 km, all exposed surfaces of
poured concrete shall be protected to avoid changes in the concrete water content.
The maximum transport duration depends on the concrete composition and the environment. The
transport duration is considered from the moment of loading at the concrete plant until its unloading
on site and shall not exceed the values given in the table below. Retarding agents may be used
with the approval of the Engineer.

Max. transport duration (minutes) Temperature of the
concrete mix ( C) cement class 32,5 cement class 42,5
10 < t 30 50 35
t < 10 70 50

For the transport of concrete in dump trucks, the maximum duration shall be reduced by 15
minutes from the limits given in the table.
The temperature of the wet concrete before pouring shall be between 5C and 30C.
In the case of concrete with temperatures higher than 30C, additional measures shall be taken:
a proposal document shall be prepared by a specialist institute or authorized laboratory
detailing the method for preparing the concrete, haulage, pouring, treatment and use of
appropriate retarding agents.
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Whenever the time period between unloading and re-loading the means of transport exceeds one
(1) hour and an interruption at the work, the means of transport shall be cleaned with water jet and
the mixer filled with approximately 1 m
3
of water and will be spun at maximum speed for 5 min. and
then emptied.

10.7.2 Preparation for concrete casting
The temperature of concrete is recommended to vary between 5C and 30C at the beginning of
concrete pouring. If the weather is cold there are necessary some protection measures so that the
concrete without formworks to keep a constant temperature of 10C 15C for three days after
pouring. In all stages shall be observed the recommendations of chapter 15 Concrete treatment
in NE 012-99.
The concrete casting may commence only when the following conditions are met:
a) the procedure for concrete casting has been approved by the Engineer.
b) the preliminary works are completed, all the necessary materials (aggregates, cement,
additives, admixtures, etc) are supplied and the plants are equipped and operational according
to the production procedure.
c) the labour have been instructed regarding the execution processes and the safety measures.
d) the earthworks, formwork and reinforcement have been accepted (as the case may be).
e) if there is a long period between mounting and reception of the reinforcement (over 6 months),
is absolutely necessary a new inspection of the reinforcement realized by a Committee
including the Beneficiary, the Constructor, the Designer and the ISC Representative which
shall decide the opportunity of an expertise by an Expert or a company specialized in expertise
and shall command one. In any way, if the rust is frequently present, the reinforcement after
cleaning shall not have a section reduced more than a minimum tolerance required by the
standards. After cleaning, a new quality reception shall comply.
f) the surfaces of the existing hardened concrete that will come into contact with the fresh
concrete, will be cleaned of cement slurry film (or impurities), the surfaces must not present
non-compacted or segregated zones and, must be roughened to ensure a good bond with the
new concrete.
g) the washing of the means of transport and the concrete supply are assured.
h) the measures to be taken for continuing concrete pouring in an emergency situation
(alternative concrete plants and means of transport, supplementary electric power supply,
materials for protecting the concrete, forming a construction joint etc) are established and
prepared.
i) there are no unfavourable climatic conditions forecast (frost, heavy rain, storm, etc).
j) in the case of foundations, rain or infiltration water is removed from the concrete casting area
and prevented from accumulating in the pour.
k) the necessary conditions are in place for taking samples at the pour, and for carrying out the
workability characteristics for the wet concrete, at unloading.
l) the criteria where the concrete fails or does not meet the specification are established.
m) if more than 6 months has elapsed from the erection of the reinforcement to the pouring of
concrete, the reinforcement shall be checked by a team composed of the Employer, Engineer
and a State Inspectorate (I.S.C.) delegate. The team shall decide whether the reinforcement
shall be checked by an expert or a specialist institution, but if the reinforcement is found to
have extensive loose rust and/or after cleaning shows a reduction of section below the
minimum standard this will result in the rejection of the reinforcement.
If in the opinion of the Engineer all the conditions described in 10.7.2.1 are satisfactory, then
approval to commence concrete pouring shall be given.
The request for approval to commence concrete casting shall be reconfirmed when:
alterations to the formwork or reinforcement have occurred (bad weather, accidents,
restarting work at unprotected or stopped areas);
concrete casting did not commence within 7 days of the approval date.
Before concrete casting, the means of transport and concrete compacting equipment must be in
good working order.
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It is forbidden to start concrete pouring before checking and taking the measures from 10.7.2.1 of
this Technical Specification

10.7.3 General rules for concrete casting
The construction manager or his delegated supervisor will be in charge of the concrete casting of a
structure. He will remain at the location of the concrete casting throughout the duration of the pour
and will supervise the provisions of this specification and the execution procedure.
The concrete will be poured as soon as possible after being delivered. The maximum transport
duration shall not be exceeded, and modification of the concrete workability is not permitted.
The pouring of the concrete shall observe the following general rules:
a) wooden formwork and hardened concrete which shall be in contact with the fresh concrete,
shall be watered 2-3 hours before and again just before pouring, and any stagnant water after
watering shall be removed.
b) the concrete shall be unloaded from the means of transport into concrete buggies, pumps,
conveyers, concrete chutes or directly into the forms.
c) if the delivered concrete does not have the required workability or is segregated, it shall be
rejected. The workability may be improved by means of a super-plasticizing agent.
d) the free fall of the concrete must not exceed 3.00 m for units maximum 1.00 m wide, and 1.50
m for every other structural unit (slabs, foundations, etc).
e) the concrete casting of structures higher than 3.00 m shall be made through side openings in
the form-work or by means of bases or chutes (truncated cone shaped) having the lower end a
maximum of 1.50 m above the concrete casting surfaces).
f) the concrete shall be spread uniformity in horizontal layers of more than 50 cm deep and the
new layer shall be poured before the hardening of the previous one.
g) Deformation or displacement of the reinforcement during concrete casting must be carefully
avoided, especially at the topside of cantilevered slabs. If this does happen, the position of the
bars must be corrected immediately.
h) the reinforcement shall be completely embedded in concrete, with cover depth as shown on the
drawings.
i) the striking or shaking of the reinforcement during the concrete pouring or to place vibrating
equipment on the bars is not permitted.
j) in areas of double reinforcement the concrete shall be carefully poured to ensure the
avoidance of voids by ramming the concrete with boards or steel bars, simultaneously with its
vibrating; if these measures do not work, side access into the concrete shall be created by
forming openings in the formwork to allow the vibrator to enter.
k) the formwork and supports shall be monitored, taking immediate remedial steps if displacement
or deformation occur.
l) workmen shall not disturb the reinforcement during pouring. Climbing on or the use of
reinforcement for accessing the area of fresh poured concrete is not permitted.
m) the concrete casting must proceed continuously up to the construction joint as shown on the
drawings or contractors method statement as approved by the Engineer.
n) the maximum permitted duration of interruption to the concrete casting without taking special
measures must not exceed the time of concrete hardening. Without laboratory tests, it is
considered to be 2 hours for the concrete preparation for cement with admixtures and 1.5
hours for cement without admixtures.
o) after a longer interruption, the concreting may start again only after the treatment of the joint
according to chapter 13 Working joints of the Practice Code NE 012-99.
p) workers must not walk on or use the newly cast concrete for transport of concrete or for the
storage of scaffolding, formwork or reinforcement until it is sufficiently hardened. Use is
allowed only after 24-48 hours, depending on the environment temperature and cement type
(24 hours if temperature is above 20C and the cement is of type I higher class than 32,5).
Concrete casting for different structural elements shall be as indicated on the drawings.

10.7.4 Concrete compaction
The concrete will be compacted so that it contains minimum or no voids.
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Concrete compaction is mandatory and may be carried out by different methods, as a function of
the concrete consistency, element type etc. Generally, the concrete shall be compacted
mechanically by vibrating.
The manual compacting (by mallet, rods, slats or by form knocking) is allowed in the following
cases:
the introduction of the vibrator into the concrete is not possible because of the size of
the section or of the denseness of the reinforcement and the external vibrating can not
be used efficiently;
An interruption in the vibrating due to other reasons at a time when concrete casting
must continue until the corresponding position of a joint;
it is pre-planned for special reasons (fluid concrete, mono-granular concrete).
During the compacting of the fresh concrete the displacement or deterioration of reinforcements
and/or formwork will be avoided.
The concrete shall be compacted only as long as it is workable.
Details regarding the mechanical vibrating are given in Annex IV.2 of the Practice Code NE 012-99
and for the precast elements are given in the Practice Code NE 013 - 2002.

10.7.5 Construction joints and form removal
Construction joints shall be avoided as far as possible, works being carried out so that the concrete
pouring may be done continuously at that level or between two (2) expansion joints.
When construction joints cannot be avoided, their position shall be established by design or an
approved method statement and in compliance with the provisions of Practice Code NE 012-99
and NE 013 - 2002.
Formwork elements can be stripped when the concrete attains the strength given in construction
procedure taking into account the provisions of the Practice Code NE 012-99.

10.8 CONCRETE TREATMENT AFTER POURING
10.8.1 General
In order to achieve the required properties of the concrete, the surface area shall be treated and
protected for a period of time, depending on the function of the structure, type element,
environment during concrete pouring and exposure conditions of the structure during service.
The concrete treatment and protecting must start as soon as possible after compacting.
Covering with protective materials will be carried out as soon as the concrete achieves sufficient
resistance so that the material does not adhere to the covered surface.
The concrete treatment is to prevent premature drying, particularly due to solar radiation and wind.
The concrete protection is a measure against:
washing out of the cement grout due to rain (or rivers);
temperature variations inside the concrete;
low temperatures or freezing;
shocks or vibrations that might reduce the concrete reinforcement bond (after the
concrete hardening).
The main treatment/ protection methods are:
retaining in Formwork;
covering with protective materials;
coating with protective film.

10.8.2 Duration of treatment
The duration of the treatment depends on:
concrete sensitivity of treatment;
concrete temperature;
atmospheric conditions during and after treatment;
operating conditions of the structure, including exposure.
The Contractor shall observe the provisions of the Practice Code NE 012-99.
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10.9 QUALITY CONTROL
This section deals with the minimum compulsory measures for the quality control of concrete and
reinforced concrete structures. The control consists of the essentially actions, decisions and tests
that must be performed in accordance with this Technical Specifications to ensure all the specific
requirements.
The quality control classification is referring to:
The interior control (realized by the Manufacturer and /or Constructor;
The outside control (realized by an independent person or company);
The control on conformity (realized by independent authorized company for the quality
assurance certificate activity) at used products.
The methods for the quality control in construction activity consists in production and
execution control. These includes:
the control of the component materials of the equipment, execution and concrete
features;
the control before the concrete placing;
the control during the transporting, compaction and treatment of the concrete;
conformance criteria;
checking systems;
drawing sample plan and conformity criteria for the resistance to compression of the
concrete;
conformance criteria.
Checkings and the methodology of realizing them and also the conformance criteria are in
accordance with the Practice Code NE 012-99.
10.10 THE EXECUTION OF CONCRETE WITH SPECIAL FEATURES AND THE PLACING OF
CONCRETE BY SPECIAL PROCEDURE
Construction works subject to special requirements include the following:
concrete resistant to water penetration;
concrete with high freezing thawing resistance and containing thawing chemical
agents;
concrete resistant to chemical attack;
concrete with high wear resistance.
Many bridge elements are constructed by special procedure namely:
concrete casting under water;
concrete poured by pump;
concrete poured in sliding forms;
cyclopean concrete.
Special requirements and special procedures shall be performed in accordance with the provisions
of chapters 8 and 16 from the Practice Code NE 012-99.

CHAPTER 11 SUPERSTRUCTURES of PRESTRESSED CONCRETE

11.1 GENERAL
This Chapter concerns works or parts of works constructed in pre-stressed concrete, pre or post
tensioned structures with full length beams or with beams made of pre-cast segmental sections.
The cantilever method of construction is not described in this Specification.
The construction of the works shall be carried out by Contractors with the necessary investment in
plant and equipment and with staff, theoretically and practically trained in such works.
Pre-cast units shall be used in structures only if accompanied by quality certificates.
The designs for the pre-stressed concrete works shall contain working drawings of the
superstructures.
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The construction of the works shall comply with the design given in Practice Code NE 012-99 Part
B for the construction of pre-stressed concrete works and Practice Code NE 012-99, Part A for the
construction of concrete and reinforced concrete works and also the requirements of Practice Code
for concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed precast elements NE 013 2002 and the
requirements from this Chapter.

11.2 FORMWORK, MOULDS AND SUPPORT FOR FORMWORK
The construction of formwork, moulds and their support for the pre-stressed concrete works shall
be made on the basis of working drawings, drafted by specialized persons in accordance with
STAS 7721-90 Metal moulds for pre-cast unit of concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed
concrete. Technical conditions for quality.
For beams of large sections with in situ joints between the elements, working drawings for the joint
form shall be produced. The contractor shall prepare the drawings with the approval of the
Engineer and the Designer.

11.3 REINFORCEMENT
11.3.1 General
The non-pre-stressed reinforcement in the pre-stressed concrete units shall have parameters
determined by STAS 438/1-89 Hot rolled steel bars for concrete. Marks and general conditions of
quality and STAS 438/2-91 Drawn wire for reinforced concrete.
The limitations of use, adoption of structural arrangements and the manner of construction of this
reinforcement shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 9 of this Technical Specifications, the
Practice Code NE 012-99 Part A and NE 013 - 2002.
The replacement of bars of certain diameter by bars of other diameter, with the same overall area
of cross section may be made but only with the approval of the Engineer and the Designer.
Imported pre-stressing reinforcement may be used with Technical Agreement, in accordance with
the guide regarding the agreement method of reinforcement for pre-stressing used in civil,
industrial and special constructions GAT 253 (MLPTL). In the absence of data regarding the
transmission length (l
t
) and anchorage (l
a
) these shall be determined by an authorized laboratory,
which complies with the Romanian Norms and taking into consideration the national norms of the
steel production country.
The reinforcement for the pre-stressing cables shall be made of steel wires for pre-stressed
concrete, quality I, of the parameters provided by STAS 6482/1-73 and 6482/2-80.
The wire shall be delivered in rolls of min. 2,0 m diameter. Every wire roll shall have a metal label
containing: the number of the roll, the number of the batch, the quality and the punch mark of the
quality control of the supplier and shall be accompanied by a quality certificate.
The Contractor shall determine the mechanical parameters (the tensile strength and the fatigue
resistance) for each roll. For 10% of the rolls the Contractor shall also determine the flow limit, the
relative elongation at failure, and the number of twists at failure. These parameters shall be
measured on samples taken from both ends of the roll.
The geometric, chemical, mechanical and technologic features of the pre-stressed reinforcement
shall comply with the requirements of:
STAS 6482/2-80Steel wire and wire products for pre-stressed concrete. Smooth wire
STAS 6482/3-80Steel wire and wire products for pre-stressed concrete. Printed wire
STAS 6482/4-80Steel wire and wire products for pre-stressed concrete. Strands
Any wires with pronounced corrosion or with notches shall not be used.
Any wire rolls with rusting shall be cleaned by wire brush.

11.3.2 Handling, transport and storage
The transport and storage of steel products for pre-stressed reinforcement shall comply with the
requirements as follows:
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The steel shall be hauled in covered wagons or lorries with tarpaulin; these vehicles shall be
cleaned, in order to avoid corrosion or contamination of the steel, especially with oil products
(Vaseline, oil).
The storage shall be made in batches and by diameters in closed, ventilated areas on supports
that avoid contact with the floor and corrosive materials. This positioning shall permit the access to
each pile for periodic checks.
In the case of storage in a non or slightly aggressive environment with humidity under 60% special
protection measures need not be taken.
For the rolls and drums with special protective packaging, applied in the plant, special attention
shall be given during transportation, handling and storage so that the packing shall not deteriorate;
if the packing suffers deterioration the following rules shall be applied for unprotected
reinforcement. Periodically, the packing of the test rolls shall be checked.
The following measures shall be taken for steel and cable transport, handling and storage:
- to avoid scratching, striking or bending;
- to avoid contamination by earth, greasy matter, dust, etc;
- to avoid contact with incandescent matter or with flame from the welding cutting
operations;
- to avoid covering with various materials that may maintain humidity in the roll.
The bars supplied shall be straight and they shall keep their form during haulage, handling and
storage.
Any fittings to the ends of the bars shall be sleeved to protect against mechanical deterioration or
corrosion.

11.3.3 Preparation for pre-stressed reinforcement construction
For any type of pre-stressed reinforcement the following preliminary measures shall be taken:
The quality certificate of the steel batch for reinforcement shall be produced. If there are doubts
regarding the compliance with the haulage and storage conditions - rust, dirt, deformation, etc. the
quality shall be tested according to the requirements of the standards, by the supplier or an
authorized laboratory to confirm that the physical and chemical features of the reinforcement were
not affected. In case of doubt regarding the corrosion and its consequences the approval of the
authorized laboratory shall be required.
The surface of the steel shall be cleaned, non adherent rust shall be brushed away to ensure a
proper bond with the anchorage, concrete or injection grout;
All pre-stressing wires in a single duct shall be sourced from the same batch if possible.
Any reinforcement that is deformed shall not be used. The straightening of deformed reinforcement
for use in pre-stressing is not allowed.
The parts of the pre-stressed reinforcement (wire, cable strand) that were reduced in section by the
electric arc of the welding machine shall be made good.
The steel bars that were deformed during haulage or storage (below 5 cm/m) shall be mechanically
straightened at the ambient temperature as long as this shall be at least +10C.
Rewinding of wires and cable strands for whatever reason at rolling diameters lower than those
delivered should be avoided.
If control of the pre-stressing strain is also measured by elongation of the wire, the elastic modulus
of the steel must be known.
For individual pre-stressed reinforcement the elastic modulus shall be determined by a special
laboratory according to the requirements of STAS 6605-78.
In the case of the post-tensioned reinforcement specified in Annex 4 of the Practice Code NE 012-
99 Part B, the elastic modulus may be approximated as 1,92 x 10
5
N/mm
2
; the limits may vary
within 2%. For other types of reinforcement the elastic modulus shall be given by the
supplier/manufacturer or it shall be determined by the authorized laboratories. At significant
structures or in cases where it is possible, the actual value of the global elastic modulus shall be
determined on site together with the determination of the final tension due to friction along the
cable path.
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Bending devices to match the diameter of reinforcement to be manufactured shall be supplied, with
respect for the precision in length and angle of the cut bars (for reinforcements with bends at both
ends).

11.3.4 Manufacturing and positioning of the pre-tensioned reinforcement
The specification for manufacture and positioning of the pre-tensioned reinforcement and other
reinforcement and parts shall be covered in the technical design of the pre-stressed concrete
element.
Cutting wires to length shall not produce deformation of the bar such that it may hinder the
introduction of the wires through the spacing screen in the pre-tensioning anchorage or other
mechanisms. It is recommended in the wire group where one (1) of the component wires has been
repaired that this is not used in the anchorage zone.
Special attention shall be paid to avoid soiling the reinforcement by contact with the oiled parts of
the walls or casting platforms.
The pre-tensioned reinforcement element shall not deviate more than 3 mm from the design
position unless otherwise specified. No tolerance is permitted to the thickness of the covering
concrete layer to the post-tensioned reinforcement.
To position and maintain the pre-tensioned reinforcement in the design position, a spacing metal
screen shall be used. Some of these screens are fixed and others are mobile. The diameter of the
screen holes shall be higher than the pre-tensioned reinforcement diameter by 1 2 mm in case of
wires and 2 3 mm for strand.
The anchorage devices at the ends of the metal mould shall comply with metal templates and shall
be placed so that the maximum deviation of the reinforcement from the last spacer may not exceed
a slope of 1/10.
To enable the non-pre-tensioned reinforcement to be positioned pre-tensioning may be carried out
in two (2) steps. The pre-tensioning force in the first step shall be determined in accordance with
the manufacturing method adopted but it may not be more than 40% of the prescribed control
force.
The non-pre-tensioned reinforcement shall be fixed, positioned and tied with smooth tie wire and
then the final pre-tensioning to the full control force shall be undertaken.
Methods for fixing the pre-tensioned or non-pre-tensioned reinforcement where metal parts are
exposed on the face of the concrete are not allowed.
Where the pre-tensioned reinforcement is in the form of bars joined by couplers, the bars shall be
marked, fixed and checked in advance and the threaded lengths shall be finally checked before
pre-tensioning.
If couplers for reinforcement are used they shall be positioned to allow the free elongation of the
reinforcement and not affect the moulds during pre-tensioning. The devices shall have the
resistance capacity of at least 92% of the breaking force of the reinforcement joined.

11.3.5 Manufacturing of post-tensioned reinforcement
When cutting wires, strands or bars to manufacture the post-tensioned reinforcement tools and
devices shall be used which do not affect the ends or cause deterioration in their condition. When
introducing the reinforcement into the ducts their condition shall permit the correct performance of
the following operations (bulbs, fixing of pulling jacks etc).
The steel shall not be soiled or have greasy oils, shall not be bent or scratched during cutting and
manufacturing.
At the cable group where the wires are fixed into the anchorage before pre-tensioning, the removal
of temporary protection is not necessary.
At other types of cable group the temporary protection shall be retained only if necessary due to
the corrosive environment and if the wires can be cleaned or degreased in place during or after
pre-stressing.
The Contractor shall adopt (and complete according to the method used) the minimum precautions
that shall be taken during positioning of reinforcement, in order to avoid deterioration of the
reinforcement protection as provided by the reinforcement manufacturer or by the Engineer in this
Technical Specification.

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The individual cable group and strands are manufactured by a workshop which specializes in pre-
stressed concrete works, in temporary site workshops or by directly pushing the reinforcement into
the ducts of as it is unwound from the roll and successively cut at length (if the process allows this
operation).
The workshops equipment shall depend on the production capacity required and on the cable
group type that is to be manufactured. The features of some equipment that may be required for
the manufacture of wire groups are shown in Practice Code NE 012 99.
The individual wire groups and strands manufactured in off-site workshops shall be accompanied
at delivery by a quality certificate which contains the number of the quality certificate for the wires
used for the wire group manufacture and the number of the quality certificate of the strand.
The cut length of the wires comprising the wire groups of the type shown in Annex 4 of the Practice
Code NE 012-99 Part B shall be determined by adding the minimum length shown at points 25 and
26 of the table in the annex, at the length of the wire groups measured between the anchorage
seating. If cutting is to be carried out by the welder, a minimum 30 mm shall be added (the area
influenced by temperature).
The wire groups for parallel wire anchored in a circular section (ring and cone anchorage) are
made without spacing elements such as springs or punched rosettes.
Assembly of the wires into the required form of cable group shall be made using rings of smooth tie
wire of 1.5 mm diameter at the ends and at about 200 mm centres. The intermediate wire ties can
be eliminated or reduced in number by helical pinning of the wire groups with a pitch of about 250
mm. All the wire bunches shall have the ends bent in toward the interior of the wire group to allow
the group to be entered into the duct.
For wire groups of types other than those in Annex 4 of the Practice Code NE 012-99 Part B, the
data (conditions, performance criteria) regarding the post tensioned reinforcement manufacturing
shall be set down in the design Technical Specifications on the basis of the data in the technical
agreement.
In circumstances where wire groups from different batches apart from SBP are used on site, they
shall be marked and stored by type of wire group.
For haulage and storage the wire groups not in sleeves can be wound with manual or mechanical
devices (Annex 5 of the Practice Code NE 012-99). The rolling diameter shall be a minimum 2100
mm for the wire groups made of 5mm diameter wire and minimum 2300 mm for the wire groups
made of 7 mm diameter wire.
Wire groups introduced in polyethylene tubes can also be wound, in this case the rolling diameter
shall be determined by the tube rigidity and by the number of wires in the cable group and also
determined by trials.
The rolling diameter of the imported wire groups shall be given by the supplier or by the Engineer
of the pre-tensioning method used.

11.3.6 Manufacture of cable ducts for post-tensioned reinforcement
The cable ducts for post-tensioned reinforcement are made in accordance with the design method
using steel sheet flexible cases, plastic or thin wall steel tubes. For the methods shown in Annex 4,
the ducts (lined or not) shall be carried out according to the data in Annex 4 and 6 of the Practice
Code NE 012-99 Part B and to the detail drawings.
The cable ducts and sleeves used in the stressing methods shall fulfill the following conditions:
- assurance of the radius of curvature in accordance with the drawings;
- pre-tensioned reinforcement protection against corrosion zinc sheet shall not be used for
sleeves;
- cross-section (transverse) rigidity of the cases shall comply with the demands of the
construction method; the sheet thickness shall be a minimum 0.2 mm for smaller diameter
cases and shall increase to 0.6 mm for larger diameters;
- the ratio between the cable duct and wire group diameters shall allow for the satisfactory
introduction of the pre-tensioned reinforcement and thorough injection of the cement
grout; the inner diameter of the case shall be 10mm larger than that of the cable group
and the inner section area of the case shall be at least twice as large as that of the
reinforcement;
- assurance of achieving a good connection with trumpets in the end areas;
- assurance of water-tightness in the interior;
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- marking, packing, handling, transport and storage to maintain good condition.
The plastic cases may be used only on elements where fatigue is not significant and on the
condition that the working temperature is not higher than +40C. Thermal treatment shall not be
used for concrete hardening. If the plastic cases have transverse undulations both inside and
outside, the restriction regarding the fatigue calculated elements may be ignored.
Changing the type of duct (sleeve) as described in the contract documentation and drawings may
only be carried out with the Engineer's approval.
High transversely rigid cases shall be used in difficult working conditions regarding positioning,
introduction of the wire groups, concrete pouring and compacting.
More rigid cases with less joints shall be used when the thickness of the concrete covering layer,
or other conditions, do not allow for the subsequent intervention for de-anchoring in case parts of
the duct are blocked with concrete.
Injection or ventilation connectors (T-piece) positioned in accordance with chapter 8 of the Practice
Code NE 012-99 Part B and with the details in the construction plans, shall be connected to the
sleeves that line the cable channel such that the inner diameter does not reduce. A possible
solution is the use of a hose or semi-hose provided with a tube for injection/ventilation which is
applied over the sleeve; punching shall be carried out before injection with a special tool
introduced into the tube.
In segmental sections the couplings for injection/ventilation may be located in the joints between
the sections.
All joints between cases shall be secured against slipping during the operations (introducing wire
groups, concrete pouring). External hoses similar to the sleeves, with adhesive band or other
secure systems may be used.
Assembly of plastic sleeves by coupling (female male) shall be carried out in the same direction
on the whole length of the cable channel to facilitate the introduction of the wire groups (entered
from the male side).
If not described in the contract documentation and drawings, the tolerances for the duct positioning
at the design profile shall have the following limits:
a) on the height (h) of the element.
- for heights up to 200 mm, tolerance = * 0.02 h
- for heights between 200 and 1000 mm, tolerance = 5 mm
- for heights more than 1000 mm, tolerance = 10 mm
b) on the width of the element
- for widths up to 200mm, tolerance = *5mm
- for widths between 200 and 1000mm, tolerance = 10mm
- for widths more than 1000mm, tolerance = 20mm
*For duct cases at the end of the element section these tolerances shall be considered
without negative values on direction.
In cases when most wire groups exceed the individual tolerances, except those at the section end
then this may be admitted if the resultant centre of gravity of the cable ducts is within these limits.
In cases when cable ducts are made from sections that are to be joined the deviations at the ends
across a joint shall not exceed 3 mm. For differences between the cable group diameter and the
diameter of the channel greater than 15 mm or joints wider than 100 mm, the deviations shall not
exceed 5 mm.
The spacers for the ducts shall be made and positioned according to the project or Contractors
detail as approved by the Engineer.
The spacers may be independent or combined with component elements of the non pre-
tensioned reinforcement on the condition that the fixing deviations do not adversely influence the
precision of positioning the ducts.
The distances between the supporting points shall be between 500 and 1500 mm as a function of
the longitudinal rigidity of the cases. Where duct formers are used and extracted the distance can
be increased up to 2000 mm. Greater distances may be used for experiments.
The spacers shall be fixed in the areas where there is a change in direction of the duct.
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The horizontal elements on which the ducts rest shall be made of OB 37 bars, universal iron
profiles according to the transverse rigidity of the duct. Use of OB 37 bars of 10 14 mm in
diameter shall be satisfactory. Where the ducts are made from sheet material with grooves or of
polyethylene without wire groups installed during concreting, the supporting surface of the case on
the spacer shall be wider to avoid transverse deformation.
The spacers shall prevent the duct floating due to the effect of concrete pouring and vibration.
Duct spacers with parts that are exposed on the face of the concrete is not permitted.
In the end zones, the axis of the cable ducts (lines or not) shall be perpendicular to the supporting
surface of the anchorage and to the length mentioned in the project or in the specifications for the
post-tensioning methods. For the methods in Annex 4 the length shall be 400 mm.

11.3.7 Placing and fixing of post-tensioned reinforcement
In the case of lined cable ducts with ducts formed from sheet material according to Tables 6.1 and
6.2 from Annex 6 of the Practice Code NE 012-99 Part B or made of plastic, the wire groups shall
be fixed before concrete pouring ensuring the longitudinal and transverse rigidity of the ducts.
In cold weather and high humidity other methods for improving the case rigidity (steel bars or
tubes, plastic tubes with smaller diameter) shall be adopted with the wire groups being introduced
afterwards.
The subsequent introduction of the wire groups into the duct may be carried out by both pushing
and pulling.
The advancing end of the cable group shall be provided with a conic part anchored on to the cable
group wires.
The fixing procedure for the wire groups by successively pushing into the duct directly from the roll
shall be used for strands and the advancing end shall be protected with a conic part. For this
method the strand shall be taken from the inside of the roll.
Before fixing the formwork it is necessary to check the duct case position and condition. At this
point a report must be written for the works to be carried out which identifies the following:
deviations of the duct profile outside of the requirements shown on drawings;
twisting deformations (winding) between the supporting points in the horizontal or
vertical plane these deformations induce supplementary friction that was not
considered during design;
deterioration (holes, cracks, unwinding) of the duct case;
looseness at the case joints;
fixing of connections for injection and ventilation.
If non-compliance is found the necessary repairs shall be carried out.
During the installation of the reinforcement into the ducts and until the start of the pre-tensioning
and injecting operations, it is compulsory to protect the ends of the wire groups (with bitumen,
board, plastic cases, etc) and to close the exit of the cable group from the duct to prevent the water
penetration into the channels and prevent corrosion.
Preparing for manufacturing of prestressed reinforcement, manufacturing of stressed
reinforcement, realizing the holes for postensioned reinforcement and mounting these poststressed
reinforcement shall be realized according to chapter 3 from NE 012-99 Part B, "Prestressed
Concrete".

11.4 ANCHORAGE AND BLOCKS
The anchorage for pre-compression is usually considered as a component part of the pre-
compression method together with the pre-tensioned reinforcement used.
The anchorage for part tensioned reinforcement shall have the resistance capacity at least equal
to the breaking resistance of the pre-tensioned reinforcement without significant deformation of the
component parts.
The wire groups anchoring included in Annex 4 shall be made with the anchorage shown in Annex
7 of the Practice Code NE 012-99 Part B.
Other types of anchorage are used on the basis of technical agreement.
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The anchorage with loop and top (Annex 7 fig. 7.6 of the Practice Code NE 012-99 Part B) shall
not be used at the elements subject to fatigue.
The anchorage with loop and top shall be introduced in special grooves, filled with concrete or
mortar for protection, onto which the in situ concrete is poured and shall be well anchored at the
end.
The pre-tensioned reinforcement anchorage shall be constructed using uniform support in
accordance with the technical requirements for the various types of anchorage. Where using
individual strands as post tensioned reinforcement anchorages not susceptible to corrosion shall
be used.
The anchorage for wire groups SNP 7 mm with the bulb formation at the wire ends shall fulfill, the
following acceptance conditions:
Diameter 10.6 0.3 mm
Height 7 0.3 mm
Eccentricity max. 0.3 mm
total open crack width max. 1.5 mm
at most 2 cracks at more than 30 to the axis.
no crack inclined at more than 60 to the axis.
The wire groups at which maximum 5% of the total number of bulbs do not meet the conditions are
acceptable.
It is permitted to use the anchorage systems of the wire groups by fixing one of the ends in
concrete without homologue on the basis of experiments carried out by a specialist institute or
authorized/certified laboratory for trials in this field and with the experts approval.
The components of the anchorage shall be handled and stored, in good conditions avoiding
corrosion or damage.
On the basis of periodical verifications, anchorage that do not comply anymore with the pre-
tensioned, reinforcement anchorage and with the limit values for slipping at anchorage shall be
removed.

11.5 REQUIREMENTS AND PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR THE CONCRETE USED IN
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE ELEMENTS/STRUCTURES
The concrete used in the pre-stressed concrete elements/structures shall fulfill the following:
attaining a minimum class C 20/25 for pre-tensioned reinforcement of bars having
Rpo2 590 N/mm
2
and Rm 890 N/mm
2
and C 25/30 for elements with wire drawn
pre-tensioned reinforcement (wire, strands);
attain contracting characteristics and flow reduced so that the tension lost in pre-
tensioned reinforcement is minimized under 0,2% content of chlorine (by cement mass)
due to the corrosive action of the chlorine on the pre-tensioned reinforcement; additives
in solution containing chloride more than found in drinking water shall not be used;
attain a uniform and continuous compaction in the whole element/structure.
To place and treat the concrete the following requirements shall be taken into account:
a) If pre-vibrators are used for concrete compacting the following measures shall be taken, to avoid
contact between the pre-vibrator and the pre-tensioned reinforcement or cases for channel
forming.
the positions for introducing the pre-vibrators shall be visibly marked;
in the positions where the pre-vibrator is introduced, special devices (metal cases,
braces and bars) shall be provided to prevent contact between the pre-vibrator and the
cases for the post-tensioned reinforcement.
b) special attention shall be paid to concrete compaction in the anchorage zones of the pre-
stressed reinforcement to ensure adequate compaction without damaging or removing the
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reinforcement and items embedded in the concrete; use of both internal and external vibrators is
recommended.
c) At elements with pre-tensioned reinforcement in column construction, the concrete pouring shall
be continuous so that between starting the pouring of the first element and the finishing of
compacting the last element in the column the time elapsed shall not exceed 45 min. at working
temperature of 30 so that the reinforcement bond in the previously cast elements is not disturbed.
At working temperatures higher than 30C, corresponding measures shall be adopted in the design
and specification.
d) cracks due to the pulling of cast parts from the fresh concrete or due to temperature treatment
along the pre-tensioned reinforcement which affects the bond and anticorrosive protection shall be
avoided.
e) After having finished the concrete pouring the reinforcement wire groups inserted in the cases
shall be moved to reduce the anchorage effect as a result of case deformation or penetration of
cement grout but in such a way that the displacement or loosening of the cases, does not take
place. The connections at the lowest level shall be opened (where necessary) and air shall be
blown through to remove the water and impurities.
f) Measures for protecting the reinforcement with permanent protection during concrete pouring
and hardening treatment shall be determined according to the supplier's recommendations.
g) In cases without wire groups during concrete pouring shall be checked by a conical device with
a diameter equal to that of the cone that shall be fixed on the front end of the wire groups at their
fixing.
In the case of construction carried out by slip forming, the following checks shall be carried out on
removal of the sliding formwork at the appropriate time, from the lower platform of the formwork.
h) Stripping of formwork for pre-stressed concrete construction shall be carried out only after their
pre-stressing (partial or total, according to the design provision).
i) Accelerating treatment shall not be carried out to the elements with plastic lined channels.
j) At the elements with pre-tensioned reinforcement the temperature of +60C shall not be
exceeded and the cooling period shall allow the temperature to be lowered below 20C before the
transfer of the pre-stressing effort.
k) The reinforcement shall be protected against contact with steam or with other materials used for
the concrete treatment.
When establishing the schedule for the works with concrete pouring, the time limits for bringing the
reinforcement from the warehouse at the working place and up to the final protection shall be
followed.
In areas of low aggressiveness the reinforcement shall be positioned, pretension and protected in
max 60 days on the condition that between pre-tensioning and the completion of the protection
only 15 days shall elapse.
In special cases when, by design, the periods quoted in paragraph 11.5.3 cannot be achieved (for
example when the wire groups are introduced in cable ducts before concrete pouring and
tensioned in various construction steps) special measures shall be taken to provide the pre-
tensioned reinforcement with permanent protection.

11.6 CONSTRUCTION OF THE WORKS
11.6.1 Stitching of the pre-cast units
This clause concerns the in-situ binding between the sections of the beams, or between beams and
slabs, as part of the procedures for incorporation of pre-cast beams and pre-cast slabs into the
structure.
The in-situ binding between the sections shall be carried out with concrete class C 35/45, the same as
the concrete class of the pre-cast units, achieving the continuity between the cable ducts and the mild
steel bars in the beam section.
The Contractor shall propose for the Engineer's approval details concerning the secure continuity of
the cable ducts and of their tightness.
The concrete mix design for in situ binding shall be experimentally determined by on-site tests on
cube samples. The in-situ concrete shall have the same cement as the concrete in the pre-cast units,
to avoid color differences.
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11.6.2. Tensioning and blocking of the anchorages
The anchorage force shall be provided by the design.
The analysis method and the pre-stressing procedure shall be determined by the designer.
The Contractor shall propose for the Engineer's approval:
the origin and parameters of the materials;
references regarding the quality of the materials;
the pre-stressing works program;
the name of the construction manager responsible for the assembly of the prestressing
works;
background and professional quality of the staff charged with the assembly of the pre-
stressing works.
The pre-stressing works programme shall be included in the general schedule of the works and
requires a detailed proposal for the operations and measures to ensure safety of personnel.
The pre-stressing programme shall emphasize:
the means and the instructions necessary for the use of the materials in the successive
operations;
the processing procedure for the pre-stressing reinforcement;
the measures for the protection of the pre-stressing reinforcement;
the conditions concerning every stage of pre-stressing, namely:
Before stressing the cables:
temporary protection of reinforcement and blocks;
checking, if necessary, the concrete's strength especially near the anchorage.
During stressing:
the order of cable stressing;
a table with the relationship between the tensile force and the elongation of the cables
and with the calculated and actual rate of friction;
measurement method for strains and elongation;
the steps to be taken in case of accident, abnormal elongation or failure of wires
After pre-stressing:
repair of the temporary protection, especially at the seat of the anchorage;
definitive protection and injection programme;
checking procedure of the channels left empty.
The results of the pre-stressing shall be registered in a pre-stressing form of the type shown in Annex
12 of the Practice Code NE 012-99 Part B.

11.6.3 Injection of grout into the cable ducts
The injection shall be carried out according to a programme drafted by the Contractor and including:
the parameters of the injection grout and the hardening duration;
the conditions for the use of the injection material and the destination of the material left
for disposal in case of accident;
the detailed order of the operation of air blowing or washing out of the ducts;
the detailed order of the injection operation and of the corresponding tests;
the necessary volumes of injection material for every cable and for groups of cables;
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rules for compliance in case of accident or unfavorable weather.
The requirements of the Practice Code NE 012-99, part B, 8th section, shall be observed when
grouting in accordance with the dates in Annexes 13 and 14 regarding the mixture of grouting and
using the grouting form.

11.7 QUALITY CONTROL, WORK ACCEPTANCE
The acceptance of the precast pre-stressed concrete units or precast units to be assembled by
pre-stressing, shall be made by the supplier as per STAS 6657/1-89 and STAS 6657/2-89 and
according to the design or to the internal standard for the manufacture of the precast units.
The supplier shall prepare a document certifying the quality of the batch of delivered pre-cast units.
The document shall include the data resulting from the quality tests.
To avoid the return of the units from the site, the pre-cast plant shall obtain the agreement of the
Contractor before delivery.
The repair of pre-stressed concrete units with slight defects, which do not affect the strength or the
durability of the units such as: notch, slight segregation on small areas, shall be carried out
observing a programme drawn up by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer in accordance
with the Practice Code NE 012-99.
Units with severe segregation, voids, cracks, spalling concrete, corroded reinforcement bars, etc are
not acceptable.
If the current norms include testing of repair work, it shall be carried out under the contract and the
costs shall be borne by the Contractor.
The program and schedule for testing shall be approved by the Designer and the Engineer.
If the Contractor receives nonconforming concrete elements, they will be returned to the
Manufacturer yard.

11.8 FINAL DISPOSITIONS
The apparent concrete surfaces of the pre-stressed concrete superstructure shall be painted with
anticorrosion protective materials, in accordance with chapter 18 herein after.
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CHAPTER 12 METAL SUPERSTRUCTURE (not applicable)
CHAPTER 13 COMPOSITE SUPERSTRUCTURE (not applicable)
CHAPTER 14 BEARINGS, ANTI-SEISMIC DEVICES

14.1. BEARINGS
This Chapter refers to the devices, works and units necessary for the maintenance of the bridge
and for a convenient service for all the motorists. Bearings are linking elements between piles and
abutments on one side and a deck on the other side. They are used to transmit loads and they
allow deformation of the deck due to temperature, shrinkage or creep.
Depending on the material they are made from, the bearings could be:
metallic;
elastomeric (neoprene) reinforced with metallic plates.
Combined (metallic, elastomeric and polytetrafluor ethylene)
Bearings fabricated from metal should correspond to quality conditions according to STAS 4031 77
and STAS 4031/2 75.
Bearings fabricated from elastomeric materials should correspond to quality conditions according to
STAS 10167 83.
From a fixity point of view the bearings are of two (2) types: fixed and free.
Every type of bearing is different depending upon the maximum reaction it can support and upon
the range of movement.
The bearings are manufactured according to the detailed designs. The Contractor could also
propose another type of bearings than those in the document. Choosing one (1) or another type of
bearing will be carried out only with the Engineer and Engineers approval.
All bearings proposed by the Contractor shall have quality certificates and technical agreement
provided by the State Inspectorate.
Placing of the bearings will be carried out according to project details. If mounting of the elastomer
and combined bearings is realized at other temperature than specified in the project, the new
settlement is strictly necessary. This new setting-position of the bearing has to be realized at the
structure temperature specified in the project. The bearing movement shall be strictly realized before
mounting the devices for joints covering. If alternative bearings proposed by the Contractor are
adopted, he will also support the supplementary costs for any necessary accommodation of the
structure.

14.2 ANTI-SEISMIC DEVICES
From the construction point of view, the anti-seismic devices may be inside the bearings or could be
independent devices set outside the bearing. The formation and placement of these devices shall be
provided by the detailed design. If another type is proposed by the Contractor they shall be subject to
approval by the Engineer and the Designer. All the supplementary costs needed for any necessary
modifications to the existing structure will be borne by the Contractor.


CHAPTER 15 WATERPROOFING and EXPANSION JOINTS

15.1 WATER PROOFING
15.1.1 General
This Chapter contains the general technical conditions to be met in the installation of the
waterproofing for bridge decks.
Waterproofing shall achieve the followings:
to stop the ingress of water into the superstructure;
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to collect and remove water that has percolated through the asphalt surfacing and direct it
to the water outlet devices.
Generally, the bridge waterproofing consists of the following:
continuous waterproof layer bonded over the whole surface of the superstructure;
the waterproofing layers shall be connected to the water outlets and to the expansion
joints.
The waterproofing consists of the following layers:
leveling layer;
priming layer;
waterproofing layer (including eventually adhesion layer);
protection layer.
The functionality of some layers can be merged using various solutions from waterproofing
manufacturers.
The waterproofing may consist of:
fast hardening liquid mix;
waterproofing membrane;
bituminous solution.
The laying method may be:
by spraying;
by hot bonding of the membranes with bitumen solution;
by cold bonding with synthetic resin;
self-adhesive membranes;
bonding by membrane heating;
by masons brush or brush laying;
by brush.
All the above alternatives must provide the required physical properties for waterproofing bridge
decks. The term waterproofing layer as used herein refers to all the component coats, namely: the
leveling layer, priming, principal base waterproofing layer and protection cover.

15.1.2 TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The waterproofing layer shall be guaranteed for at least ten (10) years for normal bridge, underpass or
viaduct use.
If during this ten (10) year time period, the waterproofing layer requires repair or reapplication
arising from damage by water infiltration into the superstructure then the manufacturer shall carry
any such remedial works at his own expense.
The materials used in the waterproofing layer shall be sound and chemically passive.
The waterproofing layer shall also be applied to existing bridges. The waterproofing shall be
applied in stages ensuring that one carriageway will always be available to maintain traffic flow.
The overlap of the waterproofing along the bridge centreline shall be strictly controlled to ensure
the required physical properties are maintained.
The waterproofing layer once laid, shall be given sufficient curing time to become adequately
resistant to allow low-speed transport vehicles and asphalt-laying equipment to pass over it without
causing damage to the waterproofing layer.
The waterproofing layer shall provide adequate adhesion for the asphalt surfacing and comply with
the following:
ultimate strength 800N/5cm
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elongation at break min 40%
static boring perforating resistance European Norm L4 250N on the 10mm diameter ball
stretch adhesion N/mm
2
Min. 0,5
flexibility on 50 mm diameter bolt without cracks at -10
0
C
water absorption in 24 hours % max. 0.5
min. temperature for physical stability of a membrane 120
0
C
temperature of the poured asphalt coat without
modifying the physical-mechanical features 180
0
C
temperature range in current usage ( 20
0
C) to (+ 70
0
C)
temperature range of the environment where the
waterproofing layer is laid (+ 5
0
C) to (+ 30
0
C)
The waterproofing membranes shall be approved in Romania according to the Law no. 10/1995.

15.1.3 Regulations for installation

15.1.3.1 The leveling layer
The waterproofing layer may be applied on the concrete slab or on the slope and balance concrete.
The slope and balance concrete shall be minimum concrete class C16/20. The thickness of the
concrete layer shall be minimum 20 mm.
The leveling layer must comply with the following quality requirements:
to be compacted without voids, cracks, fissures, etc.;
age of concrete: minimum 28 days from pouring;
to observe all slopes according to the design;
all the works which may compromise, if subsequently executed, the waterproofing to be
carried out;
to be solid, hardened, without breakable parts, oil spots, grease, holes or other pouring
defects and to have a metallic sound when hammered;
the measurement of the surface profile shall be made with a 3 m long straight edge in any
direction. The concrete surface shall not have protuberances bigger than 1.5-2 mm. Only
one (1) deviation of 5mm is allowed;
it shall not have excess laitance;
it shall not have green edges (it shall be vertically connected with a 5 cm radius), to
assure the connection to the drainage holes and in the area of joints according to the
detailed design.
Before the next layer is laid, the leveling layer shall be prepared as follows:
the leveling layer shall be cleaned by air blast or brushing to ensure a clean and dry
surface;
the surface profile shall be checked and corrected; if the surface is not in accordance with
requirements for the application of the waterproofing layer, remedial work shall be carried
out with special adhesive mortar;
the humidity shall be checked with a moisture device Feutron type (humidity must not
exceed 4% on a 2 cm depth);
the prepared surface as described above shall be free from the passage of personnel or
equipment.
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The leveling layer shall be subject to quality acceptance and must be approved before continuing
the works.

15.1.3.2 The priming layer
The primer is used to improve the adhesion of the waterproofing membrane to the concrete.
The primer solution may be of bitumen or synthetic resin. The materials used in the primer shall be
chemically passive.
The primer shall be applied by pouring of the solution and manual spreading across the surface or
by mechanical spraying.
The primer shall be applied on the dried surface of the leveling layer at an ambient temperature over
+5
0
C. The whole surface shall be primed.
The surface shall be free from the passage of personnel or equipment.

15.1.3.3 The waterproofing layer
The waterproofing layer shall be applied on the priming layer as described in the manufacturers
specification.
The membrane shall be continually applied ensuring its adherence on the whole surface where it shall
be laid. Swelling or unbound edges are not allowed. The continuous and uniform adhesion of the
membranes laid in strips shall be provided.
The connections to the water outlet devices shall be special treated ensuring the water-tightness of
the water discharge outlet.
At expansion joints, the waterproofing shall be treated according to the drawings and the type of
expansion joint used.
The waterproofing layer edges shall be protected by sealant seams.
For membranes laid by heating, the temperature of the heating source shall not be higher than
250C or higher than the temperature at which the physical and chemical characteristics of the
membrane are affected.
The waterproofing membranes are laid at an ambient temperature of at least + 5
0
C, after minimum 28
days from pouring the concrete or mortar (Norm. AND 577-2002). The waterproofing membranes shall
not be apply on rainy weather.

15.1.3.4 The protection layer
The protection layer may be one of the following:
a layer of concrete class C 20/25 (Bc 25), 50 mm thick, reinforced with zinc-plated wire
1.18 2.5 mm diameter with square meshes 3-8 cm or type Buzau welded wire net of 4-5
mm diameter with meshes 10 x 10 cm;
NOTE: Concrete for protection layer shall be made with cement II A S 32,5 and aggregates max.
7mm size;
bituminous mastic 2 cm thickness;
protection membranes laid onto the waterproofing membranes.
Waterproofing membranes without protection layer may also be used.
The approval of the waterproofing works shall be carried out in stages, as follows:
during the application of various layers of the waterproofing, concluding with written
reports on covered layers;
at completion of waterproofing works, through a concluding report.
Upon completion of the waterproofing a visual survey shall be carried out by the Engineer. If any
unsatisfactory areas of waterproofing were identified a test shall be carried out by flooding the deck
with water over a 24 hour period to a height of 50 mm on a limited surface area to the satisfaction of
the Engineer.
Any defects found during or at the end of the application of the waterproofing, may be repaired by
procedures proposed by the Contractor, subject to approval by the Engineer. If the Contractors
Roads Rehabilitation V Project EIB Fl 21.489
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remedial proposals are not approved, the Engineer may instruct the Contractor to reapply the
waterproofing to the entire area.

15.1.4 Waterproofing surfaces in contact with the ground
Checking for the quality control shall be realized in situ according to AND norms 577 - 2002. It shall
also be checked the waterproofing layer adherence with the support one. The measurements shall be
realized by specialized companies using procedures agreed in Romania. For checking the sticking
quality of the membrane on support layer it shall be observed at least one test for 20 ml of bridge
carriageway. The test results shall be included in a minute of meeting after the final acceptance.
If the results does not comply with the Technical specification or the Project or the waterproofing
execution specifications, the next stage of execution shall not be apply.

15.1.5 Romanian Standards
The control of the specific physical or mechanical characteristics shall be made observing the
following Romanian standards:
- SR EN ISO 62:2004 Plastic materials. Determination of water absorption features.
- STAS 6615/1 74 Adhesives based on elastomers. Determination of viscosity features.
- SR EN ISO 527-1 SI 2:2002 Plastic materials. Determination of the traction (tension) features.
Strength and elongation at breaking.
- STAS 9199 73 Bituminous mastics for insulation in construction. Methods of analysis and
test.
- SR 137 95 Bituminous waterproofing materials. Regulations and methods of control
- Order MT 497/98 The standard for the characteristics of the non-parafinous bitumen for roads
- SR EN ISO 527/1 00 Plastic materials. Determination of the tension characteristics. Part I
Generalities. Resistance and elongation at crushing

15.2 EXPANSION JOINTS
15.2.1 General
The expansion joints used on the road bridges shall ensure:
the free movement of the decks ends in the joints;
the continuity of the carriageway over the expansion joint;
water tightness against infiltration.
Watertight device is to be used to satisfy these requirements.
The term device for covering the expansion joints includes all the component elements, namely:
surrounding concrete for fixing the metal elements;
metal fixings;
elastomeric elements;
rubber sealants;
special mortar for watertightness of the elastomeric element;
rubber troughs for collecting and removal of water.
Some of the above are combined in modern joint devices.
Details of proposed fixings between the deck, abutment structures and the expansion joint shall be
submitted to the Engineer and the Designer for approval.
Expansion joints shall also be installed on existing bridges. The joint shall be applied in stages
ensuring that one carriageway will always be available to maintain traffic flow. The joint at the
bridge centreline shall be strictly controlled to ensure the physical properties are maintained.

Roads Rehabilitation V Project EIB Fl 21.489
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15.2.2 Technical features
The guarantee period of the joint shall be at least 10 years of normal operation of the bridge. The
elastomeric element shall be replaceable. The guarantee period of the elastomer shall be at least 5
years.
During the guarantee period of time the guarantor shall carry out-at its expense - device repairing
and remedial works of the structure damages because of device defects.
The manufacturer of the joint shall provide:
delivery of tools and specific method statements for commissioning the joint and
replacing the elastomeric element;
all adequate technical control during commissioning of the joint;
all technical instruction and specification for fitting and operation.
The joint shall comply with the following physical characteristics in the temperature range of (
35
o
C) to (+ 80
o
C):
free vertical and horizontal movement of the structure at the specified limits;
metal fixings shall be corrosion resistant;
water tightness must be maintained, to ensure water penetration onto the
superstructure and substructure does not occur.
For 1 m of bridge these movements will cause:
- vertical force 11,2 tf
- horizontal force 7,8 tf
The elastomeric element shall have the following characteristics:
Shore A hardness 60 5
breaking limit in tension 12 N/mm
2

breaking limit in compression 75 N/mm
2

settling under max. vertical load max. 15%
min. elongation at breaking 350 %
oil resistance very good
The variation of the physical and mechanical characteristics shall have the following criteria:
Shore A hardness , max 5
loss of breaking limit, max .% 15
elongation at break, max. % +15
non-friability at low temperatures (min. temperature) 35
o
C
accelerated aging resistance:
- loss of breaking limit, max. % 15
- elongation at breaking, max decrease % 30
increasing of Shore A hardness max. % 10
ozone resistance after 100 hours no cracks
The expansion joints shall be approved in Romania according to Law 10/1995 and Government
Order 728/94.

15.2.3 Specifications

15.2.3.1 Special concrete
In the case of a box-out formed in the superstructure top slab where the metal fixings of the
expansion joint are embedded in reinforced concrete, the concrete poured into the box-out shall be
at least class C28/35, with a slump by T 3/4 - 100 20 mm.
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The aggregates used in concrete shall be crushed rock, and the concrete shall be I 42.5 R
according to SR EN 197-1:2002.
The concrete shall have the degree of frost resistance G 150.
Traffic flow shall not be allowed on C28/35 class concrete before 28 days.
Rapid hardening concrete is recommended if traffic is required after max. 10 days.
In the solution in which the fastening is carried out with rag bolts, the concrete in which these bolts
are anchored shall be at least of class C 20/25.
The aggregates used in the concrete shall be natural aggregates.
The cement used in the concrete shall be I 32,5 according to SR 388 - 1995.
In cases where existing concrete in the superstructure is broken out to replace a joint, the new
concrete shall be minimum class C 20/25. In order to achieve full adhesion between the new
concrete and the existing concrete, special epoxy additives may be used.
It is recommended that the infill concrete enclosing the joint to be treated with a complying material
on the surface that is in contact with the tyres and to be the same color as the asphalt pavement.

15.2.3.2 Special mortar
For surface leveling under some types of expansion joints devices or for lateral watertightness of
the elastomeric element, special mortar containing synthetic resin shall be used.
This mortar shall be tested in advance according to the instructions of the device supplier.

15.2.3.3 Elastomeric elements
The elastomeric elements may be:
- reinforced neoprene panels;
- special sections, open or shut, made of neoprene;
- neoprene flat bars.
These elements shall be delivered on request according to the type and dimensions specified on
the drawings. Qualitative and quantitative checks on the products shall be carried out prior to
installation.

15.2.3.4 Metal fixing elements
The metal fixing elements are embedded in the structure and have special sections fixed to the
them to attach the interchangeable elastomer elements.
Qualitative and quantitative checks on the products shall be carried out prior to installation.
The installation of the metal fixing elements, before casting the special concrete, shall be made by
fixing in position with the specially adapted devices which shall ensure their position is maintained
until the hardening of the concrete.
The neoprene rubber tightening strip shall be continuous over the whole length and width of the
covering device. Only one (1) vulcanized patch may be carried out on the whole length. On the
vulcanized zone shall be allowed a thickness tolerance of 10% of the nominal thickness of the
strip.
In the connecting zone between the covering device and the asphalt coat, the geometry of the
design shall be followed, the asphalt shall not have unevenness, it shall not have cracks,
segregation or breaking, but shall comply with the specific conditions for the layer of cement
concrete or of poured asphalt.

15.2.3.5 Binder type devices with aggregates
At the bridges having reduced or medium spans (with displacement in the joint equal to 25-30
mm), simple, non-expensive solutions are recommended.
Binder type devices with aggregates are used in alternative binder layers. This binder agent shall
be made by bitumen modified with polymers and aggregates with a special grading curve.
Generally, the total thickness of these layers shall be 50 150 mm and they are separate from the
asphalt thickness.
The binder agent using bitumen modified with polymers ensures the flexibility and the
adhesiveness of the system, both for very low temperature (-25C) and for very high (+80C),
ensuring good resistance over time and good performance in good conditions.
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The aggregates shall have a specific grading curve which is different from one manufacturer to the
other.
These connection-jointing devices shall be fixed after the application of bituminous surfacing and
by cutting a space in joint up to the waterproof insulation and filling it in successive layers. The
work shall begin from the lower edge to the higher.
The joint in the concrete shall be 2030mm. The concrete elements at which the joint is applied
shall be smooth, even and without indentation and resistant. The joint between concrete elements
shall be clean, without dirt which could obstruct the joint and deck movement.
A high temperature resistant band shall be applied over the concrete structure joint, over which a
bituminous joint sealant shall be applied.
Over the structure joint, on all its length shall be fixed an aluminium or galvanised steel plate, fixed
with the deck on their higher side.
The successive binder and aggregates layers shall be applied after heating of all joint surfaces
(horizontally and vertical).
The manufacturer has to provide:
- the specific tools required for work with the equipment;
- technical assistance on site;
- technical instructions for construction and function;
- fixing of a drainage system for disposal of water;

The device shall satisfy the following physical characteristics at temperatures between (-35C) to
(+80C):
- to ensure free movement of the structure at the value specified in the instructions;
- the aluminium or galvanised steel plates shall resist all corrosive agents and vertical
stresses;
- to be watertight;
The physical characteristics of the elements are:
Base material: Elastomer bituminous
- Density at 18C 1.15 0.05
- Softening point min. 85 C
- Pouring temperature 180 C
- Penetrate at 25C 40 90 (0.1 mm)
- Density at 25C 1 1.3 g/cm
3

- Flexibility at 0C, 20C without fissures
The devices for covering movement joints have to be approved in Romania according to Law no.
10/1995.
15.2.3.6 Other recommendations:
The following are required:
- acceptance at each stage noting the correct installation of the levelling elements or the
fixing of the elastomeric element;
- final acceptance.
For final acceptance, a trial by flooding with water to a height of minimum 50mm over 24 hour time
period may be made.
The testing of the physical and chemical characteristics shall be made in accordance with the
following standards:
- SR ISO 7619:2001 Vulcanized elastomers. Determination of Shore A hardness
- SR-ISO 37/1997 Vulcanized and thermoplastic rubber. Determination of stress-strain
characteristics at traction.
Roads Rehabilitation V Project EIB Fl 21.489
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- SR-ISO 7619/01 Vulcanized elastomers. Determination of hardness
- SR-ISO 1817/93 Vulcanized rubber. Determination the action of liquids
- SR-ISO 188/01 Vulcanized elastomers. Testing to accelerated aging
- SR-ISO 812/01 Vulcanized rubber. Determination of limit temperature for fragility
- STAS 5152-82 Rubbered elastomers. Accelerated aging testing.
- ISO 815+A1/95 Vulcanized or thermoplastic rubber. Determination of permanent
deformation at compression at ambient, low or high temperatures.
- SREN 10002-1/2002 Metal materials. Testing to traction. Testing method (to the ambient
temperature)
- SR 13170-1993 Metal materials. Impact bending test. Special test specimens and estimation
methods
- SREN 10045-1/93 Metallic materials. Impa